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Chapter 1: Basic Concepts

Basic Circuit Elements and Laws


ELE1110B Basic Circuit Theorv
ELE 1110 (1.2)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Topics To Cover
Concepts
Charge, Current, Voltage, Power, Energy
Basic circuit elements and device laws
Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor
Circuit concepts and deIinitions
Nodes, branches, and loops
Basic circuit laws
KirchhoII`s laws
Basic circuit analysis
ReIerence
Alexander and Sadiku, Chapters 1 and 2.
ELE 1110 (1.3)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Introduction an electric circuit
A circuit the path oI Ilow Ior charge carriers
Close circuit: the charge moves Irom a point to itselI
Open circuit: the charge moves Irom a point to another
Charge carriers are
electrons in a conductor
ions in an battery
Battery
(source)
Light bulb
(device)
Switch
ELE 1110 (1.4)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
An electric circuit
A circuit consists oI source (energy) and/or drain
(device) elements
A circuit has constant 'Ilow when it is closed
The polarity oI an electric circuit segment deIines
the Ilow direction
Battery
(source)
Light bulb
(device)
Switch
ELE 1110 (1.5)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Charge and Current
Charge: coulombs (C)
1 C 6.24 x 10
18
electrons
Single electron has 1.6 x 10
-19
C
Conservation oI Charges:
charges can neither be created nor destroyed, only
transIerred
The algebraic sum oI the electric charges in a closed
system does not change with time
Electric current
dc: direct current, remains constant with time
ac: alternating current, varies (sinusoidally) with time
dt
dq
i

t
t
o
d i q ) (
ELE 1110 (1.6)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Joltage / potential difference
It is the energy required to move one unit charge through
an element
Polarity oI a circuit segment indicates the Ilow direction oI
charges
a
b
+
-
J
ab
( -J
ba
)
+ve churges
{e,g, ions in
buttery}
-ve
churges
{eIectrons}
+I
-I
Passive sign convention
Power p vi
ve: consumption
-ve: generation
ELE 1110 (1.7)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Power supplv and absorption
t v
i i

i
+
-
v
+
-
v
+
-
v
i
+
-
t v
+
-

i
Independent voltage source
(const. or time-varying voltage)
Independent voltage source
(constant voltage)
Independent current source
Dependent voltage source Dependent current source
Power P vi
ve: supplied
-ve: absorbed
ELE 1110 (1.8)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Ideal Sources
Ideal Independent Sources
Voltage source
An active element (which provides energy) provides a speciIic
voltage with its zero internal resistance.
It is completely independent oI other circuit variables, e.g. current
through it.
Current source
An active element provides a speciIic current with its inIinite
resistance.
It is completely independent oI other circuit variables, e.g.voltage
across the source.
Ideal Dependent (Controlled) Sources
An active element in which the source quantity is controlled by another
voltage or current.
Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS), Current-controlled voltage
source (CCVS), Voltage-controlled current source (VCCS), Current-
controlled current source (CCCS)
ELE 1110 (1.9)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Energv, average power, and power
Energy
Average power
More convenient to measure than instantaneous power, e.g. by wattmeter
) ( ) (
) (
) ( t i t v
dt
t dE
t p


t
t
t
t
d i v d p t E
0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

T t
t
average
o
o
dt t p
T
p ) (
1
time-varying, so called instantaneous power
instantaneous
voltage
instantaneous
current
v(t)
i(t)
p(t)
ELE 1110 (1.10)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Example 1.1
Example: Calculate the power supplied or absorbed by each element:
By passive sign convention,
p
1
20(-5) -100W (supplied power)
p
2
12(5) 60W (absorbed power)
p
3
8(6) 48W (absorbed power)
p
4
8(-0.2I) 8(-0.2 x 5) -8W (supplied power)
p
1
p
2
p
3
p
4
0 (Energy Conservation Law: p )
t

20 V
p
1
p
2
8 V
p
3
p
4
I 5A
6A
0.2I
+
-
12 V
+
-
ELE 1110 (1.11)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Ohm's Law
Short circuit: R0
Open circuit: R
Circuit Element resistor
+
-
v
i
R
v
R i vi p
2
2

G
i
G v vi p
2
2

resistance
conductance
G
R
1

iR v
ELE 1110 (1.12)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Resistors in series

+ +
N
n
n N eq
R R R R R
1
2 1
...

,
_

N
n
n
N
n
n
N
n
n
R i
iR
v v
1
1
1
v
R R
R
v
2 1
1
1
+

v
R R
R
v
2 1
2
2
+

Note:
Known as
voltage divider
ELE 1110 (1.13)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Resistors in parallel
N eq
R R R R
1
...
1 1 1
2 1
+ + +

,
_

N
n
n
N
n
n
N
n
n
R
v
R
v
i i
1
1
1
1
i
R R
R
i
2 1
2
1
+

i
R R
R
i
2 1
1
2
+

Known as
current divider
Note:
ELE 1110 (1.14)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Example 1.2
Calculate the equivalent resistance R
ab
in the circuit
a
b
R
ab
10 1
6 3
2
c d
b b
a
b
R
ab
3
2
c d
b b
10
a
b
11.2
ELE 1110 (1.15)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Example 1.3
Calculate the equivalent resistance R
ab
in the circuit
a
b
R
ab
10 1 1
5 4
6
3
12
c d
b b
a
b
R
ab
10 1
6 3
2
c d
b b
ELE 1110 (1.16)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
-to-Y transformation
a
b c
a
b c
R
c
R
b
R
a
R
1
R
2
R
3
c b a
b a
c b a
a c
c b a
c b
R R R
R R
R
R R R
R R
R
R R R
R R
R
+ +

+ +

+ +

3
2
1
3
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
1 3 3 2 2 1
1
1 3 3 2 2 1
R
R R R R R R
R
R
R R R R R R
R
R
R R R R R R
R
c
b
a
+ +

+ +

+ +

ELE 1110 (1.17)


T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Open circuit to dc signal
An ideal capacitor can store (in its electric Iield) and deliver energy without
dissipation, but real capacitor has a leakage resistance in parallel combined
with the ideal capacitive part.
When a bias voltage v is applied to a capacitor, the amount oI charge stored
q Cv
Eor parallel-plate capacitor,
Eor electrolyte capacitors,
High capacitance
Can endure high voltage
Polarity is prearranged and not allowed to be interchanged
Circuit Element capacitor
d
A
C

ELE 1110 (1.18)


T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Capacitor device laws
i
C
v + -
dt
dv
v C i v p
dt
dv
C
dt
dq
i
1. v const. i 0 open circuit
2. v cannot change instantaneously because i is needed
C
Q
v C t E
t E d i v
t E d p t E
o
t
t
o
t
t
o
o
2 2
1
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2

+
+



) (
1
) (
o
t
t
t v id
C
t v
o

+
iI E(t
o
) 0
ELE 1110 (1.19)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Capacitors in series
N eq
C C C C
1
...
1 1 1
2 1
+ + +
.
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1
) ( ) (
1 1
1
1
o eq
t
t
eq
N
n
o n
t
t
N
n
n
N
n
t
t
o n
n
N
n
n
t v id
C
t v id
C
t v id
C
t v t v
o
o
o
+
+

,
_

1
]
1

ELE 1110 (1.20)


T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Capacitors in parallel

+ +
N
n
n N eq
C C C C C
1
2 1
...
dt
dv
C
dt
dv
C
dt
dv
C
t i i
eq
N
n
n
N
n
n
N
n
n


,
_

1
1
1
) (
ELE 1110 (1.21)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Circuit Element inductor
air-core
iron-core
Short circuit to dc signal
An ideal inductor can store (in its magnetic Iield) and
deliver energy without dissipation, but a real inductor has a
winding resistance in series combined with the ideal
inductive part.
l
A N
L

2

ELE 1110 (1.22)


T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Inductor device laws
i
dt
di
L i v p

,
_


dt
di
L v
1. i const.(dc current) v 0 short circuit
2. i cannot change by a Iinite amount in zero time because v is needed
) ( ) (
1
) (
o
t
t
t i d v
L
t i
o

+
iI E(t
o
) 0
2
2
1
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
i L t E
t E d i v
t E d p t E
o
t
t
o
t
t
o
o

+
+



ELE 1110 (1.23)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Inductors in series

+ +
N
n
n N eq
L L L L L
1
2 1
...
ELE 1110 (1.24)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Inductors in parallel
N eq
L L L L
1
...
1 1 1
2 1
+ + +
ELE 1110 (1.25)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Example 1.4

i(t)
v
R
(t)
v
C
(t)
v
L
(t)
i(t)
i(t)
i(t)
+
-
+
-
+
-
R t i t v
R
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
) (
o
t
t
C
t v d i
C
t v
o

+
dt
t di
L t v
L
) (
) (
ELE 1110 (1.26)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Example 1.5

i(t)
v
R
(t)
v
C
(t)
v
L
(t)
i(t)
i(t)
i(t)
+
-
+
-
+
-
R t i t v
R
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
) (
o
t
t
C
t v d i
C
t v
o

+
dt
t di
L t v
L
) (
) (
impulse
ELE 1110 (1.27)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Summarv
Symbol and units
joule (J) E nergy
watt (W) p Power
volt (V) V, v VoItuge
ampere (A) I, i Current
coulomb (C) Q Churge
henry (H) L Inductunce
Iarad (E) C Cupucitunce
siemens (S)
or mho ( )
G Conductunce
ohm () R Resistunce
Unit SymboI
preIixes:
10
9
giga (G)
10
6
mega (M)
10
3
kilo (k)
10
-2
centi (c)
10
-3
milli (m)
10
-6
micro ()
10
-9
nano (n)
10
-12
pico (p)
ELE 1110 (1.28)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Circuit concept and definition
t
t

v
1
v
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
R

R
7
I
a
c
f
d
b
e
g
Node
a point where two or more circuit elements join (e.g a, b, c, d, e, I, g)
Essential node
a node where three or more circuit elements join (e.g. b, c, e, g)
Branch
connects between two nodes (i.e. consists oI one circuit element)
Essential Branch
connects between two essential nodes
ELE 1110 (1.29)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Circuit concept and definition - Loop
t
t

v
1
v
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
R

R
7
I
a
c
f
d
b
e
g
Path
a trace oI adjoining elements with no
element included more than once
Loop
a closed path (there are 8 loops)
Mesh
a loop that does not enclose any other loop
4 meshes
V
1
- R
1
- R
5
- R
6
- R
4
- V
2
V
1
- R
1
- I - R
4
- V
2
V
1
- R
1
- R
7
- R
4
- V
2
I - R
5
- R
6
V
1
- R
1
- R
5
- R
3
- R
2
V
2
- R
2
- R
3
- R
6
- R
4
R
5
- R
7
- R
6
R
7
- I
ELE 1110 (1.30)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
.
i
1
i
2
i
3
i
4
i
N
0

N
n
i
Note: Assume one direction to be ve, and in the
above case the direction oI entering the node
ELE 1110 (1.31)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Kirchhoffs Joltage Law (KJL)
0

N
n
v
Note: Assume one direction in the loop to be ve, and
in the above case the anti-clockwise direction
..
v
n
+
-
v
1
+
-
v
2 +
-
v
3
+
-
v
4
+
-
v
5
+
-
ELE 1110 (1.32)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Example 1.6
t 500V
+ V

-
5
i

i
o
+
V
o
-
20
5i

a
b
c
Loop ~A
By KVL around loop 'A,
By KCL at node 'b,
Put (2) into (1):
) 1 ...( 100 4
0 ) 20 ( ) 5 ( 500
+
+ +

o
o
i i
i i
) 2 ...( 6
0 5



+
i i
i i i
o
o
J J
J J
A i
A i
i i
o
o
480 ) 20 ( 24
20 ) 5 ( 4
24
4
100 ) 6 ( 4




+


Total power generated
Total power dissipated
W
P P
i J
11600
) 4 )( 5 ( 480 ) 4 ( 500
5 500

+
+

W
P P
11600
) 24 ( 480 ) 4 ( 20
20 5

+
+

ELE 1110 (1.33)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
50
Example 1.7(a)
t
500V
2.2
20 30
46 9
i
o
a
b c
d
t
500V
2.2
46 9
a
b c
d
R
2
R
3
R
1

+ +


+ +


+ +

15
50 30 20
) 50 ( 30
10
50 30 20
) 50 ( 20
6
50 30 20
) 30 ( 20
3
2
1
R
R
R
Eind i
o
ELE 1110 (1.34)
T. Lee/K.W. Lee 2002
Example 1.7(b)
t
500V
2.2
46 9
a
b c
d
A
J J
i
J
R
J
J
R
J
J J
o
3
50
126 ) 336 (
9
9
276 ) 336 (
46
46
336 ) 500 (
24 // 56 2 . 8
24 // 56
3 2
3
3
2
2
1

6
10
15
t
500V
2.2 6 8.2
10 46
56
15 9
24

-
V
2
V
3

-
V
1