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Women in Latin American History Author(s): Asuncion Lavrin Source: The History Teacher, Vol. 14, No. 3, Special Issue on Teaching Latin American History (May, 1981), pp. 387-399 Published by: Society for History Education Stable URL: . Accessed: 28/08/2011 15:24
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despite a remarkable increase in the number of scholarly works since the mid 1960s. seeks multicultural material for comparative purposes. Thus. one must add the lack of a well established consensus on methodology. It will suggest a number of potential topics. it will soon become obvious that the material on pre-Columbian societies and for the colonial period does not specifically focus on women per se but more ASUNCION LAVRIN received her Ph. 387 .D. source material is by no means plentiful or evenly distributed by area or period. in addition to the problems inherent in the paucity of bibliographical resources. She is currently teaching at Howard University and has published extensively on women in Latin America. This bibliography will not attempt to establish how best to teach a course on Latin American women. This is partly a result of the constant growth of social history. Yet. and furnish a basic list of sources which will enable any instructor to develop the subject in his or her own style. and imagination in the use of resources and the design of the approach. If one follows a conventional historical chronology. it would be misleading to assume that. there is universal agreement on how to teach the history of Latin American women.Women in Latin American History ASUNCION LAVRIN Howard University THE TOPIC of women in Latin American history is slowly gaining acceptance as a subject of teaching and research. Experimentation. and partly due to the increased popularity of women's studies. at present. flexibility. Furthermore. from Harvard University. which in its interdisciplinary approach. are essential elements for successful results in the teaching of this subject.

nor the nineteenth century have elicited a similar attention. Two decades ago. The sixteenth century was eventful enough for all women involved in the formation of a new society and the mingling of several cultures. the material necessary for a different ap- . relegate them with few exceptions. For this reason. the migration of Spanish women to Latin America. Furthermore. and the disproportionate amount of material on the present century. if there is any period that needs new research material and a fresh historical approach. A topical arrangement seems the most appropriate in view of the many gaps in the information. the spectrum of topics has increased to include subjects of social character which make women a more credible and historically significant element of colonial society. and also the most heavily investigated. to colorless roles throughout much of the nineteenth and even the early twentieth centuries. the most suitable for the study of women. the methodology is still not that of our discipline. the quantity of the material allows a deeper probing into social. and the legal status of colonial women. and not a purely academic goal. Furthermore. However. does not seem. economic. The twentieth century is the richest in material. perhaps. Although the bibliographical material has been presented in a chronological manner for the convenience of the reader. and the wars of independence brought no significant change in the status of women. neither the independence period. this material is most helpful because it lends itself well to the increasingly popular interdisciplinary approach commonly adopted for the study of women in society.388 THE HISTORY TEACHER on their role in the family. Despite the fact that one may argue for a different use of chronology. especially in historical surveys which emphasize leadership. it is not advisable to teach a course or a seminar in this fashion. throughout the colonial period changes were very slow. and cultural issues. not yet possible for former periods of history. The largely apolitical character of women's actions and their lack of leverage in the decision-making process. Today. Most of the material available deals with the heroines of the independence or a group of remarkable women in a literature that has the imprint of the personality cult. party politics or economic trends. the conventional chronology used for the study of Latin America history. the deeds of a few remarkable women. These caveats notwithstanding. While some of these studies cover subjects spanning several decades at times. the vast majority of the studies avialable for this period have been produced by social scientists not historians. Certainly. were the main topics available to the instructor. it is the nineteenth century. Unfortunately. in works producedby Latin Americans the main objective is the analysis of social problems involving women with a pragmatic. However.

and remains one of the channels most frequently used by them. An example of what can be done with available material for organizing a seminar on Latin American women is provided by Silvia M. It is possible to form a collection of slides as visual aides. the absence of which deprives women of a fuller image of themselves. Instead of a structured syllabus. I also list some books which provide excellent illustra- . for the organization of a study plan. By underlining the activities of women in these areas. in conjunction with the bibliography. This should bring out the contribution of women to the development of these societies. Other colleagues have included topics such as Women and the Law. The work of some gifted women painters should also help to understand the inner world and creative pathos of those who have excelled in self-expression. in their courses and seminars. 493-507. etc. Arrom's "Teaching the History of Hispanic-American Women. Nineteenth century travelers' books." The History Teacher. development. class and ethnic definition. the picture is not bleak: a different way of gaining insight into the historical significance of women is becoming possible by the use of sources dealing with labor. but which reflects a more accurate picture of reality. Women and the Arts. and achieving the final goal of creating a history which is not restricted solely to men. education. twentieth century photographs. in which women have had a considerable and significant input. I have suggested a number of general topics which may be used. Since another colleague is in charge of developing the topic of the family. to illustrate the development of special issues involving women in history such as work. feminism and revolution. the topic of work contains a number of items of Indian women which may reasonably be rearranged into a subsection focusing on that particular ethnic group. I have not dealt with this topic for the twentieth century. XII. I have suggested a number of topics within the chronological subdivisions of the bibliography which may be either merged with each other or used to form other topics. it is possible to create a feminine perspective within Latin American history. since literature was.LATINAMERICAN WOMEN 389 proach does not yet exist. All these are positive steps toward generating interest on the place of women in Latin American history. However. education. and by analyzing their significance in them. 4 (August 1980). an element of the communal memory. The names of several important women writers are included to encourage the use of their works as the most suitable manner of learning how women see themselves and how they react to their societies. Women and the Process of Socialization. and works of fine arts are sources for such a collection. For example.

eds. 11:1 (1976). E. . 1975). since the intracontinental migrations of the sixteenth century to the rural-urban migration and international migration in search of labor of the twentieth century. Sections IV-VII." Latin American Research Review. Introduction and Chapter 11.based on a novel by Graciliano Ramos (Brazil). Also very excellent are: "Portrait of Teresa" (Cuba). focuses on works by social scientists and is particularly good for works on Brazil. ed. "The Double Day" (by Helen Ladd Solberg). Meri. ed. Latin American Women: Historical Perspectives (Westport." SIGNS. social attitudes and usages. economic. Susan Soeiro and Asunci6n Lavrin. Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5:1 (1979). social and cultural consequences of sex roles. 3-74. many commercial films not necessarily produced to comment on women's role but with strong social themes. 497-516. may be used for that purpose.390 THE HISTORY TEACHER tions of women engaged in many activities and which are good material for class transparencies. Suggested Topics of Study Migration of Women: Historically.. Definition of Sex Roles: Prescriptive literature. Teaching About Women in the Foreign Languages (Old Westbury. the reader should be aware that the use of Spanish and Portuguese sources is still necessary in view of the limited number of sources in English. Rodriguez and Jorge Silva. Santa Cruz. New York." Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs 17:4 (1975). "The Salt of the Earth". Finally. Asunci6n Lavrin. "Women in Latin America: The State of Research." "The Brick Makers" (Los Chircales) by M. Two interesting documentaries are: "Nicaraguan Women in Arms" by Victoria Schultz. University of California. HernAndez and M. For further bibliographical and interpretive suggestions. A number of films may be employed in conjunction with any seminar or course to discuss themes and issues suggested by the reading material. 1975. Susan Soeiro. Karash. for her assistance in suggesting these film titles. Maryssa Navarro. "San Bernardo". "Approaches to the History of Women in Latin America. Sidonie. LEGAL STATUS OF WOMEN: Changes throughout time and the significance of legislation in the shaping of women's lives and options within society." in Bradford Burns. In fact. 1978). "Recent Work on Latin American Women: A Review Essay. and "The Colombian. Most recent bibliographical essay. I thank Julianne Burton. 111-120. Cassirer. Teaching Latin American History (Los Angeles. their influence of male-female relationships. the following sources are recommended: Knaster. and "Lucia"are good examples of films portraying particularly interesting examinations of women's issues. "Research in Latin American Women. 1977).

Felicitas. urbanization and the family. Ensayo (La Habana. women's suffrage and its impact on national politics. fertility and work. Knaster. Women in Latin American History (Los Angeles. Anna Britta. La mujer chilena. 1966). Conn. 1910-1960 (Santiago de Chile. Sex and Class in Latin America (New York. La mujer en la vida panameia (Panama. eds. 1967). women and revolutions. (San Josd. 1976). Mirta. rural industrial domestic and clerical work. "The Eagle and the Serpent: Male over Female in TenochtitlAn. women's employment patterns. Conn. and Cultures (Westport. Women and Politics: Independence and nineteenth century options. Pre-Columbian Women Hallbom. women in organized politics. Power and Pawn. concept of the family throughout time and among different population groups. 1978).. Influencia de la mujer en Iberoambrica. The Female in Iberian Families. 1977). as seen by men and by women themselves. Lily. 1976). La participacidn cultural de las mujeres indias y mestizas en el Mexico precortesiano y post-revolucionario (Stockholm. women and right wing movements. MacLachlan. Women and Religion: In the colonial period and after independence.WOMEN LATINAMERICAN 391 Women's Work and Society: Women's role in the economy since colonial times and their changing influence on the community. professional women. Asunci6n. 1977). Women in Spanish America: An Annotated Bibliography from Pre-Conquest to Contemporary Times (Boston. 1947). Angela. Feminism: The winning of legal and political rights. Ann. La mujer costarricense a travus de cuatro siglos. women and development. 2 Vols. Arosemena de Tejeira. the image of women in the arts. Otilia. 1976). the peasant family. the concept of women's liberation throughout Latin America. education as the key for selfexpression. population issues and the church. Societies. Hahner. Colin. twentieth century relationship between women and organized religion. Klimpel. General Works Acufia de Chac6n. ed. leadership and ideology of the feminists. Mary. ed. Women and The Family: Status of women in the family. 1969-70). attitudes about women's work.. Nash. women political leaders. June and Helen Safa. Las argentinas de ayer a hoy (Buenos Aires.. Women's Education and Self-expression: Development of female education in Latin America. feminism and revolution. Aguirre. June. Pescatello. industrialization and changes in the family. Lavrin. Sosa de Newton. Latin American Women:Historical Perspectives (Westport.. 1960).." .

Russell-Wood. Mendelson.D. Anita. 1963). 349-362. Colonial Society General Works Burkett. Malinche: Or Farewell to Myths (New York. Juana Ramirez. Sylvanus G. "The Feminine Press: The View of Women in Colonial Journals of Spanish America. Elinor. James D." in A. Asunci6n. Diss. 1967). 1956). For Micaela Bas- . A. 1971). Baroque Times in Old Mexico (Ann Arbor. Analola. Nancy. ed. 80-97. 1971).." in A. The Ancient Maya (Stanford.. Raz6n y pasidn de Sor Juana Inds de la Cruz (Mexico. El estado espaiol en Indias (Mexico. 101-128. James. 398-444. Octavio.. Ots Capdequi. "In Search of the Colonial Woman in Mexico: The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Las mujeres de los conquistadores. Gary. GermAn. Latin American Women. Bernardino de. Padden. 1971).. 1979).. J. Sor Juana Inbs de la. Hector P. Hilde. Arroyo. O'Sullivan-Beare. The Daily Life of the Aztecs on the Eve of the Spanish Conquest (New York. Paz. 1946). 1961). S. Irving A. "The Aztecs and the Ideology of Male Dominance. Robert C. Lavrin. J. R.America Mdgica. Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espahia (Mexico.392 THE HISTORY TEACHER Proceedings of the Pacific Council on Latin American Studies 5 (1976). Ten Notable Women in Latin America (Chicago. Cruz. Morley. Soustelle.. University of Pittsburgh. Jacques. Obras Completas (Mexico. Nash. R. 1780-1783 (Norman. Indian Women Burkett. SIGNS. For Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz... Johanna. Legislation on women. 1532-1560: A Colonial Society (Madison. 1975. 1790-1830." in A. Latin American Women. 45-56. Sahagin. June. Struggle and Survival in the ColonialAmericas (Berkeley. 1978). M. David and Nash. 1933).. 198-218. Latin American Women. ed. Leonard. Elinor. 1980). ed. 1968). "Indian Women and White Society: The Case of Sixteenth-Century Peru. Lavrin. 60-100. 1948). "Early Colonial Peru: The Urban Female Experience. Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5:1 (Autumn. Luis Alberto.. Blomberg.. 1975). Sanchez. "La mujer pobladora en los origenes americanos. Tales of Potost: Bartolomd Arzdins de Ursaa y Vela (Providence.. Conquest and Settlement Borges. Fisher. Rhode Island. 1966). and Linda R. Henderson.. Sweet.. "Female and Family in the Economy and Society of Colonial Brazil." Ph." in A. Journal of Women and Society 4:2 (1978). Kruger. Lockhart. 23-59. The Last Inca Revolt. ed. 1962). Lavrin. II: Las mujeres y las horas (Buenos Aires. Lavrin. Fr." Anuario de Estudios Americanos 29 (1972). Mujeres en la historia americana (Buenos Aires. 1965). Lavrin." SIGNS. Spanish Peru. La Perricholi (Lima. Lilliam E. The Uncommon and The Common Woman Arciniegas. la mujer espahiola en los comienzos de la colonizaci6n americana (Madrid. Latin American Women.

No. 1973). Alberro. Liberating Women's History (Urbana. Bowser. L. 51:1 (1971). Miners and Merchants in Bourbon Mexico 1763-1810 (Cambridge. "Parents vs.S. 1524-1650 (Stanford. Elinor. 1945). Lavrin. Elisa. 200-225.. et al. C. Johnson. Mexico City (1724-1822). Lavrin. 258-279. Education Ffirlong Cardiff. Masculina no Brasil Colonial. "Women in Convents: Their Economic and Social Role in Colonial Mexico. 292 (1977). Mdrtires y Heroinas (Lima. The African Slave in Colonial Peru. and Corpus Christi.. ed. "Negros y mulatos en los documentos inquisitoriales: rechazo e integraci6n. 252-294. ed. 1974). etc. Marriage and The Family Arrom. Couturier. Solange B. See chapter on black women. 59:2 (1979). 226-241. 132-161. Francisco A. Gallagher. Asunci6n. 1972. Emilio. 1951). Frederick. 79-91. Vida de los esclavos negros en Venezuela (Caracas." HAHR. Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central America (Lincoln. diss. ed. 1980. Black Women Acosta Saignes." in E. Love. Diss." Journal of Family History 3:4 (1978)." Revista de Hist6ria. For Micaela Bastidas. Los conventos de Nueva Espafia (Mexico." in Berenice Carroll. La poblacidn negra de Mexico (Mexico. Lyman. "The Family Background of the Nuns of Two Monasterios in Colonial Mexico: Santa Clara de Quert~taro. Edith B.D... Cathy Duke. David.. 1976). 1971). Diss. "The Family in Eighteenth Century Plantation Society in Mexico. 1974. 1967). Luque Alcaide. LV. Susan. Seed.. 1946). The Mexican Nobility at Independence (Austin.. ed. 16101779. Harth-Terrb. 376-391. "Women in a Noble Family: The Mexican Counts of Regla. Patricia. Edgar F." in A. "Manumission in Colonial Buenos Aires. Sister Miriam Ann. 250-277. Gonzalo. "Values and Meaning of Monastic Life for Nuns in Colonial Mexico. Guillermo. Of Related Interest Brading.. Doris. compl. "Lima aus XVIe et XVIe et XVIIe siecles" Cahiers des Amdriques Latines 13-14 (1976). "A Baroque Nunnery: The Economic and Social Role of a Colonial Convent. 1724-1821.. Negros e indios. Brings material on marriage. Ann Miriam. El trabajo y los trabajadores en la historia de Mexico (Mexico and Tucson. Silvia M." Ph. 1811. Mazet. 1972). Sherman. Claude. 129-149. Burkett.. Muriel. illegitimacy. 149-164.. R. Diss.. Soeiro. 17501830. Loayza. "Marriage Patterns of Persons of African Descent in a Colonial Mexico City Parish. 1979). Early Colonial Peru. "Marriage Patterns in Mexico City. Latin American Women." in A. 1979)." HAHR 55:2 (1975). Aguirre-Beltr•n." Ph.LATIN AMERICAN WOMEN 393 tidas. 1976).. 367-387. Catholic University of America. Donald. "The Indian Nuns of Mexico City's Monasterio of Corpus Christi. Conventual Life Gallagher." Ph. .D. Josefina. 51-102." Catholic Historical Review LVIII:3 (1972). University of Wisconsin.M.. Ramos. Miguel. Lavrin. Children.. William L." HAHR. Un testamento social ignorado del Pera colonial (Lima. Vol. Marriage Opposition in Colonial Mexico. Latin American Wonen. Ladd. "Marriage and the Family in Colonial Vila-Rica." in. La educacidn en Nueva Espgifa (Sevilla. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.D. New York University. 150-172. La cultura femenina en la dpoca colonial (Buenos Aires. Frost. 109 (1977).

209-232. Travelers' Impressions Calder6n de la Barca. The letters ofFanny Calder6n de la Barca (New York. Nineteenth Century Women in Society and Politics Camacho. . Mujeres de la independencia (Mexico.394 THE HISTORY TEACHER . Doifia Juana Azurduy y Padilla (La Paz." HAHR 59:2 (1978). antologta." HAHR 60:1 (1980). Pedro. Gantier. Echinove Trujillo. Life in Mexico. 1972). Rumazo Gonz~lez. Mme... 1966). 1941). Massare de Kostianovsky. Las mujeres de la independencia (Santiago de Chile. ed. James C. Olinda. Mendieta Alatorre." Ph. 32-48. Independence Caturla Victoria de. Frances. 'The Feminine Orders in Colonial Brazil: Economic. 1945). Socolow. 1945). Cherpak. "Dowries and Wills: A View in Women's Socioeconomic Role in Colonial Guadalajara and Puebla. 1961). 1947).. Lavrin. Latin American Women. Ladd. Social. 1970). Maria de los Angeles.. Manuelita de Rosas y Escurra. Susan. la mujer fuerte de la independencia (Mexico. I e a Marquesa de Santos (S~o Paulo. Alberto. Marriage And The Family Arrom. Bailey. Other Topics Lavrin. Victor W. Couturier. 280-304. Brazil and the Brazilians Portrayed in Historical and Descriptive Sketches (Boston. Verdady leyenda de su vida (Buenos Aires. Bri. "The Participation of Women in the Independence Movement in Gran Colombia. Carmen. F. Manuela Sadna. "Marriage Patterns and Immigrant Assimilation in Buenos Aires." HAHR 54:2 (1974). Leona Vicario. Doris M. Mendieta Alatoree. 219-234. "Women and the Family in Mexico City. The Four Seasons of Manuela. 1800-1857. Vicente.. Margarita Maza de Judrez. Three study Units (Curriculum for Junior and Community Colleges) (Austin. Typology Hoberman. P~nfilo. Asunci6n and Edith B. 1882-1923. Carlos A. (Stanford University. Silvia M. Mexican Women in Anahuac and New Spain. La mujer en la revoluci6n mexicana (Mexico. Pancha Gamarra. Rangel. A Biography (New York. 173-197." Revista Interamericana 4 (Summer 1974). Alfonso. and Demographic Implications. 39-54. E."The Social and Economic Role of the Convent: Women and Nuns in Colonial Bahia. Evelyn. 1916). 1867). Daniel P. 1964). 136-147. la libertadora del libertador (Caracas. Marta Abreu: una mujer comprendida (Havana. 1979). 1757-1797. Diss. 1677-1800. Grez. 1962).D. 1677-1800. Fletcher. Epistolario. Nieuhaus Rizo Patr6n. 1952). Maria de los Angeles. Joaquin. inconografta y efemdrides (Mexico.. La mujer en la independencia de Amdrica (La Habana. Latin American Women. Louisa. "Women and Crime: Buenos Aires. D. 1978). La Mariscala (Lima." in A." Journal of Latin American Studies 12:1 (1980).. and Kidder. . von Hagen. "Hispanic American Women as Portrayed in Historical Literature." in A. Clemente Travieso. 1967). 1970). Lavrin.. ed. 1640-1790. La mujer paraguaya: su participaci6n en la guerra grande (Asunci6n. 1973). SAnchezZinny.

Heleith I. Lavrin. Class and Colour in Nineteenth Century Cuba: A Study of Racial Attitudes and Sexual Values in a Slave Society (Cambridge. Stanley J. Cynthia J." Nash and Safa. Alice... Sex and Class.. Norma S. 1972. "Slave Life in Rio de Janeiro.. "Anarchists. "Participation of Women in the Mexican Labor Force. Chile Mujer y Sociedad (Santiago: 1978). Twentieth Century General Covarrubias. eds. Excerpts in June Hahner. . The Diary of"Helena Morley. June E." The Americas 14:2 (1957). 1974). 110-128. Dean. 1860-1926. "The Impact of Industrialization on Women's Work Roles in Northeast Brazil. University of Wisconsin. 1977). "The Participation of Women on the Labor Force of Latin America: Fertility and Other Factors. Testimonial Brant. Carmen Diana. 235-253. Women in Latin American History. 113-116. Women and National Development (Chicago. A Preliminary Investigation.D. . comp. Women in Latin American History. 180-193. Slavery Karash. A mulher na sociedade de classes: Mito e Realidade (Sao Paulo. Hermano Negro. 1850-1900 (Cambridge 1957).. Work. La Esclavitud en el Paraguay (Madrid. 1969). "Education. 135-144.. 1962).LATIN AMERICAN WOMEN 395 Ramos. Mary C. Latin American Women. B. Verena Martinez Alier. Capitalism. Work Aguiar. 1804-1838. ed. Jane Herrick." in Dauril Alden and W. 1970). Deere. Labor and Equality for Women. Nany. 1978). Monopoly." Latin American Perspectives (1977).. Josefina. 87-117. Donald.Women and Work in Brazil. ed. "Women Workers and the Class Struggle: The Case of Argentina. and Women's Work in Guatemala. Rlbora. "Industrialization.Essays Concerning the Socioeconomic History ofBrazil and Portuguese India (Gainesville. Marriage. Saffioti. by Elizabeth Bishop (New York. Philanthropy and Feminism: Components of Argentina Womanhood. 1972). La mujer en el mundo del trabajo (Buenos Aires. Juan C. See also. Neuma. Leda. Black Women. Lavrin. Gloria.. Gil. 1957). 1977). 38-56. A instruceo feminina en S& Paulo: Subsidios para sua histdria atd a proclamacaoda republica (SAo Paulo. 254-285. La familia chilena y la familia argentina (Buenos Aires." in A. Elizaga." Latin American Perspectives 4. 1850-1920. 1808-1850. 183-201. 48-59." International Labor Review 109 (1974). 48-69." Wellesley Editorial Committee. Paz y Rolando Franco. 519-538." trans.. Caro Hollander." in A. Maria Pereira Rodrigues. "The Nineteenth-Century Feminist Press and Women's Rights in Brazil. "Periodicals for Women in Mexico during the Nineteenth Century. Stein. GonzAlez Salazar." in June Hahner. Chinchilla. Carlos. 1938). Education and Feminism Hahner. Latin American Women. Elena. 1975). Little." Ph. Sex and Class. Diss. PlaA." Journal of Family History 3:4 (Winter. Vassouras: A Brazilian Coffee County. "City and County: The Family in Minas Gerais. "Changing Social Relations of Production and Peruvian Peasant Women's Work." in Nash and Safa. La mujer y el movimiento obrero mexicano en el siglo XIX (Mexico: Centro de Estudios Hist6ricos del Movimiento Obrero Mexicano.

" SIGNS. "Politics and Feminism in the Dominican Republic. 1976). 274. Terry J. "Old and New Feminists in Latin America: the Case of Peru and Chile. Hahner. Ward.." Journal of Marriage and the Family 38:2 (1976). Eduardo P. Women and National Development 261. Lourdes. 339-353." in America Indigena 38:2 (1978). Tower. Covarrubias. 303-326. 'Women's Labor Force Participation in a Developing Society: The Case of Brazil. 1938). Mujer y Sociedad. 30-45 (45). See also Amdrica Indigena. Young. Beatriz Maria Alasia de Heredia."341-381. Labarca." Journal of Marriage and the Family 38 (Nov. 265-278. Among them are: Magdalena Le6n de Leal and Carmen Diana Deere. Maria. Victoria Ocampo."LAP IV (1977). Paz." in Nash and Safa. Morton. Lourdes. 615-648. Gissi Bustos. Chaney. Chile. El caso de las Marias (Mexico. Doris. Sex and Class. 1973). Female and Male in Latin America: Essays (Pittsburgh." Journal of Marriage and the Family 35:2 (1973). Smith.. 200-204. Perfil da MulherBrasileira. Archetti and Kristi A. Rocado: divisi6n del trabajo en unidades dombsticas campesinas (Brazil). 1940-1970. unidad dombstica y migraci6n. Arizpe. Margo L. 1934). Chile. Bourque Susan C. A mulher e una degenerada (Rio de Janeiro. "Monopoly Capitalism and Women's Work during the Porfiriato." 383-403. with Special References to Chile.. Margaret. 99-105. Glaura. 331-343. Villalobos de Urritia. Angel Fucaraccio "El trabajo femenino en Chile: un estudio de caso de las areas urbanas. Little. 8:2 (1978) for a number of articles devoted to peasant women's work. Mota. 191-207. 1970). Mujer y Sociedad. "Individual and Regional Influences on the Employment of Colombian Women. 1932). "The Beginnings of the Women's Suffrage Movement in Brazil." in Nash and Safa.".. "El machismo en los dos sexos. Against the Wind and the Tide (New York. "Mujeres migrantes y economia campesina: andlisis de una cohorte migratoria a la ciudad de Mexico. 1962). ed. Also by him. Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5:1 (Autumn." in Nash and Safa." America Inddgena 38:2 (1978)." in Covarrubias and Franco. 781-788.". "Mythology about Women.396 THE HISTORY TEACHER Rosenberg. "Domestic Service as a Channel of Upward Mobility for the Lower Class Woman: The Lima Case. . eds. Lacerda de Moura. Muraro. Warren. and Feminism Austregesilo. 1979). Diagn6stico de la situaci6n social y econd6-mica la mujer de peruana (Lima. Isabel. and Key B. "Aspectos econ6micos del trabajo de la mujer. 1979). estrategias de herencia y acumulaci6n de la mujer en el norte de Santa Fe. "The History of Women's Struggle for Equality in Puerto Rico." in Covarrubias and Franco. "La mujer obrera chilena: una approximaci6n a su estudio. 447-473. "Moral Reform and Feminism. Jorge." in Ann Pescatello. See also in Chile. the works of Mercedes Taborga. Liberta'&o Sexual da mulher (Petr6polis. Esboco acerca do feminismo doBrasil (Rio de Janeiro. 202-213. Amanda. Sex and Class." in Wellesley Editorial Committee. June. Cynthia J. Meyer. Stolen. Woman Suffrage in Mexico (Gainesville. Gabriela. Indigenas en la ciudad de Mexico. Elsa. Migration of Working Women Arizpe. Vasques de Miranda. Kaye." Male-Female Prototypes. "Campesinas y Comuneras: Subordination in the Sierra. Vivian. "Estudio de la mujer rural y el desarrollo del capitalismo en el agro colombiano.. Sex and Class.. Rose Marie. compiled by Covarrubias and Franco. "Economia dombstica. A d6nde va la mujer? (Santiago de Chile. 279-302. 386-397. Antonio. 1931-45 and 1966-74. Maria Ribero y Teresita de Barbieri. Pic6 Vidal." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 17 (1975). "Economia campesina. Argentina. "El movimiento faminista chilen. 1975). Mujer y Sociedad. Casa. 1975).

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