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Archie, Hingle, and Pickett:

Determining fluid saturation for fun and profit

Dan Krygowski

Denver Colorado USA

Where Dan hopes to go today


Answer the question, So, why do we care about fluid saturation, anyway? A review of Archies equation. A look at some graphical solutions to Archies equation (Hingle and Pickett plots) which quickly provide saturation answers, and also predict some Archie parameters that wed otherwise have to estimate. A few closing remarks (and a run for the door).
Hawking

Formation fluid saturation


Formation fluid saturation is an important quantity:
It is necessary to determine the volume of fluids (water and hydrocarbons) present; It may give us some indication as to what will be produced.

But
We often have to estimate several parameters that are needed to make the saturation calculation.

A reminder of history
1927
Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger run the first log in Pechelbron field in France. Electric coring is born.

1942
Gus Archie presents a paper at the AIME meeting in Dallas quantifying the relationship between fluid saturation and formation resistivity.

So it took 15 years to go from a qualitative response to a quantitative, but empirical, relationship.


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Archies equation
Defining the terms:
tortuosity factor water saturation formation water resistivity

a Rw Sw = m Rt

saturation exponent cementation exponent

formation resistivity

porosity

Archies equation
Traditional sources: Defining the terms:
tortuosity factor core water saturation formation water resistivity samples, SP logs

a Rw Sw = m Rt

saturation exponent core cementation exponent core

formation resistivity electric logs, induction logs, laterologs

sonic, density, neutron, porosity nuclear magnetic resonance, resistivity logs

Another history lesson: pC


No, not preCambrian, preComputer: When big, burly guys (usually engineers) stood over you while you looked at the log data, and said, Hey, do I run pipe or call for cement? Youre costing me money here So, we needed techniques to get quantitative answers quickly. If they helped in other ways, so much the better

A pattern recognition approach.

So its not just equations


two examples for illustration:
1. 2.

Last Chance High Country #1


A constructed well to illustrate the techniques.

Bill Barrett Last Dance 43C-3-792 Mamm Creek, Piceance Basin, Colorado (a small section of the Mesaverde)
A well to bring us back to reality.

Last Chance High Country #1

Barrett Last Dance 43C-3-792


Mamm Creek, Piceance Basin, Colorado

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Enter Tom Hingle

[1959, SEG 29th Annual Meeting]

A graphical solution to Archies equation so that plotting resistivity against porosity will produce arrangements of the data (which are recognizable as patterns):
y = m*x +b (b=0)

1 R t
Y-axis

m Sw n = a R w

m
X-axis

A family of lines from which information can be discerned.

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Hingle plot

Conductivity

Resistivity, Rt

The y-axis on this plot is constructed using m=2.0

The y-axis is built from 1 1 m but scaled in Water-bearing line R resistivity or t conductivity so the points can be plotted The water-bearing line is placed by directly on the graph. the location of the data points. The y-axis becomes (very) non-linear. Lines of decreasing The x-axis is scaled so that water saturation porosity increases from Zero porosity left to right. Porosity, (= RHOmatrix or DTmatrix) bulk density, or sonic (data) traveltime can be plotted.

porosity

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So, with the Hingle plot


One can determine water saturation directly from the plot, without
knowing Rw, or having to calculate porosity.

In addition, the plot will predict matrix values of sonic or density, so porosity can be more confidently calculated. But, one has to assume values for a, m, n, And special paper must be used, which depends on the assumed value of m.
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Looking at our ideal data

Hingle Plot; m = 2.0


Sw = 1.0

1.0

1.5
0.50

2.0 2.5 3 Rt 5
0.25

10 15 20 50 100 500 2000 14

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.2

2.0
Baker Atlas, 1985

Bulk Density

Looking at real data

Hingle plot
0.25 Sw = 1

(1/Rt)^(1/m)

0 2.8 2.65

Bulk Density

2.2

Vshale
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Enter Dick Pickett

[1966, SPE (JPT) 1973, SPWLA]

A graphical solution to Archies equation so that plotting resistivity against porosity (both on logarithmic scales) will produce linear arrangements of the data:
y= m*x +b
(graph paper format)

log( ) =

log(Rt ) n log(Sw ) + log(a Rw )


Y-intercept

Y-axis

X-axis

A family of lines from which information can be discerned.


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Pickett plot
Both scales are logarithmic. To save calculations DT-DTma or RHOma-RHOB could be used on the yaxis instead of porosity.
The intercept of the waterbearing line at Phi = 1 is a*Rw. Water-bearing line. Slope = -1/cementation exponent

Porosity

(data)
The water-bearing line is placed by the location of the data points.
No special graph paper is needed. Lines of decreasing water saturation

The plot can be done in Excel.

Resistivity

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So, with the Pickett plot


One can determine water saturation directly from the plot, without
knowing Rw, or knowing m.

In addition, the plot will predict Rw and m. But, one has to assume matrix values if sonic or density is used for porosity. And the plot can be done on readily available graph paper, or more easily in MS Excel.

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Looking at our ideal data


Pickett Plot
1
Sw = 1 0.5 0.25

PhiD

0.1

0.01 0.01

0.1

1 Rt

10

100

1000

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Looking at our real data


Pickett plot
1 Sw = 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0

Density Porosity

0.1

0.01 0.1 1 Deep Resistivity 10 100

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Vshale

So, what happens now?


Well, we have two graphical methods to quickly determine water saturation, and other parameters:
Hingle: Porosity matrix values Pickett: Rw, and cementation exponent, m

Q: Can we use them in concert? A: Well, sort of

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Pickett and Hingle in concert


Bassiouni (1974, SPE) shows a method to use both to resolve several parameters, BUT it is painful to do by hand. AND, while interactive Pickett plots are common in many software packages, few packages have Hingle plots, and only one has linked interactive Pickett and Hingle plots. SO its possible, but tedious.
m m

ma

Iterate until convergence m

ma

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In conclusion
Pickett and Hingle plots are two slightly different graphical solutions of Archies saturation equation. While fluid saturation is needed for the calculation of volumetrics, it is less useful in predicting production.
And, are other quantities, like Bulk Volume Water, more helpful there?

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In conclusion
Pickett and Hingle plots also predict some other Archie or porosity parameters. Each can give a quick and useful view of the data, even when you have a computer to do the grunt calculation work for you. In the information age, pattern recognition is alive and well, and it may provide some insights to the subsurface that numbers wont.

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