Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

375 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Crain Book
- Fundamentals of the Pickett Plot
- Pickett plot
- Proposal Chevron Final
- Contemporary Business Mathematics With Canadian Applications Chapter 2
- Techlog Interactive Suite 2008.Full
- Predicting Reservoir System AAPG 1999
- Density Neutron Crossover
- Training-pertamina Well Logging
- Basic Well Log Interpretation
- Pickett Hingle and Others
- RMN Logging
- Chapter Four of Maths in Focus
- Basics of Oil & Gas Log Analysis
- Formation Evaluation Exam
- Interpretation Log
- GENERALIZATION OF GROWTH ESTIMATES OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL COMPLEX VARIABLE BASED ON RELATIVE L -ORDER
- PVTi Course
- Preguntas Petrobowl
- BASIC LOG INTERPRETATION_HLS

You are on page 1of 24

Dan Krygowski

Answer the question, So, why do we care about fluid saturation, anyway? A review of Archies equation. A look at some graphical solutions to Archies equation (Hingle and Pickett plots) which quickly provide saturation answers, and also predict some Archie parameters that wed otherwise have to estimate. A few closing remarks (and a run for the door).

Hawking

Formation fluid saturation is an important quantity:

It is necessary to determine the volume of fluids (water and hydrocarbons) present; It may give us some indication as to what will be produced.

But

We often have to estimate several parameters that are needed to make the saturation calculation.

A reminder of history

1927

Conrad and Marcel Schlumberger run the first log in Pechelbron field in France. Electric coring is born.

1942

Gus Archie presents a paper at the AIME meeting in Dallas quantifying the relationship between fluid saturation and formation resistivity.

4

Archies equation

Defining the terms:

tortuosity factor water saturation formation water resistivity

a Rw Sw = m Rt

formation resistivity

porosity

Archies equation

Traditional sources: Defining the terms:

tortuosity factor core water saturation formation water resistivity samples, SP logs

a Rw Sw = m Rt

No, not preCambrian, preComputer: When big, burly guys (usually engineers) stood over you while you looked at the log data, and said, Hey, do I run pipe or call for cement? Youre costing me money here So, we needed techniques to get quantitative answers quickly. If they helped in other ways, so much the better

two examples for illustration:

1. 2.

A constructed well to illustrate the techniques.

Bill Barrett Last Dance 43C-3-792 Mamm Creek, Piceance Basin, Colorado (a small section of the Mesaverde)

A well to bring us back to reality.

Mamm Creek, Piceance Basin, Colorado

10

A graphical solution to Archies equation so that plotting resistivity against porosity will produce arrangements of the data (which are recognizable as patterns):

y = m*x +b (b=0)

1 R t

Y-axis

m Sw n = a R w

m

X-axis

11

Hingle plot

Conductivity

Resistivity, Rt

The y-axis is built from 1 1 m but scaled in Water-bearing line R resistivity or t conductivity so the points can be plotted The water-bearing line is placed by directly on the graph. the location of the data points. The y-axis becomes (very) non-linear. Lines of decreasing The x-axis is scaled so that water saturation porosity increases from Zero porosity left to right. Porosity, (= RHOmatrix or DTmatrix) bulk density, or sonic (data) traveltime can be plotted.

porosity

12

One can determine water saturation directly from the plot, without

knowing Rw, or having to calculate porosity.

In addition, the plot will predict matrix values of sonic or density, so porosity can be more confidently calculated. But, one has to assume values for a, m, n, And special paper must be used, which depends on the assumed value of m.

13

Sw = 1.0

1.0

1.5

0.50

2.0 2.5 3 Rt 5

0.25

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.2

2.0

Baker Atlas, 1985

Bulk Density

Hingle plot

0.25 Sw = 1

(1/Rt)^(1/m)

0 2.8 2.65

Bulk Density

2.2

Vshale

15

A graphical solution to Archies equation so that plotting resistivity against porosity (both on logarithmic scales) will produce linear arrangements of the data:

y= m*x +b

(graph paper format)

log( ) =

Y-intercept

Y-axis

X-axis

16

Pickett plot

Both scales are logarithmic. To save calculations DT-DTma or RHOma-RHOB could be used on the yaxis instead of porosity.

The intercept of the waterbearing line at Phi = 1 is a*Rw. Water-bearing line. Slope = -1/cementation exponent

Porosity

(data)

The water-bearing line is placed by the location of the data points.

No special graph paper is needed. Lines of decreasing water saturation

Resistivity

17

One can determine water saturation directly from the plot, without

knowing Rw, or knowing m.

In addition, the plot will predict Rw and m. But, one has to assume matrix values if sonic or density is used for porosity. And the plot can be done on readily available graph paper, or more easily in MS Excel.

18

Pickett Plot

1

Sw = 1 0.5 0.25

PhiD

0.1

0.01 0.01

0.1

1 Rt

10

100

1000

19

Pickett plot

1 Sw = 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0

Density Porosity

0.1

20

Vshale

Well, we have two graphical methods to quickly determine water saturation, and other parameters:

Hingle: Porosity matrix values Pickett: Rw, and cementation exponent, m

21

Bassiouni (1974, SPE) shows a method to use both to resolve several parameters, BUT it is painful to do by hand. AND, while interactive Pickett plots are common in many software packages, few packages have Hingle plots, and only one has linked interactive Pickett and Hingle plots. SO its possible, but tedious.

m m

ma

ma

22

In conclusion

Pickett and Hingle plots are two slightly different graphical solutions of Archies saturation equation. While fluid saturation is needed for the calculation of volumetrics, it is less useful in predicting production.

And, are other quantities, like Bulk Volume Water, more helpful there?

23

In conclusion

Pickett and Hingle plots also predict some other Archie or porosity parameters. Each can give a quick and useful view of the data, even when you have a computer to do the grunt calculation work for you. In the information age, pattern recognition is alive and well, and it may provide some insights to the subsurface that numbers wont.

24

- Crain BookUploaded byviya7
- Fundamentals of the Pickett PlotUploaded byAngelMeso
- Pickett plotUploaded byDeclined Falcon
- Proposal Chevron FinalUploaded byardi4017
- Contemporary Business Mathematics With Canadian Applications Chapter 2Uploaded byGarry Hit
- Techlog Interactive Suite 2008.FullUploaded byari_si
- Predicting Reservoir System AAPG 1999Uploaded byanjumbukhari
- Density Neutron CrossoverUploaded by1234abcd
- Training-pertamina Well LoggingUploaded byTarek
- Basic Well Log InterpretationUploaded byShahnawaz Mustafa
- Pickett Hingle and OthersUploaded byAngelMeso
- RMN LoggingUploaded bydesigniusk
- Chapter Four of Maths in FocusUploaded byRishi Máran
- Basics of Oil & Gas Log AnalysisUploaded bywaqargeo
- Formation Evaluation ExamUploaded byTarique Aheed
- Interpretation LogUploaded byDjibril Idé Alpha
- GENERALIZATION OF GROWTH ESTIMATES OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL COMPLEX VARIABLE BASED ON RELATIVE L -ORDERUploaded byijsret
- PVTi CourseUploaded bytahir_adna
- Preguntas PetrobowlUploaded bySantiago Moromenacho
- BASIC LOG INTERPRETATION_HLSUploaded byDavide Boreaneze
- HW5SolutionUploaded byMohammad Iqbal Mahamad Amir
- 289533386-iec-61597-img.pdfUploaded byAlcides Neto
- Soil Moisture Calculation.pdfUploaded byguru9anand
- Harmonic Analysis of a Cantilever BeamUploaded byakroma123
- MEI C3 Revision SheetUploaded bywhitedog888
- Maths SL AlgebraUploaded byQueenie Sukhadia
- Chapter 1-1(II 2008-2009) [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded bydarrenneoyoman
- PorosityUploaded byhzq1e
- Pierce1977 a Brief History of LogarithmsUploaded bydante
- ESEE00-4Uploaded by1sobhan

- Sampling MethodsUploaded byMerielLouiseAnneVillamil
- management principles 1 2Uploaded bykustom
- B-stad_CH_07.pptUploaded bylakshmipo
- DSE8610 MKII Installation InstructionsUploaded byrms_rms_rms
- IIIrd Sem.mtech syllabus.docUploaded byRamesh Panda
- Riello Rls m Mx Ts0064uk03 Rev1Uploaded byweweqweqw
- Oct 2015 JeseUploaded byAnonymous iTzCnM
- Spark Product Entry KitUploaded byibnuhabibi
- NPSH for Pump UsersUploaded bysepideh_entezari
- Christmas Cards Done for YouUploaded byDean Killingbeck
- Smart Waste Sorter MachineUploaded byGRD Journals
- Blue Eyes TechnologyUploaded bykashishbhatia
- NI 40 Relay FlierUploaded bySanjay Kumar Kanaujia
- Am Castrol Hyspin AWH M US Eng Pds 05 07Uploaded byvictorjcr
- 1 Algeria Code RPA99-2003Uploaded byAtilla Şahin Çalışkan
- Dear Colleague LetterUploaded byPete Santilli
- rubric graphic organizerUploaded byapi-413196370
- Com Eslsca EnUploaded byAgus Fakhrudin
- Dc for DataScientistUploaded byYoon Nooy
- NEXYS2 TutorialUploaded bysasankavlsi
- Solving Quadratic Equations & Nature of the RootsUploaded bydeez nuts
- ERS Process FlowUploaded byBvdv Prasad
- HR Forecasting & PlanningUploaded bykomaljjwala
- 3-Phase BLDC Drive Using Variable DC Link Six-Step Inverter DRM078Uploaded byKhalid Khassawneh
- Practical Application of Energy Methods to Structural Stability Problems.pdfUploaded byGonzalo Abarca
- Xtralis Training 3Uploaded byEduardo Parrudo
- Recommendations for the Design and Detailing Fo Ductile Prestressed Concrete Frames for Seismic LoadingUploaded byFrancisco GoFles
- Valley National BankUploaded byArindam Das
- Phase DiagramUploaded byMuhammed Mans