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ISTROS XIII, 2006

Colegiul de redacţie:

VICTOR SPINEI – preşedinte de onoare
IONEL CÂNDEA - redactor responsabil
VALERIU SÎRBU - secretar de redacţie
STĂNICĂ PANDREA – membru
CRISTIAN LUCA – membru

.. ARTICOLE VIOREL STOIAN.-C. jud............................................. 95 .............. CĂTĂLIN DOBRINESCU............................ DIANA GERGOVA........................... DONE ŞERBĂNESCU................. MATERIALE ARHEOLOGICE SORIN-CRISTIAN AILINCĂI................ VALERIU SÎRBU......... IONEL CÂNDEA...... IV-III a............ D.............. Elitele geţilor dintre Carpaţi şi Balcani (sec.... Once more about the temenos of Apollo Ietros in Apollonia Pontica.... Cetatea şi oraşul Brăila în relatări ale călătorilor străini (secolul al XVIII-lea) (I) 129 ........ VALERIU SÎRBU............… 9 …........ „Popină”...... A New Thracian Pits Sanctuary in Russe (a preliminary 181 report)........................ The Tumular Embankment in the Burial Rites and Cosmogony of the Thracian Getae............... EMILIA CORBU............... Apariţia locuirii umane în Bucovina şi evoluţia sa până la sfârşitul eneoliticului.......... Morminte geto-dacice descoperite în judeţul Călăraşi 165 . Constanţa) ........................… II... Piese din carapace de ţestoasă descoperite la Siliştea ....... DOINA CIOBANU...... SUMAR I.„La Lac” (com...…….................................................. STUDII MUGUR ANDRONIC......… 135 … III......... 2 ........ Chr): „prinţii de aur şi 41 argint”............... jud.. Aşezarea din perioada timpurie a epocii fierului de la Ţibrinu ........... The Cosmic 85 Egg............ „Popina Blagodeasca” (jud...... Mircea Vodă...................... 195 Ialomiţa).............. VARBIN VARBANOV.......................... DRAGOEV.................. Un mormânt sarmatic de copil descoperit la Vlădeni .......................................... Attempt at reconsideration 71 .... Un aperçu général de l’armement de la culture de Przeworsk aux derniers siècles avant J..... Methods and techniques of “local” salt extraction in the Romanian area 119 ............... Brăila 159 ....... TOMASZ BOCHNAK............. LYUBAVA KONOVA.

. DRAGOŞ MĂNDESCU.... Ialomiţa) 201 ... CLAUDIU NEAGOE........ IV........ de Ialomiţa) 225 .........…........… 3 ...... de Giurgeni... Un dépôt de lingots et tourteaux de bronze découvert dans Oraşul de Floci (comm..............NICOLAE MIRIŢOIU.. SILVIU OŢA... 1948-2005 (Valeriu Sîrbu) 237 .......... Mari dregători şi negustori greci în Ţara Românească în a doua jumătate a veacului al XVI-lea 215 ........... IN MEMORIAM Niculae Conovici... Cea mai veche reprezentare grafică a pietrei tombale a comitelui Laurencius de Longo Campo 207 .... dép.....„Popina Blagodeasca” (jud. Analiza antropologică a mormântului sarmatic de la Vlădeni .........

celle-ci étant la plus ancienne témoignage de l’utilisation de cette résurce naturelle de la Roumanie. Des autres importantes découvertes. L’archéologie fait la même chose. la période de transition vers le néolitique est très peu connue. En général. Ainsi plus d’habitats étoient établis dans la zone de la ville Suceava et sur le cours inférieur de la rivière. mais ayant des possibilités plus réduites. inédites jusqu’à présent. À son tour. on saisi une intense occupation humaine dans la vallée inférieure et moyenne de la rivière Suceava. le nombre des sites grandit extrêmement. la culture Précucuteni est bien représentée dans la région de Bucovine. mais d’une étape plus tardive. dans la commune Frasin. les anciènes vestiges archéologiques datent dans l’Aurignacian. Les représentants de la variante nordique de la culture Starčcevo-Criş de l’Est de Carpates ont réussi pénétrer aussi dans les vallées des eaux secondaires de la réseau hidrographique. la reconstitution de l’évolution démographique est très importante. L’APARITION DE L’OCCUPATION HUMAINE DANS LA RÉGION DE BUCOVINE ET SON ÉVOLUTION JUSQU’AU LE FIN DU ÉNÉOLITIQUE MUGUR ANDRONIC Résumé Pour toute région géographique. grâce au procés de sédentarité des communités humaines et celui de transition des habitats qui practiquaient l’agriculture extensive. a coté de la surce d’eau salée Doroteia (plus de 800 m alt.). Ce phénomène est aussi valable pour la culture suivante. 4 . On a decouvert des vestiges de l’homme paléolitique dans les Carpates Orientals jusqu’à l’altitude de 17oo m. la plupart des découvertes appartiennent au Gravettien. comme dans des autres régions. Ainsi. En plus. on a trouvé des outils paléolitiques en pierre. Bien que dans la région de Bucovine. Quelques découvertes de la région de Bucovine indiquent une étroite liaison entre la culture avec la céramique rubanée du S-E de la Pologne et le Nistre Superieur et aussi le centre et le sud de la Moldavie. ont été fait sur le cours supérieur de Bistriţa. avec la céramique rubanée. La plus grande partie de silex provenait des vallées de Prut Supérieur et de Nistre Moyen. Mais. dont ses habitats ont employé souvent des emplacements plus anciens.

namely in higher numbers in particular areas. Finally. Moreover. which were never absent from their worldviews. Black Sea. En conclusion. can be attributed to the Getae. suggests the presence of centers of power and authority in those areas. images and figurative scenes. the way these three types of findings show up on the map. One problem is that. for lack of sufficient data. Dangers lurked from other peoples – Schythians. or 5 . but also from other Getae. Celts. conditions pertaining to a particular research or to the overall environment have made it almost impossible to reach unambiguous conclusions. when corroborated with written sources. et aussi la culture des amphores globulaires est encore plus pauvre en découvertes. The “society of living”. There was more than one reason to erect fortifications. Despite this high number. Residential nuclei. because of conflicts between the various “domestic” political structures. Ainsi. they were the result of the thoughts of the individual and the family on integrating oneself in the “community of the dead”.Une grande évolution démographique obtient la culture Cucuteni. given the existence of a set of common items. What these fortifications tell us without a shadow of a doubt is that they mark key trading and gather sites. have brought to light vestiges with similitudes that. a représenté le préambule pour l’apparition de la population protothrace. As for the tombs. which is to say the ruler and the community. toute l’évolution culturelle et démographique. Black Sea. and that they are a result of the political rulers’ desire to show their authority and prestige to the world. tried to embody their prestige in the residential centers. There is little doubt concerning the existence of a common ideology for the Getae aristocracy in the area in question. the southern kingdoms. Elle occupe des étages divers d’altitude. y en ajoutant les procés de synthèse ethnique où ont été impliqué des ethnies divers. par exemple en Solca ou Cacica. we cannot say in what areas this prestige and authority were exerted. the practice of burying treasures points to their views on the “invisible partners” that were the deities. beaucoup d’aspects étroitement liés à l’archéologie de la période de transition vers l’âge du bronze où s’affirme la culture Horodiştea- Erbiceni(Gorodsk-Usatovo). Carpathians and the Balkans – is the site of more than a hundred fortified centers. en fortifiant souvent ses habitats et qui exploite le sel à l’aide des vases de type briquetages. GETAE ELITES BETWEEN THE CARPATHIANS AND BALKANS (4TH-3RD CENTURIES BC): “GOLD AND SILVER PRINCES” VALERIU SÎRBU Abstract Chance or systematic archaeological findings between the Dniestr. Carpathians and the Balkans. on the one hand. The area in question – between the Dniestr.

but the context is not ostentatious. in terms of their social and political status. on the dead’s way to the place of the “immortals”. The tumulus no longer seems to be the “terminus station” for the dead. Dynast tombs. Vraca. compared with over 1600 cremation tombs. we cannot but conclude that the Getae “aristocracy” did not have identical notions on what the “afterworld” was like. true . which ranges from court aristocracy to the rulers. However. It is the only reasonable explanation. and in the size of the tumuli and the size of the tumuli and of the chambers beneath them. Moreover. for other motives do not seem strong enough to appease feelings of frustration in families and communities for such efforts without clear benefits. we can only conclude Thracians had cremation as the predominant funerary rite during this period. These practices are the result of the belief that the body is just a “container” that the spirit needs to escape from before it can achieve immortality. The differences between the dead. deposited personal goods (some of them of great value) and sacrificed horses? This could suggest the tumulus was just another “palace” – the last one. and the Getae one in particular. such as in Sboryanovo-Sveshtari or the tomb in Cucuteni. Given all of the above. What about the cases where we find only body parts or even just isolated bones from the dead. some of them “featuring” opulent buried gold and silver treasures and even full-blown temples. saw the “afterworld” as mirroring life on this earth and therefore preferred inhumation and built massive tumuli (some of them “comfortable” by the standards of the living). There still are many things we don’t know yet. the presence (or absence) of sculpted or painted scenes. but we can assume the tombs here mean it was a sacred place that contains the buried remains of the Getae elite. Peretu.for the dead. Another major type of finding in the Thracian world consists of imposing tumuli. What is the explanation for this divide? Is it safe to assume that the Thracian aristocracy in general. north of the Balkans or from the Kazanluk-Plovdiv region in southern Balkans. Only strong beliefs could have been important enough to convince the communities where the dead were from to go at such length in building these sites and in giving up valuable objects.determine the nature of the relations between the aristocrats/dynasts that ruled them. preferences are reversed in the case of the aristocracy. or merely of local and family customs? We have cases of commanding funerary set ups where the dead were cremated. we have some cases of high-ranking aristocrats that were cremated. from the 5th-3rd centuries BC. We see this in the tombs from the Sboryanovo- Sveshtari area. Is this a sign of a “higher” spiritualization of the views on the “afterworld”. where inhumation dominates. but more of a transit one. and only a small percentage of them are inhumed. which points to practices of repeated exposure and dismembering. What were these beliefs for the Getae/Thracians? Since there is evidence of only some 250 inhumation tombs. are visible in the differences between the richness of the inventory. 6 . meaning the body needs to be destroyed. Another class of tombs or tumular necropolises consists of those where weapons and offerings were found. Agighiol. The dead here are mostly cremated.

among others. which is an important aspect because it not only demonstrates the sizeable resources that the owners had at their disposal. or in settlements and fortresses. Craiova. with their specific items and figurative scenes. which means they fall in the category of isolated findings. armor and helmet. Nevertheless. Namely. Several basilei emerged in the Getae world. which totaled entire kilograms of silver and gold. are the composition of the ceremonial tableware. Images and gestures. The rider and the sacred hunt. the sites of treasures (found in high numbers in the region that the Getae – the northern Thracians in particular – used to call home) that display several similitudes. Lance in hand. the ideology had to turn to iconography. in general. mostly the one of the 4th century BC. We know of only a handful of cases with complete sets of a knight’s gear (e. Zimnicea. Such was the ceremonial gear. Lukovit and Letnica have been. in general – show the existence of characteristic scenes and motives. they were not unearthed in necropolises and sanctuaries. several images and scenes specific to the Getae aristocracy. less frequently. Thorough examinations of the numerous representations on Getae toreutics – and on Thracian toreutics. phials. chariots and horse harnesses. while goblets and rhytons. There are several important observations that need to be made: we 7 . Băiceni. in short. It is crystal clear that the these treasures. used to be the property of rulers or high-ranking dynasts.We find this class of tombs in Găvani. Here are. Almost all of the items in question are made of gold. Helmets. sword. The gold and silver appliqués did indeed play a decorative role. sometimes in armor. We will try to see what they stand for. other types of recipients. Basilei treasures. This is the scene most frequently found on items from the Getae region – and the Thracian one. They probably contain members of a warrior aristocracy or bands of warriors in the service of dynasts. deep bowls and. lances and arrow. there is always a site of a tumular tomb or a fortress somewhere in a one to five kilometer radius. the rider is moving from left to right. ready to strike. military and political rank. but also of the discovery context. as well as ceremonial tableware. but also that these metals had a sacred meaning according to the mythological and religious beliefs of the aristocracy. clothing accessories and adornments with rich figurative motives (only two of which will be included in the discussion. Ruce. cnemids. Chirnogi. and they brought along an ideology that needed to put the spotlight on their heroic and divine origin. not just in terms of the types of items and figurative representations they contain. Drumevo. given their special meaning) make up the ceremonial gear. but the symbols present on their figurative representations point to their aim of increasing the horse’s power in order for the aristocrat to get to the target. The symbols of power. it is safe to assume they were not hidden for fear of some clear and present danger.g. Yankovo and other sites. Since writing was anything but widespread in those times. Borovo. formerly known as Jurukler): bridle bits. and figurative scenes and the motives on them. Borovo. Although we cannot be sure of the cultural reason for burying any of these treasures. silver or gilded silver. We know from archaeological findings that certain items were used by Thracians to show one’s social.

Apotropaic eyes. Parading the bow.the vessel in Borovo. the throne and the overall solemn feeling of the scenes. Despite the impassioned dispute as to the meaning of this motive. which makes them solemn scenes that are about high-ranking characters. These are sacred characters. Throwing the spear/lance. bowls or horns in hand . There are Getae toreutics items displaying male or. As previously mentioned. the name of a deity. who is sacrificing a ram with a dagger. There is little doubt as to the character’s high rank. These scenes include more symbols of power (rhyton. Sacrifices are meant to strengthen the divine connections and diminish tensions in the community. some consensus has emerged that these eyes served their bearer in both the world of the living – by indicating his power to see. one of the favorite activities of the aristocracy. the bird stands for air. namely for the dynast’s rule over all the realms of his kingdom.have no knowledge. The nape guard of the helmet from Poiana-Coţofeneşti is displaying. control all – and of the dead – by showing him the way to the “afterworld”.g. an appliqué in Letnica. in inscription. Some ceremonial items are displaying throned male or female characters. That is why we believe some of these scenes show the dynast proving his skills prior to the investiture. the fish for water and the hare for earth. more rarely. a most clear symbol of authority. All of the five gold and silver Getae helmets have “apotropaic eyes” on them. on two levels. We know of the unicorn bird-fish-hare scene from the helmets in Peretu (currently at the Detroit Institute of Art) and the goblets from Agighiol and Rogozen and the one at the New York Metropolitan Museum. and cnemid no. there is no scene of a human attacking another human. or of a rider with a helmet or shield. throne). exhibited. cnemid no. we can say such scenes also appear on drink ware. and the unicorn bird. nor a warrior. which indicates the ram could be sacrificed to drive out chaos and terror and bring back balance in the society. the rhyton and the phial held in hand have a clearly sacred meaning. This most likely means we are looking at hunting scenes. in toreutics. 1 in Agighiol or the Băiceni helmet. or near the character. Most likely. The spear or lance is the weapon most frequently shown in the hands of riders in the iconography or found in tumular tombs. while the cheek-piece is host to a character with a shield. anthropomorphic demons and fantastic creatures holding the foot of a mammal in their mouth. e. not to mention it was also a courage test that the rulers had to perform on a regular basis. given the meaning of these vessels in the Thracian world. of a scene portraying confrontation between humans. of an item that bears. since he or she is on the throne. 2 in Agighiol. Sacrifices. The bow is never actually used to fire an arrow – neither against an animal. which means the spear or lance is never used to strike another person. female characters holding rhytons. the rhyton in Poroina. Given the vessel in Borovo or the rhyton in Poroina. the helmet in Băiceni. but always just held in hand. 8 . possibly dynasts (if they are male) and goddesses (if they are females). and implicitly. Libation.

The Getae aristocracy clearly had a desire to make visible their ethnic and social-political individuality. Also. in investiture scenes or solemn positions. and they managed to do that 9 . namely a man and a woman in an erotic position. Made possible by the control of the Getae aristocracy over vast riches. Letnica is the site of an appliqué with an unusual scene on it. the characters are shown in one of the following situations: hunting and. a need to address a society that was overwhelmingly illiterate. One needed to be initiated in the “codes” to fully understand what the decorative scenes and the composition were transmitting. the dynasts. and with the scenes mixed up. bow) in hand. or even how the “audience” would be introduced to these items. nor does it have any inscription of some kind of Thracian god. but were the communication medium. What were the Getae elites? we asked at the beginning. The jury is still out on the details. not so often. The aristocracy must have had a desire for this sort of art. phials) or weapons (lance. which means the iconography was also “targeted” for the elites. However. and at the top we find the ruler. rhytons. We would also like to stress again that Thracian toreutics does not include any known scene of a human confrontation. one need only look at the characteristic decorative compositions. which could be meant not just to drive home the idea of the divine origin of the royalty. in general – were not strangers when it came to the “institution of the gift”. namely the elites. for their ideology. but also to secure prosperity and authority for the entire kingdom. hence the emergence and progress of the outstanding Thracian toreutics between 5th and 3rd centuries BC. namely kilograms of gold and silver. performing sacrifices. holding vessels (rhytons. there is not doubt as to who they were meant for. such as the apotropaic eyes. Obviously. Therefore. such as throned or winged (e. the “animal procession” or the horned bird – on harness appliqués. on top of which was the high-ranking aristocracy. Images were not just decorative. cnemids and helmets. unknown language. There are also scenes with female characters in more than one situation. As have already stated. but that does not mean anyone could “read” it. goblets. or protecting. If there are any doubts as to its uniqueness. the male rider or the throned character is the most frequent motive in Thracian toreutics. These could be female goddesses passing on signs of power to. the Getae society – and the Thracian one. The lay elite was most likely made up by bands warriors. Hierogamy. the Rogozen mugs). myths and legends). the overall verdict is clear: the Getae elites existed. from any type of complexes (tombs or treasures) or items. a “proprietary” ideology emerged in this part of the world.g. with another female character on her feet (with a tree branch and mug in hand). This art was also meant to communicate. them came the court aristocracy. Discussion. since we cannot know for sure how these scenes were “read” (what was the internal logic of certain hagiographies. based on the “archaeological footprint” (from certain items and the iconography). the throned characters. Given the significant resources that went to making toreutics items. assisting them. we are in the position of someone watching a movie in a foreign. because they are open to speculations. horns. This could be the union between a goddess and the ruler.

We have talked plenty of uncertainties and the lack of clear sources. the Poroina rhyton or the Borovo container). N 388 bis). Because of the scanty written records. bowls and rhytons in hand possibly performing libations (the Agighiol and Malomirovo cnemids. What about the roles of the basilei and the priests in performing sacred acts. however. the aristocracy had extensive relations and gift exchanges with its Odryssian or Triballi counterpart. More than one key issue – the hierarchical structure. the picture of the existing temenoi or temple-buildings remains still obscure. the authors’ attention was focused on two key-sources – the Strabo’s excerpt (Strab. However. their foreign relations and more . Translated by Mihai Sîrbu ONCE MORE ABOUT THE TEMENOS OF APOLLO IETROS IN APOLLONIA PONTICA. we can safely say that the Getae world had both a lay and a religious aristocracy. An important questions regards the existence of a religious elite – was there one? We know from Herodotus (IV. Even after of the intensive archaeological research accomplished on the territory of the contemporary town of Sozopol during the last decades. the Letnica appliqué. with complex rites. We also have some data on this from several iconographic scenes –a sacrificed ram (the Poiana-Coţofeneşti helmet). 6. Some must have dedicated themselves to the practices and doctrine of the cult. The hypotheses are grouped into two general directions arguing either for the city or for the island locality of the temenos. 93-95) that the Getae world had an advanced polytheist and anthropomorphic religion. Also. 1) and the well- preserved lapidary decree of the Histrian nauarch Hegesagoras (IGBulg I. the male and female characters with horns. there is enough reason to assume the existence of something similar to priories of priests.via these items and scenes.are purely a matter of speculation for lack of written sources. since the characters are wearing armor or are riding. and the 10 . In the end. what was their relation in this case. the analysis of the epigraphic and numismatic documents. we seem to be dealing with basilei exclusively. Having this sort of religion. did they complement each other in some way? Putting aside the Poroina rhyton and the female character on it. However. 7. the results of the recently conducted archaeological excavation – even tough they are very briefly reported. the size of the kingdoms under these rulers. but no “specialists”. is not possible. ATTEMPT AT RECONSIDERATION LYUBAVA KONOVA Abstract The article deals with several problems related to the enigmatic Apollo- temenos in Apollonia Pontica. the Băiceni helmet.

the Getic culture (4 th -3rd century B. two sondages were drilled: H1 (1x4m) and H2 (1x4m). The foreign travellers’ writings created a complete image about the fortified town. If the testimony of its dimensions are reliable.one of them denoted as “hieron tou Apollonous tou Iatrou" which has been situated probably within the city boundaries. These investigations resulted in discovering various pottery fragments characteristic for the Babadag culture. give certain grounds to re-consider the problem. the settlement and the every day life in its different aspects (especially the confessional one). situated at 50m and respectively 300m from the shore. The new hypothesis discusses the possibility of the existence of two Apollo temenoi . on the southern shore of the lake. CONSTANŢA COUNTY) SORIN – CRISTIAN AILINCĂI. CĂTĂLIN DOBRINESCU Abstract On 24th – 30th of September 2003. In order to verify the existence of a settlement. were the famous colossus by Calamis was exhibited.attempt to view the question in a more general perspective of some sacred spaces in Hellas and in other poleis along the northern and western Black sea coasts. such a creation was most probably intended to stay on an island. It has been trying the identification of the spy who provided informations for the Johann von Vermatti’s plan realised in 1790. THE FORTIFIED TOWN AND THE CITY BRAILA IN FOREIGN TRAVELLERS WRITINGS (THE XVIIIth CENTURY) IONEL CÂNDEA Abstract During the XVIIIth century. In conclusion I have got to specify that all arguments will be a matter of dispute as long as new archeological materials studied in a clear context will be uncovered. Rusia and Austria. in a large bay.). surface investigations were made on the shore of Tibrinu Lake. the Roman-Byzantine period and early medieval period (9th- 11th century BC). whereas the other could have coincided with the place. Braila was the most disputed town between Turkey. 11 . THE EARLY IRON AGE SETTLEMENT FROM ŢIBRINU „LA LAC” (MIRCEA VODĂ. for instance on that one where the contemporary lighthouse is located.C.

12/1). It was possible to make whole again only two such vessels (fig. 2. 2/ 5). we can establish various types of cups. These vessels have tronconic and bi-tronconic shape and are made of a coarse. Mugs .are also very well represented by numerous fragments. On the whole. 3/1-19). 3. which was discovered on the shore of Ţibrinu Lake and is decorated with a line of incised dots (fig. During the surface investigations on the southern shore of the Tibrinu Lake there were discovered three small instruments (one whole and two in fragments) used for decorating pottery by impressions (fig. 6. 5/ 1-12). 7. 8. 5. the basic criteria being the stylistic characteristics of the pottery and establishing analogies 12 . Weights are represented by a relatively great number of forms (12/5-18). These vessels are made of a fine. 2/ 6. as the currents of the lake bring to the shore impressive amounts of pottery.are represented by only one fragment indicating a large size flat pot. well burnt paste and have just one ear that is elevated above the rim of the vessel (we are cautious regarding the samples reconstructed graphically).are the least represented type of vessel in most of the Babadag culture settlements. which. 4). 7. Bowls . As I have mentioned above. porous. with height possibly approximately equal with the maximum median diameter. 2/3). Cups . 2. almost certainly belonging to a mug. A less common variant of this type is represented by a fragment from the upper part of a vessel of medium size (fig. there were discovered other clay objects that can also be attributed to the First Iron Age: 1. 1). 3/20. and another fragment. with a conical prominence in the area of the maximum diameter. 2/ 8).are represented by whole samples and suggestive fragments (fig. The dividing in periods of the Babdag culture was made based on the stratigraphical observations from the eponymous settlement. the archaeological material. Coarsed ware . Deep bowls . and with an ample opening of the mouth. There has been established only one fragment certainly belonging to a mug. unfortunately. 2/1. and an objective dating could be done only by comparing it with situations from other Babadag culture settlements. 9-10).are the most common type of vessel (fig. 4. represented by numerous black. Typologically. though found in great quantities on the shore of the Ţibrinu Lake. Amphorae. 10. Clay stamps. as follows: 1. 3. 4/ 1-13. 9). beneath a strip of parallel horizontal lines (fig. 2/ 7. especially those in the south western Dobrudja. there can be identified various shapes that are often encountered in the Babadag type settlements (fig. are mostly atypical (fig.6. Along with the above mentioned fragments. 12/2-4). the Museum of National History and Archeology from Constanţa acquired a large lot of artifacts from Ţibrinu Lake. with two diametrically opposed conical prominences in the maximum diameter area (fig. Most of the fragments were discovered on the shore of the artificial lake Tibrinu that covered the Babadag type settlement. Anthropomorphous statuette (?) Among the discovered objects there was also found a clay object with three tubular prominences placed on a flat basis (fig. polished fragments. 11). The purpose of this article is to analyze the material attributed to the First Iron Age.are represented by a lid made of coarse unevenly burnt paste (5/ 14). In 2002. unevenly burnt paste (fig. Pixydes . lacks archaeological context.

in the bottom land of Buzau river. there were established three phases of evolution. The hill surface was forceful affected by the ditches made in The First World War and all research campaigns among 1981-2005 brought to the discovery of a lot of dwellings.between other cultural environments. TURTLE SHELL ITEMS DISCOVERED AT SILISTEA. Thus. The discovery place is situated in the north of Campia Brailei. burned slake clay and animal bones. huts. based on the stratigraphy of the eponymous settlement. The turtle shell pieces were discovered in the archaeological layers and pits along with clay vessels fragments and other inventory objects dated in Babadag culture. BRAILA COUNTY VIOREL STOIAN Abstract In the archaeological researches made in July 2005 at Silistea. pits and fireplaces dated in Babadag I-II culture. which represents a clue for dating this settlement in phase two of Babdag culture. An additional argument regarding this dating is the presence of the three instruments used for decorating the pottery through impression. The types of pottery found at Ţibrinu Lake also have analogies in the settlements dated in phase two of Babdag culture (10th . This pit could be the remains deposit of a magic or religious ceremonial. were discovered five turtle shell pieces. phase I. 80 metre base and 10-12 metre altitude. In south western Dobruja there were identified more settlements attributed to the Babadag culture along its entire evolution. Regarding the chronological dating of the settlement at Ţibrinu Lake. but we can find in whole human history a lot of zoomorphic statutes and representations with turtles. One of the pieces was found in a pit which contains ash. we must note the presence of numerous pottery fragments wuth stamped patterns. on a triangular hill with 120 metre long. Braila County. Beginning from the turtle symbol we can consider these pieces are linked to a belief which refers to protection and close by home. Translated by Viorel Stoian TOMBES GÉTO-DACES DÉCOUVERTES DANS LE DÉPARTEMENT DE CĂLĂRAŞI 13 . Watching for published analogies to these pieces I found that they are unique.9th century BC).

J. pendant des travaux de terrassement. d'une nécropole gète d'incinération des IVe . tout près de deux établissements géto-daces des IIe-Ier siècles av. Les années 1988-1989. tout près de plusieurs établissements géto-daces. Les pièces récupérées par les constructeurs sont un miroir gréco-scythique en bronze décoré sur les bords. ayant des pièces comme mobilier. le lieu dit «Ristache». ayant comme offrande une tasse en terre cuite. dans les collections du Musée de la Civilisation de Gumelniţa-Olteniţa sont entrées plusieurs découvertes funéraires appartenant à la civilisation des Géto-Daces.-C. datant du II e siècle av. on a découvert six tombes planes d'incinération en fosse. Une autre tombe d'incinération en urne a été découverte à Greaca. ont appartenu à des membres de la communauté locale. sur la haute terrasse du Danube. Dans une autre tombe d'incinération découverte fortuitement à Spanţov comme urne funéraire a été utilisée une amphore d'Héraklée du Pont.-C. Olteniţa et Chirnogi ne relèvent pas de grands problèmes. L'urne était représentée par une amphore thassienne de la deuxième moitié du IVe siècle - la première moitié du IIIe siècle av. pendant des fouilles archéologiques de sauvetage sur «Terasa Rudarilor».-C. En même temps elles reflètent les liaisons commerciales des Gètes avec le monde hellénistique. et quatre autres tombes d'incinération. J. DONE ŞERBĂNESCU Résumé Pendant les dernières décennies du dernier millénaire. près de «Şuviţa Iorgulescu» on a découvert une tombe plane d'incinération en urne. J. Et non loin de cet endroit. Si les sépultures des IVe-IIIe siècles av. qui utilisait à peu près en 14 . a été détruite pendant les années 1988-1989 par les constructeurs du Canal Danube-Bucarest. une tasse de petites dimensions et une pointe de lance à nervure médiane en fer du IV e siècle av. Une nécropole de la même période.- C. de Olteniţa. on a découvert plusieurs vases entiers qui proviennent. probablement. à la population libre et il est possible qu'elles fassent partie d'une nécropole. D'après la composition de cet inventaire deux tombes ont appartenu à des guerriers. entre ce village-ci et Căscioarele. J.-C. Pendant les travaux agricoles de Mânăstirea on a découvert une tombe plane d'incinération en urne. Ces deux tombes planes d'incinération ont appartenu. le lieu dit «Valea Mare».-C. J. probablement.. datant du point de vue typologique de la même époque.IIIe siècles av. s'intégrant dans les rites et les rituels funéraires pratiqués par la plus grande partie de la population locale. D'autres découvertes funéraires ont été faites à Chirnogi. probablement des mercenaires. sur la haute terrasse du Danube. Pendant des recherches de surface. qui malheureusement n'a pas pu être identifiée. découvertes à Mânăstirea. J. Ces découvertes sont autant fortuites que le résultat des fouilles de sauvetage de Chirnogi. non loin de l'établissement géto-dace fouillé par George Trohani en 1971-1972. Spanţov.

les tombes collectives ou le dépôt des restes cinéraires dans des lieux cachés. nous supposons que pendant les II e .-C. Le rite et les rituels funéraires pratiqués et les pièces d'inventaire découvertes dans les six sépultures découvertes à Chirnogi ont des ressemblances avec les complexes funéraires de l'aire du groupe Padea - Panaghiurskii Kolonii. les autres tombes datés d'après le rite. DE IALOMITZA) VALERIU SÎRBU EMILIA CORBU 15 . Mais. vu le nombre petit des sépultures d'incinération en fosse découvertes jusqu'à présent en Valachie. J. à part les habitudes funéraires documentées par les découvertes de Chirnogi – «Terasa Rudarilo»".Kolonii et qui sont attribuées à des guerriers. Tous ceux qui se sont occupé des rituels funéraires pratiqués par les Géto-Daces sont en unanimité d'accord que. méritent une attention à part en raison de leur rareté. ruisseaux etc. Font exception seulement quelques endroits périphériques. lacs.Panaghiurski . le rituel et l'inventaire funéraire pendant les IIe . Les autres quatre tombes d'incinération en fosse. comme sont le casque et les pièces de harnachement. UNE TOMBE SARMATIQUE D’ENFANT TROUVÉE À VLĂDENI- POPINA BLAGODEASCA (DÉP. J. dans le nord-ouest de la Bulgarie. et pendant les deux siècles suivants ont eu lieu de profonds changements dans les habitudes funéraires . des marécages. elles ne peuvent appartenir qu’aux membres des collectivités respectives.. J. Chirnogi – «Şuviţa Iorgulescu» et Greaca.les nécropoles disparaissent et les tombes de la majorité de la population ne peuvent plus être dépistées. où l’on connaît des tombes planes d'incinération appartenant au groupe Padea . nous les mettons en liaison avecles membres des communautés gètes locales qui ont été influencé par les habitudes funéraires pratiquées par les guerriers du groupe Padea - Panaghiurski Kolonii. ayant comme mobilier funéraire de l'armement défensif ou offensif.-C.Ier siècles av. D'après le fait que les tombes se trouvent tout près des établissements géto-daces qui ont évolué pendant la même période. trouvent des analogies dans les cinq découvertes funéraires de Zimnicea. appartenant avec certitude à la deuxième moitie du IIe siècle av. dans lesquelles on a déposé rituellement une tasse de petites dimensions. Dans deux des six tombes d'incinération on a découvert des objets de mobilier qui ont appartenu à des guerriers. le leiu dit «Ristache» on utilisait en même temps d'autres habitudes de traitement des restes funéraires d'incinération des défunts – comme par exemple l'exposition suivie par la décomposition. La période de manifestation de ce groupe est comprise entre ±150 . J. planes. comme sont les tombes tumulaires deRadovanu et Popeşti. qui datent de cette période.-C. Une de ces zones se trouve au sud-ouest de la Roumanie et au sud du Danube.± 50 av.Ier siècles av. J.La même influence est constatée aussi dans la cas des tombes tumulaires qui appartiennent à des aristocrates guerriers. découvertes à Chirnogi et à Greaca.-C. Les deux autres tombes d'incinération en urne.exclusivité l'incinération.-C. depuis le II e siècle av.

au sexe indéterminable. La tombe se date aux IIe – IIIe siècles apr. tombe qui avait pour mobilier un vase céramique fait à la main. THE FIRST GRAPHIC PORTRAYAL OF LAURENCIUS COMES DE LONGO CAMPO’S TOMBSTONE DRAGOŞ MĂNDESCU Abstract The author edits a drawing plate showing a graphic portrayal of Laurencius Comes de Longo Campo’s tombstone from the St. This is the first preserved image of the famous tombstone. ANALYSE ANTHROPOLOGIQUE D’UNE TOMBE SARMATIQUE DE VLĂDENI-POPINA BLAGODEASCA (DÉP.-C. in the autumn of 1876 year. The draw was found in the Bucharest City History Museum storage. Résumé On y présente une tombe d’inhumation d’un enfant. caractéristique aux Sarmates. âgé d’un an et demi-deux ans. L’enfant souffrait d’anémie. L’on a constaté une déformation du crâne (du type tabulaire) provoquée à l’aide d’un baquet ou d’un berceau. J. âgé d’un an et demi-deux ans. belonging to Dimitrie C. J.-C. appartenant aux Sarmates. la tombe se date aux IIe – IIIe siècles apr. DE IALOMITZA) NICOLAE MIRIŢOIU Résumé On y présente l’analyse anthropologique du squelette d’un enfant. Butculescu’s archive. James the Great Church in Câmpulung Muscel. made by Butculescu himself during the archaeological exploration at Câmpulung. GREAT HIGH OFFICIALS AND GREEK MERCHANTS IN WALLACHIA IN THE LATE 16th CENTURY CLAUDIU NEAGOE 16 .

a warrior and a perfect diplomat. acquired wide landed property either by prince donation and by purchase. who had the highest position in the country and had owned the largest real estates. Michael the Brave (1593- 1601). first during the reign of Mircea Ciobanul and of his heir. Peter. situation which brought about tough reactions of the local nobility. The amount of south-Danube and especially Greek elements was to increase in the late of the 16th century when the Romanian Principalities became subject to the Ottoman Empire. the Greek influence could be seen by means of Serbian and Greek scholars. later under the rule of Alexander II Mircea and of his son. This so called Country Greek had high official responsibilities in the administrative department of the country. Abstract In the 14th and 15th centuries the Greek influence in Wallachia was obvious either by the connections with the Patriarchate in Constantinople or by the political and commercial ones with Byzantium. clergymen and nobility’s as refugees at the Court of Wallachia. On of them was Mihalcea Caragea. Mihnea II the Renegade. As a great leader. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 under Ottoman dominion. as well as economically and commercially. 17 . By the end of the 16th century Wallachia had almost been overwhelmed by Greek both politically and socially. or by being closely related to the local boyars. he was a loyal subject to Peter Cercel (1583-1585) and later to his brother in law.

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