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You are on page 1of 37

Objective

The purpose of the present course is to describe the use of

Finite Element method for the solution of problems of fluid

flow or seepage through porous media.

What is FEM

Powerful computational technique for the solution of

differential equtions.

too complicated to be solved satisfactorily by classical

analytical methods.

Problems-Solid mechanics, Heat transfer, fluid mechanics,

acoustics, electromagnetism, coupled interaction of these

phenomena

Commercial packages

Course coverage

Finite element Basic concepts

Formulation of Finite elements

Steps in the finite element method

Examples

WHY FEM ?

Simple Example

Simple 1-D problem

f

dx

du

dx

d

,

_

0 1 x

on

Boundary conditions

0

) 0 ( u u

(1)

du

q

dx

( Dirichlet )

( Neumann )

:

0

:

1

:

Strong form

Analytical solution

2

0

2

q f f

u u x x

_

+ +

,

d du

f

dx dx

,

Integrating both sides

2

1 2

2

f x

u C x C + +

Imposing the boundary conditions we get

1 2 0

C q f C u

Finite difference formulation

is approximated in the mid-point of the interval

dx

du

1

1/ 2

l l

l

u u du

dx x

+

+

,

1

1/ 2

l l

l

u u du

dx x

,

1/2 1 1/ 2 1

2

( ) ( )

l l l l l l

l

u u u u

f

x

+ +

l

l l l

f

x

u u u

+

+

2

1 1

2

For constant

1.. l L

0

0 x

1

x

l

x

1

L

x

1 l

x

+

x

1 1

( , ) ( , )

l l l l

x x and x x by

+

Finite difference formulation

Neumann boundary condition

1/ 2 1 1/ 2 1

( ) ( ) 1 1

2 2

L L L L L L

u u u u

q

x x

+ +

+

Discretisation at the end l=L

1/2 1 1/2 1

2

( ) ( )

L L L L L L

L

u u u u

f

x

+ +

Combining

1

1/2

1

2

L L

L L

u u

q f x

x

Discrete problem-algebraic equations

KU F

2 1

1 2 1

...

1 2 1

1 1

K

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

2

0 1

2

2

2

1

2

2

L

x

u f

x

f

F

x

f

x x

q f

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

M

where,

1

2

1 L

L

u

u

U

u

u

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

]

M

Finite difference -solution

2

0

1

2

2

1

2 1

1

2

x

u f

u

u

x x

q f

1

1

' )

1

1

]

1

]

For a three noded mesh

1

u

0

u

1

u

2

u

Finite difference formulation

Grid is structured .

Equation is discretized.

Proper treatment of boundary conditions is vitally important.

Gives solution at only discrete points in the domain grid

points.

FEM- Building blocks

Form of the approximate solution is assumed apriori

Approximate solution

0

0 1

N N

k k k k

k k

u u u

+

on substitution leaves a residual

d du

r f

dx dx

_

,

Optimizing criterion- the weighted integral of the residual is zero.

0

l

w r

1, 2..., l n

Trial solution procedure

Trial solution u

u

i

s undetermined

Optimizing criterion

Determines best values of u

i

Approximate solution

Accuracy

Accuracy unacceptable repeat cycle with a different trial function

Galerkins weighted residual method

weight functions are the basis functions

The optimization criteria transforms the original differential

equation into a set of algebraic equations.

Can be solved to determined the undetermined parameters

Can be applied to any differential equation

l l

w

Galerkin method

2

0 1 2

( ) u x u u x u x + +

Approximating function of the form

are to be determined

Imposing the boundary conditions

'

i

u s

0 0 1 2

2

q

u u u u

2

0 2 2

2

0 2 2

( ) 2

2

q

u x u u x u x

q

u x u x u x

_

+ +

,

_

+ +

,

Galerkins method

x x ) (

1

2

2

) ( x x

2

( : ) 2 R x u u f

2

0

2

q f f

u u x x

_

+ +

,

From the weighted residual statements we get

2

2

u

f

2

0 2 2

( ) 2

q

u x u x u x u x

_

+ +

,

0 0

q

u x

+

Galerkin method-limitations

Approximating field is defined over the entire domain.

Major disadvantage is the construction of approximation

functions that satisfy the boundary conditions of the problem

Approximating fields must be admissible and easy to use.

Only polynomials and sine and cosine functions are simple

enough to be practicable.

The undetermined parameters have no physical meaning.

i

u

Finite Element Method

Approximating field is defined in a piecewise fashion by

dividing the entire region over subregions

Undetermined parameters are the nodal values of the field

The approximation functions can be generated systematically

over these subregions

FEM is the piecewise (or elementwise )application of the

weighted residual method.

We get different finite element approximations depending on

the choice of the weighted residual method.

i

u

Steps in the finite element method

Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements.

Defining an approximate solution over the element.

Weighted integral formulation of the differential equation.

Substitute the approximate solution and get the algebraic

equation

?

Steps in the finite element method

1. Discretization of the domain into a set of finite elements (mesh generation).

--- the domain is subdivided into non-overlapping subdomains e called

elements of simple geometrical form.

---for this 1-D problem an obvious choice for an element e is the interval

1 e e

x x x

0

0 x

1

x

1 e

x

1

L

x

e

x

e

x

Steps in the finite element method

Step 2: To set up a weak formulation of the differential equation.

(i) Multiply the equation by a weight function and integrate the equation over the

domain e.

0

e

e

l

d du

w f dx

dx dx

1

_

1

1

,

]

(ii) Move the differentiation to the weight function by by doing integration by parts

1

0

e

e e

e

x

e e

l

l l

x

dw du du

w dx w fdx

dx dx dx

_

,

1

e

e e

e

x

e e

l

l l

x

dw du du

dx wfdx w

dx dx dx

_

+

,

Weak Form

Steps in the finite element method

1

1

e e

e e

x x

du du

q q

dx dx

1

1 1

( ). ( ).

e

e

x

e

l l e e l e e

x

du

w w x q w x q

dx

Weak Form

1 1

( ). ( ).

e e

e

l

l l e e l e e

dw du

dx wf dx w x q w x q

dx dx

+

Equivalent to both the governing differential equation and the associated natural boundary condition

Steps in the development of weak form

Multiply the equation by a weight function and integrate the

equation over the domain e.

Distribute the differentiation among the weight function w

and u

e

by doing integration by parts

Use the definition of the natural boundary condition in the

weak form

Steps in the finite element method

Step 3: FEM model from the weak form

Approximation over a finite element

e

2

1

( )

e e e

j j

j

u x u

1

e

e

e

x x

x

where

1

2

e

e

e

x x

x

e

l l

w

2

1 1

1

( ). ( ).

e e

e

j

l e

e

l

e l e e j l

j

d

dw

u d w x q w x q x w fdx

dx dx

_

+

,

Steps in the finite element method

The choice

1 1 2 2

e e

w and w gives

2

1

1

1

1 1 1 1

( ) ( )

e e

e

e

j

e e

j

e e

e e e e

j

d

d

u dx x q x q fdx

dx dx

_

+

,

Now,

2

2

2

1

2 2 1 1

( ) ( )

e e

e

e

j

e e

j

e e

e e e e

j

d

d

u dx x q x q fdx

dx dx

_

+

,

1 1 1 1 1 1

( ) ( )

e e e

e e e e e

x q x q q q

2 2 1 1 2

( ) ( )

e e e

e e e e e

x q x q q q

Steps in the finite element method

The choice

1 1 2 2

e e

w and w gives

2

1

1 1

1

e e

e

e

j

e e e

j

j

d

d

u dx fdx q

dx dx

_

+

,

e e e e

ij j i i

K u f q +

which takes the form

e

e

e

j e

i

ij

d

d

K

dx dx

e

e e

i i

f fdx

1

2

e

e

i

e

q

q

q

' )

2

2

2 2

1

e e

e

e

j

e e e

j

j

d

d

u dx fdx q

dx dx

_

+

,

Steps in the finite element method

The element equations are

1 1

2 2

1 1

2

1 1

2

e

e e

e e

e e

x

f

u q

x x u q

f

1

+

' ) ' ) ' )

1

]

Diagram here

2

e

u

1

1

e

u

2

2

e

q 1

e

q

Results

Draw a diagram for assembly here

1 1

1 1

1 1

2 2

2

1 1 0

1 1 1 0

2

0 0 0 0 0

0

e

e

e

x

f

u q

x

forelement u f q

x

1

1

+

' ) ' ) ' )

1

1

]

First we rewrite the element matrices in terms of the global numbering scheme

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

0

0 0 0 0

2 0 1 1

1

2

0

2

0 1

e

e

e

x

for element f q

x

u

x

f

u

q

' )

1

1

+

' ) ' )

1

1

]

1

1

u

2

1

u 1

2

u

2

2

u

1 2 3

1

2

2

3

1 2

1

2

Steps in the finite element method

Step 4: Assemble the element equations to obtain the global

system

1 1

1 1 1

1 2

2 2 1

2 2

3 2 2

1 1 0

2

1 2 1 0

0 1 1

e

e

e

e

x

f

u q q

u x f q q

x

u x q q

f

1

1

+ +

' ) ' ) ' ) ' )

1

1

]

Steps in the finite element method

STEP 5: Imposition of boundary conditions

Dirichlet condition

1, , , 0

s s

ss s s i i is s is si

u u

k f u f f k u k k

Neumann condition

Replace the corresponding component of the right hand column by

the specified value.

Steps in the finite element method

STEP 5: Imposition of boundary conditions

( )

( )

( )

2

1

2

1 1

2 0

2 3

2

1 0 0

0 2 1 0

0 1 1 0

2

e

e

e

e

x

f

u q

x

u f u

q x

u

x

f

1

+ +

' ) ' ) ' )

1

1

Step 6: Solution of the algebraic system of equations

This is a standard matrix equation can be solved by direct or

indirect(iterative) method.

Step 7: Postprocessing

This final operation displays the solution to system equations in

tabular graphical or pictorial form. Other meaningful quantities

may be derived from the solution and also displayed

Results

1.5 1.5 1.5

u

3

(@ x=1.0)

0.625 0.625 0.625

u

2

(@ x=0.5)

0 0 0

u

1

(@ x=0)

Finite

Difference

Finite

Element

Exact

Results

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

spatial co-ordinate, x

d

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

,

u

Exact Solution

Finite Element solution

Finite Element solution

FEM and FDM

differential equations by a difference

approximations

Based on rectangular discretisation

Treatment of boundary conditions

needs extra care

Making higher order approximation is

tedious

FEM is an indirect method- works on a

weak form

Arbitrary geometry can be modelled

(can be rectangular, quadrilateral,

triangle)

Boundary conditions is more

systematic

Making higher order approximation is

easy

FEM and FDM

No closed form solution that permits analytical study of the

effects of changing various parameters.

Good engineering judgement is required

- type of element

- type of difference approximation

Many input data are required and voluminous output must

be sorted and understood

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