Metal parts often fail their intended use not because they fracture, but because they wear, which causes them to loose dimension and functionality. This wear may be due to metal to metal wear. As wear is a surface or near surface phenomenon, it has long been realized that the wear resistance of a component can be improved by providing a surface of different composition from that of the base material. Hard facing which is also known as hard surfacing is the application of buildup or wear resistant weld metal to a part’s surface by means of welding or joining. The objective of this investigation is to analyze the increase in the wear resistance after hard facing a cultivator blade which is made of low alloy steel by Determination of type and degree of wear, Selection of an appropriate hard facing alloy, Application of the hard facing alloy on the base metal, Wear testing and analysis. Keywords: Hard facing, Abrasion wear, Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW), Microstructure.



and corrosion. SIET. Aspects of the working environment which affect wear include loads (such as unidirectional sliding. reciprocating. or gas). Wear can also be defined as a process in which interaction of the surfaces or bounding faces of a solid with its working environment results in dimensional loss of the solid. temperature. with or without loss of material.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The dictionary definition and general concept of “wear” is “to impair by usage” this of course is too much broad for a technical definition. TUMKUR. rolling. cavitation. type of counter body (solid. In the results of standard wear tests (such as those formulated by the respective subcommittees of ASTM Committee G-2). although wear has occurred despite no material removal. where the damage is due to chemical rather than mechanical action. the loss of material during wear is expressed in terms of volume. where there is no sliding motion. speed. 2 . This definition also fails to include impact wear. where the counter body is a fluid. wear is the erosion of material from a solid surface by the action of another solid. The definition of wear does not include loss of dimension from plastic deformation. The study of the processes of wear is part of the discipline of tribology. liquid.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF WEAR In materials science. and type of contact (single phase or multiphase. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 1. and impact loads). particularly when comparing the wear resistance properties of materials with large differences in density. in which the phases involved can be liquid plus solid particles plus gas bubbles). The volume loss gives a truer picture than weight loss.

1. TUMKUR.2. Broadly speaking the motion can be unidirectional or reciprocating either sliding or rolling.2 CLASSIFICATION OF WEAR Wear situations exist whenever there is relative motion between two mating parts. surface films.2.1Frictional wear: The Metal-to-metal frictional wear is determined by the comparative hardness of the mating surfaces. hard. FIGURE1: SCRATCHING ABRASION 1. It is less severe than grinding and gouging abrasion.2.2. The particles are fractured or ground-up during service. in which the abrasive continuously particles are usually smaller and unconstrained. the types of wear to which metallic components may be subjected in service are: 1. SIET.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” 1. abrasive grains (rocks<50mm in diameter) usually between metal surfaces. their frictional co-efficients and galling tendencies.2. also known as low stress abrasion. Depending on the nature of the movements or the media involved in an interaction under load. Sand slingers and wear is more due to velocity then the abrasiveness of dredge pumps are examples of equipment involved in scratching abrasion. 3 . DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. scratches on the surface to cause wear. It is of three types: 1. The the material.2Abrasive wear: In this case the wear is caused by a hard and sharp edge non -metallic material such as cement and sand.2.2 Grinding abrasion. lubricity and plasticity.1 Scratching abrasion. is indicated by the fragmentation of small.

By plastic deformation. Diffusion between work and tool material. When impact causes only deformation of the surface. 4. Loss of weight method. it is termed as medium. Abrasive action of hard particles in work material. 1. 3.2.1 Loss of weight method: The pin specimen is cleaned with acetone or alcohol and weighed initially (w1) in the electronic weighing balance before conducting the test. in 4 the . 4.3Impact wear: Impact means repeated hammering effect in service. When it causes both elastic and plastic deformation. 2. 5. the abrasive particles gouge or groove the surface during service. the abrasive particles are usually large (rocks>50mm in diameter). The common methods used determine wear rate of materials is as follows: 1.4 WEAR MEASUREMENT METHODS: The most common way of to measuring wear consist of examination of sliding materials before and after wear and difference in weight of the material being attributed wear. Loss of dimension method. 3. Optical method. 1.3 CAUSES FOR WEAR: 1. Welding at asperities between work and tool. Chemical decomposition of contact surfaces.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” 1. Displacement method.2.3 Gouging abrasion. 2. After conducting the wear test. the pin specimen is cleaned with acetone and weighed DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.2. 1. TUMKUR. SIET. 1. it is termed as light.4.

tools and construction equipment.6 PRINCIPLES OF SURFACING: Surfacing is the process of applying a metal coating. 5 . It is considered as one of the most economical methods of conserving and extending the life of machines.There are several types of surfacing. such as1)Cladding. 1. Thus the process may involve building up of worn shafts. gears or cutting edges of tools. to 1.4 Metalizing: Metalizing is a process by which a metallic coating is deposited on a surface. Thus the difference between the initial weight (w1) and final weight (w2) gives the loss of weight of the is very easier and simplest method of finding wear rate of pin specimenin the form of percentage.5 SURFACING OF MATERIALS: Surfacing is the process of applying a hard wear resistant layer of metal to surface or edges of worn out parts by arc or gas welding to obtain the desired properties or dimensions. It is a process of forming such a coating.2 Build-up: Build-up or rebuilding is one type of surfacing process used to return the parts of component to its original dimensions. 1.5. A protective or insulating layer fixed to the outside of a building or another structure.5)Metalizing.5. SIET. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. edge or point onto surfaces or parts that are subjected to wear or corrosion. 1. TUMKUR.4)Buttering.3)Build-up.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” electronic weighing balance to get the final weight (w2). 1. Out of these methods we have selected loss of weight method because it any type of material.3 Buttering: A method of surfacing by providing a suitable transition weld deposit for subsequent completion of a butt weld.1 Cladding: A metal coating bonded onto another metal under high pressure and temperature. Facing.

1 HARD FACING: Hard facing is a type of surfacing and it involves the process of depositing by one of various welding techniques.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” 1. SIET. Chapter 2 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 6 . According to American Welding Society. A layer or layer or layers of metal of specific properties on certain areas of metal parts that are exposed to wear.6. the desired properties being those that will resist abrasion. heat and corrosion. ‘The deposition of filer metal on a metal surface to obtain the desired properties and/or dimensions’. “Hard Surfacing” or hard facing is defined as. TUMKUR.

cultivator blade. 6.1 PROCEDURE ADOPTED FOR FABRICATING THE HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT: 1.1. 3. impact wear. Testing 2. 8. 2. 2.1. 7.1.4 SELECTION OF THE TEST METHODS: As the hard faced agricultural equipment experiences scratching abrasion so the following tests are conducted as the main mechanical properties which are to be considered are hardness and low stress abrasion when used in a sandy soil. Hard facing. low stress abrasion. Selection of the test methods. Selection of the welding process. DUROID 650 is recommended for solid particle erosion. TUMKUR. manganese (Mn). 2. The composition of the electrode is Iron (Fe).“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” DESIGN AND FABRICATION 2.1 SELECTION OF THE AGRICULTURAL COMPONENT: There are variety of agricultural equipments which undergo various types of wear like frictional wear. abrasive wear. In manual agricultural work like in farming and cultivating. 2.1. These tools experience scratching abrasion wear. 7 . 4. Chromium (Cr). we use chisel. Finishing. Selection of the agricultural component. Preparation of the specimen from the cultivator spike. Selection of the electrode. corrosive wear and high temperature wear. Since we are using this to minimize the abrasion rate. 5.2 SELECTION OF THE WELDING PROCESS: Manual Metal Arc (MMA) is the most common type of welding process which can be widely used with extruded and tubular welding electrodes available for build-up and hard surfacing applications as well as for joining application. SIET.3 SELECTION OF THE ELECTRODE: As our work is on agricultural tools like cultivator blade which undergoes scratching abrasion. and ploughshare points. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

7 25.5 PREPARATION OF THE SPECIMEN: The specimen has to be prepared as per the standards required for wear testing in ABRASIVE WEAR TESTING MACHINE as per the standards of ASTM G65.1. 12. For this the following methods was followed: a) b) c) Cutting.6 HARD FACING: 1.4 FIGURE2: PREPARATION OF THE SPECIMEN 2. SIET.4 76.0 25. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. TUMKUR.7 12.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” a) b) c) Hardness test Abrasion test Microstructure test 2. 8 .0 12. Surface finishing. Machining to the required dimension. Clean the surface to be hard faced thoroughly to remove the rust.7 76. scales and all other foreign matter.1.

8. the base metal specimens and all the hard faced metal specimens are grinded. designed to be run in the flat positions only. So that finished heat treated parts can be tested without damage.8 TESTING: 2.1.1 HARDNESS TEST: ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST: The most widely used hardness test in most of the countries is the Rockwell hardness test. 4. TUMKUR. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.1. Most hard facing electrodes are Maintain a medium long arc and do not allow the coating of the electrode to very important to prevent dilution of the deposit by the base metal. The type of bead formation is shown in the figure below: FIGURE3: HARD FACING 2.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” 2. Then using an automatic grinding machine. 3. SIET. Its general acceptance is due to its speed. Use only enough amperage to provide sufficient heat to maintain the arc. Care is taken so that no blow holes appear and a shinning mirror like finish is obtained. This is Arrange the work so that it is in flat position. touch the base metal.7 FINISHING: The specimen are fixed onto a work holding device and tightly clamped. 9 . so simple to perform. freedom from personal error. use either a straight or weaving bead. and ability to distinguish small hardness difference in hardened steel and the small size of the indentation.1. 2. no special skills are required. In making the deposit.

“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” FIGURE4: DIAMOND INDENTATION TABLE1: TABULATION OF READINGS AND RESULTS SL. SIET. 01 02 03 Load: 150kg ROCKWELL HARDNESS NUMBER Base Single Double Triple Layer Metal Layer Layer 20 52 37 39 21 55 48 40 19 59 38 45 Indenter: Diamond cone of vertex angle 120° and tip radius 0.2 ABRASIVE WEAR TEST: The Dry Abrasion Test Rig TR-50 has been designed to conduct “Dry Sand / Rubber Wheel Abrasion Test” in conformity with ASTM G65. TUMKUR.1.2mm No. of Observations FIGURE5: HARDNESS COMPARISON 2.8.NO. while a controlled flow of grit abrades the test surface. 10 . The test specimen is pressed against a rotating wheel. The rotation of the DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

2416 183.1144 0.0796 0. of the specimen before testing. W2= Wt. ϼ = Density in gm/ mm3. W= Loss in Weight in gm.8923 0.6726 Where.9340 W2 in gm 190.1673 197. no.0345 190.2750 197.6554 190.0888 0. W1= Wt.6924 0. SIET.6149 Sl. V = Loss in Volume in mm3 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. loss in mass is recorded. The duration of test and force applied is varied as per ASTM standard.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” wheel is along the sand flow. Mechanism of Operation: FIGURE6: MECHANISM OF ABRASIVE WEAR TESTING TABLE2: TABULATION OF READINGS AND RESULTS W= (W1W2) in gm 0.0789 7 200 300 183. 11 .0577 V= (W/ ϼ) in 0. Specimen is weighed before and after the test.6209 0. of the specimen after testing. Specimen 01 02 03 04 Base metal Hard faced with 1 layer Hard faced with 2 layer Hard faced with 3 layer Load in Kg Revolut Time ion in rpm in sec W1 in gm 191. TUMKUR.

optical. and magnetic). In general when we refer to microstructure we are referring to the size.1. thermal. OF LAYERS 2. of Layers FIGURE7: VOLUME LOSS V/S NO. shape and distribution of each DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.3 MICROSTRUCTURE TEST: Microstructure plays an important role in a wide variety of behaviors (mechanical. electrical. TUMKUR.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” No. SIET.8. 12 .

FIGURE8: OPTICAL MICROSCOPE FIGURE9: Base metal Weld Heat affected zone Chapter 3 CONCLUSION DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 13 . Microstructure is largely developed during processing.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” phase in a polycrystalline and/or multiphase material. TUMKUR. SIET.

Chapter 4 REFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” Limited-layer products usually are in the metal carbide families. we come to the conclusion that the life of the agricultural equipment can be increased by hard facing and the capability of hard facing as an important source of savings. From the experimental results we see that the loss in weight goes on decreasing from the base metal and the ones which are hard faced in 1. 2 and 3 layers respectively. TUMKUR. We can apply Martensite and Austenite products in unlimited layers unless the manufacturers specifies. This is because of the reducing dilution by the base metal with the weld deposits. The cost of its application can be estimated. such as chromium carbide and tungsten carbide. SIET. So. 14 . So with the increase in the weld passes. hardness decreases but the wear resistance of the cultivator spike increases.

TUMKUR.Brumbaugh. 1978. cutting. 2003 Edition. 8. William. Smith. D. A K Jena. O. K P Gupta. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Pvt.S. 21:51–7. G S Murty. An experimental and theoretical investigation of ploughing. E. 2. Tribology. S. James.Brady and Henry. Fifth Edition.B. Fourth Edition.E. “Mechanical Metallurgy”. 4. 11. A Systems approach to the science and technology of friction. “Material Science and Metallurgy”. 9. “Weldes Guide and Hand book”. Dieter. And Engg. “Material Hand book”. Second Edition. George. 7. “Structure and Properties of Engineering Materials”. Tribology series. Czichos H.Clauser. Ltd.P. “Principles of Material Sc. Tribol Int 1988. lubrication and wear. George. ATP Publication (American technical publishers). Inc. 10. Inc.Taraporevala sons and Co. 6.“WEAR ANALYSIS OF HARD FACED AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT” 1. V S R Murthy. Nadkarni “Modern Arc Welding Technology” 3. McGraw. and wedge formation during abrasive wear. Tata McGraw-Hill. Mc-Graw Hill International Book Company. John Wiley and sons.D. “Material Science and Engineering an Introduction”. 3rd Edition. 5. Hill Book Company. Kato K.12th Edition.V. William F. 15 . McGraw-Hill.Callister Jr. “Welding Skills and Practice”. Hokkirigawa K.Kanna.R. Giachino weeks. Dhanpat Rai and sons. SIET.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful