Chapter 29: The Cold War I: Origins of the Cold War a) Sources of Soviet-American Tensions -The US and USSR

entered a period of military and political tension with different ideologies -The ultimate revival between these 2 superpowers emerged out of opposing views of post world war world -US had the view of ending military alliances between nations and using mediators instead -The USSR wanted control of certain areas for strategic value b) Wartime Diplomacy -The ultimate rivalry realy began during world war II with the allied delay of invading France -Rivalry also began to develop in the Tehran Conference with a dispute over the governance of Poland c) Yalta -There was a meeting between the emerging super powers and the relic superpower or the UK -Meeting was held at Yalta in the 1945 -UN was created during this meeting as well as the plans for its structure (General Assembly, Security Council) -Once again the topic of the governance of Poland arouse -Disagreement over the future of Germany with the US wanting the reconstruct it while the USSR was in favor of reparations like in the previous world war II: The Collapse of the Peace a)The Failure of Potsdam -FDR died unfortunately in April of 1945 -He was then succeed by Truman who decided to take a strong stance against the soviets -Felt the agreements at Yalta needed to be followed -Potsdam Conference held in July, however the soviets walked away with more -The US did however not allowed reparation from the Germans in allied zones -They did however recognize the communist Polish government under soviet influence with new borders b) The China Problem -The US had an interesting and some what hypocritical vision of the post war world -Had a vision of a globalized world under the police of the major world powers -This was unpopular in china under the unpopular chines government -Leader was Chiang Kai-shek who was prompted to power by US help -Since the Chinese government was predicted to collapse US attempted to make a favorable new government c) The Containment Doctrine -There was a change in the policy views of the US government regarding the world post WWII -The open policy model of the US shifted to favor the containment of the spread of the Soviet Union and its communist ideology -Also the establishment of the Truman Doctrine which established containment policy in Europe

-Aid of Turkey and Greece in their opposition to soviet funded communist groups d) The Marshall Plan -The Marshall plan was a creation from the secretary of State at the time in 1947 George Marshall -He viewed it necessary to provide aid to all European nations -Doing this by rebuilding it. making new markets (US goods mainly). also by bolstering the governments against communists e) Mobilization at Home -The US during the cold war did not bring down its military to peace time levels it kept it up -Also to continue nuclear research the US created the Atomic Energy Commission -There was also a lot of restructuring of the US military bureaucracy with the Nation Security Act of 1947 -To combine all armed services the Department of Defense was created -As well as the Nation Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency f) The Road to NATO -There was a series of struggles with the issue of a seperated Germany -Truman had decided it would be best to unite and merge the western allies zones into the West German Republic -In response Stalin decided to blockade West Berlin from the Western nations -To avoid the loss of West Berlin Truman called for an airlift to bring supply to west Berlin -In the matter of defense the US in order to provide military security. Western European Nations and the US create the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -USSR in response creates the Warsaw Pact with its satellite nations g) Reevaluating Cold War Policy -There were sudden stuns to the world during the 19th century -In 1949 USSR tested and fired its first nuclear weapon -Also the Chinese governementgovernment under Chiang Kiek-shek collapse because of Communist supports lead by Mao Zedong -The US rethought its plans and reevaluated its policy in the world -They were to lead all non-communists and oppose its expansion everywhere III: American Society and Politics After the War a) The Problems of Reconversion -With the end of the war the US could not simply keep itself in a state of wartime economics -So Truman began to try to quickly shift the US economy back into consumer manufacturing with some issues -There was no real big economic problem mostly because of US government spending -Something that really helped the returning veterans was the Serviceman Readjustment Act of 1944 known later as the GI bill -This bill allowed former soldiers to receive an education and provided benefits and aid to them -With all the spending came a higher inflation in the country -Strikes began to appear in rail roads and mining companies -And there were a lot of displaced workers with the returning soldiers entering the work force b) The Fair Deal Rejected .

and creating nation health insurance plan -Fair Deal opposed by Republicans who gained majority in both Houses of Congress in 1946 elections -Republicans sought to reduce government spending and economic controls. and civil rights ii)Truman did end govt hiring discrimination. expanding Social Security. refused to raise wages -Republicans wanted to decrease powers unions gained in 1935 Wagner Act -This by the 1947 Labor-Management Relations Act of (Taft-Harley Act) -Which made “closed-shop” illegal. but hostile to Fair Deal programs expanding education aid. national healthcare. Supreme Court inSkelley v. film noir and government preparations for nuclear attack -But public also awed by technological potential of nuclear power -Dreams of prosperity and unlimited and cheap electricity IV: The Korean War a) The Divided Peninsula -Korea divided at 38th Parallel into Communist North and Southern government of capitalist Strongman Rhee (supported by US) -Nationalists in North invaded South in 1950 in effort to reunite countries -US won UN resolution calling for support of South Korea armies -USSR unable to veto because boycotting Security Council at time b) From Invasion to Stalemate -Gen MacArthur (head of UN forces) able to advance far into North -But new communist Chinese government feared American forces and entered conflict late 1950's -UN armies force to retreat to 38th parallel long stalemate ensued until 1953 -Truman wanted peace and not new world war with China -Gen MacArthur publicly opposed peace effort and was relieved of command by President in 1951 c) Limited Mobilization -War led to only limited mobilization Truman created Office of Defense Mobilization to combat rising inflation . limited efforts help those not yet organized (minorities) c) The Election of 1948 -Truman sought to make re-election about liberal reforms but electorate saw him as weak -Southern Democrats (Dixiecrat) and progressives refused full support -Republicans nominated Thomas Dewey and seemed to be in strong position to win -But intense campaigning by Truman and his platform to reduce inflation and help common man allowed him to win Presidency -Democrats also won both Houses of C d) The Fair Deal Revived i)New Dem Congress allowed for minimum wage increase + Social Security expansion. Kraemer rules community “covenants” preventing movement of blacks unenforceable by courts e) The Nuclear Age -Nuclear weapons viewed with fear because of threat from Soviet Union -Expressed in pop culture. desegregated armed forces. cut taxes for wealthy. enacting Fair Employment Practices Act.-After Japanese surrender Truman proposed “Fair Deal” to enact liberal reforms -Included raising minimum wage.

state.Republicans nominated popular Gen Dwight Eisenhower and VP Richard Nixon -Eisenhower talked of Korean peace. -Hiss ordeal. McCartney Act all lead to national anticommunist hysteria at national. Korean frustrations) many sought to blame US communist conspiracy -Republicans sought to use anticommunist feelings to win support against Democrats -Congress created House UN-American Activities Committee 1947 to investigate communist subversion -Investigation into former State Dept official Alger Hiss raveled some complicity with communists increased fear of communist infiltrations b) The Federal Loyalty Program and the Rosenberg Case -Truman began 1947 program to determine “loyalty” of fed employees -FBI monitored radicals. 1950 Congress passed McCarran Internal Security Act forcing communist groups to register with government -Explosion of atomic bomb by Soviets led to famous Rosenberg trial to find out how Russia had learned of technology so quickly. Rosenberg were executed -HUAC. and local level c) McCarthyism -Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy 1951 began leveling charges of communist agents in State Department and other agencies -His subcommittee was at the fore of anticommunist hysteria and partisan politics d) The Republican Revival -Korean stalemate and anticommunist sentiments led to Dem disappointments -Democratic nominated Adlai Stevenson (viewed as liberal and weak on Communism) . “Loyalty” program.Communist growth (“loss” of China. Rosenberg trial. Nixon of communist subversion -Eisenhower won election by huge margin & Republicans gained control of both Houses of Congress .-Government seized rail roads and steel mills during union strikes -Increased government spending stimulated economy -Inability of US to quickly end “small” war led to growth of fears of growth of communists at home V: The Crusade Against Subversion a) HUAC and Alger Hiss -“Red Scare” prompted by fear of Stalin .

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