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Co.or.lrency ~ .' Unique Features Present Distinct Challenges for Deter.r.i:n.g Illicit A.

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('-v,)..Bite ,,~.-Virt1.00, COI.n".1 -;:1'-1

U April 2012
UNCLASSlF.IED

iiM_'et.Htti]'il'M; ~~j':-jp-peet' (P2P:) :nert'll;'of:':k.-1I~~d. 'L>'.i:rl Jltij' i.·J'lt't'eri'l.''jiprovidesa venue :f'OI: :und;~\ri:d!u;a:~, to generate, tl:atlS:r-e:I:,; :~aund.e:I:.; and. 8rt:ea'~:u:U~:idt:ffiund8, 'IW,ulllh OIDe S at1onyrn:lty", IhrtooU:t1. aITer.!i. :Imny af the sal]1e d1mmet1;geili ;il.,il8OCltaIted witlh 6iihe:r \ru:t'iIlU;;:"~urreucies, c 8illdh as, We hMo:I:tey ';,and. OO.d8,unique OOinll~eJi::l1:i:e,g :fm :i1n vem :Vg;at ors ~alJse :urt8,d.ecemi::I:,i."Uuze,d nature,

(UNFOUO) Bitooi1n-a.

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(UNFOUO) 'IDb.e :FBI assesses i/IJ,ullih:rnediul]l

cOl:1:lfhrl.eI:1c.e~rt~jat; :un ~.e near term, c)\'be:r c'r,ul:bl:Ul:1a'~8 'II;':u'U~rear Bit oonn ;il.,il. not iher l:ii:l.y.l:net1it 6jl1:Uot1, a'~Ot1;gsude :I:blo:re ilt'.ad:u1ti:6:t1a:~ t a and. em aMu ~I'i.ed. \rU:t'iIJua:~ currencies 'N~:1:~'t rt~j.ey have :UUIiJi:'~e reason 1[0 ...1,)jlnd.o:n" l'~j:j;:j ;il.,il~s:l:neJjJt :j;:j based on :[rucrtruati:6:lj8, :un rtfb.e~Ltco~tl exchat1;ge rate :u:n 2Dll and :U~rnited. :re:I;toril'u:t1g :ut1.dicaH:t1;g bitcoirt1ili are ~:Ut1g acoe:l~ted. as, :~y:l:bleijJt !by :ROi]1e 91be1~ C:I:,i1I'blU:ij;:"~",

(UNFOUO) ~j.e

w,u~'t :~'II;' oot1f~d.et1c.e.;, ~ed. on our.l:'et1it user and vendor acceptance, ~jait rn:.Ji:UUc:lou8,ootorg 'II;':uUexJl~oLl B:UltOOu:n to launder :I:blo:O.ey",~j:m ;:lS8e&:m:neijit :U8~red. on 61~erved. c:r,UI]1~:t1a'~ot~~'!rlt~e&,; :unve.!it~gali.'lotlij,; atld proreOUIi.'UOtlili a :~:t1.d;u\rOClfua]l!"i, ex.l1ro:urt'Utlg other ·1--' .'11 ['''' ., -- ...It· n .'II~I .•. " ~I W...It '~!Ij. .. .!. 'IlA-~'k .·.• w i .• .Jt.Jelj.iQ:I:'iI:U.lj.g -'.'. ',' 8peCU~.i:C ,""'- 'D:1 OOnn. '.;;t. '!..nl.IL;:'h C uJ.J:'et1Cues" ifulUJ't ;as ~o.LU. aou . ~lil.nOlj.e)'., .t.1. .. 1.•• ,_,". a~CU.I..I:'et1 u .u;I ...'res ilt'.U rtib.e oot1frd.e nee :~ v e'~. 0'i:8. e
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:FEa assesses

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(UNFOUO) :Even l[~j6ll;gh ~j.ere :m :1:16eentr .... :nUItOO~:t1. ~ server to COl:bljlro.lnilie;, ~j.e :FBI assesses 'll;'ith ~:~j_ Confil denc e, bas ed on rel :ltah~e :und!ustr y a nd FB I r eponi :t1;g.;, jat c'r.i1m~:t1a'~ :u ~ s :t1lte:t1.d:u :t1.g[0 8rte.a·~ ~il00i11:18 can rtargert and. exploit ~'1:urd-l}.i]j:I:'il')'~Ltooul:1. servtees and a:l:1.:und:uvM!Ua'~'8 L¥1. u:oJ. '11: '~I({jJ1'et. Ma'Uudou8 acto:r.ll. can oo:l:bljll:'OmUre personal OOl:bll;t:I.i!te:I:'.!i. accounts IU8:un& ~~l!aahlttimand hoc:ku:tl.g and.
Ii:edlmiqu.es.l[o mea'~ U8e:I~' lI1ultOOu:t18 nd. U8e .a
boJri~i'~ 1[0 generate

~lLtooirt1s.

(UNF(JI''UO) Hitooun w:um :Uu:k.e'~y OtlItUtlIU.e to atil'rOO'i: oy~:Joerc:r,ul]1~:tla·ll!"i.II;'~'16view it as a :1:ne;atl8· Ito C ' move or :ste;a'~ funds as we'~:~ as a. means aff :rnakul:1;g donations to :u'~:UUcit groups. If :Bitooun Mab:u:Uu~, and gro'll;'S :irnll6Jyu·~r.Lty.;, :u[ w:u'U~ beeome an :~:t1c,re;a8u:t1;gJyU8e:fiiJ'~ [OO~:f'Or var.uO:U8 :u:uUeg;a'~ aCil'U""tHe&. ~yoi:td the cy~:Joe:I~ :Iea·~m,. S:nt1c.e :Ouli:Co:u:ndoes not have a. re:t1It1:a'~:ir;red aLiIiil'i.o:I~.U[y.;, w e:t1:r'iO:l.'cen~eM :Ua :f'OCe&,d:u:ffI:cull:u es d.ete:Oil'U:t1g8U8pudoU8 oot:u~hy :OCIet1it:ury.Ut1;g users, and 6htaut1:~:t1g transaction :1:ecO:l(lij-pl.'6h~en\!i. rtibaJt:mu~jit ::l1rt:I~ootm ...·HcuO'U8 actors to :B:UrtooU:t1.,. Hitcoirn :m~~jli: a'~oo :~ogI:ca:U~y at ilt'.i.lil:; :I:blo:r:I.e),:I]:iLmrl.e rers and 01!h.e:1:' I[ c'1:'.um 8. i/I;' ~'tOa.vou d ilt',ad:urt'i:6:r:I;:.Ji:~ :nr:la'~ fUr:I;:.Jir:lc :ila:~8)1!i te :Im hy U8 ~:r:lg rtib.e lnli:e rnet [0 eonduet ~ o.1j;i."~:I:blo:tl.eil: tra :m;r-ers .. ary
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B:~rtoou:n does not ~j;:.Ji.vea. ret1Ii::I:,i; ..~:irzed. auitll'lor.ulty.;, ~j.e :FBI assesses ;Ii"'u~'t :1]1ediUJ:n confidence ~j;:.Jit :1l:.Ji'll;' enr'O:lcemenri: can :i:d.eljit:ury,; 01: discover :1~1:e itl:f'OI~.I:bl1lti.o:n ah01Jit :rna:UUc:UOU8, ootor8 :u:f~j.e actors convert ~j.e:~t' btteolns into afial i.·Jlt't'eri'l.'Y.~'l:urd.-pa:f:'il.)' ~~hoohl 8er \ric es :Imay re q_iil;ul:'ecust ornerg, to s illll1mu [ \f,::"~d :0CI.e :t1Jl'uifiJ i cation or ooljk :u :t1:f'Oe.l:bllltlon ro c OI:npUe rte tta:r:l8.:.Ji0il'UOr:l8 ..P-itl.1~iil'i.ermore;, any I[~'i:~t'd-l}.i]j:f:'ii:}' ervice 1t!l'iaJi: s q.lUa·~:uFre8 a. liiM.e;i it'ar.i·~r.iuiMt' :I:blillm as regu:ster as, a. i!liio.r.I'.t;i SieN.i:i.·.e.f DJl.tiriJ:!.tt wiifh [~j.e :Fii:t1at1da'~ C:tiJ:l~ :E-nr'Orool:ne:t1it Nert'll;'ork (F:unCEN) and. :u:rnpUe:rneM an al:1Ji::i,L.:I:blo:I:1.e), :Ualmrl.e:r.ul:1;gp:rog:ram.

(UNFOUO) Alliho:ugh.

I (U) ~g€€Wii1.cl_bi, A :00« a gloiiYIr:}' o:r~~rnl'"'. AU ~~'"' :iID:]JUi!I~1 ~rugl~y :in ~(U) ~glili! ii1.cl_bi. ]~ :~ a !!I'e~Il1r'jM o:r oo:rufiorl'elil.m loJ:"l(!];i" W

i-Ire,i~lk::im!!ll00li Iih(:::i[ :r.ir:i'l: !U~.

(UNFOUO) 'IDhe C:)'rer

and. Cr,u:miJr.la:~ lr.lJteUugence s;eot~O:r.l:g'j' i/i;.'it~'1, Or.l!Lf.,uib'uli'~r.l:g:[rom the Fnl O Detl:'Out D,u~i;s;UiO:n;.:u:ttltUated. ~t~, :ul'IltenUgerice asse&u~enrt [0 eJl:,p:~l:'e ~j.e unique aspeets ai tbe :P2P' \r~t'ii:iiJa'~ciiJrrer.lcy :B:u[OOu:n.,l'1hilt:i assessmem does not atn:elnj;t-t to Judge the :nu:k.e'~:iJhood. f BitcoiJn':g, a :~Ij;g-li:el~m success as an anel~.Ijate :IJa,)':me:ijlt :1~liihod; hult e.."£.]~~I,'e.;g, ~j,o'll;.' IbitOOiJij:g (Ol~ any :IDUillUj.'e \r~t'ii:iiJa'~ciiJrre:tlcy :g;um:hllar to :Bitooutl,) are traded and.ibDij!;' c.r,urn:utla'~s can use ~j.e:rn to co:ndJiUd: :~:Un~dt OCl'~'rlUl}'.., 1"1I:1:U8 assessment d:ra,i/i;.'ij,l~rirnar,u'~y on :un[e'U~:~er.lce :[rorn ]'ar.liUary 20 I, I ~'1:rough .AllrU 20,1,2;. iiJ:t1:Ue88, 01ib.erlll;',u8e referenced :f'01' ~'tilt:iror,uC:il'~perspeetwe.

(UHFOUO) 1'thu8, :us,the FnI's, :ffii:l.iStCI~,um~:n:a'~ C}\hel~ :UMe'UU:Uger.l£eassessmeot :I~~ated to :B:urtoo:iJn,., and
In ]'ar.liuary 2.011 the Coumerterrorism D.~ v:h!:::UiO:n di>!isemu:r.lateil, an :iJr.llte:un~ger.lcebu'UUertun rtibat _,,'II,,,~';I 11.-. _',', -,' _'-,,',.:11 OOlluJU£IL ::II'Il' ,'-, ,it,_,,-_,a nCU::1~ uau:gOO1uOlj:g I' ',--' ,'D: -, " ',-' 'r[;" ",]1 -',,, -' " -,', -' ilJ:SU,lj;g ,-' -""'~'" exp,~O:I:aJ, 'me l»TeJjILili.h .'_..,,_ ,U~,[i.Cll run ,I1\UII.\OO:U.lL ,L!',j;g:gemuuaJI.CU.'FD'I' , , ,,11\, :Utllte'U~:Ugetl£epOOodJUd:8on other ~~t'ii:iiJ;."~ currencies :U:tldiUd.e:, (U) ·Cj~.t ·CFJn~JJj'aJ' 8p'J'i:niaiJm:t of Ehu:J t:tmh:' ,[JaY;!iiii!'T,i'i S)iSi.B'i!'iiit (Ifitl 1I1:.rl Ial 'CrI.t.ttt fi/:'ootJi:;. r dated 23, Fe'b:l:'iua,ry 2.01 Iand OJ) ,qilM.t 'C'.tin~in'al E;r:pJ'mi{Iii:tm: of J.f'£aJ-Mtm£'i 'Ti'aiJi:l.lg.;. darted. :8. June 20.1, I,~:t6tib, af 'Iio\I'I:udhdiaeuss cyre!:' crimiJrla:U mU:sLi8e o:f vil:'iilua'~ currencies :f'O:t' :1~t:I.e,)' :~;ilU:rI,d.er,iJt:lg.W~'l:u:Ue:B:u[OOu:n :j;g,a d:j;gl'U:rld: ~u:l:'iilua'U currency, ~j.e ovel~"':l:dhu:r.lg ar.la:~}'lI.k j'u(lgmer.lJt:g, :Ur.l. [~j:ilt:i :Ur.lIte:UU~ger.lce as~S:l~:lj1t a1»ult ~j.e use ai \r~t'ii:iUa'~cuneneses by c:r,um:iJr.l""~er.lli'urtre8,are oor.ls:~renli: \,l;',urtib, llib.ere previous :UijJte'U~:Uger.l£e roducts .. p
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(UNFOUO) 1'tb:~8 assessmenr 'H,u:U~ot add:1.'e.!l8 :rna'HCUo.'U8 actors o.iiJJi2j:i:d.e:ff the C,iDe.t flnii's.tgtmIiiii';. n o
8iiJdh as tr a ditUO:r.l;a'~ol:'g::m~zed. cr,iJme grou.ps.;, exltre:mi,M grou.p;!l.;, or c!b:uM predators ..l'~'tro'iJ~j6'iJ1t ~j.e pa]:lie1'.;. ~'1.eterm ·'Uitcoun,,·' 'II;.'~j,encap:lta'U~z~il.;, :r.efe:I:',Rto OO~'I.[~j.e O]:lien SO.Ut:'Ce so:ffit'll;.':ilJ:'eused to create ~'l.e ~u:I:'iiJiJ;a'~ our.rerlcy and ~j.e PIP :rI.etlNOrk formed as a,resJU'~rt; "bitcoin" IU8:iJrlg :Uo III;' er case , . ;i:. '. -'. '11.· ":1,\:-':UII ..:! . rerers [0 lW'I.e \-r', -.. ,:11, '". -', - [-·IL.,,' ,i!=i, uJ\gll;il ~}' u .... ea !1:tel:'II;.'eenusers .., ,U.l.'iJ)ila~ 0111..1:'elj£,)'~j;aL
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1'1h.8 FEU ru~!!I1~1Ili seuree ~Ol1Ijng 8::I:1i8lftiiwly .illli!lhii.;..i1l11Jilligelilm fI~~1I11. OO:ih,illli!iiUppo1~,of FEU If''iJ!lOOitillt,g ~o [!'ffi'I.i!!l~ Ib&I~O'U]li!ll.ili1lfmilmtl.mm 0JIi :B.itlm.ilill,.FEU !iO'iJ]m';' 1ffI1iY :iro:m, 1U1~(!;1fi'~lt!!!I1 ~o i1highlly fllMIl 1I'81~lhiI8.FB~ C~ .i1lli['OJiIblrujOJli o:injng (If,im.illlfil flotivH,y is cOJL:ii!!l~m!!l1 i1higJhlyml~lhi~ IOOCflIU~ ,~,,t;. :ilro:rn, FEU 81R1J1110J€8';' or FB~ !imJJJ:8S.w.iJih !!Ijlf0:~, flO:8:iIi ~o ~lIte.illli[milm~.mm ..
(UUFOUO) (UUFOUO) ~1ilI !imJI02 ,illli['OJiJblflIliOJli 00'Jll8S. frn:rn, !!Ijr::ri2J€lil.1. 01l1l.i1M~!iO'iJ1m';' !!I~~IMlb.ilili,gpO!!l11d.:i or :i!2d'V,i:8S. off~!!I1 n0 !OOJI!!Ill_O::~,rn~ruy ~HlIIlSflc1jOJ1.:i, ;(1m. Iih8m:OO:r8.OOJI.:ii!!l~0!l1mliflhlk flMI (TJU,POT,fO)1'1h.8 FB.~ fle:Imow]8!!1~ ~ftulri,prutl.i:.iprut1ri.i1lli ~h8 Ib.i~m.illli8ooru1i/bl,y iIr1w M .i~8.TI1jw ~0 8~.;.i>'.8 tlh8 p:wuilru.iIly or:B.i~m.illli. EI~WJ. :Bi~m.illli lU~ffi alse 1M00011mi1.iahle jllli[milmlliOJli flh,rrut :B.itloo.illlifllI1!!1l Ib.i~m.illli ~lIte e::.:~ Hil8. For ~h8 plli'~ of~lh!iri fI~5.S1Im1i11. ~~ FB.~ fti.S!IJ:J'mri M, ~~ IhwlMIly f ~lIi ~ o !imJJm .i1l1i[Wilm~.iolili !!I1::!~Ii'ilb.ilit£:B.i~o.illli.i.;. g€:1IlEjj'fI'I:Iy .iIl1!!1jCflIDW ~~ ~lfru~SifiOO of ~h8 :B.~co.iTh€:c(!;JlO'Jb1.y:. or: (UUFOT,fO) No 00'JL1lfooj!'JIory ,illli['OJiJblrujOJli was. :fO'U]l!!llOOtl,~1ilI FB~ fllI1!!1l ~1Ili !iO'IJIC8 ~~.tJt.g. Omrnli. ~h8 FB~ eOJL:ii!!l~ffi ~h8 lIwMIiy oflf8J}OJ'iiilili,g tlo 00 O!!iJL:i,iwli11, flrnli p.lmJ:i.jlb.le ,illi ~h8 001L18}i~. (!I:r~h8 Ib.i~m.ilill"ilW.iIfOJlJbl8.TI1 ..

(U) :Bireo:un:J; :~, a, d.eceJjlil·a'~:iJzed;.:P2;p :nerti/i;'o:t:'k-1l~ed, v:~t'ii:i[ia'~ i[i:I~~:r.l9 liil'laJt:~, traded or.l:~:uneand. C e:.:chaljgeil, :u:t111.'o dri~:~I:'.lj, O:I~ 'US o1ihe:l~eurreneies, :BitOOUt1.;.'N~te_t1.]~~j:ed, wi1ih t~tulil,-pal:'il:}' 8e:I~v:i:ce8,. aUO'l!;'8, users to mine, ~)1l}1.;.8e'~:~i' aocep.t or ~llooun:g, :[I.'o:m a:il~~1e:I~e :uil the 1II;'00r.M., :Bitooun'~, d:cet1!tr~:nirz~, :f~1i[i~.,:U8 ~:t1:U,q,iil~ .amo:t1;xurwa'~ eurrenere s, Wlb:~re .B:l100m developers :1m:UI:1It.:l:Un Welb :!iu[e.s, .rov:i:d:u:l:1ggi[i:i:dal:1ce to the p :Bitooun co:mnliJ:r.I:uly;. liil'i.ey do not ~'ia\ie a ce:r.lli.'l:a'~:ir;red. dau.hase O:I~ "'-IlJt~'tO.J:'.i.t)'. :P2:p ']'~j.e net 'Ii;'iO:rkissues ~lltoour.l~, riib:rou~:l. ~:l.e n~i-nJli:g :p:I~~, and. \fa:nUda~, ;:}'~:~ rtl~a:lj8i.liotuo:i:I'.!t S:uijCe :Bitoout1. does not have a, oet1it:ra'Uu:;red, aUIi:~to:t.'ity;, det oot:irr.lg ~i[i~ludoui!l oot:U""~Uli.)'.;. :Ud.e:r.lltufy.un users, g and. obtauij:~:I:1g rtt.',::m.:gootionreeords :U:!i prohre:lmt~ :fm enf'Ol:'oemet1Ii:.,
(U) Ai of.l.:fl: .A[ro',il 2.ilii.l.2:,~lh.c! lifuiii'dl-~.y lI!!it:o.ilill ~iT1:Idliltgr-1aiJwilbl. Mil. GIllQ:,1I"€:000dlli!ll lIb'm'e ~1Ifuli:!S m.ill.iM ,ilillliraJL:i.fld.i1OO1.:l. OllIJl.cl:U.crt;dl owr Iilw; ~:i'I, ::m d~y:i ~hro"u;gh Mil. G0:x, ~iadjlilig, aJIi tfNI"J!Jf:lgf? o:r: mow ~1Ifuli $2:1(~ ~ d~y:. I (U) Ac 0l1I]' dliltg ~ :B.it: ei IilI es ef .A[ro'i] 2ilii.l.2:, ~~ro WlJ:ro mow ~1Ifuli:fl:1l: milliM lb.i~C&ili1S..i1ill . '~. ~W·"",_ fi'l@a.@ iIbl.fii'_~, IPI,IC", .I1Ii 'I~' • O::IIi"eIlJIII:I~.IIlrn. , .IIU~ ~n" ApJil 2.ilii.l.2:oo;,WlJ:81IJ $.'I aMI $j. ~ lb.i~o.ili11, IIh.IJ: :FB,~IJ::i'IjlRlfl~8:i dlh.8 :Bj~o.iIill80l11ru1i1bly wa;. wOJilJhJ $.Jj, rn.ilUO'JIJ ~ $'1i1 milUOOli ..~·~

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(U) Despite ~'i.e v:~t'iti[j;:l~ nature ali' :Bitooutl; users v.::"~ue ~j.e currenc :fnt' :many ah~'i.e iialne (U) From May 2.®.I..I. lH;ito&ilill valllJ8:i 'iJIIJ.QilU:a'l.",d reasons l~~e trust Federal Reserve :n01e8:, wHJhJ",:xc~ 1i'a18:i O'JIJ ML !IJ\no:, rnng:ilili,g as. lruig!hJ ffi $3ilii.i1ill ]1IJ.m 2.ilii.l..I. ~,O a 11l1iW es $>'I .ilill ~j.ey be'nue"ie I[~~.e,)' can exC:ba:r.I;ge ~'i.e OUl:':rer.lCY:fo:r 'II . 'II' :D€c81blOO 2.®.I..I..~ gUUl.l:g,;.services, 01:' a n::n~O:l:1a~ CiU:r.rer.lCYat a ,~me:1:' date. A~ such, :B:~li.oou:n:~, our.ret1dy ocoe_p.ted, as, a :fnl~,m ali' pa Y .Irer.lli: at bundreds ali' :regltU:l~te :I~ au'~ :ur.ldilJ.d:ur.lgvendors ~e'[~:irijg el O~'i:Ur.l;g;. ers ga:I~" mU:!1:Ue;,;. 80:Ine ~'tote'~ and. restaurams ..t In ad.dit:i:ou;, I[~j.ei[i:r:l.reg1il'~ated, ature ali' UU[OO~:ni' and n oonl~Ut1.erl i/!;'ith its olfb.e:r unique :re.aJi.Iu:re,s,;, alrLt'a0'i:8 cr,u:mut1a:~, to ~tU~ form ali' ];taY.lret1it and. rtra:t18Jer me~'ioCL

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(UiIFOUO') :FBI :1~J;tOI:'iI.'u:r.lg and.~ar.la'~y']g:~,reveals ~jat cyree c1~,irmu:r.la'~ IU8e eJ!ffittmh:: pti.;m~elit
and v:~t'ii:i[ia'~ u:r.rer:ld~,~ as, a, 1II;';:},y[0 :~ll:r:l.d.er.:Infir:l.ey and to purchase or re:U~eyrer good:g, o 1 at1d services :Ut1. :fijj:t'ii:~.e:rat1ce ~j.eur cr.u:mUt1a'~ ol~;ecrtu 1fe,s,,8 :Bit OOUt1"~ik.e t~je.ge otber '!.~imilua:~ : currencies, provides opponunities :fm cr,irm:Ul:1a'~80 ilt'an:!der,;, :~nmder, or steal :fund:g. :Bitooun :U8, [ .. unique beeause it is the O:r.I:~y d.eoer.lJt:l~a:Uilled.;, :P.2P :r.lffi'i/!;'ork-!l~ed, V:~1:'i1:iUa'~ c1u:r.rer.lcy., ']'~'i.e i/!;'ay it ere are 8,. ope rate 8,. and. d:u8rtd1:fllli:~, ~lre O:Ut18, :Imk.e~ :U d:i;sl'U:t101'U 8ilJ8oeP.tih:re to :u'mdt mo:t1.e,)' I[ \fe'~,)' tta:r.I:!lre:It'i,. and :Imr.l:upu:~t:ion ~'trou.gh ~j.e 1\J8eali' :Im:~i/!;'are and botneis,
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s (U) ~!i5~ ~1ilId~i:.:, C :00 a !!I'e~idp:i.iM of Ih.ow :BHm'ilili woilkri.. (U) l'ih.e :B:iJt::o:ililliiOlJEe CO!!I\2:iii.Ih.o:i1)li!j100li Gitlhl1b (h1~:llgilh1tb..oo:rnlihitl:co:illiib:itlm'ilill). 'lJiAhem !!Im~1ill!i :cfI1ili 'Ili!rn'lk fI.1MI1 !W.'I:ml:it dhft~. A:c001!!l1i1ili,g Ik!I fh,:itloo'ilill.mg ~Hl!ille is a 1'iI1.e~ !!I\2~l~:i. [OO'1J::W_IWIMy :con1lfo.l ooich cM~ ~ flo::~)li!jl 0IilI !l'Itlh1Jh. S {!'I'I ''''OJ' 0:8/bl[!l!J!, W~"'IL~I!!iJ"I.e Y.. 'L'''___' Iiii,y ',_. Ii"m fiu!! '[...__ .. ] , ~""'~ ~II ,:-o~!lKliI)i ... • ..,.j ,[" ' ·11,"" ,['iJill!;!
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~ 'Iill 'D ,.;.......... ;'1:''''''''''''"''"1['';''''''''''' ,.,,""'" :"U!I:"~"':'~JaJ. "",,,'II;,,,,,,, ~'-";' ~.,,._,""",,'II· ;, ",it= 1:"1""""[' ;."",,, 111U:.a ,." ~·!'.I:·'1_;i~', (U.XlEY..lI.I. i:f"1l) ' ,~.~~ ,U!:~,,,,,,,:,:~:,.,, oi,.,,,,"'" LU,.,,,, :.a",", .]..-,.~":Il;,,II"~.J u.,.,.~:.,.'''-'j,9 !UU'L I["II~"" u.1.I.~y :,:,.,.1.0:,,:, ... :LU,." .IL.''''I[·' :OCIe :nli.'hfiie,g,3,:Bitooun user :U~;3,lA~.d.ora:ndol:b·"Uj' is gerle:r.ated :Bitco:un ad.d:re ss, :Im brig rtibe ; na nsa ot~ O:r.Is s 0:1:bie 1II;,\bat::mony:1'bl ou s (:g ee rte.lJi: box),., 'FlJ't~ pote :r.lIi'ita:Ur.lotl,j' :I'nlit)' :~ d:ust :ur.l!l)t:[rol'bl rtil'le a al:lony:l'nl:L1)' P:I:'O'lru(I,ed ~)y o'i!be:l~ e'recrtl,'OI'I:UCpay:lne:tlil: :!1,y1Stel'bl~,;, e:'£a:l:bl]lUe'j We1;:MO:ljey and, Li1:teI:'ii:Y FO:I: :R~erve-III;\I:1:udh :Im,), a'UUow users to :I:'egh~rter iWith :[,"~e :~r.I:["O:t'matuO:r.I'j, :SLis,pucihijJ~, oot:u'lo!My go unnotieed, O:I~are Ioeated :un a COU:ljltl~y rtiI'IaJi:j;g, not :ffj~,uendJy [0 US :na 'II;' e:IIIf"o:I~l'bletlJi:~l'u:UU operate as : OOI'bl p,iltl:Ue:!1'Ii;' ith OOtlil:1'.il'Uuzed, :rganu zaItUo:t1.c:a:l:ta1iUe o:f :Utl8Jturuli'U:t1g o lj;rogt'.ill~, to ensure co:mpUuatl.oo 'll;'i~'I. the Bank Sec:recy Aut (BSA.}...
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(UllFO'lJO'l Asa decer.lJi:1'.il'U:ir:red.d:~lt;3'U oLi:l:'.l:'er.lCY~yilrtel'bl'j, :BUrtoou:n ll~kl"i,::Ii, oontt,a'Uuzed. er.lli'ul), ~oand
:uljcapahUe aiT OOr.t(lfllcJi::Uljg due .il:u'Uugellce (e.g ..j, :reglu'Uato:ey gill:irle'UU:r.I~}.j mO:I:l:llO:lir.lg and. reportmg :!lijJ~)~CihUil, OCl'~~U~)''j.t'til:r.I:r.I:Ur.lgn ar.lltu-:I'nlOr.le,)' :Uaur.I.de.d:r.lg c O:I~~Uuar.l.oo l)rogr.am;. or aooep.tur.lg and a p:I:'OOe~:UIj;g :Uega'Urequests :Uu:ke:gilJ~~Ij;ilS,;,

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([J) ]!!:.i~m.ililis. flrurolJymi1.y i!I~lil,ds, 0JIi ~h12actions 0:[ ~h8 lU~r. Wllhi:~ :iO'Jb1@ M1N:i ariiichs.lh.flw lr:i1U.i!l12d1 :B.i1co.i1IIfIS, '\uJ11H1mflhl@ I!Ug:~iI] O1Jl~y. ~II ~ru ·'AIIlwmJi. ]H:'~co.i1II~If!'ilge 0JIi lb.i~M.ilili.mi!l: I!I~~ 1001.]5/i, flrurolJymi~,y flS. a fiJ:fI'IlUK:of ~ru O1Jne~y. I~ All ]!!:.i~o.ilili !HlIi1.SiI.mjOJLS. lPll'b:I.is.m;!!1OlliI.iM fIl1.tIl,[n1!Jjj'iMo'!, flro ]~oco] (np") ol!ll~ o fI1@ li~1 ~ ~ru lPll'b:Uc :B,i1co.i11I HlJI:i.iIctiOJL:i.. ,nr a user d~ 1i1.Oi, flR!i.Thyrn.iZ@lIhis.Olf Mif ,[1:0 flllIl!I'I8:i.s., fllili ,ili11;!m5!t:1!I1 slii1,y alJIi .i1!l8.TI.lify~h12 ~ p .imLiv.il!l:Ufll 's phys,iClll l~rtiOlli. I a I... I\lU~.ioJLa]]y • .illli ~1U]y liliIJ J r~reih.8J5. M :llromlih8 UlfhiwKi~,y Col~ge Dublin, I1cilfll1.tlll!l\J!ml1iJI:iIIHI~0!l1 '~ru ,i~li11.lilR1it:i of fllimJlJyrni~,y ~ 1U.:iUt,g :B,i1oo.inr ~ O!!i.ll.i!I:Ucllil!l.,g iw ~ arul1ys.is. 0:[ 'IID,~ 116~,~ 0:[ JPU c :B ,~c bli eim .iIIlI'r'OJilblati :ilUclIJ a;. 111 0JI1, anssc ~j 0JIi ro 000' Ill:" fllIllIl user ~.i11I:[So 0:[ JPU ,i: -,]lt1i 1fijIt; Ike ys.. bl 'I'1h.8 roS!2fl1i"Clte1f5. :iIU~:i'I, dlhBl.:lflw ellll'[wc81ll81l1. i@J:ociGS. O'I ~r OJ!1ilIil'ru,iZ0!lISBT"!I.i:GS.(:ilUclIJ a;. 8\d-!urit,!,J-ti.r.i' OJ roli!:i.ihlf5.) 'I.'iAh.o ~ &:02:;5, ~oless JPU'b:I,i:.iIlll'Fo:rrnfl'lo~1ili balltk account .i1lll'['OJ"iRlfl'ljOJli sbhiJll\Pillli,!!; ( O'I fll!I\lI~S.) Cfllili OIro"I.1L@d, 0lG11i 1Ibl0Jl2 roru 'IJI!rn']i!l1illl\J;11i , ifiers ~o:Bi~ooilili '11.'flIIGisflMI ~Hlru&:iiiOJli IIhtirlOJ',~s..I~

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([J) Crofl'l", fIl1J!IllU~ fI mw ]~j~ooilili &!I1!I'rG:is.:for @t'Ciru.iIi1OO'Jbl.i1!l.,g JI1'fIYlfmli1t. ([J) ]i!:01Jl", all :B.it:o.ilili ~rnf[jc ~fu"01J;gJli fI1II ~yilbl.il".8J. ([J) Co:rnlbim ~h8 1bslr:i1i102 oM Ri~ooilili ai!ll!l'1e~s. .i1i1'W!1MW fll!I\!I'I8:.;.s.~ mm MW [!'fIYlfmIi11£. of fI ([J) U ~ s ~ciru.imI!lIIlblOJL8Y ]suM\J;1Ii1lt,g SBTV.i02. ([J) U ~ a ~hiicl~fIl1I,y @ Wfll~~, SBTV.ic@~o C~:~i!lfI~ ai!ll!l'1e~:3.. Som@ dhirl!l~lii1,y SBTV.i~ of[iJ:i ~ru0[!'1i0Jli o[ Clf@flrtillli,!!; @Ws]h~, ~hsI,ru]01N:i.IU~1I"S.~o~lio!llfl'l", S1Ii IIblfIliliy lbi~Ol1\illlif:JI!Il!I'Iess. fIll.i!I :i'I(!(i"@ fIMIl @fIs,ily SIT.8:iii rihe.ir lbi~M.ili1S.fii'o:rn fI1IIy 1!I\w.im . ([J) ,~lll!lhill,id:Ufl:1s.t:IlIli Crot:I~'" :B.i~m.ilili cl.ents ~oS!2f1Jbl]G:iS,ly,ili11:li'@fIS!2 c SrurolJyilbl.~,y (:ilUdh es sllow,il!l.,g user ~o ~ 'Whidl1l Ri~0ilili &!I1!I'r~s.!e IIblm [!'fIylfmli11s. flfo:rn), 1Ibl;~&:il!l.,g @;!'[i,i8J:for 1iGli-fi!J:CihThi:ruly st:J1f1f1j 1U:;gfS. ,i~, ~o srumymil".@ Iihe.iij' :BHCl1i.ilili~ii"i:I~IIiOJl:i..

i;i;',Urtill :I:biedill:l'nl eonfidenee rtiI~atj,:Utl,rtibe :neat' term, cylbe:r cr,u:mutla:~, 'I!;':u'UU treat Btlooun as, another l);aY.lmer.llt option ::Ii'UO:r.I~ude :1'nlo:I~e rteoo:uticm;a:Uand. e:mabUu:s'l'Ie(l. ~UI.'iilua:U curreneles sueh as W e'b:MlO:r:leY'i' i;i;'~'ti.dh ~he:,)' ~'1a,ve :Ultt'Uereason to a1);a:ndon;, 1"1I:1:u~, a~e.g:!l:l:bier:llt :j;g,

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(U) :e;:ioc:o:ililiai!ll!l~:>. &I@ ~.i!I~iID!I~:e:j]ii10!Il by :ri.02i!1jCllj~ ..eem as. g€lM 1fflI)2!!11 a i!I'€[i llIii~~ nenrs ruI~, .:: :rb1J?UjllJll OJIfIl by o G:is. .. ~

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based on :[Uiil0truat:tiO:tl8,:un the bitooun e.x,d.l:u:mge rate :un 2011 and :~:umured.re:tj;j)f~'Utlg ind:tcat:utlg ~~;. ...~';I ~~~ .. 'It.-. 'I'it II.. . it . !LJ.ltoonrl~,are ~~~. !~ntlg aorep:iZu.~, paY.l:nenl[ . ~~ :gome o),!lJ'I;:;rc.r,nmu:t1al>:'l,., ~I eJ{c~j;arlge rate ror ~,; !Dly , :~.llll'l.e !ultoonrl~, :grt:lh~:Uirze.g,t and :Bireoun ~Olne,g, :I]lOI.'e 1/I;.':0CI.e:~)' aeeepted b)' ""en~j.o:r.!i and :m~dltge'U~e:r.!l rtlI'I.e : on Intemet, c}\he:l~ c.1~,~:mut1;a:~, :UljC:I:'eaS;Utl,~:>" bitcoUtl8 rto 1:r1l:r~har.e iU~~'~ goods and. 8e:I~'!ri:ce::g nd :I:nay use a to :fund. :~:m~ga'~ '!rltUe.g,., aot~
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(UHFOUO) A8 o:ff Ooto:be:r 2Dll;, a, cyhe:r cr.u:murla:~ se'U~:urlga, ZellS botnet ']'rojian OO:V:U800,
rtlI:l;ilrt j.e Otl:~y occep.ted pay:rne:tlli:8 ~:r.OU~:l. Bitooin, Ll1le:t'Ii:}, :Re8e:r.Ve:;,or WehMotley,;, ~ :acOOrd:Ui:lg Ito a, OO:~:IlaMr.i,u.'UveOOll1'Ce w,~rtlI'l. good :acce:SR; l/I;.'~j,OOO :unifo:r.l'bUt:to:n ~1:a8, ot been n
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(U) ,A.coord:ur:tg Ito open OOIU1'Ce :repo:l:'ii::ur:tg:ag,o:ff June 2Dll,,;, an orl:Uurle :lml:'ketl~llace C.ili:U~d. S:U'Uk oad 1/1;.'.. 8,8e'mtlg iU~g;,"~ d:l!ug8, and, Otl:~)' aorep.ted p·a),:r:netlJi:rt!I'j;roiiJ~j, :B:UIbooUtL, i~:Uk R S :Road, a:U1.'o ed ]);a:m::i:e,g Ito oommiiJ:rI:i:caJte arl.o:nymoiiJ:~~'~)' for rtJIjepurehase :and, :g;,"~eo:ff :~'~:~:~ iN goods, Ii:O inelude the purehase o:hU~e.g;a'~ :tlarootuCli" :un adliitUon Ii:O iiJ:g;Utlg:Bit ooun,;, OLiMOI:ne:I~, cO'Ill\rl, a'~oo :~ea\!'e :r'eed.ooek ;aOOLiit rtlI'leuj~purehase experlence :un a :g~Ite:I:n :ltiil:n:~'Ila:I~ Ii:O ot her Otl:Uu 8e'U~ rs .,;tI, ne e

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(UNFOUO) As o:f JI\J:rle 2D 1.1.,;. a memlbe:r. o:i rtlI'Ieonline h'(I,:kiJ.'w~igroup :Lu:ItzSec 'll;'as, iiJ:g;ung Bitooiin Ito purchase ;a bernet, :ocoo:oo:Utlg ItO an :FEa source, 801:ttte o:f w'hooe :repo:r.t~:tlg had been 00I.'.1:'01:I0:r.::.too, It~lat ~l;a;d,reported :fo:r :~~:g than one :year."" ~iiJit

donations 'II;',U rtlIl,OUitre '!!ea'~:urlg rtlI'Ie :OCI.e:tlli.itre&, rt!Ije owners or. the o:f rec :~j:i'e s, :Lu 'ItzSe e 1)1:'0 m \ride d. iiJ,p.d;ate8, a1:tO'"uitrtlIle donations rtlIley reeei ved ~)y rtlIla:l:lkutlg donors :P:lllb:UocJ,)'!rUa,:M 8, ' a1lu 11.11X1at on rtlI'les oou a'~:rleIi:'II;'or:k::Url;g8U es te ']' 'Ii;' itter,

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(U) No &1il"ti-'JblOJl"",y ]ffiJJl!!l\J!1i'i1iliJl: ;i(!i1ii,'I.\!fI1ro: or IIblo:ru~(!IJ',ing ea pt&.i lhi €;:i ~o .i;!itm.tify ;;rusp.~.ieus
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([J) Noll1iiiiMM.iCfj] roOl1JJlll:"of iIl'M:itt:IliOJL:i ~,tM0!l1 w.illhi Iro:fI] 'IlOW]dI,i;!itintity. J!I.if:Eic:uM~o .idt:Iil"ti:Fy ~he origililfLi 0:r::nUM5 00.11"0111 ~o0100 enline C1Jl~:C.i",,",.
MOO'€; €;Iilifmcr;11m

OOI:l:["ud.e:I:l,ootlIlat :l:na'U:Udou:g, eters 'II;':~'U~ r a ex,p:~~[ IHtoo~n to :Ilau:rtder :mo:t1e),; ']'~'1e oot1:["ude:t1,oo :~ '!fe'~:~8based on 011OO:rved Cr,Urblntl;a:~ oot:uY.U 8., tie :nn'!fe:M:Ug;ilt:to:rI , and P1.'O;g MUJt ions o:f :~rI£I:u s ~~d.1j];a'~ :llaiiJ:tl..rl.e:r,ntlgI:notle}, Iiib:roLi;gft'l,ot her v:~t'Ii: : lJ.ia'~ currencies, 8iiJd.h as e-Gold and Weh~Ijey,;, A :Ilack o:r :~'iii'\'t'Ii::Ut1:Cl: ~j;~~["uc Ito :Bu!i:OOU:t1. restriees .,...,,~ 0.""',1,
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""ii:;,..;!" , ',', -,II.-., - r '-, .'11.' ed: ---'11"" "..,-, -, -, _'_' IW'l.econnoenee 'II - r 'II ,:;:;,U.t1,Ce - '-'", U~, ,~e\e~" 1:0':, - '0:, .U!,~rroo:~,n~I', not ~J;;he ',' a,oot1[,r,;:h,i1"re ,a1J!w'Ior,u'L)' ( see re..l[ ~_ " -. ,', ' page 11}6..l, on s:n~.);, :~ 'Ii;J enforeement :r~e.g, d:uffioult:i:e,R :un d,eteot:urlg :!iiin~pucio1J:!i, acrtu \pit)'.;, :uderl!tu:rY,U:t1g users, and. "~_,-,,,' ,," -,,''', "'" _,-,,~~'II _ ,',--', ol:t.1a.unut1;g,-,,-', [,l..ilt1S00UOn -,',1~OhJ:g,.._p:ro:u.~e:I]\!l, '11.',,-,_ .I'blu&'1[ :3I1rrr.ilC1[-,,_-'11" lw'la[ ',~II_--',-,-" ,lm.~I.'C,to:uS, ,-,', oomrs, 1[0 '0,'-' ,'- ',I',.u '0,'-' ," u.l1COUn" ii" ,u;.l1COun ibecOI'ble&, :1'blO1:'e'I!;',ud,e'~yaccepted amol:l;g '!fend.o:I.'oS, tld users, rtib.e :FBI atll1::i:cul:tate.s, see:ntlg :nnc:l:'eaSoo, a Bitoo~n mot1.ey :~iiJ:t1.d.e:r,ut1gaot~ ~iHe.'!"L

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ct:',umun a'~groulJG were iIl:su:rlg an Orl:Uu:rI.erolep:~yUt1;g game to :r~:u'Uurtate :1'bl0t1.ey :nau:t1de:r.,ut1g ~y purehasmg ~iitlilua:~ game .oli:r:re:t1~y i/i;':i.ii1:1 rifI'I.e proceeds of c:r.,Umu:rla'~aoi'U \fit),,;, acoooo:ung Ito an FBI sub-source oJ unknown :re:UnaJb:u'Uul)' 'Ii;J~.o:se reporrtu:tlg ~as,not been e or.robor.at ed 'F1b.e v:h'ij)jJa'~ game 01J:r.t:'etlc}, was, used Ito _ purchase :u:t1,~p'me \rUl:'ii:rLia'~ :urtems Ithilt 'II;Ie:I:'ethen soM Ito other li~aye:I.'oS, :fm "dean :mot1.ey",·,24

(UHFOUO) As off ]'iIl:rI.e 2iH 1;,org;;,mired.

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(UHFOUO} In AugtiM 2D 1,0an :FBI source i;i;.',~rifll (I:~:r.eot ;ac_ce8:lj, biJli: of ii.l:nd.ete:rmUtl.ed.
re'~:ililb:U:Ult)' mated rtibat he illSed :r-a:k.e:rla:lne:g to regi1srter. :fo:r. We'bMorl.ey,;, a, dl:'ij)iJa'~ o1J:r.rericy eleetronie payl'blet11i: :g,y,grem" aeeounrs i/i;'~'1:Uc~'l. used, as, 1~1'ii: of a, :1'blOt1.ey:~"--Il:t1.d.e:I:,U:t1;g he service, '],[l'i.e OOIl:I.'Ce estered Ito cy~:t.eJ: c:I:,umu:t1;illlg 'I!;'~'i.o earned :1'blO1:i.ey:[I.'01'bl iiariJi-ng actU\rUl'~e.g, ~iJlt IIMIm were not ah:1:e to tr...1~:r-e:r :1'blOt1.e},oult of the United rtat es ~y It~j.emse'~ ves ,,15 t

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(UNFO''lKIIo) 'F1l'i.e :FBI :r1ll:I:'ii:~.e:r ssesses wit~'i, :r:nIelI:Uii.l:moor:i:f"ud.e:t:1re;, ~:t-ased 0t:1.111:'e'r!:i6lJ.dy 'll;'it:t:1.e..i"ised a :mU:!rLi:!l off ot her 'r!:ul:'ii: .011 rrenci es ,;,rtibat mam:c_~ou s a ctors could :~ crease rifI'I.e~ at1ony:l'bl~ It}' ~y e liJa'~ n r :na:U:rI.d.e:r.,urlg [~'1.e:Ur. b:Urtoo~:rlS [~'1.1:'Ou~'I.rtih~rn,-pa1'ii:y Bitooun services regume:r.ed, outstde rifI'I.e UEL. Some off rifI'I.ese serviees aet as e.x~'I;ilt1ge:rg or rt:1:at1:!lmitrte:rg (see rte,:d ~}6..l, on pa~ e~'1Jt) rifI'Iat oonve:I.'ii: v-:ul:'ii:ii.la:~ currencies Ito fililt cunencies (01: 01ib.e:I: 'r!:u:l.'iiJiJa'~ .o1J;1~1:'e:tlcie:!l) 1: rtl:a-tlS:fe:l: bitooutl:!l bet 'Wee:t1.:1'blemibel.'oS", 0 Orlf'8'l'Iore services may provide oo.dit:Uo:t1a'~ at1onymu[y ~y a'[bll;',u:t1g currency e..l:ch,mge or. :1'blOt1.ey -",,,_' ",' "11.' ,-' -, -~' ,,'-it- . _' l ,_"it" '-_-" _'- ,_ " -_'_"';',• II_-, _' '11'.,_ '-, II.'I,aJjg~e.l. I/I;',U'w'lbiJ[ \e.l..u~:>"mj;g llusei,:·';1 -_,-, ..ii:; • -':", _' 01, e.n~ol~mjg au)' .I'blOlj~Lal,j'.- exc~'1;:m;ge ,uU.I'blllS ,uu.e:ljn.~,~1.Uon '" ..
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(U'NFO''U(!Io) A8 of Feb.:I~iJa:l)
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au :Ud.e:I:lltUf"UOO, :irnd:u'r!:Udjila'~operated a We~ s~rte ofte:I~,Ulj;g :1'blOt1.e},:nali:nd.e:r.,ut1;gservices ~'I.ere cybe:r. cr.,umu:t1a'fuj could vie w the progress of rifI'I.eu:r. tl:a:t1QctuOt1s acool:(J:u:t1g to a, :1:'e:Uililb:I:e;, c6Unaool:aH ve source 'l!;'iiil'l. exre~:I:et11t access ..']'~:1.e :nt:1.duvOCljLia'~ llaunde red :1:'blOt:1.eyJjs:~:t:1gWe1iMot:1.ey. 2t I
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in,\ "IjI1 ' ".. '11.' 1k.."~II·'oo:n~,uu.er.lce; !~CU, ~';I on " ,re~,il:,h).~e,UnuJU8ILt:',)'a.r.lu 'FD'I',"r.epol:'iJ:ung, " ..;;;,';1, ; " '11.',,1 'II ,"','" nr ...... me '!:'D'I' '.', r,ll;,, assesses 'Ii;',U'wln~l ,' (U'~'lI:\f'!I;I' ~J liiI'IaJ1: CJ:,u:m~i'l;ild~:~t1i1:e:tldutlg to 8rtea'U b:uli.\OOu:tlilj can m:r:get a:nd, e:tp]:o:u~ Itlbiril,-:Ililr.'il:}, :B:~li.\OOu:nervices and. an s :ur.llI:u ~OCIjjJ;,'-U'8 :~Ii.\OO~:n'IIo'a:urert;, n pr,ur.ldp;''-UU}, because liiI:ter.e :il!;, no oter.llt:ra'U:mli.\OO~:nserver ro co.r~j1'fimu:!ie,., Ma'U~eto:uilj, ~Ii:o:r.'tl, can oo:lnllr:amure :poer1=lOij;3j'U OOmlfllil:e:r\l1, and. aeconnts lUilj:urjg :ma'~war.'e and hac:k:uljg te dJ'tr:d'que:!'i Ii: 0 :M e.:.-UIli re:lIi.' ~iU li.\OOu:1:1A odllit:i6:I:1;3j'U ih:1:1:iq,Ilie,g, K tee :unV'6Uve liiI'Ie erea l'i6:n af botnets to oo:r]lproml;se \l:~ot~m computers and servers :ur.l8itl!ucrtir.lg them to mU:r.le bitOO:Ur.l8.
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(U) In :mi:d.-JiiJ:tle 21)11 rereard.bern, :[ror]l a :rujor oo:mp:uJter 8oou'd~}' :fhtm.;, '\MI~,ot.e :r.epo:t:'ii.'ung has, been :r:e'Uuah:rein liiI'Ie l~li:j, dis 00 ve1:OO, IiiIje m;j]j"Uwa:r:-e '~[nf'OOrte;j]j"re:r:.Cour.ln:r.if·--liiI:1e fllrS[ :rm:U'Ii;'at'e (I.e8~gr.I,ed to 8rtea'U 1b:~!tOO:~:r.l8 :lfrom oorm:l~rorm:ilieil, users' :mli:oo:~:n iji;',;turet, l'~'le :rm:UI/i;'a:J.'e :I;s, e.iliJlilIb:re 6:f:u:nf'OOt:~t'ig users' eoraputers and tra:t'i~:fe,l:'r,~t'ig [~eut:' d~glt:'-U nitoo~n I/i;';ilmet to a, "." ,36 " server rn ,Fb:Uarld .: (U) In June 21)11, a, Bitoonn user posted a :r~8;j]j'ge Oil a, nireoun :f'6:r~Il:l]l 81i:::lJtungIi:~at 25,;,(0) liiI'le:ht bitooins had been Mo:re:n :lfrom an unencrypted :B.Uli.\OOu:n 'li;'a:uret on rtlbe:ht OOr]llYIlJter:,.,:J,.·:J,&,:W AJt [~'1e June exd'lar.l;g,e rate 6:U aJboult $21) per: !b:u!tOO:u:rl;, e:M:urmJted value liiI'Ie 6:U liiI'Ie less """ag, $.5lXl;,C:XXt

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(UHFOUO} Ac:oo:rtH:tlg to ..,cOlnplla:unli: reeei veil, !by luhe :fB1'81tlite:met Cr.,nl]le Conllllla~:tlJi: Center :un A,p:r,u'~ 2DIl;. an indi \pOCIjjJ;il'~ 6'80 IbitOOUrl8, stolen :[rom ~'1:i>!i ~'1;OO, orl:U~:ne game site. At
lub.e l'urne o:f rtihU8:u:tlc,OCI.e:tlli: :Imrk.et lub.e price " w~, $'8. lier bitooutlo;, creatu:t1:I): a, loss o:f $j,;.440".:i.3 " 0.

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,Ui, , !I;

(UNFOUO} An :OCI.etlli::ulfred, lnrernet security researcher who.

~:1;as, eponed reUuah~y :un Itlb.e r l~rt :Ud.eijitU:Wred, ZeuS :1:ni:;"~W.ilI.'e iI!1'1;atUlj8rtamed. 8o:iw;ill.'e iI!1'1;illmUlj.ed lb:i.tcOUlj8", 'FlJ'l:u:g : Zeus so:fri:w:are 'liP'as spresd ~)y :~:urlkij 11llaced. 01:1. an :i:d.e:nll'ufiied 8OCu..:~net il!;'Qr:~d:ng 8Uil:e,,44

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(U) ,A.cOOOO:Uijg 11:0. iiJ:rloonWur.l'bleil, open source :I.'epurtung :[rorn a :Imj:o:r pel.',uoo:i:c.il:~ 'W~'I£k~ :repo:l:'rt:Utl;g ~'l;as proven :re~:u..b;~ itl, iI!1:1.e p.il:st;.a oottl.et made up o:f 1,{)O;lKIO :Utl:r-ecrted COI'bl]:rllJtefS, muM ~ used to generme $7,;500 lNiO:l[~'t o:f bil00uns per day;, ali: :Uali:e ]IU:I:I.e 20 1,.1. exdl'l;ilJ:lge rat es, ~jy 1iJ:!;U:rI;g iI!1'1.e OI'bl]JUli.'U resources o:f v:i:c'urn :1'bl:OO.hU .4-:S C :rI;g l nes

(U) 3~:rlre :~argcMjca:~ Ib:urtoo~:nmUrl:u:rlg requires a, l\arge amOiJ:rlli: o:f cooU}' processing power ..nd e'~ectr,nca:~ etl.erg}',; some :mu:tl.el:'.!lha,v"e resorted to "oorto'W:ung" ll~8:Utl;g power. from :llal:'ge OOI'blPilli.'Utl;g clusters rtlI:1:1:OLi~'i. computer :~:tlJtI~Li:g:to:n." a dll:i.tuo:n to lu:tlaLiJi:~'16:I:,iaed~e.g:g, 1[0. :l:i.etWO:I::k::g Itl. Itib.e:1:'te ~'i;il,Ve been :unci:d.e:tlJi1:li;,';lb.ere unauthoneed use o:r a, net 'N6:rk hOC!. been :~:utl:k.ed,to. mrtoo~n :mu:nUi:ig.,

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(UHFOUO} :FBI re:I)iQ:I:'it~:tlg from a, :re~:iJa11~e 011:rce :un(l:Uc.aJtedrt~j;ilt :u:nlate M...-y 20 I,I, an 8 unknown actor used se vet:'.a'~:~:u:~.es on a OOI'blPUitu:rI;_gcluster at an :~d.erJli.'~:lfl:ed. M~di/liJe.!lrter.n !U:n~ve:l:'g~l)' to matllLi:r~!U:re ~~Ii:OOU:t1.:!.t,46 o:r 2,6 May 2D.l.I",. It 'Ii;'O IF adil:1:'e.!l 8es 'Nere used ID A:g OOI'bllll:'Omi:se 22 :1'blOO.hU:I'I.es, :g;U:1:, and computer clusters, On 29 :~y 201.1..;. t'iW{) (i:uffeJ.'eI'lJi: lr ,~.""""" . " . ,'- .' ". ~~I, ..,· ,".~I "," - ,"". " ..'11 ,it., F ".'. 'I. "'. -',"". . ,." '" ,'11-" ''''' "ljI1' ... aresses oomllrol'bl~aJ, a n ... .u.lHOtl;il~ ,~,u\e ili;'Or,~2[;ilHOtlS, anu~I two eompurer C,lu81~1:'.!l",me
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unknown actOI: iI!1'1.en used the OOmlll:fimliged COI'blffLiJter& 11:0. ~e:gs n.et'N6:e:k:1i alt iI!1tl.'ee o.iI!1'i.eI~ ;,~I . it. ~~I . .. ~I· d.to gam ~e.gs, 1[0. two gover,nrnerlli: :~'OOU,~ltLe.S"4-1 . " . 'It· • :iJu.e:r1Ii.'M't'U. !U:n~ver!i~tI:e8, anu, tt,te

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(UNFOUO) H Bitoonn 8rta!b:u'Uuze&, and groW:!i :un 1101Yll'Ua:l:'ity,;,uli:i/!;':u'UU : beeonse an :~:r.lc'rea:!iu:r.I;gJ.)' iiJ8e:fiiJ'U tool :rO:I: 'rr,ilt,tiQ'U~, :uUega:U ;OCrtu\f:ul're~. e)'ond ~'ie c)ibee :1.'e,i.kUm. b FOI: :un~mljce;, dl'i:ulkL pOI:.imgl:.ap'J'i.)' and lnrter,r1ert gam~Uu:r1;g are :u:uUega'U 'rrit~~, a'Ureoo}' mkUrI;g llUaoo on ~'1e Internet 'II;'~t~, require S;UI'blPUe aotu p:il)':I'bler.lJi: li:r.ilr.l8:ifeI:'8. :mrtoouft mugU'iJi::Uog~ca'U:Uyatrtroot :I'blo:r.le}, :U:au:nd.ere:1:'8" jiiJ:I'bl n trn:fftc:k:er8j terrorists, ~ a and other c.1:',u:mujja:llg,WJ'IDavoOCl. rtl:ad:~rtuo:n:il'U i :Fu:tl;il'nc~:U 8),-menl;g, ~.)' iiJ:g;iltl;_gtiI'ie Inrerner [0 eonduet r g~b;a:U :I'blo:tleml:'), Ii::t'.iltlsfel:'.!l;, (UNFOUO') Altiho1J;gIb, B:~rtoou:n does not iba,ve a ce.r.I[:l:'a'U:irle.d.:illlil!1'lD:l:',urtY';1 FBI assesses il!;'ith rtiI'Ie :tbIe.d:tLi:I:n~o:nrOCl.er.lce ~'iaJi: :u... 'Ii;' enr'O:rcemenrt can diseover more :unifO:l:'maHon aOO'illtj and :un 80:1'ble ca t.e:!1,:u d.etlJtu:ry.;, :I'bl:illud OU 8 :il ctors, :uf Ii: he ;OC tors eon vert rtiI'ie.u !b:u r teoms :Utlli:Oa :ilii:at Currenc )'.;,']' hird1'[.'1";': ~",;,;..,......,.,' "..,...: 1';'.,-...,.., ,I<; require .,-..1·.,;· ,.-,,1,).' !Is., IL'-'I.J'.U ,1.1, ",,~I,'!.,I.'O..i'i:""'I.... '.. · .I,~. ,u."I.~..,U ..,'

eo ~ol'bl]lUere

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........,,1:':' "' lLU ........

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tram~oot:i:otlK; :Fll:I.'ii:~'ie.I:',I'blo:re,;1 rtiI'i:~:OCI.-p~)' service ~'i;a[ q.ili;a'U:uFte8ag a, :I'blo:tle), au)' tta:tl:!1I'blitJte:l:"i'and. 1i:~'1e.rer'O:re Msnjl miiJ:!rt reg~rte:t' W,U~'I.~'1e :Fii:nCENi and :ul'blllUel'bletlit an atlItU-:I'blo:tley a '11", ';1 . ,lkIill:nll.le.I:,Rr.I;g:I.'Ogl:am;, 1Ml' P

-'}.'lFQ;U-"""') " ~'1D U:!i,ur.lg,Ui,ul[OOu.n"', Cu.lXlu.I'bl'!.·e,r.I['D!:"'" "regu.lliJl,i:O:r.I~ ( e.g ..; ,. ',." ,'D,", ',', . ItO " -", .. ". , .' ,u;;;;;:;,~, , ,,"'11"',,',, .I:tt1O:r.le,)' (UII, '. . 't.,li,' WII.' ,,' is I"" :Uaal:I'IiI.eI.'e.I,'ij }"P

(UNFOUO) 'IDh~s :u:ljlte'U:U~e:nce.;a;g:g~8meljJi: 'II;':u'U:U :adilj.'e.:§g. :1:eq.iiJ:Ui.'e.I'ble:ljJilg OOijli:a:Uned. :un ~'ie :r6U:Uo'll;':uljg :FBI NaltUo:r1a:UStlrld;u:tl;g CO:[Ueot~on :Re.q.ili'ure:tne:tlJrn, topies: Botnets oorllt:a:uned. :un WW -HOI -Cl'D'B:R,-0O27-1l;, :Mo:r.ley Launderfng oomtailr.led. :fin U3A.-ML4.-CID'-S:R,-OOJ,2-I.o.;, eyrel:' lr.llt:l:1il8uO:r.I:g 'll;'i1ih a, Cr,nmu:tla'U Ne..l:Jijij, ootlltaUtled. :un "'WW -C'fB:R.--CYD-SR.-(lt6I.-I.O; and V:U:l.'ii:iiJa'U iO:l:'M~·IO~tl:Uu:tle W (lal'ble:!i. ~O:r.llt:au:ned.:un WW-CYB:R,-CYDc...SR-002;.B~I. I.;,
{[J) niiii. ~Bl11: 'I/i!tti [cQ'8J1'i"I.Ii"!2!!11 ~M :[)@:m.esti.::: ~ 1]rnudl3. C~ ,~Iil12ni;gelilm Ulilii~~T€Clhru1\lo.gy C~ :11L1)?:lI.i~e Ulllii~~rulilIllihe Fill1flil.1::~l Cr!im~ :~1il1~lligelll.'m'[Jlilli~: :r~nte F81. QirnmQ11l3. fllMIl f.l1J~r!i~ lIm,y!be fli!I~l€:i-£0lI111e ~ntemi~: o ciJiiefs. t-I~:201-fElS:.I.-J®S:.I.. 201..(!ij.l.-J·,I,)9 OJ; 201-J\2:iI.-$~. 1[~G1:i1mly ..

'DU~~~ -III~' .!o ";L', ,iit:ll~'II_..' ''', '. ~~." ','. -"," .. (see ,- -', , ..... r'\s- ....-.. " ~. ". ·'II.~.",";1 , (U)',IlI!',I~1n. ..W.., 'I;"~' ,F.!I., uam, dLC lw'lal stores !ulTCOUnOUJ~I:'er.lC:>, app;e,r.lllUX, ...... ,..,. user uui/!;'.r.l.n,,jJu:!l :!l0:fri:'W;a1:'e a, :1Je:I,'ijOt1;i:"~ to OOI~:fIl!i:eJ: or :I]\Il,Y use an ot1:U~:ne;,Ub:~:IXI.-p.at'il.)' r provider to create a wa'n~~ (o:fren caUeil. an e w... ~:~) store ~~rtoou:r.l~,", to
..;J.~.

(U) :B;j)tnetsi A:rty grou.p o:f two or :1nD:re OOIDp"IlIi:e1'g,andlor :moh~'!:e deviees that are OOI:lIi::roU~ed, and/or updated :rel]lo.te'~y :fm an :~'UUega'~ puipese .. :Bortn~:!l can be used to per,ro:r,1]l d.en~a'~ 0:[ service atrtac].'~j, send ~,p.am e-:nu:u'fi;, ~'1.oort :~:U!:e:e;"~ content, and. :Im)' aid. :u:n:~rt oiher rtype.R 0:[ orl:Uu:ne e.r,u:mur.la:Ue.l'ia, ~io:r", b (U) Caird~ng:,rUbe0.01 o:f rtra-rIftc:ku:r.lg and/or :nllrO:I:,m:aHoll"
.,. (U)''I"'i~' , ,L!'I;;~JLra:

:['t'au£l.iiJ'!:e:r.l!i: 0:[ stolen C:rMLt cam. aOOOUr.l1i: use

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(UlFOUO)

I~er underground:, 'IDbe e1i:ite:t18~ re net 'IiP'Ork :f mem1:te:rg, engaged, :un cylbe:r. cr.ilne o o OCl'~~u~ies that ha ve a, unique :fia:ljguage;, an underground OOiQ:r.lOI]l),,;, set o:f e.M:.]l'e0.taHOr.l8aJIDU!i: its a membe:r&' conduct, and, a 8y:Mel]l 0:[ ooc:ita'~ 8Ii.t'.aHftcaHon ~~d. on kno'li;':~edge;, 8ku'U:~i' and aot~ vitses,
(U) :E!leetmniic p~ynlC1lt :5ysi:elnl:5i:P:ro~OCI.ea secure :mearl8 o:f tl:"arl8[err,Urlg mOrley amorlg parrtUe8 to :f,...d'Ht:are e-eommeree and operate iUS:Ur.lg real :mor.ley or \!:imIlua:~ou:rre:r.ley. El:eotror.l:OC; paY:lner.l1i: :!l)'-men\.il eu~'te:r a'UUo'WlJ.ily:merlli::!i ro be :1'Wide ibertlllo'ee:r.tusers, vendors, and Gt11'le:rm erohajj!t 8" or rt~jey : Ot1:~ya:UUo'WlJ.ilY.l]lerl!i:8 to be :I~e between users or. aeeeums, l'lbere:hs 00111'1. :reg1u'fiaJtedsector and a a sector o:pe:l~at:Ui:1g ourside :1~lu:fiail,o:r)' s,Y:!irten18"

(U) :E:.'\",ehang.e:n;,i Oi:1ht1e entities ~:1aJi:;, a :ree", convert c.ilSib." ~iiI:'ii:iiJa'~urrencj, :r'Or e or d~glt;d g6~, ou.r:rency into ~e rtype 0:[ ou.r:rer.l.cy requesred .. In gerl.er.a'U;,indi ~0CI,1jj;;:"~8 must use an e.x,o'J'iarl;ger. to deposit :1nD:r.ley mro an e'~eot:ror.l:OC; paY:lner.l!i: s~rte:l]l ocoounli:, unless the e'~ootronlc ]JaY:lrer.lJi: i!i)'''8rtem [bag, a, li.hys:OC;a'~:~oc.at:UoI:"L, Iii De Ii:O rt~'i:hg, :r'OOt"exdl'ial\geJ,'ij, are a, ~urta'U:Ilal.'ii:0:[ the :11~or.ley :~i;i;' for e'~ootror.l:tc paY.lnenrt 8;,Y'8rte:I]l8, nd ~imtiiJa'~currencies, a (U)

:mat Ou:r,I:'>CIDCY:, MOrley

:1nCId.e:r,t1, eurreneses,

~'iaJi: ~'1;as,va'UiiJes6~Uy due Ii:O gove:ljj:merl!i: :re,glu:~t:[or:l. or :~ai;i;', :fiJoort .. ifu,ch as, ~'1e 'US d.o:n~at'at1d the :Bu:ro are filat eurreneies.

(U) :Ha.ekJtivlists,i Ir.lduv:~dJual~, or groups 'IMI,tO atrtack. computer 8Y:!i[eI]li!i Ito d:ra,'II;' a11i:er.l!tuor.l. a, ro pal.'ii::loll:~al~:i;ssiIJ.e;:nr.l:[fue:r.l!tel:fLllhUtc opunloll;, or p:U:r.l:u~hpe:rceu'r!ed er.lltul'U~ who O]~;tOOe rt~:1.eUI~ :oo.e6Uogtca'U posttions.

(U) IOitermet :Rehlf Chat (1:R.C}i A :fmm 0:[ re.a:H~:rne lrl!i:er,rlert sYrld'l.t'Orl6i1J:l.:; eonference, ma:url:Uy d.e&:Ugr.l,ed,r'Ol~ : group OOml]llil:r.l:lca~'io:r.l. :U:r.l. d:i;sOUS8UOr.l. :fo:r.UJ'b\.il .aUed dhar.l:ne'Us" bl.i!i: al~o aUoi/!;':nr.l;gonec
OCHl:t1e OOInI]l iIlJti:c.ail.'i:o:n'Irua,]ll.',Uvate :Ine:s.sages.

(U) :M'a1waife 0:1" Inla!He»us :sofitwaife i COI]ljYllJte:r oo:ff[ 'Nare rilb;at :f'lil~JUltate8 :u:nU~citoot:~vit:i:e.s'i' ItO :nnclull.e data eJi:,:[ult:ratuon; d.enit:.-U o:f serviee atltatk~.;. :[1'au.d;, and :sp.a:IN d:j;gsem~:rlatuon.

(U) :~I!ll'll~ :OUcolll {a\so ililno"W1n. as,:Oj~ill, <C:rca1ikm~ :O~t:olll,('"iiC1l;era:1iio:n~ :OUcolll, and :M'anlllfaetu:r:ing)i T1b.e process o:f a:U&J,'N:nng IU'I.e:Bitooun network to 1U8e a computer's :re80U1'Ce8, :un
exch;"l:tge :f'6:I~IjjJj.e l~ib:u:Uul)' o:f e.a.:I~.ij:iJl:tg ib:i.tOOiJfl:!t.,T~'l.e :Infil.'e OOIN:lYllltUfl;g :PO'l!;'ej~ a user o:ffel\l1.,. IjjJj.e more :Uuk.e:U}, Il!b.e}' are to reeei ve ~itoout1s .. (U) :rvfu.]le;J :s;eN~, ibIU:siill~S (,MSD,):, A.:ny pel.'&on dourl;g biJs:une&s :un one or :IN01'e o:f Iiib.e :fnUUo'N,u:rl;g caJ~itUe8.; 1IMI'l,O:UUy :un 8Ilin:t8~IjJt:~'U l:r.a~ i/I;',~rilI'l:Url, Unired gram,:, I,..} d.ea'Uer :un a :tb:reUgn 01' the exch;.,nge; 2",} dbec:k: cas~'tel~; :0 issuer 01: :seU:~: o:h:l:a,veUel:'8 dhe.ckij or fblOtl.e}, orders; 4,.,} :U:SSilJ.eI~,;. :!leUUe:r'i'or redeener o:f stored v.:.-rue; j.) :Infin e}' il1'atl.:!lI]litltel:'; 6.) U.s. :FtK!iJt:l:USer ~0C:e (3..1. C.:F .:R.., .1.03....1,,I,}..,sa (U) :~lnney tl1W:5!1l1~r~ A, person 1t!I'l;atprovud.eg :I:"bIcm.e},tratl:!l:mu~:Uon services .. T1b.e term ··:I]lOtl.e}, , .. ,,-' -: ',-' ,-,,' ",'''--It·, _'-'. _. '"W --, '-' ,;r,_,-, ·';1 " "1iI1-",I:'\ arne '11.-..11::ffijllJ'l-i I[ UIDiJ es -".:11--1[:1:' ans 1]l,1iS:g u on ser \ iees ,IN ea ns [~'1.e:ac reJll anee o:~ C 1U.I.'.I:e:rlC runes, 0:1:'0' te y;. ma --~,~-"----It :f~1:' o_u,:I.'.~t1Cr:[rol~. one p:r8,o:n ~~d .rilI~e il1'~t1i5mU.~:Uo:.t1,o:roU:I.'.~:t1cy,;. :~1jJ;t1il5'~ a1il'l,el:' lfa'tiJe rilb;at 0:1:' s ubst .llllllt es .ror 0111..1:'eI'lC),I[iQ anot ~'lel. location 01, per son ~)' a ,tl,}, .I]le,a ns .. (U) :~:r ..to---:Peer {P2P)i A [},P,e o:f net ili;l6:1~k:~f.l.lIMJ'l:~d.headh i/i;Io:r:kmatuo:n ~'l;as eq,iiJ;u\,ra:retllt CIlpa'hu'UitUe8 and, :l.'eiipo:nli~~u'UiHe8", :P2:P :h!i, [Y1?~ca'U:U}'IU:!lOO,for 1iI'le transfer o:f data, :[rom one peer. [0 atl0tlber ::md a:1.efree progral]l;g, rilI'!at can be e.a-.!i:U'Uy d.ow,t1:Uooded from rilI'!e It1lte:r,t1.e[., PZP :[u'Ue-41lbar,irt1;g :i;g, rtil'le 111:',iJl'ttu:l:'}, :gOIU:I.'re :r'6:l:'pUl:'aJted. :go:fli:ware., Sonle popular examl~Ue8, :urle'UlUlIe H:I]lew:irre,;. K:aza::li.;. and a :t1!UJte'U:U:a., (U) :Pulb1i&i; :Key Crypmgrapby (PKI, I:, A :[1'ame 'II;JOl:'k:fm c:le:aH:ng :::Ii secure :1]lerill'lOO,:fol:' e..'tchat1;gut1;g :u:nfot'mat:iot1, !biased on l?ub:u:tc :k.e}' c:rYlltogr. .. p'hy.., :PKI uses a certufucate auliiho:r,~l}' (CA.); w~'l:Udb,:~8.!1IU.eg, d:u.gurn'Uce~i::Ufl:Cate:!.j,[~'lat :aultiberlli'uc.ate the :i:d.e:rlltit}, o:f orga:rl:iv.::aHOrl8 and :~:nd:~~udjiJal~, over a p:ulb:UUcsyMe:m 8IUdh as liibe It1Jter.net., (U) :Rea:llnlo.neyi Coins 0:1:'1~1:' notes issued :1]le(li1J:I]l e.i1:dlatlge and :1]le:il:Sm.'e o:f v,;.-rue,.,

0:'

and backed ~ji}'a Wve:I:',r.tmetlit

and used as a

(U) 'V~:I!tua!1 ~l1:r,rii;mqi SO:I~lb:irt1;g used 0:t1,rtibe 1t1Jte:r,t1.e[~b;at :~, :Ut1, d:rou'UartUot1, ~ a, :rneiL~ijJ;m o:i exd'larl;ge b:UIt :h!i not Ib-.oc:ked. ~}' a govel:':rl:lrerllt., (U) T:rQ,jani ma'Uki:Oll:g ere d.etlli'Ual1!"i .

Zeus

:so:ffit'l!;lal.'e used b:}'

cy'beJ~CJ:,irl]l;Ut1;:..-U:s me:a'U Ot1:Uirl'leoocaut11t [0

(U) :~h eo.uBdiimce gene:i~.an)' :u:nd:l!t..ate,g. ltibat FBI Jurl.gl'ble:r.lJrnare ha;g ed on ~'t:~'I.-q.lila·U~l)' :nl'l:fo:e.l]l Hon :fl:'om :I:blu'~~'~i~e a 8ouiees or a ilj;~I'I;g~ ~'l:~'1:~:>' :1:'e:Uitab:~ source, 01: ~bat ~'I.e nature o:ff' ~lb.e issue :Im:ke,g. it ~ijih~ Ii:O render a :!i6M. jiiJrl.glrer.llt ..

(U) :~kdhllnl~(mBdiimce ~:I:I.er.i.l&~)' :meal:l:!i· ~'Iat ~'I.e :nnifm,mat:to:n is :u:I:IJterp.reted,:~n '!rar.i:oti:!i wa}':!ij, lifbart ~.e :FnI has ;;:"~li:eru thlg 'rri:ei/!;':!i" :1:'~mt ~:1.e:u:nfhr.lmt:io:n;, 'W~:l:U'~ a 0 c.rOOib:~e;, :~:!i :~:r.IimnOC;:i:er.lJt o:if
rel :ilab:u :ULt)'Ii:O
'II;'

arr arlit a ~'1:~'I.er :~ ve'~ e

0:' oonifhrl.e nee,

(U) :MW co:n:liidenc:e gene:I~."U~)' :I~tl:!i [hat the :i1r.1:rO:I~.I]l;lltUon OC;;Iljj!ti' qUe.M·UOI1 1i~,;or vel)' :i;s, a :['t'a_gmenrted.; ~jat it :i;s. d:Uf[OC;IU1t :l:bUk.e oobrl. ar.la:~y~·uc:ur.I:if-ere:r.lce,g; lit1;at the F.BIlbas, :!i~gnurOC;;j}n[ to or concerns or 11lnMelng, w:l.t~'I.~'I.e source.

;', '~I;" :11,;;;;,., ,'II.~"R'" '."''',', ", "Ult.. "',, '11." , ..... . ] -,. 'D,'·."',,."' .~.u.l.m... ',. " 'II' ,it'D,'", oo~[ .. " (U)' '1j'"0. use .1li.llOOUI\, an .U.r.h_I.U\.UuJU;a~ ", uDiII;'.n~Ui.IU~.ar.lu .ur.l:llrta.". lw'te nee .1li.llOOu.r.l. ,,;;;'ware'( c~.uer.ll[,. 'IDhe a]jJ1UuCilti:o.:n uses _rJ JibJh: ,I(,e)i 'Cr,i{Jiogi'aph:)i (PEel) to aiLJltolnilJti:ca'UU}' generate a. :Bitcautl. ;a;dil;l:'e8S i/I;'~j.eJ:'ehe user can reeei ve lj'.i.JiY.lmer.lit!L. t 'IDhe oo£l:re..t=l:ll. a. unique 36 dJjaraote:r-:Uo.r.lg :llil·r.ungoli' :i;s. fllilJ:lmbe:I~.and leners aud :u:g stored :iln a. usee's \l:UI:'iIlll:il·U·· 'Na:UUeC all ~'tu~. r ~e:l: lbc,:'-U :[hUe:g~rte:m. Users o can create as :matl.y :Bitooun addresses as ~~je}' :Uuke to receive pa},:I:bIe:nm. and can use a :tlew ooil:re~. :ro:r eve:r}, transaction rt~je}' reeetve ...
p', .;J-,.,

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