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ISO 19906! ARCTIC OFFSHORE STRUCTURES!

Walt Spring Bear Ice Technology - Consultant to Shell

September 2010

AGENDA - 19906 OVERVIEW !


Background on initiation of activity, Summary of activities to develop the Standard, Briey summarize all Clauses Review following Clauses in slightly more detail

7 - Reliability, 8 - Actions,

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PLATFORM DESIGN ISSUES

Extreme Wave load Wave overtopping Wind load Current load Ice load Ice over-ride

Accidental Process explosion Dropped object Ship collision Helicopter related Drilling related Abnormal Extreme events at lower probability

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ISO 19906 - ARCTIC OFFSHORE STRUCTURES!

Caspian Sea Drilling Island at 46 N

Applicable to offshore structures for oil and gas operations in waters that may be partially or wholly covered with ice, whether seasonally or year-round;

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WHY AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ?


In 2002, offshore oil and gas E&P operations in ice covered

waters were underway in nine countries


Only four of the nine countries had existing Arctic Codes:

Canada, Norway, Russia, United States


wide

variation in coverage, methods and age of documents

Harmonization of existing codes, including integration of latest

knowledge:
Ensures

consistent approaches (ice loads, integrity) approval times and save design effort

Reduces

Existing codes would be withdrawn and new code accepted for use

Allows use of limit states design approach which newer codes

are using
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ISO/TC67

ISO/TC67 EC/MC WG2 WG4 WG5 WG7 WG9


Conformity Assessment Data Collection Aluminium Drill Pipe Corrosion Resistant Materials Life Cycle Costing

EC = Executive Committee MC = Management Committee

SC 2

SC 3

SC 4

SC 5

SC 6

SC 7

WG10 LNG systems & equipment


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ISO 19900-SERIES! STANDARDS FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES


ISO19900 General requirements for offshore structures ISO19901-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7 Specic requirements ISO19902 Fixed steel offshore structures ISO19903 Fixed concrete offshore structures ISO19904-1, -2 Floating offshore structures ISO19905 Mobile offshore units (site specic assessment) ISO19906 Arctic offshore structures

Proposal from Canada approved by SC7 in 2002 WG8 created Convener: Denis Blanchet

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WG8 APPROACH TO WRITING ISO 19906


Objective: to ensure that arctic and sub-arctic offshore structures provide an appropriate level of reliability with respect to personal safety and environmental protection. Guiding Principles:
Supplement the ISO 19900 suite of standards with issues only

relevant to structures in ice no duplication.


Pipelines, harbor facilities and bridges are excluded Report Format
Normative: Informative

to present requirements (Annex A): to present accepted methods &

knowledge
Regional

Descriptions (Annex B): to present regional descriptions

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WG 8: DIMENSIONS
12

meetings: from June 2002 (Toronto) to August 2009 (Houston).

Special meeting: Nov 2007 (Moscow ) 16 Technical Panels established


Included

>100 international working experts representing all areas of Arctic expertise man-hours voluntary from non-oil company researchers, contractors and academicians costs for non-industry individuals (over $400,000).

>1,000,000

Budget and funding mechanisms established


Travel

Funding

provided by OGP for technical editing, calibration study and case studies (~$450,000). Statoil and Shell have provided additional funding to cover some individuals manpower to participate
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BP,

WG8 - 16 TECHNICAL PANELS


Technical Panel Number TP0 TP1 TP2a TP2b TP2c TP2d TP2e TP3 TP4 TP5 TP6 TP7 TP8a TP8b TP9 TP10! (from 2008) Technical Panel Name Editing Environment Reliability Ice Actions MetOcean Seismic Metocean Actions Foundations Articial Islands Steel Concrete Floaters Topsides EER Ice Engineering Case studies and Calibration Leader W. Spring W. Spring F. Bercha T. Krn C. Shaw F. Puskar P. Tromans D. Clare / P. Jeanjean D. Mayne/ Michel Metge / K. Been Tom Zimmerman / J. Berger M. Vache C. Makrygiannis P. Sharma / O. Gudmestad J. Poplin S. Lset G Thomas Countries Represented Canada, Finland, Germany, Norway, US Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Norway, Russia, UK, US Canada, Norway, Russia, The Netherlands, US Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Japan, Norway, Russia, US Canada, France, Norway, The Netherlands, UK, US Canada, Japan, Norway, Russia, US Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, The Netherlands Canada, France, Norway, Russia, The Netherlands, UK, US Canada, France, The Netherlands, UK, US Canada, Germany, Japan, Russia, UK, US Canada, France, Norway, Russia, The Netherlands, UK Canada, Norway, The Netherlands, US Norway, US Canada, Norway, The Netherlands, US Canada, Germany, Kazakhstan, Norway, Russia, UK 10/11/10 10 Canada, Germany, Kazakhstan, The Netherlands, Norway, UK, US

19906 DOCUMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS


Normative and Annex A (Informative) have the same clause numbers for ease of reference Document really meant for a practicing engineer to use due to assumed background Annex B provides only guidance on physical environment and data provided are not meant for design Alaska one of the few regions where a large amount of data exists Document states that ice and metocean specialists should be employed to develop physical environment data for use in design September 2010 11

CLAUSE 6 - PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT


General information provided in Normative and Annex A Annex B provides data on ice types and morphology found in each region below along with meteorological and oceanographic data. Barents Sea (Norway & Russia) Kara Sea/Ob Bay (Russia) Pechora Sea (Russia) Laptev Sea (Russia) East Siberian Sea (Russia) Tatar Strait - Russia) Okhotsk Sea (Russia Sakhalin) Bohai Sea (China) Sea of Azov (Russia) Black Sea (Russia) North Caspian Sea (Netherlands) Greenland (Denmark) Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Canada) Bafn Bay / Davis Strait (Canada) Labrador Sea (Canada) Newfoundland (Canada) Beaufort Sea (Canada and US) Chukchi Sea (Russia and US) Cook Inlet (US) Bering Sea (Russia and US) Baltic Sea (Finland)
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CLAUSE 7 RELIABILITY AND LIMIT STATES


Uses limit states design approach which newer codes are

going towards
Provides safety classes with exposure Provides load factors for ice Discusses load combinations Will be discussed in more detail later in presentation

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CLAUSE 8 ACTIONS AND ACTION EFFECTS


Action is ISO speak for load

Wave, current and wind loading in combination with ice loading.

Ice loads - global and local ice loads including deterministic and

probabilistic methods and dynamic loading.


Seismicity seismic issues discussed in association with structural

designs. No con-current occurrence of earthquakes with ice.


Will be discussed in more detail later in presentation
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CLAUSE 9 - FOUNDATIONS
Foundation issues covered include;
Site investigations, Geophysical surveys, Geotechnical investigations, Design considerations such as,
offshore ice

permafrost

grounding,

Dynamic load effects, Limit states as relates to foundation Foundations for GBS, piled structures and

anchoring of oating structures,


Water scour and ice gouge effects
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CLAUSE 10 - MAN-MADE ISLANDS

Issues covered include;


Island types, Island considerations for

shape and orientation,


Geotechnical considerations, Slope protection against ice, Ice encroachment and Seismic design, Monitoring and maintenance, Decommissioning and

reclamation.

Ice encroachment on Caspian Sea Island February 2003

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CLAUSE 11 - FIXED STEEL STRUCTURES

Refers to ISO 19902, but addresses unique issues such as; Stiffened at plate structures,
Allowance for membrane action under

high local loads,

Fabrication issues in cold

temperatures,

Steel and concrete composite design, Seismic design.


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CLAUSE12 FIXED CONCRETE STRUCTURES


Refers to ISO 19903, but addresses unique issues such as;
Limit states analysis Ice abrasion, Freeze thaw cycling, Materials and effect of low

Hibernia Platform designed for iceberg impact

temperatures,
Designing for large impact

forces and
Construction in cold

temperatures.
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CLAUSE 13 FLOATING STRUCTURES


Refers to ISO 19904-1, provides guidance on issues such as;
Ice loads and considerations

on oaters
Hull integrity Hull stability Station keeping Disconnection and

reconnection
Operations Ice detection and

management deferred to Clause 17

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CLAUSE 14 SUBSEA PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


Provides guidance on issues such as
Sea oor considerations (ice

induced gouges, permafrost, etc)


Ice protection structures,

including glory holes,


Risers, owlines and umbilicals, Seismic design Risk reduction

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CLAUSE 15 TOPSIDES
Provides guidance on issues such as;
Impact from sea ice Deck elevation, Winterization, HVAC and electrical

Orlan Platform! Fully Winterized Topsides

systems,
Icing effects, Heat tracing, Vibration effects

(seismic design and equipment)


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CLAUSE 16 OTHER ICE ENGINEERING TOPICS!


Provides guidance on issues such as; Ice roads, Articial ice island, Ice protection barriers,
Measurement of ice pressure, Ice tank modeling, Ofoading in ice
Creating Ice Barriers Caspian Sea January 2003 Spray ice drilling island

Modeling interaction of ice with structure in ice basin

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CLAUSE 17 ICE MANAGEMENT

Provides guidance on issues such as; Ice management to reduce ice actions, System reliability, System capabilities, Ice detection and threat evaluation, Planning and operations,

Iceberg Towing off Newfoundland

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CLAUSE 18 ESCAPE, EVACUATION AND RESCUE!

First use of performance based criteria Discusses issues such as; Governing principles and strategy, Hazards and risks, System design, Emergency response organization, Temporary refuge,

ARKTOS escape vehicle in northern Caspian Sea

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WG8 MILESTONES!
TPs worked to develop internal draft 2002 to ~ early 2007 Committee Draft (CD) issued December 2007 Reviewed by country members and interested parties, over 1,000 comments received and acted upon Draft International Standard (DIS) issued November 2008 Reviewed by country members and interested parties, over 900 comments received and acted upon Sent to SC7 for review November 2009 Agreement reached in April 2010 Sent to ISO for translation into ISO speak May 2010 ISO provided an edited version for WG8 review in June TP0 reviewed and recommended to WG8 that it be accepted
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STATUS
ISO will issue a FDIS for yes/no voting by member countries today (16 September 2010) Ballots to be returned two months after being issued. Standard available for purchase about December 2010. When approved 19906 can be purchased at following website http://www.iso.org/iso/store.htm

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CLAUSE 7 - INTRODUCTION
Probability of exceedance = 1 / return period
probability of exceedance of 10-2 equals 100 year return period

Platforms are design to extreme events (10-2) events and then checked with abnormal events (10-4 for manned platforms and 10-3 for unmanned platforms)
No damage for extreme events Minimal damage for abnormal events with no loss of life nor

pollution

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CLAUSE 7 RELIABILITY AND LIMIT STATES

Limit states design implies Factored action combinations < Factored resistance action is ISO speak for load action combinations are ice, waves, currents, winds, etc Factored implies use of safety factors Principle action factors > 1 Resistance factors < 1

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CLAUSE 7 LIMIT STATES


ULS Ultimate Limit State Check on resistance to withstand extreme loads that can occur during life of the platform No substantial structural damage after event ELIE Extreme Level Ice Event with annual probability of exceedance not greater than 10-2 ALS Abnormal (Accidental) Limit State Check to ensure structure and soil have reserve resistance to withstand abnormal events Some structural damage allowed but no loss of life nor harm to the environment ALIE Abnormal Level Ice Event generally with annual probability of exceedance not greater than 10-4 SLS Serviceability Limit State Check to ensure structure performs adequately under normal use SLIE Serviceability Level Ice Event with annual probability of exceedance not greater than 10-1 FLS Fatigue Limit State
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Check to ensure structure performs adequately under cumulative damage due to repeated

CLAUSE 7 LIFE SAVING AND CONSEQUENCE CATEGORIES!


Three Life Saving Categories - ranking of exposure and safety to personnel on platform S1 Manned, non evacuated S2 Manned, evacuated S3 Normally not manned Three Consequence Categories hazard potential to life, environment, economic loss C1 High consequences C2 Medium Consequences C3 Low Consequences
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CLAUSE 7 EXPOSURE LEVEL


ConsequencesCategory LifeSafetyCategory S1Mannednon evacuated S2Mannedevacuated S3Unmanned
C1 HighConsequences C2 MediumConsequences C3 LowConsequences

L1 L1 L1

L1 L2 L2

L1 L2 L3

ALS Abnormal (Accidental) Limit State Check to ensure structure and soil have reserve resistance to withstand abnormal events Some structural damage allowed but no loss of life nor harm to the environment For L1 structure Check uses an ALIE (Abnormal Level Ice Event) with annual probability of exceedance not greater than 10-4 For L2 structure Check uses an ALIE (Abnormal Level Ice Event) with annual probability of exceedance not greater than 10-3 For L3 structure ALIE check not required
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ULS AND ALS ACTION FACTORS FOR L1 AND L2 STRUCTURES!


EnvironmentalAc9on
EL AL

Ul9mateLimitState
ExtremeEnvironmental L11.35 L21.10 1.0

DamagedCondiFon

AbnormalLimitState
AbnormalEnvironmental 1.0

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CLAUSE 7 EXAMPLE OF COMPANION EL ACTIONS!

PrincipleAc9on (ELorAL) Seaice SeaIce

CompanionELEnvironmentalAc9ons
StochasFcally Dependent Wind,wavedriven current,Fdalcurrent Wind,wavedriven Waves,swell(forice current,Fdalcurrent concentraFon<8/10) StochasFcally Independent MutuallyExclusive Waves,swell(forice concentraFon>8/10)

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CLAUSE 7 - PRINCIPLE AND COMPANION ACTION FACTORS!


PrincipleAc9on FactorforRepresenta9veELCompanionEnvironmental Ac9on CompanionAc9onis CompanionAc9onis Stochas9callyDependenton Stochas9callyIndependent thePrincipleAc9on onthePrincipleAc9on 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.4

ELAc9on ALAc9on

Example for L1 Structure for EL action Total EL Action = 1.35 * Ice Action + 0.9 * Stochastically dependent actions + 0.6* stochastically independent actions Environmental data to determine the actions should be joint probability (if available) i.e., wind in the presence of sea ice
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CLAUSE 8 INTRODUCTION
Clause written by multiple nationalities that brought in global experience. Most, if not, all experts in the eld of ice load determination were asked to participate in the development of this clause. A large portion of these provided input. The resulting clause is the consensus of these experts. All available measured ice load data, including the multiyear ice events at the Molikpaq, were used to develop the empirical factors developed. Most recent data (Lolief and STRICE) were made available by the EU before condentiality expired. Because of the international effort, existing codes/Recommended Practices will be withdrawn and replaced by 19906. National Annexes may be developed to cover areas not sufciently detailed in 19906. EU will accept 19906 as part of their EuroCodes.
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CLAUSE 8 ACTIONS AND ACTION EFFECTS

Deterministic Make best estimate of parameter extreme values and calculate design load values - ELIE Probabilistic Use parameter distributions in Monte Carlo simulations to determine design values ELIE and ALIE

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ICE ACTION DETERMINATION FLOW DIAGRAM

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ICE ACTION DETERMINATION FLOW DIAGRAM DETERMINISTIC APPROACH!

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ICE ACTION DETERMINATION FLOW DIAGRAM PROBABILISTIC APPROACH!

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ICE ACTION DETERMINATION PROVIDED FOR EACH CELL !


FixedStructures
VerFcal (narrowand wide) Conical (narrowand wide)

Floa9ngStructures
MulF Ship Spar/Buoy legged Shaped (bothverFcal andconical)

Ar9cial Islands
VerFcal Sloped Side Side

IceScenario
Level Ice Ridge and Rubble Discrete Floes

FY

MY

Level Ice Ridge and Rubble Discrete Floes


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ICE ACTION - CRUSHING AGAINST A VERTICAL STRUCTURE!

Crushing with level ice - most common ice interaction Vertical structure easiest to build and transport

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ICE ACTION EXAMPLE LOADS!


600

500

400

Load (MN)

300

Beaufort 100m Barents 100m Beaufort 50m Barents 50m

200

100

0 0 1 2 3 Ice Thickness (m) 4 5 6

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ICE ACTION EXAMPLE DETERMINISTIC LOAD CALCULATION


Structure Beaufort Sea, Vertical side GBS, 100 m wide Ice MYI Thickness = 4.5 m, Crushing failure Load = ~ 500 MN (from previous plot) Event Occurs in Winter = No wave load, current load (10% of ice load), no wind
Total EL Action = 1.35 * Ice Action + 0.9 * Stochastically dependent actions + 0.6* stochastically independent actions

Total EL Action = 1.35 * 500 + 0.9 *(0.1 * 500) 720 MN Above is the left side of the equation, resistance (the right side) is
determined by use of appropriate ISO Standard
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CONCLUDING REMARKS - #1
ISO 19906, species requirements and provides guidance for the design, construction, transportation, installation, and decommissioning of offshore structures, related to the activities of the petroleum and natural gas industries, in arctic and cold regions environments. The document was written with the assistance of over 100 of the worlds leading experts in Arctic and structural design. It was estimated that over 1,000,000 manhours went into the development of the rst draft. Industry, through direct funding of certain contractors, travel contributions for academicians and research institute personnel and funding for the calibration and case studies, provided almost $1,000,000 to the writing of the Standard. Not included in this estimate are the manpower and travel costs associated with oil industry personnel for the document preparation. The document is the result of the analysis of the best available data as relates to ice actions on structures. The methodologies developed to calculate ice actions are considered to be the best available.

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CONCLUDING REMARKS - #2
The objective of ISO 19906 is to ensure that arctic and sub-arctic offshore structures provide an appropriate level of reliability with respect to personal safety and environmental protection. ISO 19906 does not contain specic requirements for the operation, maintenance, service-life inspection, or repair of arctic offshore structures. While ISO 19906 does not apply specically to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (see ISO 19905), the procedures relating to ice actions contained herein may be applicable. While the document is now available for use, there are identied areas, such as ice actions on oaters, where additional work can be performed. WG8 will investigate these areas and if approaches with global consensus can be identied, work will be started for inclusion in the next version of the Standard.

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AWARENESS INITIATIVE!
Arctic Technology Conference (ATC) February 2011 (Houston) 7 papers (overview, Clause 7, Clause 8, Calibration, Calibration Load estimates, Case Studies, example use of the code) POAC11 July 2011 (Montreal) 6 papers (ice crushing data, EER, Ice Engineering, Floaters, Annex B, Comparison with existing codes) Plenary Session - Overview RAO11 September 2011 (St. Petersburg, Russia) Still being developed
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Q&A

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