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- Wings

A Kid Grows Up and Finds His Wings

A Journal of Times People Places and Thoughts For Family and Friends.

William R. Hartill


Let us be like a bird for a moment perched

On a frail branch while he sings;

Though he feels it bend, yet he sings his song,

Knowing that he has wings.

Victor Hugo
My early enthusiasm as a young lad was for things mechanical. This centered at first
on locomotives. I built them out of scraps of wood and used paint can lids as wheels.

In the pre-teen years of maturing and learning of the marvels of libraries, I became
fascinated with bridges and in particular steel truss cantilevers. I found a book that
described in great detail the Firth of Forth bridge in Scotland. This magnificent
structure completed in 1890 was the longest bridge in the world and the greatest
monument to engineering and industrial skills of its era. Each member of the
cantilever truss was positioned in deliberate, singular fashion to create a soaring,
unambiguous reach. A beautiful example of the harnessing of the analytical to the

Now in the teens I found few outlets for bridge building, so I started building model
airplanes. And behold, they flew! I discovered that flight was not magic but subject
to analytic regimen. You learn it, you apply it, it works, you have it, flight, wings.

In 1939 I got my first model airplane engine, a Brown Model D, and I designed and
built a model for it. I thought it was pretty neat. Pod and boom fuselage, vee tail, gull
wing and double elliptic plan form with full D box cantilever structure.

In 1941 I was invited to come to Maine and live at Aunt Annie's in Bunganuc. I
would complete high school in the 41/42 year term at Brunswick and help out on
the farm while cousin Charlie went to California to enroll in a aircraft metal
working school that winter.

The summer of 1941 was an idyllic time. A whole passel of kids in Bunganuc,
mostly relatives, formed a gang ", but that's another story. The gang is still in

business today

Charlie, being 5 years older than me, was sort of chaperone and intermediary to
adults. In the summer of 1941 Charlie started taking flying lessons at Augusta
Airport in the CPTP program (Civilian Pilot Training Program). The government
had decided that because of the war and threats to our involvement we needed
more pilots. Basic flight training was offered free to volunteers (I was too young).
What a deal!

On Saturdays Charlie would pack a bunch of us kids in the '35 Standard Chevy two
door sedan and chug up to Augusta, the broken front fenders flapping in the breeze

- and binding on the tires in the turns. We would hang around on the ground while

Charlie was up with instructor Roland Norcross in the Cub Super Cruiser. Charlie

-- would later describe his experiences very graphically making us very envious.

His training as I recall, compared to the present day practice, emphasized more basic
skills of aircraft control. Spins were given lots of practice as were other advanced
maneuvers and precision flight. Little to no instruction was given in radio usage
(no radios) and government regulations ( not many as today).

That summer we all went to a big airshow at Augusta. It made a colossal impression
on this kid, and I had my first airplane ride, in a Waco Cabin biplane. We saw
everything. Autogiro, Widgeon amphibian, sailplanes, Monocoupe aerobatics,
military AT6, Curtiss Pusher, Ercoupe, Luscombe, and lots more, and a Taylorcraft
Now that one looked right. That's what an airplane should look like I said,1 want to
fly one some day.

I graduated from Brunswick High in '42 and went back to Toms River. I inquired
about volunteering for the Aviation Cadet Program but was told to wait until
drafted and then apply for it. Naively I acquiesced (dumb!). I got a job driving a Pepsi
Cola truck at $15 a week, bought a '32 Ford V8 for $20 and discovered girls. But that's
another story.

Before I knew it, it was March 1943 and I was in the Army Air Corps with basic
training in Miami Beach (the Sea Isle Hotel). I took the Aviation Cadet tests and
- passed the written but flunked the physical--- high blood pressure. So on to
A viation Mechanic school in Gulfport Mississippi and from there to Baer Field Fort
Wayne Indiana in a replacement pool for the Troop Carrier Command.

After several attempts at both Gulfport and Ft. Wayne, I passed the Cadet physical
and was sent to a Cadet processing unit at Biloxi Mississippi in Feb. '44. Hooray, I
was going to get wings! I was there for about a month when we were summarily
told that the Cadet Program had been dosed and we would be returned to our
previous Command. They had enough pilots! That was not one of my better days!

I was sent to Bowman Field, Louisville Kentucky to mark time for an agonizing
period, and then to Bergstrom Field, Austin Texas for Flight Engineer training. At
Bergstrom I won my silver wings in the fall of 1944 in C-46 Combat Crew training.
My pilot, Glenn Peck, gave me a lot of stick time. He had been an instructor pilot
before volunteering for combat, so he still liked to instruct.

Overseas in the China Burma India theater I accumulated some 460 combat flying
hours as C-46 Flight Engineer before coming home, but as they say that's another

A civilian in Toms River by January '46 it took awhile to get adjusted and figure out
what I was going to do. In this period I did take a couple of lessons in a J3 Cub. I
- started college at Rutgers on the GI Bill in 1949, which began a long career in

Aeronautical Engineering ,but no flying until 1969 when I got an hours instruction
in a Schweizer 2-33 sailplane. At the same time son Russell, 14 years old, soloed a 2-
33 after completing an instruction course. What a thrill to see him up there!

It seemed that raising a family and immersion in an exciting engineering career left
little time for me to get my wings. What time I did find I used in free flight
aeromodel competition. That was/ is an enjoyable sport. It has brought me some
great travel experiences and many fine friends from around the world.

In 1985 I made the decision to retire at age 61. By this time I felt very comfortable in
my career. I was now a Program Manager and doing very interesting work on new
aeropropulsion concepts. However I could see younger men than me passing away
on the job and the thought came, there are a lot of things I want to do and I had
better get busy and do them.

It was also in 1985 that I discovered the Confederate Air force. The Southern
California Wing, based in Camarillo, had a C-46 F ! I joined up and soon became the
C-46 Crew Chief. I had now reverted to my status in WW 2 in Burma and China but
was now doing it for no pay but people weren't shooting at me and I was now a
Colonel not a Sergeant.

There are a number of things that make a mark in an individuals life. WW2 was a
big mark. To be rejoined with a major accomplice (the C-46) after 40 years was I is a
_ dramatic experience for me. The demonstration of these WW2 airplanes is a history
lesson to the public that safety, peace and freedom doesn't come easily and can't be
taken for granted.

About this time I tracked down my WW2 pilot, Glenn Peck. Found him living in
Lomita ( Los Angeles) and we had a great reunion. He flew in the Berlin Airlift, left
the service and then worked as an electrician before retiring a few years ago . He
hasn't flown since leaving the service.

Things got busy for me in the CAF and the C46 flying to airshows all over the
western states. I managed to get some more stick time too. I finally decided that now
was the time to get serious about getting my pilots license. Since I was spending a lot
of time at Camarillo it was handy to enroll at CIA "Channel Islands Aviation" and
start training.

A nice young fellow by the name of Clay Osbon was my instructor. I guess I didn't
scare him too much because on 3/ 1/88 I soloed after 13 hours of dual instruction.
The airplane was a Cessna 152 ( 47M ). What a thrill that was. I knew it would be but
it turned out to be even more than I expected! For 13 hours the instructor was
always there in the right seat ready with corrections, advice and confidence that he
could keep me out of trouble.

And now he says, lido you think you're ready?" YES "0K let me out here, take off,
stay in the pattern, make two touch and go landings and one full stop. I'll be waiting
on the taxi strip and will listen to your radio on my hand held transceiver ". WOW
this is it!

I taxied up to the runup ramp and went through the "before takeoff" check list.

1. brakes --set
2. cabin doors-- shut and latched
3. flight controls-- free and correct
4. flight instruments-- set
5. fuel valves-- set and on
6. mixture-- rich
7. elevator trim-- takeoff
8. throttle 1700 rpm-- check mags
-- check carbo heat
-- check ammeter
-- check suction gage
9. radios-set
10. strobe-- on
11. throttle lock--adjust
12. brakes-- release

_ I then do a 360 on the ramp looking for traffic and also announce on the radio,
Camarillo traffic, Cessna four seven Mike taking off runway two six Camarillo. I
taxi out on the runway, line up on the centerline and smoothly shove the throttle
forward. We're rolling. I use a touch of rudder to keep her straight and let her fly
off the runway. The gages are scanned by peripheral vision. Nothing abnormal so
my concentration is on flying the airplane. In the air I keep her lined up with the
extended centerline and start a gradual climb. At 500 ft. I start a left turn to the
crosswind leg, and at this point the full impact of what I am doing catches up to me
---I am flying -----the houses are getting smaller!

Up to now I was reacting by rote--the lessons that had been hammered into me by
Clay, operating mainly in a automation mode. It was only then that the feeling of
height above the ground was apparent. That was the only time, either before or
after that first solo that this sensation was apparent. I was up here and it was going
to be up to me to get down

Well I turned to the downwind leg at 900 ft. Camarillo traffic Cessna four seven
Mike turning left downwind for two six Camarillo. Speed stabilized at 90 knots,
power 2100 rpm. At abeam of runway two six threshold, carbo heat on, power 1500
rpm., flaps 10 deg., hold altitude till 70 knots. At an imaginary line 45 deg. past the
threshold flaps 20 deg., power 1500 rpm., 65 knots, Camarillo traffic, Cessna four
seven Mike turning left base for two six Camarillo. All these turns are 90 deg. and
- all legs are straight.

Camarillo traffic, Cessna four seven Mike turning final for two six Camarillo. Flaps
30 deg., speed 60 knots, power adjusted to maintain glide slope to the runway. Keep
it lined up with the centerline. There is no crosswind today so everything is looking
OK Start the flare and keep eyes on the far end of the runway ( gives better height
and depth perception ). The main gear touches and I pull off the power and hold the
nose wheel off ( don't let it " wheelbarrow"). We get slowed down and then I raise
the flaps, carbo heat cold, shove the throttle forward and into the air again-- I made
it! The next two journeys around the pattern went about the same except now that
first time sensation had cooled just a little. WOWEE.

Back at the flight school office Clay congratulated me and proceeded to cut off my
shirt tail. I congratulated him for having been able to teach this old curmudgeon.

Actually my training had only just begun as I was to accumulate a total of 74 hours,
some solo, some dual, before taking the flight test for the private pilot license. As
the old timers say, the license is only the beginning of learning. I was probably a
slow learner but maybe it sticks with you longer that way.

A number of these training flights remain in my memory. Clay and I made a night
flight to Santa Barbara. On the return at about 3 miles from Camarillo, Clay turned
off all the instrument lights and said, "you have a simulated total electrical failure,
no radio, no instruments, no landing light, no flaps, now go ahead and land at
Camarillo". It was dark, but there were some lights on the ground so that I could get
oriented to where the runway was supposed to be. I flew a close in pattern and
landed mainly by feel, sound and limited sight.

Another requirement was a three leg cross country solo with at least one leg more
than 100 miles. They say this is always a nail biter for instructors waiting back home
for their wandering students. I chose to fly Camarillo, Porterville, Paso Robles,
Camarillo. Navigation was by VOR backed up by pilotage and I had the flight plans
all prepared. I had no trouble but never did actually see the Porterville VOR obelisk,
but I did find the airport. To Paso Robles the terrain did not offer much in the way of
check points but the VOR led me right in. Well now this was a great adventure out
on my own. This was the beginning of my love for cross country pilotage. From
Paso Robles to Camarillo I generally followed highway 101 so had lots of check
points ( and lots of alternate landing fields ).

One day Clay took me up for some slow flight and stalls. He gave a speech about
how spins were not a part of the FAA requirement and were not included in the
instruction regimen. Then he said do you want to do one? Yeah! I said definitely. So
we did spins. The first one I did was all wrong. My first reaction was to level the
wings with the ailerons in spite of what he warned me about. The wing is stalled,
especially the inside wing and dropping its aileron just increases the stall and drag
on that side. Forget the ailerons, pull off the power, and kick in lots of opposite
rudder. This works. We did a bunch more and it was fun. Remember the rudder,

Finally it was time to take my test with the examiner. I flew 47 Mike over to Santa
Paula to meet Examiner Jean Belivuew. He first gave me an oral test and then had
me make a flight plan example to Joshua Tree. I was supposed to complete it in 30
minutes but I was slow. But I did find the catch he was looking for. The Cessna 152
with full tanks and two on board could not take off of the 2500 ft. runway at Joshua
today with the temp. at 95deg. and field elevation of 2500 ft.

First he had me shoot some short field landings at Santa Paula then we went east to
do some airwork. He asked me to track the Lake Hughes VOR and my nervousness
almost did me in. was trying to tune in the VOR on the Comm radio instead of the
Nav. but I discovered the mistake in time.

Next he put a visor over my eyes and proceeded to throw the airplane all over the
sky. Lifting the visor enough for me to see the instruments, (all in disarray) but
not enough to glimpse the horizon, he said it's your airplane, pull it ouf'. We did

this several times and he asked "are you OK, not sick?' I said I'm OK , lets do some
more, so we did. Back on the ground I learned I had passed and was now a genuine
Private Pilot. WOW again!

That summer of 1989 I did some more flying renting a Cessna but what I really
wanted to do was get a Taylorcraft of my own. I kept checking the ads in "Trade A
Plane". There were several interesting leads so I went to Rosamond and got some
instruction in a J 3 Cub, ( a bit over 3 hours) so I would be ready for a tail dragger.
Well now thafs a whole new ball game as I was soon to find out. The cross winds at
Rosamond and my inexperience with the Cub ( my inexperience in general ) led to
some interesting times, but I didn't bend anything.

In February 1990 I found an ad for an F-19 Taylorcraft located in Fairfield Maine. It

sounded like just what I was looking for. I also thought this could also be combined
with a trip back to visit my roots in Maine. So I arrived in Fairfield ( near
Waterville) with about a foot of snow on the ground. The F-19 was sitting in a large
shed on a farmer's field. The bad news was that the F-19 had already been sold to
someone from Massachusetts who intended that he would come get it when the
snow melted. The good news was that there was another F-19 in that same shed,
owned by a friend of the first F-19 owner. Also this second owner, named Jim
Mahiew said that he had been thinking about selling his T craft because his family
was getting bigger and he was thinking about getting a four place Cessna. Well now!

Jim took me up for a test flight on the skis and it felt great, just what I wanted. We
agreed on a price ( $ 13,000 ) and I gave him a deposit and said I would be back when
the snow melted, put the wheels back on and fly it home.

I got back home to California when 10 and behold two weeks later I got a letter from
Jim saying he was very sorry and embarrassed but he has decided not to sell the
airplane and he returned my deposit. He said it wasn't the price, but he liked the
airplane and couldn't bear to lose it. Oh well----.

It wasn't until July 1990 that I found an ad for another good F-19 prospect. It was in
Myrtle Beach South Carolina and owned by David Von Brock, a Lt. in the Air
National Guard flying A-lOs.

I had already committed to a trip to Ireland in August so told David that I would be
in Myrtle Beach on 26 August, take a look at the airplane and buy it if I liked it and
fly it home to California. He agreed to hold it until then.

Inza and I took off from LAX and landed at Heathrow on July 24. We picked up our
old VW van from friend Ray Monks in Birmingham and had a great time touring
Wales, Ireland and southwest England. I had better save that for another story so I
can get back to 'Wings'

On August 24 we arrived back at JFK . Inza continued on to Los Angeles and I got a
flight to Richmond Virginia. I rented a car and drove to Myrtle Beach the following
day after visiting the Virginia Aviation Museum at Richmond airport. They have
some interesting airplanes there. A 1916 Spad VII original in flying condition, a
Vultee VIA ( the only example remaining in the world) flown by Dick Merrill and
_ Harry Richman in the double crossing of the Atlantic in 1936, a Fairchild FC-2W2
"Stars and Stripes", the first airplane to fly over Antarctica, and a Taylor E-2 Cub
from the early 30s. That Cub is the ancestor of the airplane I was after. They have 17
airplanes all together and all are very interesting.

At Myrtle Beach I went to the Air Force Base and found the Base Aero Club
and was soon ogling N 3673T. Pete Peterson , the maintenance officer, showed me
what was to become my wings. Unfortunately Lt. David Von Brock wasn't there. He
was in Saudi Arabia flying his A-IO in Desert Shield.

I ran up the engine and checked over the airplane and the log books. It all
looked good. The price was $13,000 but a problem, who and how do I pay? That was
resolved when with the help of Pete and the girlfriend of Dave, I found that I could
deposit the money in Dave's Credit Union at the Base. This was soon accomplished
electronically and now I was the proud owner of an airplane, a Taylorcraft, an F-19,
Serial 081,---my WINGS. Not simply a toy, but a way of life, perhaps life itself.

The only puzzlement remaining though is, if God wanted us to fly he would
have given us more money.

I found an Instructor, John Gregory, who had some experience with this
Taylorcraft and he agreed to give me a check ride in my airplane. We taxied out
- and soon found I had a problem. On engine runup the right brake wouldn't hold

and we kept going round and round. This was somewhat embarrassing as we were
holding up a flight of A-lOs that were waiting to take off. We decided to retire and
do this some other day, and not hold up the war effort.

Back at the Aero Club Pete and I took the wheels off and looked at the brakes .
The linings and the operating cams were OK but the backing plates were worn. So
Pete said he would order some parts and fix things while I went to up to Maine for a
few days.

The next day I had an invitation to come up to the Grand Strand airport in
North Myrtle Beach for a barbecue. Just before I got there a wild thunderstorm had
gone through the area. A number of planes both tied down and in hangers at Grand
Strand had been smashed. We had the barbecue anyway as it cleared up quickly. I
was worried though about my airplane so I hurried back to MBAFB. I hadn't gotten
insurance yet! There was no damage however but I called my insurance company,

The next day I left for Maine after changing rental cars in Richmond. It seems
that they were having a special promotion and I got a Cadillac for a few dollars
more. This should really awe the peasants in Maine, a Cadillac and an airplane !
(only kidding ).

Getting back to Maine is always enjoyable. Although the world is constantly

- changing and "you can't go back again", Maine continues to resist that change and
does succeed to some extent. Bunganuc has changed little physically, although the
road is paved now, and little farming is carried on. The fields, once sweet with hay,
are now invaded with brush . The frog pond, a host for kids, with mud in the
summer and ice in the winter, is choked with debris. The Puggy Muggy landing is
off limits due to one family going weird. Neighborly relations still mean a lot here
but they are not as close and easy going as they once were.

But the ghosts of the past still persist and can't be denied. A walk along the
hauling up road, over ledges, by the Puggy Muggy and through the birches. The
moss, like green sponge underfoot, it all stokes the memory. The good memory. I
have to write some more about this some day.

Heading back to Myrtle Beach I stop to take a look at Rhinebeck New York.
Now here's a place where you can go back in time, to see aviation as it was in 1910--
1930. The runway is grass and the old airplanes are real. Flying demonstrations are
given on weekends which I happened to miss. I wandered around the old hangers
and saw some marvelous stuff.

Continuing on I also visited Toms River. Now here there have been a lot of
changes. It is very crowded and the old town center has been bypassed with
expanding suburban centers. The streets, roads and highways are now choked with
_ congestion. Looking at Colfax street where I lived in my early years (1929--1941)

there wasn't much to see. The house is gone. Some trees remain along with
remnants of the garden and landscaping that Pop worked so hard on ( with our draft
labor) . The tall Hickory tree is still there. From its top you can see the dirigible
hanger at Lakehurst, 7 miles away.

I walked along the old trails west of the town that lead to the creek where we
used to swim. They are now all overgrown and it was obvious that the kids of today
were missing the fun of exploring this fascinating area. A kids world to poke around
in and learn by living in it. You learn to leave hornets nests alone, give snakes
plenty of room and take care of yourself .

I drove to Seaside Heights and wandered along the boardwalk. Had one of
those great Italian sausage sandwiches with all those fried onions and sweet peppers
drooling out of the soft bun. And the fresh lemonade - just great! The place looked
the same, here's where I delivered truck loads of Pepsi at night, soaking up the spirit
and excitement of the boardwalk, and the special feeling of a young kid newly
independent with his first responsible job .

The merry go round still fascinates me and I love to ride them. The music is
just great. All that hammering, blowing, whistling and tinkling, all done
mechanically, is music, literally, to this unapologetic engineer. And the horses on
the carousel lurching up and forward and then down as the giant machine trembles
and whirls around. My steed's nostrils are flared wide, his eyes glistening and tail
_ plumed away. Thafs the way it was and still is. But no, now with the new age you
can no longer catch the brass ring and get a free ride. Someone might get hurt and
sue. So now if you want a brass ring you have to buy it. Thafs the new world.

I drove south down the coast to Barnegat Light. It is still standing and efforts
to protect it from the encroaching sea are still going on. I soaked my feet in the
warm sand and the cool, bubbly surf. A good feeling.

From there I drove over the Delaware Memorial sunspension bridge. Well
yes they are graceful but I still like the cantilever with all that steel truss and rivets. I
guess I am still back in time with the industrial revolution. I must be in a time warp
as I take a turn to the west and tour a bit of the Skyline Drive in the Blue Ridge
Mountains of Virginia.

It is a sentimental journey as I remember the first time I was here, back in the
30's. I was a Tenderfoot Boyscout and the Scoutmaster, a coworker of my father,took
four of us kids on a camp-out on Skyline Drive. I took my tests there for Second
Class. Had to start a fire with no more than three matches. The first match was
pretty weak but the kindling I had smouldered away and soon brightened with

No, I am not a pyromaniac, but I did make Second Class. It was a special time
_ and I will always remember it.

Traveling along, I got to Virginia Beach in time for the HPA (Hump Pilots
Association) annual reunion. The only other one that I attended was a
disappointment as I didn't meet anyone I knew. This time though I did meet a few
old friends from the 4th Combat Cargo Group. Ben Filer was there, he was a crew
chief who came over to the CBI with the original group (I was in a replacement crew
that came over later ). It was good to meet and talk with friends who confirmed your
memory, that this and that happened and what it was like.

Well now, enough of this wandering about, it's time to get some wings. I had
decided to have Brian fly out from Los Angeles and meet me in Charlotte South
Carolina so he could fly back with me in the Taylorcraft. Brian had a few hours
instruction already and is a good mechanic and would be good company for me.

I turned in the Cadillac at Richmond and flew USAir to Charlotte, meeting

Brian there. We both then flew to Myrtle Beach, got a car, and a motel. Next day we
went out to the Aero Club and checked over the airplane. Pete explained that the
brake parts needed were very expensive so he had not ordered them. He thought
that we ought to be able to adjust and modify the parts we had.

Brian and I took a look at the parts and figured that we could put shims
between the backing plates and the cams. We worked on this on a very hot humid
day and it looked like it was going to work. For lunch break Pete told us about a
- place he knew that had great hot wings (WINGS !) and suds, so we took him along
with us . It was real good. Speaking of food, the Maryland Crab House next to the
Motel, serves a great crab cake.

On Sept. 22 I finally got to fly my Taylorcraft, my wings, and this was with
John Gregory along as the CFI check pilot. This time the brakes worked fine. Brian
was up in the control tower (hiding?) watching as I did several landings. Hey, it was
great! It got a little busy there at Myrtle Beach, what with A-lOs and airliners in the
pattern so we decided to go on up and terrorize Grand Strand Airport instead. After
some airwork, slow flight, stalls, precision turns etc. I did some more landings at
Grand Strand. Remarkably everything went smoothly and I didn't embarrass myself.
I suspect it was a lot of luck.

That afternoon we celebrated by bowling at the MBAFB. I think Brian won

and we had a good time. Later we packed up all of our excess baggage and shipped it
home on USAir courtesy of friend Jeff Livotto who works for them at LAX. We
loaded up 73 Tango and planned our first stage to home, leaving the next day.

Sept. 23 we turned the car in and got transport from the Base Motor Pool. I
had to file the flight plan at Base Ops.. At 11:38 we were off the ground and flying
down the coastline to Georgetown. The weather was good and everything was
working fine. Our check points after Georgetown were Lake Moultrie, St. George
_ and Ehrhardt. Our first landing was at Allendale. A bit bouncy, not as good as my

check ride. It was now only 13:30 but we decided to camp here to get plenty of rest. It
was a nice spot, a small field with very little traffic.

The FBO was staffed by a pretty young lady who told us we could borrow the
courtesy car to go into town. The big old Ford LTD wouldn't start so the girl said we
could take her Datsun. We took it into the local Dairy Queen for burgers and shakes.
On the way back Brian found a teeny weeny bikini on the back seat. He asked the
young lady if it was hers. She said she wears it when she washes airplanes. Brian
was kind of disappointed when I thought the airplane was clean enough.

That night after we set up our little tent Brian got out the hand held
transceiver and proceeded to turn the runway lights on and off and up and down by
blipping the push to talk button. The great wings adventure had begun.

The next day we were off to Burke County Georgia, l'The Hound Dog Capitol
Of The World ". It was a short hop of only 40 minutes since Allendale was out of
fuel. I set up the approach on the small strip that appeared to be used for agricultural
sprayer aircraft. No control tower. Everything looked OK but we hit hard. I mean
really hard which bounced us up into the air and to the left of the runway. I noticed
then that there was a ditch running parallel to the runway along with some
chemical tanks lying about there.

It seemed like the prudent thing to do was to get the hell out of there so I gave
_ her full throttle and flew the airplane. She responded well and we went around to
try it again. I yelled to Brian, what the hell is all that noise in my earphones? He
answers, " Its the ELT, it went off when we bounced!" ( the ELT is the Emergency
Locator Transmitter ). We got it turned off and then tuned in flight watch to tell
them we had inadvertently " turned it on and that we were OK. They had heard it.

The next landing attempt turned out OK and we taxied up to some gas
pumps. There was noone around so I guess there were no witnesses or they were
still hiding. Finally a man came out of the house trailer on the hill and came down
to gas us up. I noticed him looking at my B-2 jacket with the CBI patch on it and
finally he says "you in the CBI?" One question led to another and we found out that
he had been a pilot in Burma in another group. In fact he came home on the same
troop ship I did, the General Squire. He invited us up to his trailer for coffee and we
were there for an hour, swapping stories. We finally got away and he wouldn't take
any money for the fuel.

From Burke it was 270 miles to Thomaston Ga. where we stopped for fuel and
lunch. We borrowed someone's black pickup truck and drove out on the highway
and found a Chinese restaurant. Moving right along it was another 225 miles to
Sylacauga Ala. arriving there at 18:15. The airport was pretty quiet and we didn't see
any place to camp so we called a Best Western. A fellow showed up in a pickup truck
with a lawnmower in the back He was the motel manager. He stopped at a market
_ for us and Brian got a six pack. Had a good dinner at a place near the motel.

- The weather was still very good and the next day we took off at 10:22 for the
229 miles to Greenwood Miss. A few miles west of Tuscaloosa Ala. we were tracking
outbound on the 290 deg. radial along the outer edge of the Meridian I East MOA
(Military Operating Area). Brian noticed a reflection off of something ahead at our
level. It got big real fast as it went by us on our left. It was an F-4, one of the meanest
looking jet fighters ever built. He roared by and I guess he waved but it was too
quick to tell. He was probably tracking us on his radar and practicing an intercept. We
tightened up our scan as we motored on to Greenwood but were not attacked again.

At Greenwood we got a courtesy car, an old gray 4 dr. aids. behemoth and
went 9 miles for fried chicken. Next hop was 198 miles to Monticello Ark. About 30
miles north of Greenville Miss. we crossed the Mississippi. It looked pretty muddy
and didn't seem very wide and it was just full of tight twists and turns, as far as you
could see.

I read somewhere that the Mississippi and many other rivers follow a
sinusoidal path that can be compared to a string of discrete loosely linked objects of
mass whose motion has been restrained at the end it is moving to. An example is
that of a train wreck in which the cars are all zigzagged alternately across the
roadbed. Well now, there is just no end to the knowledge and advanced thinking
that you can pick up reading this stuff!

_ Here's some more. When flying over such great territories as we were, it
makes you wond er how nature strikes such a balance of wet and dry. There is just
enough rain to keep the oceans, lakes and rivers at their nominal level. When
looking at the world in big chunks as we were it seems that floods and droughts
ought to be more common. I guess we're just lucky.

The strip at Monticello is a picturesque spot, and the grounds well cared for.
We elected to set up the tent under the wing on a nice grassy area. The airport
manager. Jim Burnet, packed his family, Brian and me into his police car ( he is also
a Sheriff) and took us into town for McDonalds.

That night we got a good view of the stars and moon. This was one trip the
two of us were going to remember for a long time. I was thinking how we grow up
so fast. Seems like only yesterday that Brian was a Cub Scout, here he is 30 years old.
Why couldn't I have spent more time with the kids when they were young? It
seems like you work so hard at being an adult that you don't remember what it's
like being a kid and now you wish you could have done more to help and teach.
You look back now and think, well I could have done this or that, and now it's too

I know, as I think about my father, he must have had the same thoughts. He
in tum had his training to be a father, from his father, and that was a tough life. My
- father had plenty of problems, but he did manage. His love of us was not on display

very often. His struggle to overcome adversity was for our benefit too and that was
his priority. That was his version of love.

Being with one of mine on this adventure, but perhaps a bit late, is giving us
a good feeling. Depending on each other brings us close. I know that Brian is
enjoying it and learning a lot, as I am too. Wish we had done this years ago.

As I write this (April '96 ) the news is all about a 7 year old girl who was flying
cross country to set a record. And who is now dead along with her father and flight
instructor. What nonsense and waste. The media should be ashamed for taking the
event seriously and legitimizing this hoax. And what loony bin did these parents
escape from? Better tighten security there. It is one thing to encourage young people
to get involved in aviation. But it must be done in stages so that tasks are matched
properly to the students realistic capabilities. The biggest problem in aviation is the
exercise of judgment and that has nothing to do with motor skills, reaction time, or
eyesight. Judgment comes with experience and attitude development. A seven year
old might play a fine violin, a monkey can be trained to ride a bicycle, but they
cannot be pilots. Unfortunately there are even some adult seasoned pilots who have
failed to develop or retain judgmental skills and have come to grief.
''There are old pilots and there are bold pilots but there are no old bold pilots"

Do we really want 7 year olds to have these adult judgmental skills? What
happened to childhood, innocence, carefree times basking in the love of family?
Why push them into adulthood, as if that was supposed to be better. Why the rush.
You adults now want to find your second childhood, so why try to shorten the first

Now it is Sept. 26 as we takeoff at 09:18 from Monticello Ark. Weather still

great. Our fuel stop is Springhill Louisiana. It's a small strip with a row of tall trees
along one side of the runway. The breeze is a little gusty as I set her down and we
bounced some but no problem. Betty came out of the house trailer to gas us up and
we borrowed her pickup truck to go into town for lunch. Brian does all the driving
of these courtesy cars. As we get into town and diagonal park on main street in front
of the cafe ,people wave at us so we wave back.

From Springhill we planned a leg to Terrell Texas which is about 20 miles

east of Dallas. On the way we flew over the Lone Star steel mill near Dangerfield.
Back in 1956 I made a number of trips there for Curtiss Wright (Woodridge N.J.) in
testing the engine we were developing for the Republic F-103 Mach 3 interceptor.
The engine was a turboramjet. We were testing it at the steel mill because the
altitude engine test facility was built there so as to utilize the giant air compressors
and air storage tanks used by the blast furnaces.
The engine ducts had doors forward and aft of the Olympus turbojet that
could be turned to bypass the inlet air around the turbojet and into the
afterburner/ramjet. We got it to work OK after installing vortex generators and
turning vanes that I had developed in wind tunnel tests. It was a huge engine and
the ground trembled for miles when it ran.

Over Terrell we were informed that the runway was blocked due to
construction and that we could land on the taxi way, however it too looked partially
blocked so we decided to go on to our alternate, Ennis, another 39 miles to the
southwest. We found Ennis OK with a runway 3,994 ft. by 50 ft. of asphalt with a
lake at the south end. Our touchdown was in the right place and reasonably soft. I
tried slowing down with the brakes even though it wasn't necessary. I was probably
spooked by that lake at the end of the runway, even though there was plenty of
runway left.

My left heel slipped off the left heel brake and 73 Tango veered off the runway
into the grass, now facing from whence we came. We didn't hit anything and she
stayed on her feet, so I figured what the hey, I just continued the tum and 360'd back
on to the runway. Brian was as surprised as I was. They say that there are only two
kinds of tail dragger pilots; those that have ground looped, and those that are gonna.
Once it begins there isn't much you can do, but sit there helpless and embarrassed.

This reminded me of a landing of the C-46 China Doll at Point Mugu Naval
Air Station, back around 1988. Jack Hartswick was in the left seat and we were
arriving there for an airshow. There was a big crowd at Base Ops. including the Blue
Angels and a lot of the other airs how performers, watching us land. Just as we
_ touched down the tower asked if we could make the first turnoff (to the left). Jack
said OK about the same time he started hitting the brakes and he must have gotten
out of phase because off she went into the grass to the right. Jack responded about
the same way I did at Ennis . He powered it around in a 360 back on to the runway
and then on to Base Ops. We took a lot of ribbing that night at the 0 Club. Could you
believe that no one thought that it was our standard airs how routine? When I
checked the C-46 there was no damage but there were grass stains on the left
outboard tire sidewall.

Now Jack is no amateur. In WW II he flew P-40s in the CBI. After the war he
flew for the airlines until retiring recently with a zillion hours experience

We now discovered that the FBO here at Ennis was folding up and had no gas
to sell. While I was on the phone to FSS planning the next hop to Clebourne Texas,
Brian was outside watching some kind of marital dispute going on at a large motor
home parked about 50 yards away. This woman had driven up in a Cadillac, got out
,and proceeded to use a big hammer to knock out all the windows of the motor
home, accompanying this with a stream of profanity.

Clebourne was just 46 miles away and about the same distance south of Fort
Worth. The plan was that we would land at Clebourne and then rent a car, go to
Fort Worth to visit friends Shirley and Ed Turner. The landing at Clebourne was a
- beautiful 3 pointer. I was paying attention now.

At Turner's we had a nice visit, washed our clothes, got some rest and the
next day we were back at Clebourne and then headed for Big Spring Texas. For some
reason or other we got off course and realized we weren't picking up the expected
check points. We spotted a large airfield and figured by the shape of it that it must be
Brownwood, a bit off our planned course. We then picked a radial on the Tuscola
VOR (15 miles south of Abilene) which brought us back up to our planned course. It
was then 100 miles to Big Spring which we found with no further trouble.

Big Spring is a big airport. It was a four engine bomber training base in
W.W.II. Today there wasn't much going on, just a bright yellow J-3 Cub shooting
landings. The nearby town wasn't very big. Most of the activity was from a number
of truck stops for the interstate which passed through the edge of town.

After we landed on one of the huge runways we met Joe, the J-3 Cub pilot. He
said," sure, he would give us a lift to the Motel 6". But first he showed us a big
hanger where we could park our 73 Tango for the night. Everything in Big Spring is

Joe dumped his wife out of the car to make room and took us to the Motel.
We had a good dinner that night at Rips Truck Stop next door and next morning Joe
picked us up after breakfast and got us back to the airport.

_ At 10:52 we got off the ground and headed for Wink Texas ( 130 miles ). On
the way we passed over millionaire Joe Mabe's ranch. He is a big gun in the
Confederate Air Force and has his own air strip and collection of WW II airplanes.
We thought about dropping in on him but decided not to since we hadn't been

Wink turned out to be another large, but principally unused airport, another
WW II bomber training base. On checking the weather we found that it was
questionable to the west in the vicinity of Guadalupe and not recommended for
VFR. The airport manager offered us an unused hanger for 73 Tango and also called
a motel in Kermit to come and pick us up. It was about a six mile ride to the motel
and we found it was the motel manager and owner who was driving us. He had
locked up his office to come and get us. Wasn't very expensive either. The next
morning the manager drove us back to the airport. He had an interesting accent that
I couldn't quite nail down. He said he was born in India and grew up in Victoria,
South Africa.

The FSS said there were clouds to the west and advised going south through
Pecos and Van Horn to avoid thunderstorms. Brian got 73 Tango out of the hanger
and preflighted while I re - did the flight plan.

Perhaps at this point it might be informative to describe what goes into flight
_ planning. The first step on this trip was to choose a general route from Myrtle Beach

to Los Angeles. This was done on a flight planning chart that covers the entire U.S.
Large city airports with high density traffic were avoided. Navigation aids including
VOR beacons, highways and geographic features were noted and used to pick the
route. Eight Sectional Aeronautical Charts were then purchased ( Charlotte, Atlanta,
Memphis, Dallas, San Antonio, El Paso, Phoenix, and Los Angeles ). These charts are
to a greater scale than the planning chart and have a lot of important detail. The
AOPA Aviation USA" was also used as reference for detailed information of all

airports in the USA. Figure shows the data for Myrtle Beach.

A high-lighter felt pen is used to mark the route on the sectionals, choosing
landing spots for refueling at roughly two hour intervals. Each evening, or
sometimes in the morning, a flight plan form is filled out for each hop of the day.
The sectionals and the flight plan both have supporting data for navigation,
Samples of these are shown in Figures and for the leg ,Wink to Van Horn
Texas ( a portion of the next leg to Las Cruces is shown on the sectional ) . For
interpretation of the many symbols and notations on the sectionals, see Figure

Note that the first plan was to fly from Wink to Las Cruces by the way of
Guadalupe. This was changed to Van Horn as some thunderstorms were reported in
the vicinity of Guadalupe Pass.

The primary radio navigation facility, VOR, is indicated by the large ( 3 inch
dia. ) compass rose on the sectional. The range of the signals are limited to roughly
_ 80 miles at an altitude of 3,000 ft. and can be blocked by mountains. The range is
greater at higher altitudes. Think of the VOR signals as spokes radiating out of a
hub. Each spoke a successive compass radial. The airplane reciever tells you which
radial you are on and also whether you are going to the station or away from it. If
you are flying along a radial, the instrument needle will stay constant on the vector
angle and you will intersect the "hub" or VOR obelisk (antenna) if you have a "too"
the station reading. If you see the needle moving through a series of vector angles
you are not going to fly over the "hub". Is all that clear?

The flight plan form serves two functions. It summarizes the information
that you must report to Air Traffic Control. Normal procedure is to "file" the plan
with a FSS about an hour before the flight and usually at the same time you request
a weather briefing by calling 1-800-WX BRIEF. The second function is to have
important information in the cockpit to aid navigation, radio communication and
weather information

The flight plan is "opened" (activated) after takeoff by calling FSS on the
radio, or on the ground immediately before takeoff, by telephone or radio. At
completion of the flight the flight plan must be "closed", either in the air by radio
when you have the landing field in sight, or on the ground by telephone. If you
forget to close it, the wheels are set into motion to try to find and rescue you. That is
why you file your flight plan- there will be a record on tape of where you might be
_ to help your rescuers.

f\ why you file your flight plan- there will be a record on tape of where you might be
to help your rescuers.

All your communications with FSS, ATC and Weather, both radio and
telephone are recorded on tape, including of course, your tail number (N-3673T ).
Forget to close and as you can imagine, the Feds don't like it. Neglect to file and/ or
open, get in trouble and you won't like it. No one will come and look for you.

Now with reference to fig. ,I always draw a sketch of what the destination
airport runways look like at the top of the flight plan. Helps remind me of what to
look for. The first check point is TOC (Top Of Climb) as the takeoff is at 2818 ft. field
elevation to the cruise altitude of 8500 ft. The "course" is at 218 deg. lito" the Pecos
VOR. Note that this VOR "course" has the magnetic variation built in. The true
course measured on the sectional referenced to true north is 228 deg.. The WCA (
Wind Correction Angle) is -7 deg. as calculated from the TAS (True AirSpeed) and
wind predicted as 10 mph at 140 deg .. This makes the TH ( True Heading) 221 deg.
But since we are following a magnetic compass we must correct for magnetic
variation which in this part of Texas is 10 deg. E(-) making the MH (Magnetic
Heading) 211 deg. There is also a compass deviation caused by magnetic anomolies
in the airplane. These are uncertain because the compass hasn't been swung recently
on this, my "new" airplane, so the CH (Corrected Heading) is taken for now as the

_ The Pecos VOR is tuned in at the frequency of 111.8 and is identified

(important step) by listening for the identifier Morse code of the three letters, PEQ.
The distance to each check point is measured directly off the sectional chart using a
ruler made for that purpose. The GS, estimated Ground Speed, is then used with the
Distance to calculate ETE (Estimated Time Enroute) . ETA (Estimated Time Arrival)
is calculated from Time Off and ETE. ATA (Actual Time Arrival ) is then used to
calculate the ATE (Actual Time Enroute ). Got it ?

Fuel consumption (GPH) is actually around 5.5 but 6.0 makes it easier to
calculate ( 14 minutes of flight equals 1.4 gallons, for example) and this gives a
coservative pad for headwinds of about 8 mph. The reverse side of the flight plan
form is shown in Fig. . The weather data is more complete in the briefing than
what is copied down on the form. The go/no go is based on that briefing, and only a
few items are noted for reference.

From the Pecos VOR, where the lito" window in the instrument flops over to
"from" indicating passing over the VOR antenna, we continue on the same Course
and Magnetic Heading to the next check point, the intersection of I 10 and I 20. That
was easy to spot from the air and now we follow I 10 and a MH of 253 deg. We arrive
at VanHorn a little beyond our estimate and it appears the wind component
against us was stronger than expected.

All this navigation stuff is fun and we enjoy doing it. It takes longer to

- describe it than to calculate it once you get used to doing it. Of course airline
navigation follows the same principles but is heavily automated with preplanned
routes following designated flight corridors.

At Van Horn we had to telephone someone to come out from town to gas us
up. Brian had him bring us some hamburgers. On takeoff we got a good luck at the
semi's on I 10, as it was a hot day and we were near gross weight. The wind was
coming from the south west off the mountain ridge along the Mexican border, and
it seemed to be all down air. We made it through Sierra Blanca Pass at about 5,000 ft.
and from there along the Rio Grande it was easier going.

We followed I 10 all the way to EI Paso where we jogged around to the north
to stay out of the ARSA (Airport Radar Service Area ). This took us over Fort Bliss
an Armored Corps training base where such notables as David Hartill and Elvis
Presley once trained.

Down below flows the Rio Grande. On the south side the packed slums of
Juarez. On the north, the tall buildings, freeways and Tony Lama Boot shops.

Turning north it's another 45 miles to Las Cruces New Mexico and we land at
16:43. It is another large airport but not busy except for alot of student flying for a
school based there. There was a courtesy car available so we went into town and got
_ a cheap motel. It had a pool so we got a swim and later some Chinese food. Later
that night we heard a lot of thunder. The next morning it was raining. Calls to the
FSS gave bad news. We weren't flying for a while. We checked out of that motel and
found another that was a dollar cheaper. That was on Sunday.

On Monday the weather looked better so we took off and flew west to about 10
miles short of Deming. There was a solid overcast over Deming and we weren't sure
how far west it extended so we turned around and landed back at Las Cruces.

That day we found an even cheaper motel so we moved again. We also took a
drive down to Santa Theresa to visit the McGuire Aircraft Museum. A remarkable
collection and they all fly. A bunch of P-51's, a C-47, P-40, Fieseler Storch, P-38 ,etc.

Finally on Wednesday, Oct. 3, we took off from Las Cruces with the weather
much better. After four days stuck at Las Cruces where we had been calling FSS
pretty regularly for weather, we had gotten to know Margaret at the Deming FSS.
She flew Taylorcrafts in Alaska while in the Air Force. Now we were talking with
her again as we flew over Deming heading west.

South of Deming a few miles is a hazard to navigation . It is a tethered

balloon at 14,000 ft. that carries a radar antenna designed to detect smugglers coming
from Mexico. It wasn't easy to see but we finally spotted it. Air traffic controllers are
supposed to warn you if you get too close to it .

Past Deming, past Lordsburg and on to Cochise where we laned for gas, the
weather remained good. The next leg put us through the Tuscon ARSA and we
were under the direction of controllers. A Mexicana DC-9 was fouling things up in
general with improper position reports. We got a visual on him and managed to
stay clear. Bypassing Phoenix, we flew on to Gila Bend where we refueled again.

From there it was westward across the Colorado River at Yuma, then to El
Centro and then Imperial. There isn't much left of the Colorado by the time it gets to
Mexico. Canals divert a lot of this water to agriculture in Arizona and California.
We see a lot of green here.

At Imperial we are in the proper landing pattern, according to the wind sock
and the Unicorn advisory and we announced on the crAF (Common Traffic
Advisory Frequency) which allows you to announce your position and intentions
and also listen for other traffic (at airports without control towers).

However on downwind we observed an Agcat taking off downwind, starting

a left tum into our downwind. We extended our downwind a ways to avoid him.
That and a couple other excuses I could think of, a drive-in theatre screen, poles and
wires at the approach end of the runway, must have disconcerted me because it was
a bouncy landing.

_ We checked in at the FBO and found a pleasant fellow who said he could give
us a ride into town to a motel. Then he said he had been watching the landing and
proceeded to give me lots of advice on what I was doing wrong. I was a little
unappreciative at this point and felt a bit tired. He asked us if we wanted to see some
of his airplanes. OK, sure, so we go into the hanger, and there is a beutiful Stearman,
a Grumman Widgeon, and a F4U Corsair. He said that the Corsair (2200 hp) lands
just like my Taylorcraft. Well maybe in principle, but he didn't offer to let me fly his

His name is Larry Rose and he is the owner of the local Agcat business based
here. We piled into his pickup for the ride to town. The next morning we called the
airport Cafe to find out if they were open for breakfast. A sleepy female voice
answered and she seemed a little confused but finally she said "sure, come on over,
I'll fix you something". When we got to the airport Cafe we found it had been closed
for a year. Never did find out who we had called. Friendly people here at Imperial!

So now we were on our last leg to Camarillo. I called there and said we would
arrive at noon (10/4/90). We took off at 09:40, flying along the west shore of the
Salton Sea, a freak of nature. The local topography has been hammered and formed
by earthquakes over the millenia. At one time this inland sea was denied linkage
with the Sea of Cortez and the Pacific. It's surface is below the Pacific and It's salt
content is much greater than the ocean mostly due to leaching out of salts from
- runoff over mineral fields.

We pass over Thermal, at the north end of Salton Sea, holder of all the heat
records of California, and on to Indio, the Date capitol of the world, and thence to
Bermuda Dunes. Bermuda Dunes, now that was an interesting place. Back a few
years ago our Confederate Air Force Wing got a contract to fly our C-46 as a camera
platform for filming of a James Bond Movie, The Living Daylights.

We used Bermuda Dunes Airport as the base of operations for our C-46 and
for a C-123 from a private operator. We were well paid, well fed and had a great time
for a couple of weeks. Several homes were rented on the airport as operations for
rigging the airplanes and cameras. Great food was available there at all times.
Previous takes were shown to see if we got the shots we wanted.

. $ Ii ii"

The Firth of Forth railway bridge, Edinburgh Scotland



- t
\ ..

My original Gas Model at Bunganuc, 1940

My first CAR, 1932 Ford V8
............ '. .... ,

- David Burke, my helper, on my Pepsi truck,1942


Waco biplane at Augusta

My first airplane ride, 41'
35' Chevy Maine st.

Charlie (left) with instructor
Roland Norcross (right).
Augusta 1941. Super Cub Charlie and Bill at Bunganuc

- Augusta Air Show 1941

Susan.. Joan, Mary, Edwin, Charlie, Jean, David, ? , shadow-Bill

- Pop to the right with his coworker, the Scout Master.

RIO Bill McGann, Copilot Ted, Navigator-?, Pilot Glenn Peck,

Engineer Bill,C-46 477864 on arrival in Burma, March 45'
Bill with Ben Filer at the 16 th Combat Cargo reunion at
Virginia Beach 1990

- -

- Bill in 477864 "Whats Your Story II Myitkinya Burma 1945

Airports having Control Towers (Airport Traftic Areas) or. shown in !!!. all othen in Magenta. COMuh Airport/facility 'Directory (A/fO)
for details involving airport lighting, navigation aid., and .. rvices. For additional symbol information r.f., to the (hort Uwr', Guide.

- • 0
Other than hord,surtoced runways ~

Hord·surfoced runways 1500 ft. to 8000 ft.

Seaplane Base

In length

F5S""'- Station on field .

Ba, indicate, Sp."al_\ NAME CT - 118.3 G I
Indicates Flight ServICe

TrofflC Area (See FAR 93) A TIS 123.8
285 L 72 122.95 - UNICOM
~ Ha,d ",,faced "nway, 9,.at., than 8000 ft. VFR Advsy 125.0
Airport ot entry
All recognlzoble hord·wdoced runway\, inclUding those FSS - Flight Service Station; RFSS - Remote Flight Service Stolion
dosed, ore shown for vl~ual Identlflcotlon CT - 118.3 - Control Tower (CT).- prlmory frequency
*- Star Indlcotes operatIOn port time See tower frequencies
tabulation for hours of operahctn.
Prlvat. "(Pvt)" - Non·public u~e having emergency or
® landmark value
IndlCate~ Common Traffic Advisory Frequencies (CTAF)
123.8 - Automatic Terminal Information Service
.0 0
Military 'Othe~ !han hord.$Urfoc~. All military airports are UNI COM - Aeronautical advisory ,tation

. , , identified by abbreViatIons AFB, NAS, AAF, etc.

For complete airport information consult 000 fliP.
YfR Advsy - VFR Advisory Service snown where ATIS not available
and frequency is other than primary (T frequency .
285 - Elevation in feet
Heliport -
Unverified Abandoned - paved
l - lighting in operation Sunset to Sunrise
*l - lighting available on request. part·time lighti!)g, or
Selected having landmark value. Flight Pork pilot· controlled lighting.
Selected 72 - length ot longest runway in hundteds of feet;

SerVICes - fuel available and field tended during normal
usable length may be less.

When tocility or information is locking, tt1e respedi .... choracter

IS replaced by a dash. AU lighting codes refer to runway lights.
working hours depicted by use of ticks around basic airport
Lighted runway may not be the k>ngest or lighted full length.
symbol. Consult A/FD for ~ervice availability at airparh with
hard·surfaced runways greater than 8000 ft. AU times are local.

'If Rotating light in operatlOn Sun~et to Sunrise.

NFCT - Non Federal Control Tower


VHF OMNI RANGE (VOR) 122.1R 122.6 123.6 122.1R
I 362 116.8
OAK : :••
Und.rlin~ indicates
- - ... , }
Heavy line bOx indicates Flight Service

• / Station (FSS). Freqs 121.5, 122.2, 2"'3.0

~~~s 2a5n5d4a~;en:~r:~~n :::~:~~"

no voice on this freq
o Non-Directional
Square indicates TWEi, AWOS or
HIWAS available at thl' NAVAIO.
All other freqs or. shown.

R: - rec:eive only For Airport AdVisory Service

use FSS freq 123.6

j 0...
•••••••••••• .~:RB~::J
302. _ _
122.1 R
In Canada all available FSS
and RfSS frequencies are shown.

II +00 & c" 6m ~
Radiobea(an frequenCIes above thin line box ore remoted
to NAVAIO site. Other freqs at controlling
Other facilities, i.e., Commercial MIAMI FSS may .be oyailoble . determined by olhtud.
I Broadcast Stations, FSS Outlets·
RCO, etc.
Controlling FSS
and terrain. Consult Alfport/Fadlity Directory
'I)r complete information.


Only the controlled and reserved airspace
effective below 18:000 h MSL are shown
on th!~ chart. All times are local.
~ TCA - Terminal /~Io"~~dcan
Control Area I Airspace

1 CZ- Control Zone

CI - htend~ upwards
- - - - - - from the surface
- Mode C
(See F.A.R 91.24/AIM)

Road Markers
CZ Within which ARSA . Airport Radar

~...., Service Area (Mode C
j fi,ed-wing 'pecial
flight IS prohibited
5ee F.A.R. 91.24/AIM)

... . . . . . . . Closs C or F CZ (Canada)

TA- Transition Area.
The limih of controlled air$pace are
shown by tint bandj, (Vignette) and are
NotIonal Security Area - !--A- Power Transmihion tines
1 color-coded in blue and magenta

1 below 1000 ft AGl
.- -- - -_.

• eli
AertoJ Cab'e

lookout Tower P·17 (Stte Number)

618 (Elevation _ 01 T_or)

Coast Guard Station

I - Roce Track

Obstruction • Tnnk-water, oil or Vas
o Oil W.II • Water Well
Obslru(!IOn With
1t Mines And Ovames
t11'lnlen~lty lights
Special AIr Trattlc Rule~
Moy operate port time ---- Mountain Pass
(See F.A.R. Port 93 for details
_ 1J823(EIe.o~onofPo ..)
1 r"" NAME {Magenta, Blue, or Block) 2049 - Elhatlon of the top
V,~uol Check Pomt
above mean sea level
<r Outdoo<~TheotorRoe'"
I ~ Parachute Jumping Area
UC above g.round
Under construction or
't' See Airport/Focillty Directory Shipw,J'.);0;1
reporlt'd. PO$IIIOn and
elevation unven/.ed
low Altitude federal Alrwoy~ O\:::::)'C? ~,.,

j .*".¥,
are indicated by center line.

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