Appendix 1

Stress Calibration

For the ultrasonic fatigue machines to work correctly, stress calibration is necessary. The first objective of the calibration is to make the test system vibrate in resonance at ultrasonic frequency of about 20 kHz. Among the important factors of concern is the variation of Young’s modulus of the material due to the high frequency or non-uniform temperatures. Although some measures for calibration have been mentioned in previous sections, it is necessary to present, in this appendix, the detailed calibration procedures for the low temperature test system described earlier. The principles for the calibration of machines operated at room temperature are the same; those procedures will be simpler. The mechanical system works in an elastic regime. The relationships between displacement, strain, and stress are therefore linear. The electrical voltage applied to the piezoceramic is also linear and proportional to the displacement. The electrical current density depends on the impedance, the dynamic mechanical resistance of the equipment fixed in the converter. For these reasons, we use a J2 type generator

Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved.

Furthermore. AMPLIFYING HORN As the displacement amplitude of the converter is limited.1. One solution may be to use an accelerometer installed at the end of the converter and to calibrate its signal with an optical displacement sensor.260 Appendix 1 connector that permits us to know the displacement amplitude and the output power. calibration is required. for the accelerometer. the linear relation between this signal and the displacement in the specimen’s head. Before using this signal. The measures required at low temperatures are more involved. There are two antinodes and one node in the displacement distribution of the cone (Figure A1. especially since the signal is proper and the additional installation of an apparatus (the accelerometer) will be avoided.1). the role of the cone shape (amplifying horn) is very important in order to increase the displacement of the specimen and thus to raise its stress to the required level. This solution is better than the introduction of an accelerometer. is unknown because of the electrical chain. we must convert the sinusoidal wave to a DC voltage. Therefore. utilization of this signal will be a simpler and more practical solution. since we have the driving voltage to the piezo-ceramic that is already a signal proportional to the displacement amplitude. A1. However. The amplification factor Fampl is defined as .



V1 .




V .

as shown in Figure A1. The temperature of the horn may be reasonably assumed to vary linearly between two end values of 20 K and T0. a numerical analysis such as FEM is needed to obtain the correct geometry of the horn incorporating the effects of the temperature gradient and the variation of the elastic modulus. 2 Generally.2. respectively. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. All Rights Reserved. . the temperatures of the cryostat and ambient air.

1 Displacement distribution of amplifying horn (horn 1).Stress Calibration 261 Figure A1. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.2 Temperature field of amplifying horn. Figure A1. . All Rights Reserved.

Horn 2 gives an amplification factor Fampl ¼ 8. Meanwhile. The open points are the values measured from the optical sensor. All Rights Reserved.98 in helium. FIRST CALIBRATION The driving electrical voltage and power is supplied by a Branson power source. does not vibrate at ambient temperature.2 is 3.e. . and 3. i. 3.3. and the full points are those from plug 9. Figure A1.4 gives the measured signal in response to the input signal. Figure A1.40 in liquid helium. This relation can be Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. Horn 1 works well at ambient temperature and in liquid nitrogen with or without specimen.262 Appendix 1 Figure A1.93 in nitrogen and 8. the cone can only produce a maximum stress of about 500 MPa. the voltage in plug 8. which is capable of developing stress between 650 MPa and 1300 MPa. and the first measurement is carried out with an IBM PC computer.2. A second horn design is shown in Figure A1. The amplification factor of the first horn (horn 1) shown in Figure A1.52 at room temperature.3 Dimensions of the second horn (horn 2).42 in liquid nitrogen. The linearity is practically perfect.5 presents the relation between the signal of plug 9 in the connector J2 and the signal of the sensor for horn 1 at ambient temperature. A1. horn 1 must be used.. Since horn 2 joined with the fatigue life specimen.

this displacement must be constant.5 Measured amplitude of signal. All Rights Reserved. which implies identical displacement amplitudes on two sides. In a CNAM=ITMA test in liquid nitrogen. and Vm is the voltage of plug 9. Figure A1. expressed by the equation Uc1 ¼ À2:57 þ 4:146 Vm ðA1:1Þ where Uc1 is the measured displacement of the first horn by the sensor. The voltage applied to the ceramic imposes a displacement at the end of the converter. . The symmetry of the specimen. has been taken into account. For a given temperature. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.Stress Calibration 263 Figure A1.4 Response to input signal.

1 and A1. . The curve of input stress-signal in Figure A1.2 MPa. Therefore.264 Appendix 1 the temperature of the converter is above 0 C. For material Ti6A4VPQ. the amplitudes of displacement and stress are determined for horn 2 by the simple calculation.52 is that of horn 1 at room temperature.6 Stress versus signal. Figure A1. one micron of displacement corresponds to a stress of 16. Therefore the stress is calculated by Eq. whatever the mechanical load may be. All Rights Reserved. Based on the preceding analyses. as follows: Uc2 ¼ 8:93 Uc1 3:52 ðA1:2aÞ ðA1:2bÞ s2 ¼ 16:2Uc2 ¼ À105:66 þ 170:54 Vm Here.2. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.2b using Eqs. and 3.93 is the amplification factor of horn 2 at low temperatures. A1.66 in this equation comes from the electronics or the adjustment of the A=D card. The constant À105. we consider that the displacement in the converter is constant for a given electrical applied voltage. the value 8. A1.6 is employed in the control program to guarantee good convergence.5 volt without vibration. because this part does not freeze immediately after the removal of the cryostat. the initial voltage is about 0. In other words.

which permits us to verify the stress for the two horns.Stress Calibration 265 A1. Displacement measured by the sensor Um ¼ 17:4 mm. . The Ti6A4V specimen used is a uniform cylindrical bar with 124. ec ðUm ¼ 35:4 mmÞ ¼ 891:2 m. we have ec ðUm ¼ 17:4 mmÞ ¼ 438:3 m.52. Horn 1. we have carried out another calibration at ambient temperature. Substituting measured values.3. the strain along the specimen can be calculated. Um ¼ 35:4 mm. at 50% power at 100% power Subscript m indicates measured value. The results are as follows. SECOND CALIBRATION With a computer PC486DX33 and a high-performance Keithley card. All Rights Reserved.72 mm in length. The two amplifying horns work at ambient temperature. The optical sensor measures the displacement amplitude at the specimen’s head and a strain gauge mounted on the specimen’s center measures the strain there. The amplification factor Fampl is 3. and subscript c for calculated value in the following. Strain in specimen center (calculated value) 2pf ec ¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Um ¼ 25:19Um E=r ðA1:3Þ with f ¼ 20 kHz. E ¼ 110 GPa. and r ¼ 4420 kg=m3. at 50% power at 100% power Strain in specimen center (measured by the gauge) em ¼ 2 1000 Vm ðmÞ K V1000 ðA1:4Þ Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. With the strain values of the specimen’s center measured by the gauge and the displacement in the head measured by the optical sensor.

is about 2%. This demonstrates that the optical displacement sensor and the strain gauges used are reliable in the vibration environment of 20 kHz.16. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. at 50% power ec ðUm ¼ 84:4 mmÞ ¼ 2126 m at 100% power Strain in specimen center (measured by the gauge and with V1000 ¼ 1. and V1000 ¼ 2.6. The measurements show that the ratio of vibration between horns 1 and 2 is 2. while the calculated ratio is 2. The amplification factor Fampl is 9. substituting measured values. at 50% power at 100% power The results are summarized in Table A1.45 on the average. All Rights Reserved.56 volts) em ðVm ¼ 1:8 VÞ ¼ 1123 m.266 Appendix 1 where K ¼ 2. Similarly. Displacement measured by the sensor Um ¼ 43:4 mm at 50% power Um ¼ 84:4 mm at 100% power Strain in specimen center (calculated value) ec ðUm ¼ 43:4 mmÞ ¼ 1093 m. at 50% power at 100% power Horn 2.1 This verification is satisfactory. em ðVm ¼ 3:56 VÞ ¼ 2221 m. We can also see that the measurements at 100% power are close to twice those at 50% power. Note that the difference of strains from the measurement of the gauge and the calculation. The difference between them is about 6%. and the stress distribution in the antinodes is good.055 is the gauge factor. The strain gauge measurements give the best results. em ðVm ¼ 2:4 VÞ ¼ 898:4 m. . starting from the values measured by the optical sensor. we have em ðVm ¼ 1:2 VÞ ¼ 449:2 m.6 volts is the voltage of calibration at 1000 m of strain.

16 2.472 Horn 1 Horn 2 No.4 mm 43.500 em (100%) 898.Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.4 mm 2. All Rights Reserved.3 m 1093 m 2.52 9.494 Um (100%) 35.602 267 .4 m 2221 m 2. 2=No.384 ec (50%) 438.2 m 1123 m 2. 1 3.494 ec (100%) 891.4 mm 2.2 m 2126 m 2. Stress Calibration Table A1.386 em (50%) 449.1 Results of Second Calibration Fampl Um (50%) 17.4 mm 84.

6 can be used to include the influence of temperature of the horns. the stress can be calibrated in accordance with the voltage of plug 9 in connector J2 that is 5 volts at 50% power and 10 volts at 100% power. we are able to determine the stress in the specimen. At low temperatures.6 mm and 88. Consequently the amplification factor decreases slightly. Because the displacement of point B in Figure 3.6 mm at 100% power.11). Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. and horn 2 gives 88. The values are 35. the amplifying horns are more rigid because their elastic moduli increases. All Rights Reserved. horn 1 also gives an amplitude value of 35. we obtain   UB c c UB ¼ Fampl Fampl ambient ðA1:6Þ Formula A1. both for a cylindrical bar and an endurance (fatigue life) specimen with a longitudinal profile of hyperbolic cosine in the central portion. The converter is always at ambient temperature.11) and does not depend on load. c c Having obtained UB (identical to UA ). that is to say. This displacement amplitude is denoted by UC. The stress depends on the geometry of the specimen and the elastic modulus of the material. The related formulas are available in Chapter 2.6 mm. we have     UB UB ¼ ðA1:5Þ UC ¼ Fampl ambient Fampl cold Using a superscript c for cold. both at 100% power.11 is the same as that of point A. we only consider the state at 100% power in the following discussion.6 mm for horns 1 and 2. Taking account of the linearity. With the measurement of the gauge at room temperature. the displacement can be calculated at the head of the specimen (at point A of Figure 3. respectively. This voltage is proportional to the displacement amplitude of the horn (at point C of Figure 3. Since UC is constant. These values are independent of the specimens.268 Appendix 1 From these measurements. . the amplitude is constant at a given power.

7.57 mm) in the central region. we mount five small gauges (gauge length. several gauges are mounted on the cylindrical specimen of TA6VPQ. Figure A1. For Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. Although these tests are performed at 50% power from the ultrasonic generator. This is the reason that only a small number of results have been obtained. For this reason. To know the behavior of the machine at low temperatures. But the test machine did not vibrate in resonance under these conditions. the gauges wires broke one after another because of acceleration. 1. the verification of the calculations has been made for ambient temperature. For horn 2.) The measurement points lie very close to the straight line. the signal from gauges is quite sinusoidal and the measurements give good results as shown in Figure A1. . Material Ti-6A4VPQ was supplied by an industrial company.18 mm) in the zone of small strain. This shows the real modulus is lower than 122.4. em ¼ ec. The resistance of the gauge is 350 O. Theoretically. The measurements of strain start after the cooling of the two specimens. Another specimen of Ti-6A4VPQ is also tested where a gauge is used to compensate temperature effect. the strain is of a sinusoidal function with the maximum in the center and the minimum at two ends.Stress Calibration 269 A1. The differences between the results of calculations and the measurements by the four gauges are about 5%. THIRD CALIBRATION In the above.8 shows the strain values measured by gauges for two horns at various levels of power. the two specimens are soaked in liquid nitrogen. The results of the calculations are compared with the measurements at low temperature to verify the vibration mode analysis. Only when the specimen was shortened by 3 mm did the system vibrate in liquid nitrogen. This yields a resonance length of 134. During the measurement. (Note: This figure was shown in a simplified form as Figure 3.4 GPa.12. The measurements verify that the antinodes of stress are situated within 0 to 5 mm from the specimen center. All Rights Reserved. and three long gauges (3. The static Young’s modulus at 77 K is 128 GPa. The compensation gauge is linked to the demi-bridge.5 mm at 20 kHz.

For horn 2. Figure A1.270 Appendix 1 Figure A1.8 and 2.7 Results measured by gauges. horn 1.7).7% at high power. the error is 5. Other points in Figure A1. . the same value as that of the previous test (Figure A1. All Rights Reserved. Measurements and calculations of strain for horns 1 Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker. the largest error is 7.8 are well aligned and the error is lower than 2%.1% at 50 power.

All Rights Reserved. The machine can be satisfactorily used to determine stress levels with about 95% accuracy. Copyright © 2005 by Marcel Dekker.Stress Calibration 271 From the calibration results. (Wu. . The test results will be presented in the other chapters. we can conclude that the concept and the design of the test system is adequate. 1992) presents calibration procedures of an ultrasonic fatigue machine working at high temperatures.

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