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Understanding, Maintaining &

Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers
William F. Lieske, Sr.
Founder, EMR Corporation

Forward and RX antennas, and providing sufficient
filtering to prevent both transmitter carrier
A technical bulletin on this subject was power and wide band noise from desensitizing
prepared in 1990. Since then, antenna the associated receiver.
duplexers have continued to increase in
numbers and many new designs have
appeared in the marketplace. This bulletin will
review antenna duplexers with emphasis on
the theory of operation, methods of tuning and
maintenance of them.

Duplexer, Defined:

The terms duplexer and diplexer have been
used interchangeably for many years. The
prefix “Di” is defined as “twice, double or two-
fold.” The prefix “Du” means two or dual.
“Plex” from the latin word plexus has, among
other meanings, the definitions: “An inter-
woven arrangement of parts; A network.” Thus
we can conclude that duplexer and diplexer
have the same literal meaning. It is noted that Figure 1
duplexer has been used with regard to Duplexer Types
wireless (land mobile) systems and diplexer
has been used in microwave system There are two basic types of duplexers, Band
application. We will stay with duplexer to refer Pass and Band Reject. The easiest one to
to the devices covered in this bulletin. understand is the band pass duplexer.

Duplexer Applications

A duplexer provides the means for
simultaneous operation of a mobile relay or
repeater station having separate TX and RX
frequencies when using a common antenna.
The benefits of this include: Saving one
antenna and one transmission line, compared
with using separate transmit and receive
antennas for a repeater, maintaining reciprocal
receiving and transmitting signal path
characteristics compared with separate, TX Figure 2


EMR Corp 22402 N. 19th Avenue Phoenix, Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875
Fax: (623) 582-9499 e-mail:

com e-mail: info@emrcorp. Two other curves are 154. to resonate the loop .5 MHz. as operating at a 5 MHz. providing a reject Sufficient selectivity must be provided by the notch when adjusted to a desired frequency. The typical performance is shown frequency offset. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers A band pass duplexer using six band pass type Most duplexers found in land mobile wireless cavity resonators is shown in schematic form service are pass-reject or pass/notch types. Note that the pass responses are quite broad. which is adjustable the two branches with the antenna feed line. below. A each cavity has only one coupling loop. 156.MHz. The below the threshold of receiver sensitivity.0 154 . The “tee” junction and two more cables connects loop has a series capacitor. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www. producing a reduce transmitter wide band noise to a level relatively broad pass band selectivity. Note that each branch has three shown schematically in Figure 3. shown to represent the transmitter wide band 20 Receiver front- noise spectrum and the desensitization curve 30 end desens. Understanding.0 155. Typical selectivity curves of the three cavity 0 resonator groups in each duplexer branch are Transmit Receive 10 shown in Figure 2. transmit-receive needed.emrcorp. Pass. Note that each filter 40 wide band curve branch provides attenuation of signal power dB noise curve 50 equal to or greater than the noise and 60 desensitization levels.0 MHz. In notch can be placed either above or below this example we show a VHF duplexer the resonant frequency of the cavity.0.5 156. cables Figure 4 Pass/Rej ect Duplexer Response Curves Series tuned Figure 4 shows responses of a VHF pass- loops reject duplexer with transmit to receive spacing of 2 MHz. 19th Avenue Phoenix. 70 To 80 antenna "Tee" connector 90 100 Junction 153. cavity filters to preclude transmitter carrier power from desensitizing the relatively broad The loop also couples energy into the cavity response of the receiver front end and to also at the desired coupling factor. Performance Comparisons reject Cavities There are good reasons for selecting band TX in RX out pass or pass-reject types according to site Pass-Reject Duplexer and/or system requirements. in Figure 1. Transmitter of the receiver front end.5 154. Each type has benefits and shortcomings compared with the Figure 3 -2- EMR Corp 22402 N. Note that cavities connected together with cables.0 156 . The overall notch Branch depths are very sharply defined and sufficient cables in depth to equal or exceed the noise and carrier “desense” requirements.5 155.

adjustments. compared to pass/notch types. Mobile Duplexers Band Reject (Pass/Notch) Types: Duplexers are provided for use with low power ♦ Lower insertion loss than band pass types base stations such as control stations and for same TX-RX spacings. may be combined where system needs dictate. branches of a band pass duplexer to notch out a bothersome transmit frequency that ♦ Requires larger. saving space. ceramic resonators. The multiple cavity strings provide added Some examples are: selectivity for the receiver and a high order of spurious and harmonic rejection for the ♦ Adding pass-reject cavities to one or both transmitter. Most of these units employ simple band reject operation. 19th Avenue Phoenix.5 dB per branch or characteristics of the two basic duplexer types higher being expected. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers other type. these designs. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www. more of them. ♦ Far superior for dense site use. radio and cellular units often employ mitters and receivers. Since they are isolated by distance from multi-use sites the benefits ♦ Since pass band is . ♦ Adding band pass cavities to a pass-reject duplexer to increase the effective front end ♦ Through use of correct branch cable selectivity of a receiver or to help in the lengths and careful loop coupling attenuation of transmitter wide band noise.emrcorp. resulting in higher cost and need for greater site space occupancy. to requiring larger cavities. savings in and low power bases. this duplexer type can be tuned for a broad “nose” response to ♦ Internal duplexers installed in portable accommodate multi-frequency trans. materials and labor. -3- EMR Corp 22402 N. there are often conditions that require unusual ♦ Generally will have higher branch loss than pass band and notch responses. The pass-reject type. This is adequate for the lower transmit power involved in mobile ♦ Lower cost to manufacture. depth per cavity is secured. mostly due to the low transmit power levels Higher costs than pass notch types due concerned. A wide T-R spacing and broad range of transmit and receive ♦ Impractical for closely spaced TX-RX sub groups can be covered in this manner pairs. and is close to the receiver branch frequency. mobile transceivers. Through lighter ♦ Can use smaller volume cavities for a coupling factors from 20 to 30 dB of notch given TX-RX spacing. 1. e-mail: info@emrcorp. Some of these are: Special Duplexer Types Band Pass Type: At today’s overcrowded land mobile sites. except for the transmit carrier notch. little help is provided by larger fixed station duplexers are provided in receiver front end selectivity not required. This can be a real problem when placed at high Both small size and economy are possible in density sites. higher “Q” cavities.

19th Avenue Phoenix.: .455 MHz. capacitiv ely tuned. sufficient to reject transmitter carrier to a RX usable level. Due to the limited to intermittent service above 50 60 sharpness of the response of the notches. -4- EMR Corp 22402 N. 7. The advent of frequency suit mountings inside the cabinet of desk changes or problems due to interference can top control stations that access remote result in re-tuning on frequency or on new repeaters. A few can be found that 70 modification of branching cables and tap point are rated to 100 watt input. an additional 8-10 dB of notch station for a duplexer. 450T. and some are e. heat. Branch cables 465 Transmitter Output to Figure 6 To Ante nna Input receiver Mobile or control station duplexer Performance curves for a typical mobile duplexer are shown in Figure 6. Understanding. Note that the Figure 5 notch in the transmit branch is about 67 dB at ♦ Because of the lower circuit “Q” there is the receiver frequency. 50 75 watts input maximum. 12 MHz.g.emrcorp. Mobile duplexers 40 ♦ Most mobile duplexers are limited to 50 to are usually designed for a particular T. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers Tuning Screws w ith set nuts 1" square resonators using tubular 1/4 wavelength.R split. 10. watts of power. continuous 80 on the resonators are required to change the duty e-mail: info@emrcorp. 460 465 Mobile/Control Station Duplexer Response ♦ Successful designs are “ruggedized” to Duplexer Maintenance survive under the vibration.R split. cold and humidity that can be present in vehicular Most high quality duplexers will give many service. years of trouble free service after placement at your site “right out of the box” from the ♦ Special models have been developed to manufacturer. however. usually sufficient for very little band pass effect. TX 0 ♦ The relatively small overall dimensions suit 10 vehicular trunk or under dash mounting Where full duplex communications is and there is often space within a control 20 anticipated. dB noise free communications. frequencies. more 30 to 40 watt mobile transmitter wide band than 60 dB of overall notch depth can be noise rejection. etc. At these transmit powers. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www. 30 depth per branch will tend to provide clean. Shunt or series coupled as needed. rods. the secured by using three cavities in each 60 dB notch in the receive branch is usually branch.

A similar resonators to provide needed filtering loop with a series capacitor is used for the performance. the 8. size (volume) of the reject cavities are shown in Figure 7. irregular in shape. fixed lement . The band pass loop extend down into the character of the loop is predominately e-mail: info@emrcorp. in transmitter combiners and various Most loops are formed from heavy copper other filter applications. Cut-away views of typical band pass and pass. 19th Avenue Phoenix.May . Beyond duplexer applications. silver plated for reduction of skin effect losses. cavity resonators are used as stand alone filters.g. band segment involved FFixed ElementSection ix ed Element Section Cav ityBody Cavity body . pro- pro- vid ing conta ct w ith t he viding contact with movi ng element w hen the moving tuning element knob when is turne d. strips.Reject Pass Reject Cavity Cavity Figure 7 -5- EMR Corp 22402 N. operating frequency and degree of coupling will all contribute to the impedance The difference between band pass and pass of the loop.May be be r ound. pass-reject version. square or irr egular i n s hape. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers About Cavity Resonators end of the cavity to excite the TEM (transverse electromagnetic) field and to retrieve power Duplexers rely on the characteristics of cavity in the case of the band pass cavity. square or Round. and aspect ratio. tuning knob is turned A djustabl e El em ent Adjustable Element Secti on Section Band BandPass PassCavity Cavity Pass .emrcorp.: width to depth. For those readers familiar with reject cavity couplingloops are shown in Figure the use of imaginary number notation. Understanding. e. Loop . cavity. Adjusting Knob Adjusting Knob Invar Inv Tuning Rod ar Tuning Rod Compressi Compressionon set set nut nut Type NConnectors Type N Connectors Adjustabl e Coupling Loop Adjustable Coupling Loop (typical) S izes vary (typical) ac cor ding to Sizes band varyent segm according to involv ed. Finge Finger r stock stockfastened fastened to tofixe d eelement. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www.

Note that the “loop plate” can using this design concept include: be rotated to adjust the coupling factor into and out of the cavity. sided shapes will work fine if properly according to how it is adjusted.emrcorp. Square or rectangular shapes fit better in application. Many round cavities must use large hose clamps on support rails to mount them. Some points of comparison between cavities Our UHF and 800-960 MHz square cavities are as follows: can be panel mounted using their sturdy 1/4” thick bottom plates. 19th Avenue . The lengths of interconnecting cables must be EMR Corp. We secure a higher variable capacitor is placed in series with the “Q” per cubic foot of occupied space using “grounded” end of the loop. As an example. uses square or rectangular format selected to yield a suitable match with the designs exclusively. The EMR Corp. steps. 2. each step bringing the cavity closer to an optimized tuning condition. notch frequency . usually requiring several tuning and uses 20% less rack or cabinet space. above. racks and other enclosures than do constructed loop plate arrangement with a round or irregular shapes. Cavity tuning as well occupancy. made from heavy gauge traditional 50 Ω system impedance used in aluminum sheet or extrusions with TIG welded land mobile systems. end plates to provide a high order of Figure 8 Loop hold down TypeNNConnector Type connector screw Loopwith holdflat dow n TypeType N connect or N Connector Loop hold dow n Loop hold down End Endplate plateofof screw w it h flat washer screw with w it h flat f lat Loop Loopplate plate screw cavity body cavity body waswas her her was her washer Rotatable Rotatable Loop t uning capacitor: Loop Loop tuning capacitor: Loopplate plate End Endplate plate Resonat es lo op to Resonates loop to ofofcav cavity ity notchfrequency. lengths between cavities are critical. Bandpass Band pass body body Pass-reject Pass-reject Loop Loop Loop Loop Typical band pass loop assembly Typical pass/reject loop assembly Figure 8. For pass-reject 1. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www. This capacitor is our “Square Q” cavities. Since the loop designed. The square format for our cavities lends itself to a variety of packaging and mounting Cavity Comparisons methods. line of “economical” pipe are plentiful or can readily be roll formed integrated cavity duplexer bodies employ from sheet e-mail: info@emrcorp. shows the two typical loop mechanical integrity. Some of the reasons for configurations. yielding better adjusted to position the resulting notch performance vs: site rack or cabinet space frequency as needed. square or heavy aluminum parts that are “dip-brazed” multi- -6- EMR Corp 22402 N. Rectangular. a 7” square cavity as notch frequency responses are somewhat has performance equal to an 8” round cavity interactive. Many manufacturers build round cavities because round forms of aluminum and copper 3. either a “T” adapter or a specially cabinets. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers Admittance will vary from +j30 to +j50. Understanding. These can be very space efficient impedance is not purely resistive. all cable compared to round formats.

Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers together to insure absolute mechanical is degraded sharply. to modify cable lengths to get proper operation. (C) Branch bridge or “S parameter” test set. particular application.000 watts and #1 of this bulletin. These duplexers use “capacitive probe” tuned resonator elements. These examples can be higher power levels are most often equipped used as guide lines to determine whether they with heat sinks and thermostatically actuated can be successfully re-tuned and used for a cooling fans to maintain thermal balance. suggestion as to probable performance of various sizes and types of duplexers according 4. result in a good opinion as to operating capabilities. then retune. High power handling cavities for continuous to operating band will be found in Appendix duty operation at 250. ♦ Preferred: A Dynamic Wave Analyzer with dual trace display. 1. having at performance capabilities. Can the duplexer perform indicate signal amplitude.250 typical service monitors. duplexer factory tuned for? Are these more an R. If possible.925 RX signal with one and use the other to channels.reflection (B) Minimum T-R spacing. manufacturer place on the particular model 1 dB per division (or less) fine resolution. involved? Such as: (A) Input power rating. bridge should be available. 19th Avenue Phoenix. insertion loss vs: T-R spacing. If the T- R split is the same as before and performance ♦ Duplexer manufacturers and well equipped -7- EMR Corp 22402 N. making truly accurate Answer: Measure and record performance adjustments difficult or impossible. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www. If this can’t be least 80 dB of vertical resolution in 10 dB found. F.250 RX.reflection bridge. Generate a calibrated work on TX 464. Usually the acceptably at the new frequencies? accuracy of readings provided are somewhat lacking. you must make several important determinations.925 TX and 469. 500. stability and reliability at a very pass or pass/reject? A rule of thumb attractive cost to the site owner. Tuning or Re-tuning Duplexers Test Equipment Requirements Before attempting to tune a given duplexer to The following test equipment is considered suit a particular transmit and receive frequency necessary to successful duplexer re-tuning: pair. . measuring performance “as-is” can and 1 dB steps. 100 dB (or more) in 10 Question: What specifications did the duplexer dB steps of vertical log display resolution. one having TX and e-mail: info@emrcorp. ♦ Acceptable: A dual trace spectrum Answer: Often old catalogs of the duplexer analyzer with integral swept generator and manufacturer will disclose the expected transmission . They provide outstanding Question: What type of duplexer is it? Band performance. with integral transmission . ♦ Minimum: A spectrum analyzer with 80 dB or greater dynamic range and a stable well Question: What frequencies were the calibrated signal generator. than 4 to 5% higher or lower than the frequency pair that you want to tune to? ♦ It is possible to retune duplexers using two Example: Originally factory tuned for 452. at the old frequencies. you will probably need integrity. You need a duplexer to spectrum display.emrcorp.

It is expressed C1. bridge is shown schematically in loss of zero. Direct measurements of VSWR can with the energy applied to the bridge is then be made using wave analyzers or using translated directly to dB and is known as return directional couplers with specially calibrated loss. Signal Signal Test Port source sourcce cables of known integrity. F. -8- EMR Corp 22402 N. test terminations and various adapters are needed to R2 accomplish the necessary hook-ups and C2 to properly calibrate your set-up. reciprocal. bridge having a reflect power in proportion to the degree of 50 Ω impedance. When all Vo – Vr resistances and reactances are 50 Ω. dual trace” wave analyzers have an internal sweep signal A mismatched antenna or other device will generator that drives a R F. When R1 and R2 are equal and impedance compatibility are. If all of the power is reflected. voltmeter. resistor R1 can be removed and its position used as a Where: Vo = incident voltage Vr = reflected voltage comparison or test port. F. C2 are also equal in capacitive reactance mathematically as: the current and voltage flowing in all four legs of the bridge are matched and zero volts will VSWR = Vo + Vr be indicated by the R. This should be secured and connected such that also represents a return loss of infinity. 19th Avenue Phoenix. ♦ In addition to the basic instrumentation. in that sense. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www. the VSWR will be The amount of reflected energy compared infinity:1. About R. The term VSWR or simply SWR is used voltmeter throughout the wireless industry to denote the “quality” of a device relative to a stated Typical Radio Frequency Bridge impedance. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers full service land mobile service shops usually have a range of spectrum and/or R1 wave analysis instruments suitable for filter C1 tuning work. if all of the power is reflected this represents a VSWR of infinity:1 and a return A basic R. If no power is reflected. a 1:1 have this e-mail: info@emrcorp. F. These instruments display reflected measure how well a device matches a power in terms of VSWR in real numbers. Conversely. a separate external bridge VSWR or perfectly resistive match exists. Return loss is a most convenient way to meters. Bridges: “Dual sweep. VSR And Return Loss Mean? Figure 9 . The two methods of expressing Figure 9. What Does SWR. return loss measurements can be made. the power is reflected VSWR = 1:1. If the analyzer does not mismatch. standardized system impedance such as 50 Ω. When none of becoming zero at a perfect match. F. power and reflected power. When the external circuit impedance is nearing 50 Ω the VSWR is a ratio between incident (forward) indicated voltage becomes less and less. Understanding.emrcorp. VSWR stands for Voltage Standing Wave Ratio.

10 dB you can now accurately see set up the analyzer and calibrate it to insure the insertion loss with high definition. Understanding. in this case 154. must be most suitably an electrical half wavelength long.7” cable length the notch pattern is identified. Set the trace position to show connectors to connect the analyzer to the DUT a horizontal line greater at the reference value. 50 or 100 MHz until 36. connect the cables to the cavity under Frequency (MHz) 155 = ½ electrical wavelength = 36.50. First set the center of the instrument similar. These full scale reading (top of the graticule).23” test. If it is less than 35 dB your velocity factor of 82%: cable length should be modified. MHz and set Marker #2 at 157 MHz. 19th Avenue Phoenix. “A” resolution set for 10 dB per division observe the resulting trace with the test cable You will need jumper cables with suitable unterminated. expand the To correct for cable velocity factor: horizontal sweep to 20. place Marker bridge output and terminating the other end #1 at the pass frequency. a return Alternately adjust the cavity tuning and the loss of more than 30 dB (40 dB or better loop notch tuning until minimum insertion loss preferred) will be indicated at the desired test and maximum notch depth are obtained. If markers are not available. you must 0. You can verify your cable lengths by connecting one end directly to the analyzer If your analyzer has markers. cavities.616 Next.0 MHz and reject 157. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers Test Accessories. response patterns should be similar to those shown in Figure 10. Example: The constant: 5. look at the “A” trace. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www.0 with a known high quality test load termination. Adjust the Be sure to use the cable and connector manufacturer’s instructions to determine how much to shorten the cable cavity tuning rod position to bring the pattern to account for connector electrical lengths. If the cable is good for your purpose. swept range to 155. Reduce sweep width to 10 MHz (1 MHz per division). (device under test) and back to the analyzer’s Connect the Type N “bullet” adapter between receive display . It will probably look like a distorted “W” response. -9- EMR Corp 22402 N. Generally. to screen center. although some are tuned for up to 3 dB of With the channel “A” reference line set to the loss as stand alone filters. By used to tune either band pass or pass/reject reducing the resolution of Trace (B) to 0. of insertion loss each for duplexer service. Set the “B” trace to cables made for each band will suffice. The that your measurements will be meaningful. Suppose that you wish to tune a pass/reject cavity to pass 154. Depending on the particular need.82 = 29. If no notch pattern is seen.5 dB to 0. a set of the two free cable ends. Suppose horizontal line at least 35 dB down from the that you are using RG142B/U cable having a “A” reference line. You can calculate this if you e-mail: info@emrcorp. Prior to doing any tuning. you can Tuning or Re-tuning Cavities interpolate between the screen divisions to arrive at the desired frequencies with about Figure 10 shows how a wave analyzer can be 100 KHz resolution if you use care. It should be a know the velocity factor of the cable. frequency.0 MHz and the sweep these cavities are tuned for 0.0 Tuning band pass cavities is more or less MHz.23 x .25 or 0. You must be sure vertical center line of the display and channel that the loop coupling factors are balanced.75 dB width to 20 MHz wide.

Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www. set.emrcorp. -10- EMR Corp 22402 N. calibration and adj ustments. Your cavity is properly on rotatable loops. e-mail: info@emrcorp. 19th Avenue Phoenix. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers Some manufactures place calibration marks exact coupling factors.up. Wave A nalyzer 156 50 ohm Bridge With Swept Output Swept Si gnal Input Pass/ Reject Cavity Under Test Respo nse Return Loss Band Pass Cavity Under Test Response Response Return Loss Expected display t races (See text) 0 Reference Insertion Line"A" 50 ohm Loss 10 dB Test 20 Terminat ion y e la ul p ic is 30 Type N et D R zer 40 Reference Bullet 0 ly Line "B" A daptor na A 50 10 Type N 60 20 Return Male-Male Loss 70 30 dB Adapt or 80 40 Tuning & Calibration Wave analyzer calibration settings Accessories Cavity Cavitytuning tuning under dynamicwave under dynamic waveanalysis analysis metho d method Figure 10 See text for purpose. Beware: They are simply tuned when you can reverse the cables to it for guidance and not intended to result in and both the insertion loss and the return loss are the same in either .

Tuning Duplexers 10 Line "B" Insertion 20 It is possible to develop a filter to pass a range Loss dB 30 of frequencies and having steep sloped 40 Reference responses above and below the desired pass 0 Line "A"" 50 band. The curves shown in Figure 11 displays 10 the performance of four. These are to be considered average. Remember. corrected to allow for the effective to you. 70 30 dB ation. To secure broad band “nose” responses from Figure 11 two or more cavities in series. 10” square cavities 60 20 Return Loss properly phased together in a series configur. and “High UHF” bands. according to band of typical cavity combinations in the VHF. Usually the connecting cables between duplexers. 80 152 153 154 155 156 40 MHz. Shorter lengths are often found to yield the Appendix #1 lists expected performances of desired performance. reversals and “touch ups” of loop orientation range and the return loss is about 28 dB over to arrive at the desired insertion loss with the range. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www. branches and the antenna port. UHF operation. 19th Avenue Phoenix. the desired the cavity. Before trying to tune a cavity “string” you must first tune each cavity individually. Usually this will take several cable pass band is essentially flat over a 1 MHz. We are often asked for a list of generic cable -11- EMR Corp 22402 e-mail: info@emrcorp. This dB when optimized. 0 Reference Tuning Multiple Cavities. lengths of connectors and loop configurations. The junction cables must be adjusted in length to It is important that you have correct cable effectively maintain the reject characteristics lengths between the duplexer cavity between the two branches while maintaining resonators and that proper tuning has been correct impedance matching with both accomplished. For the reader who wishes to become setting its pass or pass/reject to suit system proficient at tuning or re-tuning antenna needs. Errata The transmit branch is tuned opposite. it is hoped that this bulletin has cavities are close to ½ wavelength in electrical provided enough insight to be of assistance length. the bridge. Understanding. the connecting cables between them must be of optimum Summary: length.emrcorp. one branch (or chain) numbers. Most and considerable tuning time is required to cavities will show a return loss from 17 to 25 accomplish superior filter performance. will be tuned for the receive pass frequency and the notch set for the transmitter frequency. some makes and types If the “chained” cavities are to be used as showing better and some not as good as these branches of a duplexer. the cavity is insures protection for a group of closely presenting a predominately inductive spaced multicoupled receivers at a high characteristic to an inherently resistive leg of density site. Careful cable length adjustments acceptable return loss at both ports. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers This makes the loop couplings equal through Note that through critical .

0 Band Pass 450-470 3 10" Sq. this discussion of duplexers has provided enough insight to be of assistance to you. Often.. AZ 85027 a better understanding of antenna duplexers. each response.0 Pass Reject 806-960 2 7" Sq. Cavities Cavity Siz e Minimum T-R Type MHz . only under 30 watts power. 5" Round 4.5 Pass Reject 150-170 3 10" Sq. We will be pleased to assist you with any the user will be trying to make a filter or duplexer problem. 8" Round 0. only guess at the lengths.emrcorp. Unfortunately.. per TX and RX response.2 Pass Reject 150-170 2 4" Sq. 19th Avenue Phoenix. EMR Corporation 22402 North 19th Avenue We trust that this bulletin will be the basis for Phoenix.. (2) Extended band pass.. Maintaining & Re-Tuning Antenna Duplexers lengths to connect cavities Hopefully. 5" Round 45.0 Band Pass 806-960 (1) 1 4" Sq.0 Band Pass 150-170 3 7" Sq. up to 15 MHz. 4 TX Special modular filters 15 Pass Reject 806-960 1 4" Sq. and bring out the reasons why care must be Telephone: (623) 581-2875 used in tuning them if acceptable performance Toll Free: (800) 796-2875 FAX: (623) 582-9499 is to be secured. 5" Round 0.3 Band Pass 450-470 3 4" Sq..0 Pass Reject 806-960 2 4" e-mail: info@emrcorp.. 11" Round 3. (3) EMR Corp.0 Pass Reject 450-470 2 4" Sq. 8" Round 7. 8" Round 3. MHz . EMR Web Page: www. Call.. we can information.0 Band Pass 450-470 3 7" Sq...0 (1) Single frequency repeaters. 8" Round . E-mail: info@emrcorp. FAX or E-mail us with duplexer out of a set of mis-matched cavities your duplexer type(s) and operating frequency as a duplexer or filter. 11" Round 5. up to 15 MHz.0 Pass Reject 450-470 3 7" Sq.5 Pass Reject 450-470 3 10" Sq. 5" Round 10... 5" Round 20. Broad band SMR Duplexer. Per Branch & Format Spacing. Arizona 85027 Toll Free: 1-800-796-2875 Tel: (623) 581-2875 Fax: (623) 582-9499 www.. 8" Round 12. 5" Round 45. Appendix #1 Cavity Types vs: Performance in Duplexers Duplexer B an d No. Band Pass 150-170 3 4" Sq. -12- EMR Corp 22402 N.. drawing from past experience.0 Band Pass 806-960 (2) 2 4" Sq. 5" Round 5... wide. 11" Round 2..0 Band Pass 150-170 3 10" Sq. 11" Round 0.emrcorp..8 Pass Reject 150-170 3 7" Sq. 5" Round 30 Band Pass 806-960 (3) 6 RX.