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THE VIRUS HUNTER
NO RUNS ALLOWED
Softball shuts out Washington in three consecutive games
Sunny 80 51
Sunny 73 41
T Stanford Daily The
TUESDAY May 8, 2012
An Independent Publication
Volume 241 Issue 55
New Senate to continue ARP debate tonight
Decision on Judicial Affairs changes passed down to new Senate and Graduate Student Council
STAFF WRITER ROGER CHEN/The Stanford Daily
By JULIA ENTHOVEN The 14th ASSU Undergraduate Senate will discuss the Alternative Review Process (ARP) tonight at the senators’ first fulllength meeting in office. The program, which piloted in 2010 and was set for review and re-approval this year, provides an alternative judicial procedure for cases of sexual harassment, sexual assault and relationship abuse. The ARP was developed and initiated partially in response to Office of Judicial Affairs (OJA) statistics that showed a disproportionately high rate of students who reported they had been sexually assaulted at Stanford but did not have a hearing. From 1996 to 2009, there were 104 reports of sexual assault, yet only 3 of those cases went to hearing, according to OJA statistics. After the establishment of the ARP in April 2010, however, there have been 21 cases reported, 13 transferred to ARP and 12 tried. With the debate over ARP reaching a critical juncture for
Provost and Acting President John Etchemendy delivered concluding remarks at a Monday event celebrating sustainability initiatives and introducing the University’s plan for sustainability over the next five to 10 years.
student legislators, The Daily has broken down each component that has changed since 2010 or is currently being discussed for proposed changes.
Standard of proof Before the ARP was established, all campus judicial panels, including those reviewing cases involving sexual assault, issued verdicts by a standard of beyond a reasonable doubt, the same standard used in criminal trials. The original charter of the ARP, piloted in 2010, also operated with the beyond a reasonable doubt burden. In April 2011, however, President John Hennessy employed his executive power to lower the standard of proof to preponderance of evidence, which requires that reviewers find a student responsible if they believe a student to be more likely to have committed the act than not. Preponderance of evidence is the lowest existing burden in any type of civil, judicial or criminal proceeding. Hennessy’s order responded to the April 2011 Dear Colleague
Officials announce plan for sustainable future
By MATT BETTONVILLE
Stanford administrators announced a new sustainability plan at Monday evening event focused mostly on the University’s past successes in sustainability.Titled “Sustainability 3.0,” the plan will guide Stanford’s sustainability efforts over the next five to 10 years. The full “Sustainability 3.0” plan has not yet been released, but Pamela Matson, dean of the School of Earth Sciences, outlined some of the principles behind the plan.
“Stanford should be the leader in sustainability in everything we do, and we need to lead by example,” Matson said, outlining the first goal of the plan. Other goals included establishing clear sustainability policies, bringing together the entire Stanford community, reaching beyond Stanford for aid and outreach and focusing on action rather than just research. “We need to make sure that what we learn here through our amazing research efforts is actually being used
Letter, issued by the Office for Civil Rights (OCR), which argued that the Supreme Court and the OCR use a preponderance of evidence standard when evaluating cases of discrimination and required Universities to do the same in cases involving sexual assault. Although several parties have challenged the claims of the Dear Colleague Letter, Stanford would be in danger of being denied its Title IX funding had it not adjusted the standard of proof. Currently, nearly every university, including Harvard, Princeton, Yale and Caltech, uses a preponderance of evidence standard in cases involving sexual assault. However, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a nonprofit organization that opposes both the logic and authority of the Dear Colleague Letter and directly recommended that the Stanford Graduate Student Council reject the lower standard of proof, reported that nine of the top 10 col-
Please see SUSTAIN, page 2
Please see ARP, page 2
Zimbardo: Boys are struggling
By AARON SEKHRI
Professor emeritus to release e-book “The Demise of Guys”
ALISA ROYER/The Stanford Daily
Prospective freshmen attended a concert in Frost Amphitheater during Admit Weekend. The Stanford Concert Network is hosting a Frost Revival on May 19 and hopes to use the facility more in the future. Event ticket sales broke even in less than 24 hours, and tickets are still available.
Frost Revival could show venue’s viability
By JOSEE SMITH
The May 19 Frost Revival show may demonstrate that events at Frost Amphitheater are more financially and logistically viable. The amphitheater, which used to host such acts as the Grateful Dead, has seen less frequent use over the last decade, largely because of the high cost to operate the venue.
Stanford Concert Network (SCN) leaders, however, hope that the revival show can make this year a kickstarter for future events, according to Alberto Aroeste ’13, co-director of SCN. The concert will feature Modest Mouse, with opening acts Eyes Lips Eyes and Benjamin Francis Leftwich. SCN Co-director Stephen Trusheim ’13 said the Frost Revival broke even in under 24 hours.
“We fundraised diligently and have been coordinating the revival for months now because our vision is to bring Frost Amphitheater to the forefront of people’s minds when they think of our school, both at Stanford and beyond,” Aroeste wrote in an email to The Daily. He added that the vision of the SCN is to
Please see FROST, page 2
Stanford launches $1 billion medical campaign
By THE DAILY NEWS STAFF President John Hennessey announced a $1 billion Campaign for Stanford Medicine on Monday. The campaign, which is already halfway to its goal with pledges and expectancies, will raise funds for a new hospital and new programs aimed at changing health care on a national and global level. The new facility will sit on the current hospital’s site in Palo Alto, but will be updated to meet California seismic standards. Programs in the new facility will try to incorporate new technologies into health care to guide medicine into the future. Construction will begin on the
site in 2013. “Providing the most advanced health care possible to people — locally, nationally and globally — will be one of the great challenges of this century,” Hennessy said in a press release. “The Campaign for Stanford Medicine draws upon our particular strengths — the proximity of the university to its hospitals and clinics — to focus on this issue and better serve the public. It will allow us to seek solutions to some of medicine’s most daunting problems, and it will begin in our own community with the new Stanford Hospital.” Stanford announced in February 2011 that companies from Silicon Valley, including Hewlett-Packard, Apple, eBay, Intel, Intuit and Oracle, would donate to a campaign called the Stanford Hospital Corporate
Rendering by Rafael Viñoly Architects
Please see BRIEF, page 2
The new Stanford Hospital complex will begin construction in 2013 and open in 2018. The project has already raised $500 million from corporate partners in Silicon Valley and individual donors.
Philip Zimbardo, professor emeritus of psychology and the leader of the famous 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment, will release a new e-book this summer with his personal assistant and co-author Nikita Duncan. The book, “The Demise of Guys: Why Boys Are Struggling and What We Can Do About It,” argues that young men are experiencing a decline in academics, social interactions and concentration because of changes in the modern world. Zimbardo said the book specifically cites “the time they invest in playing video games and watching freely accessible Internet porn, in the context of changing family dynamics where there are too few male figures to nurture them” as distractions. Zimbardo and Duncan’s eBook is a precursor to a print book, tentatively titled “Men 2.0: Rebooting Masculinity After the Demise of Guys,” to be released next year. In an interview with The Daily, Zimbardo explained his thesis, the origins of his theories and the remedies he perceives as necessary to solve this “systemic problem.” “I became interested in the issue 25 years ago because of this phenomenon I was observing on campus where young men were playing video games to the extent that they were giving up the real, face-to-face world for the virtual world,” Zimbardo said. He cited his own son’s “video game addiction” during his time at Stanford, which led him to delve into the matter more deeply. “The Demise of Guys” tackles the problem Zimbardo explains as “boys, worldwide, who are failing in large numbers.” Zimbardo shows
Please see ZIMBARDO, page 2
Index Features/3 • Opinions/4 • Sports/5 • Classifieds/6
2 N Tuesday, May 8, 2012
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The Stanford Daily
report water leaks around campus. Luisi also discussed how rewarding students had found their sustainability efforts with SSS. “If we gave them a chance to do it again, they’d only do more,” he said. Luisi also introduced a short film called Sustainable Trees made by SSS members Garrett Gunther ’11 M.S. ’12, Dominique Yahyavi ’11 M.S. ’12, Kris Cheng ’11 and Adam Selzer M.A.’12. The film depicts student sustainability efforts all over campus. Brodie Hamilton, director of Parking and Transportation Services, then showed how initiatives like the Commute Club have helped reduce both traffic on campus and emissions. Hamilton said the rate of Stanford employees driving alone to work dropped to 46 percent in 2011 from 72 percent in 2002. Carbon dioxide emissions on campus have dropped below 1990 levels, according to Hamilton. Additionally, the reduced traffic has helped Stanford avoid construction of 3,000 parking spaces. Jack Cleary, associate vice president of Land, Buildings and Real Estate, discussed the methods used by his department to plan buildings.According to Cleary, Land, Buildings and Real Estate aims to make buildings that exceed green building code performance by at least 30 percent. The final presenter on the research panel was Joe Stagner, executive director of Sustainability and Energy Management. Stagner discussed the upcoming Stanford Energy System Innovations (SESI) project, which has the potential to reduce emissions from water management by up to 50 percent and water use by 18 percent. The idea behind the SESI project is that Stanford currently has separate systems to heat and cool water. Once contracts expire over the next three years, the University will begin replacing most of the water pipes and systems across campus to combine the heating and cooling processes. The sustainability celebration ended with Provost and Acting President John Etchemendy Ph.D. ’82 summarizing Stanford sustainability initiatives. “In our own operations, we’ve distinguished ourselves as one of the greenest universities in the United States,” Etchemendy said. He again emphasized action in addition to just research, saying that other universities use Stanford as a model “not because we’ve set a goal, but because we’ve taken action” to achieve the goal. Etchemendy also announced the creation of a Provost’s Committee for Sustainability. Contact Matt Bettonville at firstname.lastname@example.org.
ZIMBARDO| Young males declining SUSTAIN
this failure in statistics: Males are 30 percent more likely to drop out or flunk out of school, girls outperform boys at all levels starting in elementary school and boys are much more likely to be taking a prescription drug for concentration issues. The causes for such dramatic trends are threefold, Zimbardo argues. The first is increasing video game playing by young men. “The illusion of connectedness when a person is playing a video game is no substitute for real interaction,” he said. “Those boys that invest hours upon hours in these pursuits are less able to socialize themselves when it comes to real life.” The second, he said, is the accessibility of pornography. “The incredible array of pornography that is available to young men . . . [is] creating an addiction to arousal and habituating young men to similarity,” Zimbardo said. “They are thus unable to perceive reality as it is and are much less prepared for significant and meaningful sexual relationships.” Zimbardo believes these two factors in combination lead to the problem many young men face in deteriorating abilities to engage in social relationships. The third factor, he argued, is “changing family dynamics, where half of all young men now are growing up without a father.” “Guys are failing, the data shows this, and because of these factors they are unfit to learn, misfit for sexual relationships, and they are left feeling awkward and stupid socially, which leads to a big negative feedback loop, where these matters simply become worse,” Zimbardo said. He warned that the problem is only going to get worse, and that it is not restricted to young American men. The solutions to the issue are difficult but involve both attacking those root causes and accommodating for the change in behavior. Zimbardo proposed that families monitor “time online and time with other individuals, which will at least allow you to acknowledge the problem.” Zimbardo considered suggesting mentors for young men to “set boundaries and give motivation” and argued for shifting away from a passive lecture model in schools, which he sees as detrimental for young men given their relative lack of concentration abilities. He paired this with an acknowledgement that “girls are on the rise.”
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here,” Matson said. The plan was introduced at the conclusion of an event titled “Celebrating Sustainability at Stanford,” which brought together the leaders of various sustainability efforts on campus to speak about their initiatives. “The number one global challenge that we are going to be measured by over the next century or two is going to be sustainability,”saidTom Steyer, a Stanford trustee and the keynote speaker at the celebration. Steyer emphasized that Stanford needs to lead in this area, especially with recent attention drawn to the University. Referring to a recent article by Ken Auletta in The New Yorker, Steyer said, “It’s impossible to read the recent New Yorker article and not think that people around the country are going to pay attention not just to our research, but to how we actually address the problem.” Two panels convened to share their sustainability work. The first presented sustainability research initiatives, and the second presented sustainability action initiatives. Buzz Thompson, director of the Woods Institute for the Environment and a research panelist, noted the success of the Environmental Venture Projects program, which awards seed grants to aid faculty research projects on sustainability. Thompson said that over 350 faculty members have submitted proposals for the grants. Lynn Orr,director of the Precourt Institute for Energy, also sat on the research panel. Orr discussed solar cell research currently in process to combine photovoltaic and solar thermal panels into double-efficiency solar cells. The panel also noted increasing student interest in sustainability. Heather Bischel M.S. ’07 Ph.D. ’11, a panelist representing students, said that over the last five years,the number of courses at Stanford that mention sustainability in their course description has increased from 27 to 71. One challenge addressed in the “Sustainability 3.0” plan was to compile these courses and make them more apparent and accessible to interested students. On the sustainability action panel, speakers presented projects currently underway to address sustainability problems and apply research findings. Alex Luisi ’12, president of Students for a Sustainable Stanford (SSS), spoke about several of the group’s recent projects, including creating a smartphone application to
Courtesy of Philip Zimbardo
Professor Emeritus of Psychology Philip Zimbardo, known for his role in the Stanford Prison Experiment, is releasing a new book on why young men are struggling socially and academically.
“Last year, women got more of every single advanced degree than men around the world, which is unheard of,” Zimbardo said. Duncan chimed in, saying women are not facing similar issues because of their traditional social functions and the fact that they socialize in starkly different ways. Zimbardo concluded with the claim that “boys’ brains are being digitally rewired for change, novelty, excitement and constant arousal — leaving them out of sync in romantic relationships and traditional classes.” “I’m sounding the alarm, and it’s only going to get worse,” he said. “But if we start talking about it, we acknowledge the problem, and that we have to do something about it.” Contact Aaron Sekhri at email@example.com. Enos added that she expects to see well over 4,000 in total attendance for this year’s show, with the majority being students. Enos wrote that Frost is not just used during Admit Weekend and New Student Orientation. The venue is also used for the Annual University Diversity Spring Faire, the GSB Students Annual C4C event and several other dinners and reception-style gatherings for very large events that departments or schools may sponsor. “This year, Blackfest will be held for the first time in the amphitheater,” Enos wrote. “The event has been growing every year and is expecting even more students and general public this year, which creates a great opportunity to utilize space.” She added that future events and other potential concerts are being reviewed and researched, but that it is important to be pragmatic about budgets. “It’s about making sure that a proposed event is right for Frost as well,” she wrote, adding that some events are better served within smaller venues. SCN is hopeful that it will be able to manage these costs to greatly expand Frost’s use in the future. “Frost Revival will be the one event that started it all, the one festival that made it possible and paved the way for future largescale concerts at Stanford University,” Aroeste wrote. Contact Josee Smith at jsmith11 @stanford.edu. investigator, who is responsible for compiling information about the case, and the review panel, which makes the final decision. These statements may refute the allegations against the responding student but cannot engage in the adversarial court process. According to the OJA, impacted students are not expected to speak with the responding student at any time during the trial process because of the intimate and traumatizing nature of the alleged act. Right to have witnesses heard The pre-ARP process, and the judicial proceedings of all other types of cases at Stanford, guaranteed students the right to “call witnesses on their behalf at Judicial Panel hearings.” Responding students within ARP are only given the right “to request that the Investigator contact individuals who are witnesses to an event.” The new process gives the investigator discretion to not speak with individuals proffered by the responding student if they so choose. Tessa Ormenyi ’14, a student reviewer for ARP and coordinator at the Women’s Community Center, explained at the May 1 Senate meeting that the OJA has, in the past, had responding students call numerous irrelevant witnesses just to delay the trial. Right to appeal & double jeopardy Before the ARP was introduced, cases involving sexual assault had an appellate process
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expand its presence increasingly each year so that it can create a sustainable model of using Frost from year to year. Elaine Enos, executive director of the Office of Special Events and Protocol, which works with Frost, said that breaking even can be complicated for the venue. “With Frost at its current ‘picnic’ capacity for this event (a mix of standing and sitting on blankets) of 5,400, it helps to have upwards of one-third to one-half or more in attendance with tickets reflecting general public pricing,” Enos wrote in an email to The Daily. She added that it is not a onesize-fits-all process to hit a breakeven point at Frost. “The idea is to get a band that people will pay to see, especially at general public prices, to help offset these expenses as much as possible,” she wrote. Enos said that the process often becomes complicated because drawing artists of interest to students often costs more. Organizers have to weigh increased cost against increased student interest when determining ticket prices and projected sales. “It deals sometimes with having to ‘predict the future’ in some cases,” Enos wrote. Operating costs for Frost are not inexpensive, according to Enos. The cost of a high-profile
concert with a very basic design that includes no video or lights, and the most minimal structural and staffing levels, runs from about $95,000 to $150,000, not including any artist fees. “Headliner bands of interest and high popularity run into the six figures pretty easily now, plus travel expenses in many cases [can add to the cost],” Enos wrote. Trusheim said that a headlining artist like Modest Mouse can cost between $80,000 and $120,000 depending on how much they ask for travel, food and other expenses. She added that these bands tend to need or want more structural surroundings like lights or stage structures, which can potentially raise expenses. According to Enos, many students have expressed interested in seeing more events in Frost. Such interest has been expressed on many levels throughout the undergraduate and graduate student population. “The members of the Stanford Concert Network and other interested students have spent a lot of their personal time contributing and developing the look and feel that you’ll see at this year’s Frost Revival,” she wrote. “We have not seen a concert of this size in nearly 10 years,” she added. “The last time there was a concert of any size in Frost during the academic year with students as the main audience was in 2006, and the attendance was extremely low.” Mos Def was the headliner for the 2006 show. it altered the procedure in 2010 to best protect the confidentiality and comfort of both parties, to align with student feedback concerning the optimal student-tofaculty reviewer ratio and to meet more practical concerns of ensuring that the appropriate number of qualified students is available at the time of a hearing. Voting requirement The existing ARP requires, and has always required, a finding of responsibility from a simple majority of reviewers to hold a student responsible, as does every other type of judicial proceeding. Several opponents of the looser procedural protections afforded by the Dear Colleague Letter, including a few outgoing ASSU Senators and students in the Office of Judicial Affairs, have advocated for increasing the voting requirement to unanimity so as to better guard against false verdicts. Right to confront and cross-examine witnesses In all other types of judicial hearings, and in cases involving sexual assault before the establishment of the ARP, responding students have and had the right “to cross-examine witnesses against them.” Within the ARP, however, responding students do not have the right to question impacted students, who often give the most influential, if not only, witness testimony. Instead, responding students can make statements to both the
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Partners Program. NVIDIA also pledged to the program in April, bringing the total from the program to $175 million from corporate partners. In addition, three individual families each contributed $50 million to the hospital: Tashia and John Morgridge, Anne Bass M.A. ’07 and Robert Bass MBA ’74, and the Christopher Redlich ’72 family. Morgridge was formerly CEO of Cisco Systems. Robert Bass is president of Keystone Group LP, founder of the Oak Hill investment funds and chairman of the similar to other judicial hearings: Students who felt they had been wrongfully found responsible could bring their case to a Final Appeals Panel for review. In its pilot form, the ARP changed the process by allowing a student found responsible to appeal the decision to the Vice Provost for Student Affairs, whose verdict was final, instead of a panel of several members of the OJA. After operating this way for a year, the ARP appellate process changed again with the publication of the Dear Colleague Letter, which requires that Universities shift their procedures to allow appeal from both sides when an unfavorable verdict is issued. This eliminates students’ right against being tried twice for the same offense, known as double jeopardy. Shortly following the publication of the Dear Colleague Letter in April 2011, President Hennessey amended the ARP charter to grant equal appeal power to both the responding and impacted student. Of the 12 hearings in the past two years, 10 responding students were found responsible, but only one verdict was reversed in appeal. A few former ASSU Senators, notably Alon Elhanan ’14, have voiced opposition to the unilateral discretion of the Vice Provost in affirming or overruling verdicts. Statute of limitations Until 2008, all impacted stu-
Aerion Corporation. Redlich was formerly chair of Marine Terminals Corporation. The new hospital will be structured as four patient care pavilions. The Redlich family and the Morgridges will each name one of the four pavilions. According to Stanford News Service, new technologies being put in place at the hospital include advanced imaging and “hybrid” treatment platforms equipped for many types of procedures. The new hospital will also advance Stanford’s emergency service offerings, creating 59 treatment bays for emergency patients. The 823,000-square-foot hospital is scheduled to open in 2018.
— Matt Bettonville
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leges, according to U.S. World and News Report, did not use the OCR-mandated standard prior to the OCR letter. All other judicial proceedings at Stanford are still tried by a beyond a reasonable doubt standard. Assumed innocence When the ARP was altered in 2011 to lower the standard of proof, the authors also removed the right “to be considered innocent until found guilty.” The corresponding clause in the existing ARP says that a responding student has a right “to have the Reviewers determine responsibility by a preponderance of the evidence standard of proof.” Dan Ashton ’14, a member of the 13th Undergraduate Senate, pointed out this absence and encouraged his peers to amend the ARP to include a presumed innocence protection similar to that in the ASSU Constitution and Judicial Charter. Size of review panels Since its inception, the ARP has decided its verdicts with four members of the Stanford community — three students and one faulty member, distinguishing it from all other judicial proceedings, which have panels of six. The Office of Judicial Affairs said that
dents, including complainants of sexual assault, were required to have a charge filed no more than six months after the alleged misconduct occurred. Any complaint filed after the six-month statue of limitations could not be tried through the University judicial process without an extraordinary circumstance. In January 2008, however, the Office of Judicial Affairs extended the statute of limitations to two years for cases involving alleged sexual assault, dating/domestic violence, sexual harassment, stalking, hate crimes or physical assault. This statute applies to all cases that are heard under the ARP. After a series of straw poll votes, the 13th Undergraduate Senate declined to vote on the ARP, leaving it to the 14th Senate to give approval or advocate for revisions. Since the ARP represents a change to the Office of Judicial Affairs charter, which operates under the ASSU Constitution, it must receive approval from both the ASSU Senate and Graduate Student Council (GSC) before it can be officially appended to the charter. The Senate may vote on the ARP tonight, or may postpone the vote further. The pilot program of the ARP was extended to the fall of next academic year, so it will continue to operate pending an ASSU vote. Contact Julia Enthoven at jjejje @stanford.edu.
The Stanford Daily
Tuesday, May 8, 2012 N 3
By STEPHEN COBBE
igh above Sutter Street in downtown San Francisco, a team of Global Viral Forecasting Initiative (GVFI) scientists is hard at work studying how the next viral epidemic might be contained or prevented. From its sixth-floor office, the group has a clear view of the bustling city around them, a fitting reminder of the enormous scale of the work. Tribal artwork hangs from the walls in the office, directly across from a world map dotted with the organization’s different field sites around the globe. It is here that GVFI founder and CEO, Nathan Wolfe ’92, coordinates the organization’s multipronged approach to combatting epidemics. Wolfe, the Lorry I. Lokey visiting professor in human biology at Stanford, has received a great deal of coverage in the media for his work in recent years. In 2011, he was named one of Time Magazine’s 100 most influential people in an article that called GVFI “the CIA of infectious disease.” Wolfe published a book that same year, “The Viral Storm,” detailing his work in the context of the historical interaction between humans and viruses. Wolfe left his tenured professorship at UCLA in 2008 to found GVFI and change the way scientists fight epidemics. In an increasingly globalized and interconnected world, the possibilities for an epidemic to take hold are greater than ever before, but so are the resources available to stop one. The problem Wolfe and others witness, however, is that the current strategies are often more focused on responding to pandemics than working to avoid them in the first place. “Not too long ago, people said that the best way to stop a heart attack was to actually wait for the
heart attack to occur, then do bypass surgery,”Wolfe said.“About 10 years ago, it became clear to a small number of us [scientists] that what had happened in individual medicine, where it had become very obvious that an ounce of prevention was worth a pound of cure, also made sense on a population level.” As a boy, Wolfe was drawn into the world of science by a particular fascination with some of humanity’s close relatives, the chimpanzees and the gorillas. He remembers watching a National Geographic documentary that detailed the close genetic connection between humans and apes. This portrayal clashed with his memories of going to the zoo, where a clearly defined hierarchy separated humans and animals, often by iron bars. “I remember the idea that by interrogating nature and studying it, you could fundamentally change the way we saw the world,” Wolfe said, reflecting on the memory. Wolfe’s fascination with apes continued into his adult life, leading him to conduct field research in Africa as a graduate student at Harvard. The experience paved the way for many years of work in the field and his future path in virology. During his time in the field, Wolfe would contract malaria three different times, the last of which nearly killed him. It is not hard to see why he is sometimes known as “the Indiana Jones of virus hunters” among professionals in his discipline. Through sometimes perilous field research, Wolfe gleaned valuable insights into some of the avenues of transmission that viruses can take. In particular,Wolfe recognized the tremendous danger of viruses jumping from animals to humans when local hunters prepared meat. Many of the viruses that affect humans originate in animals, and the interspecies leap is rarely easier than during the close and intimate contact of butchering.
Though monitoring such activity in rural parts of Africa is often difficult and costly, technological innovations are allowing scientists like Wolfe to track viruses in a way they simply could not before. “Fifteen or 20 years ago, the best we could do was to be able to look at viruses that were cultured in the laboratory,” Wolfe said. “Now new sequencing technologies allow us to look at the sum total of genetic diversity in a particular specimen, so we’re finding viruses that we otherwise would not [have].” Members of Wolfe’s team at GVFI put these technologies to use when investigating a recent virus outbreak. They discovered a previously unrecorded virus using deep sequencing techniques. Methods available even a year or two ago would have completely missed the virus, due to its low concentration in the samples studied. The group plans to publish these findings in the coming months. A critical part of fighting epidemics is simply identifying a given virus, which can offer insights into how quickly the virus will spread, how deadly it might be and what response is appropriate in order to contain it. For example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), went unidentified and untreated for decades in human populations. Wolfe called this “a stunning failure in human health services.” In order to prevent this from happening again, GVFI has innovatively used local hunters in Africa to collect dried blood samples of their kills, which are later sent to labs for analysis. In the years since Wolfe began working on preventing epidemics, a growing recognition has emerged in governments and organizations around the world about the need to adopt a more proactive approach to combatting viruses, especially in places where viruses are easily transmitted from
Courtesy of Tom Clynes
Nathan Wolfe, nicknamed by peers “the Indiana Jones of virus hunters,” is the founder and CEO of the Global Viral Forecasting Initiative (GVFI).
animals to humans. “It’s exciting for me because now there are a number of young organizations that are starting to do this work, and it’s becoming more of an ecosystem where folks are approaching different angles about how to address these problems,” Wolfe said. Wolfe also noted the importance of more traditional structures like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Center for Disease Control (CDC), both of which GVFI regularly coordinates with as part of the WHO Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network. But Wolfe believes the old model is rapidly disappearing. “Scientists in those [traditional] institutions recognize that they have a lot of limitations in terms of their mission, in terms of their funding and in terms of their ability to move quickly,” Wolfe said. “I think it’s clear to all of us now that the world in five or 10 years is going to look a lot different than it does now in terms of the kinds of structures out there.” Though GVFI now has staff working in six different African and Asian countries, Wolfe plays more than just the role of administrator as CEO. He still regularly goes out into the field to conduct research and is closely involved in the collaborative analysis of the viruses. Wolfe also brainstorms directly with many of GVFI’s local scientists in Africa, Asia and elsewhere around the world about the best approaches to engaging with the local populations. Under Wolfe’s guidance, GVFI has expanded into a number of diverse areas for tracking viruses. Wolfe’s background makes him well suited for this kind of innovation, as he sees a parallel between his undergraduate education in human biology (HumBio) at Stanford and the company’s interdisciplinary and collaborative approach to problem solving. “We work with computer scientists, a lot of virologists, a number of epidemiologists, and one of my team members is a medical anthropologist,” Wolfe said. “The way my career has worked out is fundamentally ‘HumBio’ in a sense. It’s just, pick a problem and pick whatever sorts of disciplines are necessary to effectively address the problem.” Over the past couple of years, GVFI has also pursued the burgeoning field of digital epidemiology. Tapping into the massive amounts of data available through the Internet, digital epidemiology allows scientists to forecast trends in illness without ever leaving the laboratory. For example, epidemiologists are exploiting the online availability of over-the-counter drug sales records to make shortterm predictions about sickness, according to The Atlantic. On Wolfe’s team, Stephanie Nevins ’11, a GVFI intern and Wolfe’s former student, is currently exploring data mining techniques for extracting information from social networks to plot trends in epidemics. During her senior spring at Stanford, Nevins took Wolfe’s Viral Lifestyles seminar. For the class, she worked on a project that eventually turned into a formal business plan to overhaul the way patients interface with their medical provider, which attracted Wolfe’s attention. “In his class, we really asked big questions about how we can change the way we think about public health,” Nevins recalled. “It was so interesting to realize that you could study disease in populations in high-risk places and actually have the ability to stop them before they spread.” Wolfe is also able to balance this broader view with a sense of pragmatism in his teaching. “He is one of the most approachable, thought-provoking professors I have interacted with at Stanford,” said Kasey Kissick ’12, who also took the seminar. “He teaches in a very practical manner, leaving students with a sense of guidance and direction, rather than just a collection of abstract concepts and facts.” Toward the end of “The Viral Storm,” Wolfe writes about the necessity of establishing a 24-hour “situation room” as a command and control center for preventing epidemics. The organization would employ the innovative management of a Silicon Valley start-up to do a variety of tasks, such as sorting massive amounts of data, maintaining regular contact with global health leaders and using a series of field sites to monitor the situation on the ground. While Wolfe writes that no such situation room exists today, the office above Sutter Street doesn’t appear far from his vision. Contact Stephen Cobbe at scobbe@ stanford.edu.
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read last Monday’s article about a recent campus suicide and another student’s death with a heavy heart. When death or severe illness comes to those who are young it feels especially tragic. Every life is precious, but the weight of the news is heavier when a young life is involved. Although I did not know either student, I felt that added weight while reading “Responding to Campus Crisis” (April 30) about the deaths of Sam Wopat and Cady Hine. Admittedly I am particularly vulnerable right now. A young woman who has been dear to me since her birth has been in an intensive care unit for the past three weeks after contracting bacterial meningitis in her freshman year at another university. It breaks my heart that she is critically sick and that there is nothing I can do; it pains me to not know the details of her status. But it has been her parents’ choice to share information sparingly. They are dealing with more than any parent should have to deal with right now. They can’t give more than they are giving, including the retelling of emotionally painful medical updates. And so I don’t ask. What they want friends to know, they will eventually share. For now, we send them unconditional love rather than looking for what they could be providing to us. It’s not about us. I found parallels between my current emotional roller coaster and the comments recapped in last Monday’s Daily article. In conveying information about a student death or illness, the University has a clear position: We defer to the right to privacy of those most affected, namely the student or the student’s family. As community members, understandably, we want to know when something has happened to one of our own. Knowing the details helps us to feel as though we have some control over a crisis, even when logic tells us that events are outside of our control. For students, the Deans of Red Ed and Student Life, leaders at CAPS, Resident Fellows, the Vice Provost for Student Affairs and Resident Assistants (RAs) can offer support, but they cannot always provide the information students seek. Sometimes we have to accept that detailed information won’t be forthcoming. First and foremost it is about the family. It’s not about us. I do not mean to suggest that students have no agency in the
discussion of tragic campus events. We are a community — clearly you do. Rather, I am stating that you don’t always have primacy. At Stanford we try to create living and learning environments that are about you. We condition you to expect primacy and try to live up to that expectation. But in responding to life’s challenges we must remind ourselves of the difference between these two — in one situation we may have a right to full information, but under different circumstances others may have an overriding right or responsibility to withhold it from us. During this past crisis, others weighed the balance between softening student concern by providing information and protecting the privacy of those closest to the tragedy. They correctly chose the latter. Monday’s article poignantly conveyed the frustration that some students, particularly RAs, felt with the University’s crisis response. In building support systems for our dorm communities, the University trains RAs in the methods of QPR or Question, Persuade, Refer, which addresses the difficult topic of suicide. Perhaps in this case the QPR training was not sufficient, as the RAs close to the tragedy expressed concern with their ability to confidently respond in a time of crisis. The community, including the Student Mental Health and Well Being Oversight Committee of which I am a member, is already learning from their frustration. What we learn may not significantly alter what the University can communicate in a crisis, but hopefully through this discussion we will find ways to increase student agency and deepen RA training. My heart goes out to those who have lost a friend. It also goes out to those who wanted to offer comfort and guidance to others, but felt constrained or otherwise unable to do so. What we can give to the memory of the women we have lost in recent weeks is a willingness to talk openly about depression, suicide and sudden death. We can learn how to support each other more effectively, while never losing sight of our responsibility to protect the privacy of those most affected.
JULIE KENNEDY Professor (Teaching), Environmental Earth System Science Faculty Co-Director, Haas Center for Public Service
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Don’t let me cave in
rior to the 2012 baseball season, Albert Pujols, commonly referred to as the best hitter of our generation and a future Hall of Famer, signed with the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim for a 10-year, $254 million monster of a contract. Along with the obvious excitement and expectations, questions and speculations dominated the headlines. At 32 years, is he on the decline? Will he be worth the money? Fast-forward to the present, 30 games into the worst season of Pujols’ career. Pujols failed to hit a home run until his 111th at bat on Sunday, the longest drought in his career. Every couple days, there was a new video or article on ESPN about why Pujols was hitting so poorly, and they all agreed he was pressing; he was trying too hard. Despite everything he said in interviews, his swing showed he was trying to break the pressure of the media and prove he was worth the $254 million contract. He was swinging at bad pitches and pulling long shots foul by getting ahead of the pitch. Rather than just playing the game he’d always played so well, he was trying too hard to prove himself to others. And ironically, his first home run came after taking a game off. I would be audacious enough to assume that no one reading this article is getting paid $254 million dollars to do their job or having every grade and every comment scrutinized in the national media, but that doesn’t mean we don’t feel the pressure to perform or prove ourselves to others, or maybe even ourselves. I feel a lot of college students feel the weight of unbearable pressures and expectations, and the harder we try
to uphold them, the longer we stand directly beneath their weight until we eventually cave in. I recently talked with a sophomore who is finishing the HumBio core this quarter. She’s struggled and despised every minute of it since fall quarter, but continues taking classes because she feels she has to prove something to her parents. Since starting high school, her parents had always pushed her to be a doctor — not in a threatening way, but because they truly believed that’s what she wanted. She is no longer studying for herself or those she may be able to help as a doctor, but to not disappoint her parents. Every test has become about how many points she’s missed the curve by, and every day is pervaded by her fear of not getting into a medical school. I have another friend who is the first of his family to go to college. He has two younger sisters and a younger brother that look to him as an example. He feels that, given his opportunity, he has a responsibility to his family to make tons and tons of money in order to improve their life. And when he didn’t get the internship he wanted this summer, he broke down. He felt guilty that he had let his family down. As a college student, I often get caught up in the day-to-day routines and tasks and don’t stop to ask why I am doing what I’m doing. Is it because I truly enjoy it and made a commitment, or is it because I feel I have to prove myself to someone? The latter may not always seem like a bad thing. Sometimes it leads to better grades or a better job, but it also robs us of our worth and places it in the hands of another person
We become enslaved to what we believe others expect from us.
just as broken and insecure. Rather than acting out of a pervading sense of freedom in the options and opportunities in front of us, we become enslaved to what we believe others expect from us. When will you have accomplished enough that you no longer feel the need to prove yourself? Once you’ve won a World Series? Once you’ve signed the secondlargest contract in baseball history? Maybe that point never comes, and maybe it is better to identify the source of pressure so you can step out from underneath it. Take some time for yourself to figure out what you really love doing. Create space to develop your individuality. Have those difficult confrontations with the people you feel pressured by. Odds are they don’t realize how negatively their words and actions affect you. Surround yourself with encouraging people who don’t make you feel like you have to earn or deserve their approval. Don’t cave in. Feel like caving in to Chase’s charms? Send him an email at email@example.com.
FROM FARM TO FORK
Cooking something up
n the gas stove whose pilot lights never work, oversize pots bubble furiously under mismatched lids. There is a deep rumble as the overhead fan emerges from its stupor and begins literally sucking air out of the room, frantically trying to forestall another run-in with the firemen. It’s 15 minutes until dinnertime, and things are as they should be in Synergy. Several friends spent the afternoon preparing pesto, whole wheat pasta, goat cheese salad, roasted asparagus and blackberry pies for dinner in this house of 50 students. Although things have become a little hectic in the final minutes before serving, all seven girls now helping in the kitchen have had a wonderful time cooking. This is a rare scene on campus, though. While cooking is a daily part of life in cooperative houses like mine, the majority of campus residences don’t offer students meaningful opportunities to learn in the kitchen. This is a missed opportunity for Stanford to teach students an essential life skill. Cooking can build community, empower students as actors in their food systems and demonstrate the environmental, social and health implications of food. But the blame does not lie entirely with campus administrators. Even in the heart of the foodie Bay Area, Stanford lacks a cooking culture. Students are often more fond of going out to eat on weekends than staying in to cook their own meals. With thesis deadvlines, midterms and job inter-
views, preparing food with others just isn’t always a priority. Stanford students can choose to live in one of 10 residence halls, 20 self-ops, nine Greek houses, seven co-ops or several apartments. That’s a great diversity of choices, many of which even offer students open kitchens to explore. Dorm kitchenettes, however, can be dirty, undersupplied and cramped spaces that don’t foster much enthusiasm toward cooking. So while part of Stanford’s lacking cooking culture comes from the students, part of the problem lies with the University’s undervaluation of cooking as a worthwhile pursuit. Parts of the Stanford population crave more opportunities to get into the kitchen. Farm-to-Fork cooking workshops hosted by the Stanford Farm Project are routinely oversubscribed, and the upcoming Cardinal Cook-Off hosted by Stanford Dining attracts a group of avid student chefs each year. Perhaps these students recognize the values inherent to preparing food. Cooking for ourselves gives us more control over our diet and health. In a study of one public health intervention program, researchers at UCBerkeley found that students who cook more end up eating an additional serving of fruits and vegeta-
bles per day when compared to their peers. These findings have been corroborated by additional studies from the Harvard Medical School and the University of Minnesota, and at a time when diabetes figures prominently in America, cooking may be a good personal and public health intervention for individuals of all ages. Although it is a less tangible benefit, cooking also builds community. At Synergy, it’s hard not to form a bond with your neighbor when you’ve been assigned to dice an entire 25-pound bag of carrots. Along with questions about how many carrots it would take to turn a person orange, details about house residents’ life histories and struggles simply emerge when cooking together. Cooking can also serve to foster an environmental ethic, build confidence and provide a productive, restorative outlet from any
residual paper-writing stress. I’ve seen this happen during several cooking classes in the Stanford Dining Demonstration Kitchen as part of a student initiated course that emphasizes experiential learning as a core part of its curriculum. Students are thrilled to understand the processes behind preparing meals, from shopping and budgeting to planning, cooking and eating. The process and experience of cooking creates a deeper understanding and basis for understanding the many public health, economic, nutritional, social and political topics that intersect in our food systems. However, at an academic institution like Stanford, there is often pushback against subjects that seem to fall outside the traditional intellectual scope. When I proposed teaching a student-initiated class on personal empowerment in interdisciplinary food systems,
the first piece of advice I received from administrators and advisors was to cut back on the cooking classes. Cooking may not immediately appear to be an academic pursuit, but many other practical crafts are taught at Stanford (think of sculpting, storytelling, painting and farming). What’s more, if included as part of a broader academic learning process with consideration of the environmental, social, economic and political implications of our food systems, cooking becomes a deeply academic pursuit. So here’s a call for more cooking on campus. Students, faculty and staff alike might benefit greatly from a little more chopping, simmering, sautéing and stirfrying. Want help finding a place to cook up a storm on campus? Email Jenny at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Stanford Daily
Innovation in the world of sports
Tuesday, May 8, 2012 N 5
By GEORGE CHEN
iving in the Bay Area, it seems that everyone has a great idea. Everyone dreams of leaving college to found their own startup and either become the next Mark Zuckerberg or the entrepreneur who he buys out for a billion dollars. Most of these ambitions will likely fail, some might succeed in turning a healthy profit — but only a precious few will change the world. Even sports are not immune to this fever, from wacky new games to social media start-ups. It seems as if we’re introduced to a new aspect of the game on a daily basis. So, in an ever-changing field, which sports invention rises above the rest? Maybe we should turn to the ball, the most vital of all objects. Essential in the vast majority of sports, if no one had invented the ball, the world would be a much more boring place. All four of America’s biggest sports wouldn’t exist — before hockey fans get too excited at the demise of baseball, basketball and football, they should note that the precursor to the puck was a ball — so we’d be doomed to watch NASCAR and horse racing. However important the ball is, though, I’m going to disqualify it because I don’t quite believe that anyone can claim intellectual property over it. That would be like someone claiming they invented turning left. So perhaps a modern item of equipment would be a more appropriate choice: the running shoe. Besides swimming, pretty much every athletic pursuit features some type of high-tech footwear. Just walk into any sports shop, and you’ll en-
Heading into a three-game home series against Washington this past weekend, the Stanford softball team had lost four out of its past five games. With the regular season winding down, the Cardinal needed to quickly find an answer to its recent string of losses. And answer quickly it did. The No. 9 Cardinal (36-16, 912 Pac-12) swept the No. 14 Huskies (36-17, 7-16) in three consecutive shutouts with scores of 4-0, 1-0 and 10-0. The stellar performance marks the second time this season that Stanford has managed to sweep a Pac-12 opponent. Junior pitcher Teagan Gerhart
was the star player of the series, making an appearance in all three games. In the opener, Gerhart’s relentless effort on the mound rewarded her with her seventh shutout of the season. Although she gave up six walks, she also gave up just six hits over seven innings. On the next day, Gerhart came into a tight 1-0 game in the top of the seventh to close out the Cardinal’s victory. It gave Gerhart her first save of the season and also ensured a win for freshman pitcher Nyree White, whose admirable outing included three strikeouts, one walk and no runs allowed in six innings. It was only fitting that Gerhart saved her most dominant pitching for the series finale. As the last home game of the regular season, the Sunday game was the
all-important Senior Day for the Cardinal. Gerhart certainly didn’t let her senior teammates down, pitching lights out in all five innings at the Smith Family Stadium. She gave up just four hits and two walks in a win that improved her regular season record to 30-10. But quality pitching wasn’t the only factor in Stanford’s dominance over Washington. The Cardinal bats came alive in the series, especially in game three. In the first game, freshman centerfielder Cassandra Roulund came up big for the team, going 2-for-3 at the plate, driving in a run and scoring another. Senior shortstop Ashley Hansen also hit well, going 2-for4 and scoring a run.
MADELINE SIDES/The Stanford Daily
After a quiet performance in game two’s pitching duel, the Cardinal offense erupted in game three. The team collectively hit 8-for-21, outperforming Washington’s 4-for-19 showing. Roulund was clutch once again, contributing to the offensive attack with two RBI along with two runs scored. It seemed as if all the players in the Stanford lineup got a piece of the action on Senior Day. Roulund, Hansen and junior second baseman Jenna Rich each scored two runs. In fact, all but two players scored at least one run in the 10-0 victory. Roulund’s outstanding offensive display at the plate and Gerhart’s dominant pitching on the mound earned each player welldeserved Pac-12 accolades. Just yesterday, Roulund was named the Pac-12 Player of the Week, while Gerhart was given the Pac12 Pitcher of the Week honors. Counting last Tuesday’s game against Santa Clara along with the Washington series, Roulund has put up some gaudy statistics in the past week. The freshman went 6-for-10, drove in eight runs, crossed the plate six times and tallied an outstanding 1.100 slugging percentage. Meanwhile, Gerhart added to her already impressive junior campaign. She allowed just one run over the span of 18 innings, giving her a 0.39 ERA for last week. A sweep over Washington was exactly what Stanford needed after being swept by a tough No. 4 Arizona State team just two weekends ago. The players hope to maintain this late season momentum and carry it into the postseason. The Cardinal will conclude its regular season with a three-game series at Utah beginning this Thursday. Contact George Chen at gchen15 @stanford.edu.
Please see TAYLOR, page 6
The No. 9 Stanford softball team was dominant this past weekend, as the Card outscored No. 14 Washington by a combined total of 15-0 in the three-game series. The team finishes the regular season this week.
6 N Tuesday, May 8, 2012
Golfer Rodgers named Pac-12 Freshman of the Year Stanford men’s golfer Patrick Rodgers was named Pac-12 Freshman of the Year on Monday, marking the third time a member of the Cardinal has won the award and the first time since 2005. The honor tops off an outstanding campaign that included eight top-10 finishes and two individual victories. Rodgers, listed No. 3 in Golfweek’s latest rankings, was a highly touted recruit after a stellar high school career in Avon, Ind. He got off to a quick start for the Card, finishing as the team’s low scorer in all four of the fall tournaments and posting a top-seven finish in each. Rodgers was also named to the All-Pac-12 First Team, joining an impressive list that includes Stanford junior Andrew Yun and UCLA sophomore Patrick Cantlay, who posted the best amateur score at this year’s Masters. At the Pac-12 Championships in Corvallis, Ore., Rodgers placed eighth with a score of 8-under, including a tournament-best mark of 65 in the third round. He was the top finisher among conference freshmen and second-best for Stanford, which finished sixth overall in a disappointing showing. Rodgers captured his first career victory back in his first collegiate tournament in September at the Olympia Fields/Fighting Illini Invitational, where he shot a 4-under 206 to pace the Cardinal to a 16-shot team victory. Rodgers was the first Cardinal golfer to win his first college tournament since Tiger Woods accomplished the same feat 17 years ago. Rodgers’ second career win came in April at the Western Intercollegiate at Pasatiempo Golf Club in Santa Cruz, Calif., where he beat Cantlay and New Mexico State’s Justin Shin by two shots. As a result of his solid play all year long, Rodgers was named as one of 10 semifinalists for the 2012 Ben Hogan Award, presented annually to the nation’s top collegiate golfer. Additionally, Rodgers, along with Yun, was named to the 2012 Palmer Cup team, a Ryder Cup-style competition in June that matches the United States’ best college golfers against the best college golfers from Europe . Rodgers will be back in action from May 17 to 19 when Stanford hosts the NCAA West Regional. The Cardinal will be the second seed in the regional, and the field includes Pac-12 champion Cal, the top seed, and conference foe Oregon State.
— Zach Zimmerman and Jack Blanchat
The Stanford Daily
Continued from page 5
counter a wall of shoes of every color and variety imaginable. There are even shoes that aren’t shoes but instead gloves for your feet. They don’t just protect us from cuts and other injuries; they also boost our grip and acceleration. Speaking of those injuries, we can’t ignore modern medicine and physical therapy. It is pretty phenomenal how far we have come in just the past hundred years or so. Injuries that were once debilitating are now routinely treated. Just think of how many professionals have torn their ACLs and come back fitter and stronger. Or think of the miraculous story of Bolton soccer player Fabrice Muamba, who just a few weeks ago technically died of a heart attack, yet is still with us and may even be able to make a comeback one day. However, it is hard to find a single specific medical invention that has been truly revolutionary. It is really the sum of hundreds and thousands of steps, some big, others small, that makes up modern medicine. However, forced to choose one, the science of hydration stands out. Until the late ’60s, we completely misunderstood this. It was thought disadvantageous to drink fluids during athletic activity and thus was discouraged, a philosophy that seems ridiculous in today’s sports world. One of the most recent, key
Courtesy of stanfordphoto.com
sports technologies, evident both because of its use in some sports and its distinct rejection by others, has been Hawk-Eye. This system of cameras and computers tracks the movement of the ball in games like tennis and cricket, providing a hightech check on controversial decisions. More over, players, referees and fans have generally welcomed its use. Except in soccer, where, despite a growing number of cases of crucial mistakes made by officials, FIFA has so far resisted implementing such a system. My choice, though, is none of the above. Easy to miss because it’s technically designed not to be seen but to alter the way that other things are, I pick the humble contact lens. Levels of shortsightedness in the United States could be as much as 40 percent, making it perhaps the most widespread disability. Whereas the other suggestions above benefit all budding athletes, eyesight correction takes a significant portion of the population who would otherwise not be able to live up to their full potential and removes this obstacle. Most of the time you would never know this, but occasionally it’s made clear when a contact lens falling out exposes the human frailty of a seemingly invincible professional athlete. Suddenly you realize that they’re not that different from you after all; until they pop the lens back in and dash back into the action, superpowers restored. Tom Taylor also writes a second column for WebMD. Give him some more medical innovations at email@example.com.
Patrick Rodgers (above) was named Pac-12 Freshman of the Year on Monday after eight top-10 finishes in his first season on the Stanford men’s golf team. Rodgers won two individual titles this season.
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