ELEC3320 Lab Report, Semester 1, 2012

Lab Report
Modeling the level and flow of water using a Basic Process Rig (BPR)

Tameem Mithaiwala, 10885946 Jai Kant, 20873374

School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Western Australia

Unit Coordinator Dr. Tyrone Fernando Lab Demonstrator Kianoush Emami

17/04/2012
1
Tameem Mithaiwala, 10885946 Jai Kant, 20873374

...........................................................................................................................................................2 2............2........ 13 Practical 2 ..............................................................1 2..........................................4 2.........................................................................................................3 3 4 Assignment 3: Interface Familiarisation.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Practical 2 ................................2................................... 12 Practical 1 . 11 Practical 1 ...................................................................... 14 2....5 2............... 11 Assignment 7: Float Level Transmitter ............................................................................................................3 2............... 10 Practical 1 .............................................................................. 15 References . 10885946 Jai Kant............................... 13 Conclusion:.............6 2................ 3 Assignments ................3.................................................................... 5 Practical 3 .....................6............. 8 Assignment 4............................... 3 Practical 1 ........................................................................................................................1..........1 2......................................................................2 2...1................. 12 Practical 1 .........................6................................ 6 Practical 4 .....................................1 Assignment 1: Familiarisation ................................................1 2.....4................................1 2..........1..............................2 2................................... 7 Practical 1 .......... 3 2...................... Semester 1.........3 2.......................... 12 Assignment 8: Pulse Flow Transmitter ............. 12 Assignment 9: On/Off Level Control ............................ELEC3320 Lab Report..........................................4 2.2 2............1 2......1..............................5........................................... 12 Practical 2 ...............................................1 2.....4............. 16 2 Tameem Mithaiwala............................................ 12 Practical 2 ........................................................................2 2.......................2 2........................................... 8 Practical 2 ..................................................................................................... 2012 Table of Contents 1 2 Introduction .........................................5................................6. 20873374 .... 14 Practical 3 .............................................

2008). 3 Tameem Mithaiwala. The fluid flows from the inlet to the impeller centre and out along its blades. knowledge will be gained of: • • • • instrument characteristics core concepts in process control calibration devices used commonly in control processes 2 Assignments 2. Fluid enters the pump at the axis of rotation.ELEC3320 Lab Report. The centrifugal pump creates an increase in pressure by transferring mechanical energy from the motor to the fluid through the rotating impeller.1. It is appropriate to use this type of pump in this case as the operation in the rig involves high flows and low pressure heads. The fluid flow is resulted due to the creation of an increase in the fluid pressure from the pump inlet to its outlet. The centrifugal force hereby increases the fluid velocity and consequently also the kinetic energy is transformed to pressure (Grundfos. Semester 1.1 Assignment 1: Familiarisation 2.1 Practical 1 Preparation and tasks: • • • The two upper tanks are isolated with the orange rubber bung. resulting in a pressure difference which drives the fluid through the system. 1) Special features and principle of operation of the centrifugal pump The pump used in the rig is of the centrifugal type as opposed to the positive displacement type that includes the reciprocating and rotary pumps. All the water is released from the upper right tank. 20873374 . Through the experiments performed. The servo valve is fully opened to allow the fluid to enter into the pump. Figure 1 shows how the fluid flows through the pump. 2012 1 Introduction The aim of the laboratory is to provide an introduction to the various integral parts of the Basic Process Rig (BPR) and become familiar with their operation. 10885946 Jai Kant.

where as full flow might only occur when it pumps horizontally Motor of pump likely not running at full capacity 𝟒.4L/min. 2) Rate of flow of water The servo valve was fully opened.4 to 4. They include: • • Orientation: The water was being pumped vertically. Rate of �low of water = Volume of water Time taken 3. 3) Flow through the piping network is less than the full flow capability of the pump The flow through the pipe can only match up to the full flow capability under ideal conditions. 100cm – thereby controlling the level of water in the tank. Semester 1. The measured value is found to be 4. it acts as a safety control.ELEC3320 Lab Report. and the water was allowed to fill the tank to the point of overflow. 10885946 Jai Kant. This difference is probably because the flow gauge used to measure the flow rate only ranges from 0.4L/min. 2012 Figure 1: Fluid Path through the centrifugal pump (Grundfos.07L = ∗ 60 = 39s Volume of the tank is 3. 2008) How the pump is used in this practical In this practical. 𝟕𝟐𝟑𝐋/𝐦𝐢𝐧 4 Tameem Mithaiwala. 20873374 . Purpose of the overflow pipe The pipe ensures that the water filling the upper tank does not exceed the maximum limit – in this case. The overflow pipe is in place to prevent the tank from overfilling.07L (as given by the demonstrator). the centrifugal pump is used to pump water from the lower tank to the upper tank. The time taken was recorded as 39 seconds. There are a variety of factors that influence this change.

Manual valve MV3 was first adjusted to maintain a constant water level.2 Practical 2 In this practical.e. where the valves are controlled manually through visual inspection of the tank level and the flow meter.1.ELEC3320 Lab Report. by adjusting the valve knobs. The level and flow rates are interrelated. 2) Process Variables being controlled In the first case the level of the water in the tank is being controlled. while in the second case the flow rate is being controlled. Adjustment of MV2 reduced the flow rate which implies that the output flow rate is faster than the input flow rate. i. the input flow rate was found to be the same as the output flow rate. Preparation and tasks: • • • Manual valve MV2 and servo valve were fully opened. MV2 was adjusted to reduce the rate of flow to an intermediate value in reference to the visual flow meter. 10885946 Jai Kant. when the flow rate is 5 Tameem Mithaiwala. Next. Observations: When MV3 was adjusted. it is possible to control the amount (or volume) of water passing through the valve in a given time. 2012 2. Semester 1. 20873374 . 1) Block Diagrams Desired Level + Adjustment of MV 3 Tank Level Visual Inspection Level Inspected Level Figure 2: Block diagram of level control Desired + Flow rate Flow Rate Adjustment of MV 2 Flow Meter Visual Inspection Inspected Flow Rate Figure 3: Block diagram of flow rate control Type of Control System These are manual systems with closed loops. the BPR’s manual valves were operated to control: • • flow rate of the water supplied by the pump level of the water in the upper tank By controlling the size of the valve orifice.

1. 4) Before switching off the servo valve. Servo gate was gradually opened in steps by changing the current signal. It is controlled by electrical signals and consists of a torque motor coupled directly to the output stage. safety. efficiency. Both variables can be controlled simultaneously if the manual valves are adjusted accordingly. These systems rely on feedback to ensure they are operating at the right point. their advantage is that they can be changed at any time irrespective of how the system is operating. However. The change in current signals does produce a time lag which is a relatively minor disadvantage. the level of the water in the tank increases as well. The gate position takes time to change and hence it exhibits transient response. The position of this gate is controlled by a 4-20 mA signal. which are likely to cause errors. 2012 increase when all other elements are under constant conditions. 20873374 . Manual valves rely on human inspection and operation. 1962). which limits its ability to be changed during operation. • Servo valves are automated systems using feedback loops to control flow rate. 1) Servo valve A servo valve is one which is used to direct fluid to an actuator in a closed-loop or servo system. This is the reason it is given its name. They are usually programmed to perform under certain conditions. usually a sliding spool (Thayer. An abrupt change in current takes some time to establish a constant flow due to the delayed response of the signal. where 4 mA corresponds to the gate being fully lowered. 2. 10885946 Jai Kant. 6 Tameem Mithaiwala. 2) Comparison of the servo valve with the manual valve • • Servo and manual valves both control fluid flow rate. thereby closing off the flow. it should be fully opened by setting the current to 20mA in order to avoid any confusion in future labs. the flow rate increased thus filling the tank at a higher rate. Observations: As the servo gate was opened. This minimises the probability of errors and is more convenient as it does not require constant monitoring. The flow rate was inspected using the visual flow meter. while a 20 mA signal fully opens the valve. and productivity. Valve automation brings significant advantages in the areas of process quality.ELEC3320 Lab Report. Semester 1.3 Practical 3 Preparation and tasks: • • MV2 was fully opened and MV3 was set to 50%. The servo valve in the BPR uses a gate to block the path of the liquid through it.

slower is the flow rate. • Since it basically operates like an on-off switch. it is very limited in the range of control it can provide. as expected.ELEC3320 Lab Report.4 Practical 4 Preparation and tasks: • • • • MV1 was fully opened with all others closed. unlike the manual or servo valves which have full range of control. 2012 2. Switched AC supply was turned on. SV2 was switched with SV3 resulting in a rise in the water level. can be controlled with a full range of motion.7L/min. there was no water flow. Observations: When the PI and switched AC supply were turned on. It has a simple mechanism and is relatively cheaper to install and maintain. 7 Tameem Mithaiwala. 3) Significance of the valve size Difference in valve sizes causes changes in the flow rate. Smaller the valve size. After switching on SVI the water started filling the tank. This MV1 had to be adjusted in order to bring the level back to 55mm. It is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid. When the water was maintained at a constant level by adjusting MV1 the values of flow rate and level in the tank were 2L/min and 55mm respectively. 20873374 . In addition to that. a solenoid valve can be controlled remotely. 2) Comparison of the solenoid valve with the servo valve • • • In comparison to a servo valve. It was observed that the flow rate was much slower when SV3 was open in comparison to SV2 implying that SV3 has a smaller diameter. 1) Solenoid valve A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve which can only be open or closed. The experiment was repeated by substituting SV2 with SV3. MV1 was adjusted to maintain a constant water level in the upper right tank.1. resulting in high cost. and is controlled by passing an electric current through a solenoid. One of its major disadvantages is the power needed for maintaining the solenoid valve in an opened condition is high. The normal state of the valve is closed. the housing and the coil of the solenoid valve gets heated up quickly thereby lowering its service life. Servo valves on the other hand. This is confirmed as the measured value of SV2 and SV3 are 5mm and 3mm respectively. Next. and is therefore suitable for automation. 10885946 Jai Kant. followed by switching on solenoid valve SV1. Semester 1. which was accomplished by reducing the flow rate to 0.

4 Percentage (%) 101. Observations: Table 1 indicates the values of currents measured with the corresponding percentages.2 12.1 Practical 1 Preparation and tasks: • • Digital Display Module (DDM) was set to mA.8 20.1 81 92.9 5.3 39 51. The plot of current against the percentage (Figure 4) is a linear graph indicating accurate calibration. there is no current in the loop. MV1 had to be adjusted in order to maintain the water level constant at the desired intermediate level.2. Gravity effects Pressure differences 2.7 4.9 7. With no lead connected.2 17 18. Semester 1.4 20. the current signals range from 4-20mA and hence the DDM is calibrated such that 4mA corresponds to 0% and 20mA to 100%.9 Industry standard current signals are 4-20mA and 0-20mA.5 101.ELEC3320 Lab Report. 20873374 . when both valves were open. 2012 4) Comparing SV1 and SV2 Even though SV1 and SV2 are of the same diameter. In the BPR. This is because of the following reasons: • • • Orientation: one of them is horizontal while the other is vertically positioned. 10885946 Jai Kant. 8 Tameem Mithaiwala. Current in the loop was varied and values for current and percentage were recorded.3 10. Table 1: Measured values of currents and percentages Current (mA) 0.2 Assignment 3: Interface Familiarisation 2.

percentage 15 20 25 1) Circuit breaker A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch that provides protection against: • • Overload currents: In times of fault. Current Source The PI in the BPR uses a 4-20mA current loop for signaling using a two-wire connection system. it acts as a communication interface which enables different elements within a system to communicate with each other. 9 Tameem Mithaiwala. 20873374 . 2) Current loops Current loops are used in process control to transmit information. Failure to do so indicates either no supply to the circuit breaker or a faulty device. Earth fault currents: If any difference between the currents flowing through the live and neutral lines is detected. the circuit breaker opens the contact between the live and neutral contacts. 2012 Current vs Percentage 120 100 Percentage 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 Current Figure 4: Plot of current vs. the circuit breaker automatically switches off the supply thereby protecting the circuit against overload currents. Semester 1.ELEC3320 Lab Report. 10885946 Jai Kant. The circuit can be tested by pressing the test button on the front of the device.

2) As seen from Figure 5. They can also be used as inputs to various relays of the process controller.2.41 0.21 1. Table 3: Measured values of currents and voltages Current (mA) 4. Simple to calibrate zero point because the lowest current can be reduced below 0%.53 0. Observations: Table 1 indicates the values of currents measured with the corresponding voltages. 20873374 . 4-20mA loop Resolution of only 16 mA. the shape of the graph is linear. 2-wire connection system. The transmitter must be provided with separate supply.89 1. which is also the theoretical value i. The other possible source of error could be the multimeter used to make the measurement 10 Tameem Mithaiwala.2 Practical 2 Preparation and tasks: • Using a multimeter.3 9. 2012 Table 2: Comparison of 0-20mA and 4-20mA loops 0-20mA loop Resolution of 20mA. enabling different modes of control.1 5. 2. voltages across terminals G and ground were measured for different currents. the resistance of 100Ω. This approximate slope is due to minor differences in the values of measured and theoretical values. It is not possible to provide a transmitter fail-safe system. The gradients of the line is found to be approximately 100.ELEC3320 Lab Report. 10885946 Jai Kant. This could be due to inaccuracy of the resistance. i.1 15 1) I-V converters Voltage (V) 0.e. signaling and power supply in the same leads may be used.0 12. This adds to the installation cost. Their uses are: • • The converted voltages can be used as inputs to the comparator or logic inputs in the on-off section of the PI. as typical resistors can be off as much as 10% from the "band" reading. It is difficult to calibrate the zero.5 I-V converters are used to convert the current in the loop to a voltage across a 100Ω resistor. Semester 1.e. Simple to provide transmitter fail-safe system.

e.5mA respectively. and the span control sets the maximum current. Both are screws that are adjusted using a small screwdriver. instead of human calibration where errors are more likely to occur. 11 Tameem Mithaiwala.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Current (mA) 12 14 16 Figure 5: Plot of current vs.e.3. 10885946 Jai Kant. Observations: Before calibration. to the 20 mA setting. i. • Next. the current source knob was turned fully clockwise. the values of the current shown on the DDM at the fully anti-clockwise and clockwise positions of the knob were found to be 4. so that the value of the current shown on the DDM is exactly 4mA. accuracy would most likely require automated or computerised calibration.2 Voltage (V) 1 0. 2012 Current vs Voltage 1.3 Assignment 4 2.4 1. 1) Controls associated with the current source calibration The current source calibration is achieved by controlling the span and zero controls. which in our case is 20mA or 100%. 2) Calibration for high accuracy In order to ensure high accuracy. the current source should be calibrated before every use. Semester 1. to the 4mA setting. Further.6 1. Relying on the last use of the current source is considered bad practice and high attention to detail is required to maintain reliability.4 0. and the span setting was adjusted.1 Practical 1 Preparation and tasks: • The current source knob was turned anti-clockwise fully.6 0.8 0. voltage 2.1mA and 20. i. Zero setting was adjusted using a small screwdriver. the zero control is used to set the zero of the current source. 20873374 .ELEC3320 Lab Report. which corresponds to 4mA or 0% on the DDM.

5. 2) If the pulse flow sensor and transmitter combination is not producing a 4 to 20mA signal proportional to the rate of flow. pulse flow sensor and transmitter can provide accurate information about the rate of flow. then it indicates that the combination has not been calibrated.4. accurate transmission can be done over long distance. 2) The float level transmitter provides information to the controller about the water level in the tank. and hence the level in the tank to be controlled. 20873374 . 3) If the pulse flow sensor and transmitter combination is not producing a 4 to 20mA signal proportional to the rate of flow. This can be used in feedback loop. These two properties make it difficult to transfer accurate information over long distances. 2.ELEC3320 Lab Report. Also.4 Assignment 7: Float Level Transmitter 2.5 Assignment 8: Pulse Flow Transmitter 2.4. being a voltage signal. which would enable the rate of flow to be controlled.1 Practical 1 1) The pulse flow sensor produces a pulse train which converts to a standard 4-20mA current signal by using a transmitter and makes it suitable for transmission and compatible with other devices in the system.2 Practical 2 1) Calibration process does the comparison between already known values and observed values during experiment. As we have used all of the listed instruments for the practical and each instrument has connection with another so each of these instruments has to be calibrated to rely on its absolute readings. 2) We do calibration so all of the instruments i.e. If they are not calibrated.5. Whilst converting this to a current signal. it is very susceptible to resistances. 2. Semester 1. 2.1 Practical 1 1) The signal produced by the potentiometer is likely to be very small.2 Practical 2 1) To ensure the accuracy of the measurements we should always do the recalibration before performing practical every time. then it indicates that the combination has not been calibrated. This enable feedback control can be carried out if controller uses this information to change the input or output flow rates to the tank. 12 Tameem Mithaiwala. 10885946 Jai Kant. there would be no guarantee that the correct values would be generated by these instruments. 2012 2.

It can control and maintain the output accurately.6.1 Practical 1 1) What is on/off control and why is it sometimes preferable to other types of control? What are the disadvantages of on/off control? On/off control can maintain the water level automatically. 2. measured value. 3) What are the meanings of the following terms: reference value.6 Assignment 9: On/Off Level Control 2. Measured value: The practical current value or the actual tank water level. The desired water level is reference point. which produces 0V or 5V depending on the deviation between the reference and measured values. This is determined by the hysteresis curve of the comparator. this control will be always subject to the unnecessary switching. and can be adjusted through a control on the PI. 4) What is the significance of manual valve MV3 connected to the upper tank (with reference to the operation of the on/off level control and how should it be set for correct operation)? 13 Tameem Mithaiwala. how are they produced and how are they used? • • Reference value: The reference value is the desired tank water level. The output of the comparator is fed into the Schmitt trigger. The water level will be steady when current is steady at this value. 2) How is on/off control used in this practical to control the level of the water in the upper tank? Which pieces of equipment are involved? In this practical. whereas the float level transmitter is designed to convert the potentiometer voltage signal. and after being converted into a voltage. which measures the tank water level and sends a signal to the transmitter. This is determined by the float level sensor. Semester 1. 20873374 . The pulse flow transmitter is specifically designed to convert a pulse train signal. 10885946 Jai Kant. and deviation? What do they represent in this practical. As both transmitters have different application and output so we cannot use same transmitter for two similar flow sensors without adjustment for reliable outputs. The transmitter then converts the signal into a standard current signal. • Deviation: The difference between above two values. 2012 3) We use different transmitters for different purposes. additionally. It is these values that turn the pump on or off. becomes the measured input to the comparator.ELEC3320 Lab Report. On/Off control the water level through comparing the feedback signal with the reference point. It always performs at extreme state as fully open and fully closed. Calibration would be required for optimum usage. and the measured water level are the measured points. The equipment includes a comparator and Schmitt trigger.

so that more water can flow out. and closed when more than desired level. 2.6. As the deviation changes from negative to positive. When the measured value is greater than the reference value.6. the deviation is negative. The hysteresis level controls the width of variation in the water level. The reference signal is connected to the inverting input and the measured signal to the non-inverting input. so that the water level can rise. the deviation is positive when the measured value is less than the reference value. depending where the reference voltage is connected. the output changes from negative to positive. There are two different actions: • Inverting: The SV1 must be open while the water level is less than desired level.ELEC3320 Lab Report. it is suitable for on/off control. Now. Semester 1. So. The disturbances can be rejected by setting up a period time delay response. connected to the upper tank.3 Practical 3 1) Why was it necessary to recalibrate the FLT before beginning this practical? To ensure the accuracy of the measurements we should always do the recalibration before performing practical every time. When the actual level is less than the desired level it should be switched off. 10885946 Jai Kant. increasing the hysteresis would increase its immunity to disturbances. imitates the FLT’s floating disk spinning due to changes in water level. The solenoid valve can be repeated switching in mind. This enables the system to operate around the reference value. when the actual tank level is above the desired level the valve should be switched on. 20873374 . As the deviation moves from negative to positive. 2) Describe the different actions that can be produced from the comparator and Schmitt trigger arrangement. and will become negative when the measured value is greater than the reference. So. • Non-inverting: This action uses solenoid valve SV2. and will become positive when the measured value is less than the reference.2 Practical 2 1) Why is on/off control of the pump avoided and a solenoid valve used instead? This is because On/Off control decreases the pump's working life. 2012 MV3 should be set as open enough for the upper tank that the water level can rise up with pump on and drop down as pump off. 3) What is being imitated when the water is swished around in the upper tank? How does the hysteresis level affect this? How does it control disturbance rejection? Water being rotated in the upper tank. A better way of controlling the tank level is to use a different two-state device known as a solenoid valve. 2. 14 Tameem Mithaiwala. The reference signal is connected to the non-inverting terminal and the measured signal is fed into other input. the output will changes from positive to negative.

This included the working of a valve-pump system and methods of controlling various parameters.ELEC3320 Lab Report. If the hysteresis is greater than the maximum deviation. The barrel reaches the top of the stem. the system should continue to complete the hysteresis loop. and we did not observe any changes as a result of changing the hysteresis level. 10885946 Jai Kant. 4) What is happening when the upper tank is shaken? The system operates as normal when we shake the upper tank unless the shake push the barrel to the triggering point to process the conversion of signal through transmitter. Water flows into the tank and level increases. closing the relay. Transmitter converts this state to a 20mA signal. Conversion of signal (4mA) through transmitter ensures that SV1 is open. Conversion of signal (4mA) through transmitter ensures that SV1 is open. knowledge of the basic processes of a control rig was gained through hands-on experience with the BPR. 3) How does varying the current source (and so the reference voltage) affect this process? By varying current source we noticed the change in the reference water level.e. 3 Conclusion: In this laboratory. Water continuous to flow out and barrel continuous to going down to touch the bottom of stem and system shows no noticeable change. The water level is greater than the desired level and SV1 is closed. 20873374 . Semester 1. Barrel keeps rising from bottom of the stem and system makes no noticeable changes. 15 Tameem Mithaiwala. It provided a practical example for a range of control methods and the application of core concepts in process control. Water flows into the tank and level increases. with no input flow. the measured level becomes lesser than the desired level. water level decreases with the barrel restoring its previous position. i. • The deviations are bounded by the lower and upper limits of the float switch. • Finally barrel touches the bottom of the stem and opens the relay. The process goes into the reverse phase. 2012 2) Description of whole process during practical: • We switch on the PI and keep the water level less than the desired level. This change closes SV1 and water no longer flows into the tank. • • • • The water keeps flowing into the tank and measured level passes the desired level.

T 2012. • 16 Tameem Mithaiwala.ELEC3320 Lab Report.servovalve.grundfos. 20873374 .com/content/dam/Global%20Site/Industries%20%26%20solutions/Industry /pdf/The_Centrifugal_Pump. 10885946 Jai Kant. W 1962.pdf [Last accessed 14 April 2012]. Semester 1.co. Thayer. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.pdf [Last accessed 15th Apr 2012].uk/technical/new_tb117. The Centrifugal Pump. 2012 4 References • • Fernando. Grundfos Research and Technology 2005. [ONLINE] Available at: http://dk. ELEC3320 Laboratory One. laboratory notes distributed in Process Instrumentation and Control ELEC3320 at The University of Western Australia. Specification Standards for Electrohydraulic flow Control Servovalves.

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