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PMP Exam Brain Dump/Cheat Sheet (PMBOK version 4) Dana Safford, PMP Updated 14 APR 11 This document contains

the procedure to recreate the good connotation of a Brain Dump/Cheat Sheet that I used for the PMP test. This version covering the PMBOK v4 contains updates from the earlier versions for the PMBOK v3 and v2000 tests. This document includes step-by-step instructions to create each section. The purpose of this document is to help you to dump this memorized information onto one of the scrap papers prior to starting the exam. Every time you sit down to study, start by recreating your Brain Dump/Cheat Sheet. Youll see how much you remember and find that you will remember more each time. Ill guarantee you that I did well over 50 or 60 trials before I was able to consistently reproduce the page every time. Even when I mastered the page, I still practiced again for several days before the test (including the morning of the test). Table of Contents: Introduction Completed Brain Dump/Cheat Sheet Pneumonics Brain Dump Instructions Tracking Your Marked Question Count Page 1 2 3 4 13

The Pneumonics section is there to help you remember the starting letters of the information in the process matrix. The pneumonics dont have to make sense. In fact, I find the nonsensical ones easier to remember. You can come up with whatever pneumonics and tricks work for you. While I make no guarantees that this will work for you or that there are no errors. I can guarantee that this Brain Dump worked for me and many others I coached. I hope this helps you find something to work for you. Good luck! Dana Safford, PMP Copyright 2011, Dana Safford, All Rights Reserved

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CV = EV AC AC = ACWP SV = EV PV PV = BCWS CPI = EV / AC EV = BCWP SPI = EV / PV BR = AC / EV EAC = (AC / EV) BAC good EAC = BAC / CPI good EAC = AC + (BAC EV) typ/ CPI cont ETC = (BAC EV) typ/cont CPI ETC = (BAC EV) atyp/nocont EAC = AC + (BAC EV) atyp/
Nocont EAC = AC + (BAC EV) Index (CPI x SPI) effect

PG KA

Init
D P Charter

Planning
1 D Proj Mgt Plan 3

Executing
D & M Proj Exec

Monitoring & Controlling


2 M & C Proj Work Perform Int C C 2 Ver Scope Cont Scope

Closing
Close P roj/Pha

Int Mgt

Scope

Collect Reqs Def Scope Create WBS 5 Def Act Seq Act Est Act Res Est Act Dur Dev Sched 2 Est Cost Dev Bud 1 Plan Qual 1 Dev H R Plan 1 Dev Comm Plan 5 Plan Risk Mgt Id Risk Perf Qual Anal Perf Quant Anal Plan Risk Resp 1 Plan Proc

Time

Cont Sched

Cost Quality

X X

X Perf Qual Ass 3 Acq Proj Team Dev Proj Team Man Proj Team 2 Dist Info Man Stakehold

Cont Cost Perf Qual Cont

X X

TCPI = (BAC-EV) (BAC-AC) EAC = AC+ ETC VAC = BAC - EAC

flaw

HR

CV% = CV / EV x 100 SV% = SV / PV x 100 % Complete = (EV / BAC) x 100 % Spent = (AC / BAC) x 100 3-Point estimate = PERT = O+M+P 3 O + 4M + P 6

Comm

Id Stakehold

Rep Perf

Risk

Mon & Cont Risk

Procure

Conduct Proc

Admin Proc

Close Proc

SD of Task = P - O 6 SIGMA 1 2 3 6 PV = FV (1 + i)n = = = = 68.26% 95.46% 99.73% 99.99%

Schedule =Conflict types= Priorities Resources Technical Opinion

W S C C F

W S

S S R

C R R

C R

F S

FV = PV(1 + i)n

=Risks= Technology Performance External Quality Organization Proj Mgt Scope

COMM = N(N - 1) 2 Rough (Magnitude) estimate: -25% -> +75% Budget estimate: -10% -> +25% Definitive estimate: - 5% -> +10% Achievement theory: Motivated by achievement, power, & affiliation Contingency theory: Motivated by competency, will continue after competency Expectancy theory: Expectation drives motivation Hygiene Theory: The work environment pay, benefits, relationships are dissatisfiers Herzberg: Motivators are work itself Maslow: physiological, safety, social, self-esteem, self-actualization McGregor: X-lazy (sad face) top-down, Y-eager (smiley face)
-------

Crosby: Do it right 1st time. 0 defects, Prevention Over Inspection, Price for Non-Conformance, Conformance To Requirements Deming: 85% management, Plan Do - Check Act, SPC Statistical Process Control Juran: Trilogy Q improvement, Q Planning, Q Control || Fitness of work, Qual is not free, Qual circles Taguchi: Prevention build quality into product

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Pneumonics: Process Group: Syrup of IPECC Knowledge Area: I See The Chic Queen Hurl Cake Right Proper Integration: Did Peter Crash, Did Peter Munch Pickles, Do Maintain Peters Emporium, My Can Peter Work, Perhaps I Change Control, & Close Projects Scope: Collect Dynamite With Virtual Control Time: Democrats Sequence Republicans Dutifully During Sunday Chocolate Service Cost: Everybody Could Bolster Cold Climate Control Quality: P Q P Q A P Q C HR: Did His Royal Pants Acquire the Project Team? The Project Terror Manages the Project Team Comm: I Should Develop Comm Plan Distribution Info. Might Stakeholders Report Please. Risk: [Vertically do RRQQRR, then] People Really Must Id Risk P Q Anals P Q Anal P RR Most Curiously R Procurement: Please Pick Contract Procurement At Proper Central Points Conflict types: S=C=PRT Risk Box: =Risk= Types Probably Equate to Quality Organization Pretty Soon Conflict Resolution: Withdrawal, Smoothing, Compromising, Confronting, Forcing ||| Stalemate & Resolution

Sources of Power: =P=REF RaP


Motivation: All Cake Eaters Help Hold My Macaroons Quality People: Crosby, Deming, Juran, Taguchi

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Part A: Process Group and Knowledge Area Matrix


PG KA Integ Scope Time Cost Qual HR Comm Risk Proc Init Plan Exec Mon & Cont Close

Step 1: In the upper right corner of the sheet, draw a rough 6 column by 10 row grid. Step 2: Fill-in the process Group and Knowledge Area titles. Use the pneumonics if you need to. Step 3: Fill in negative space with X (cells with no processes). From the top of Closing, drop down one and X 7in a row. From top of Executing drop one and X 3 in a row, skip 3 in a row, and X one more. In Controlling, theres only one X. Its four up from the bottom In Initiating, X out all except Integration Mgt.

X X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X X X X X

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Step 4: Lets get ready to fill-in the processes. Most of the non-blocked cells will hold a single process. The most multi-entry cells are in the Planning column. Youll notice a number in the upper-right corner of the cells in the Planning column and a single cell in each of the Executing and Controlling columns. These numbers tell you the number of process in that cell. Any cell without a number or an X holds a single process.
PG KA Integ Scope Time Cost Qual HR Comm Risk Proc X X X X X X X Init Plan 1 3 5 2 1 1 1 5 1 X 3 2 X X X X Exec Mon & Cont 2 2 X X X X X X X

Close

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Step 5: Fill in the processes. To help with the first letter for each process, use the pneumonics (from page 3) for each row.
PG KA

Init
D P Charter

Planning
1 D P Mgt Plan 3

Executing
D & M Proj Exec

Monitoring & Controlling


2 M & C Proj Work Perform Int C C 2 Ver Scope Cont Scope

Closing
Close P roj/Pha

Int Mgt

Scope

Collect Reqs Def Scope Create WBS 5 Def Act Seq Act Est Act Res Est Act Dur Dev Sched 2 Est Cost Dev Bud 1 Plan Qual 1 Dev H R Plan 1 Dev Comm Plan 5

Time

Cont Sched

Cost Quality

X X

X Perf Qual Ass 3 Acq Proj Team Dev Proj Team Man Proj Team 2 Dist Info Man Stakehold

Cont Cost Perf Qual Cont

X X

HR

Comm

Id Stakehold

Rep Perf

Risk

Plan Risk Mgt Id Risk Perf Qual Anal Perf Quant Anal Plan Risk Resp 1 Plan Proc

Mon & Cont Risk

Procure

Conduct Proc

Admin Proc

Close Proc

You successfully completed the matrix. Now, just practice until you can do it quickly.

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Part B: Earned Value Formulas Step 1: Starting at the upper-left corner of the page, write down each value (Cost Variance, Schedule Variance, Cost Performance Index, Schedule Performance Index, Burn Rate, Estimate At Completion (6 different formulas), To Complete Performance Index, Value At Completion, Estimate To Complete). Leave the extra spaces between some of the values as you see below.
CV SV CPI SPI BR EAC EAC EAC ETC ETC EAC EAC TCPI EAC VAC CV% SV%

% Complete %Spent Step 2: Fill in the equal sign and EV CV=EV SV=EV CPI=EV SPI=EV Step 3: Fill in the operands. Two minus (-) and two divide () CV=EVSV=EVCPI=EV or / SPI=EV or / Step 4: Fill in the last variable. AC, PV, AC, PV CV=EV-AC SV=EV-PV CPI=EV / AC SPI=EV / PV

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Step 5: Because you need to know both ways (old & new) to represent these variables, between the formulas you just entered and the Process Matrix, enter these: AC = ACWP PV = BCWS EV = BCWP The AC formula is easy because it has the AC in it. The dashed line with the arrows is meant to remind you that the letter P will occur only once in each formula. So, of the remaining two formulas, PV cannot have another P. Step 6: Before we start the next group, I need to provide a short explanation. In this group, youll see five versions of the Estimate At Completion (EAC) formula. All these are listed because you dont know what data will be provided with any given question. Since all five versions are listed here, you wont have to do the algebra (remember the 7th grade?) required to change the formulas around to fit the question circumstances. You should expect to see several of these Earned Value questions. OK, so, below youll see the first two versions of the EAC formula are new. They are from Harold Kerzners Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, Ninth Edition. As mentioned above, they are here just in case the data in your question matches the formula. The other three versions are right out of the PMBOK. They display a good label because you use these when the project is going well. Note: Version 4 of the PMBOK Guide no longer explicitly describes the Estimate To Completion (ETC) formulas. Instead, they refer to the ETC concept as an aspect of forecasting. Just in case they are needed, I chose to leave the ETC formulas on this brain dump. If you choose, you can structure your brain dump without them. The EAC and ETC formulas sporting a ntyp/nocont notation flags you to use this version when the current reports are NOT typical and future reports are NOT expected to continue in the same manner. Similarly, the EAC and ETC formulas showing a typ/cont notation after it identifies this version should be used when the current reports are typical for a project and future reports are expected to continue in the same manner. You use the version labeled flaw when the initial estimates are found to be flawed and new estimates are required. Now lets enter the formulas. These are different enough that you should just enter the whole formula at once; but there is a technique (or a flow) to the order of the list. There is a progression of terms through this grouping. Starting with the BR (Burn Rate) formula, which is AC/EV, youll notice that AC/EV is the first group in the 1st EAC formula. Next notice the BAC term in the 1st EAC formula appears in the 2nd EAC formula, and /CPI term from the 2nd EAC formula, also appears in the 3rd EACG formula. Youll also notice that (BAC EV) is a term in the next four formulas either AC or BAC is the first term in this group of formulas. You may notice a few other progressions.

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So now, fill in the forecasting formulas. Make sure you apply the labels correctly. In this typed version of the brain dump, I could not apply the atyp/nocont, typ/cont, and both Indexes Effect labels completely on the same line and keep the formatting clean. You may be able to keep them on the same line as the numerator of the equation. BR = AC / EV EAC = (AC / EV) BAC good EAC = BAC / CPI good EAC = AC + (BAC EV) typ/ CPI cont ETC = (BAC EV) typ/cont CPI ETC = (BAC EV) atyp/nocont EAC = AC + (BAC EV) atyp/
nocont

EAC = AC + (BAC EV) index (CPI x SPI) effect TCPI = (BAC EV) (BAC AC) EAC = AC+ ETC flaw VAC = BAC - EAC Step 7: Next fill-in the % Complete formulas. CV% = CV / EV x 100 SV% = SV / PV x 100 % Complete = (EV / BAC) x 100 % Spent = (AC / BAC) x 100

Part C: Other Formulas You will see questions that rely on these formulas and thresholds, so they go on the sheet too.
3-Point e(t) = PERT = O+M+P 3

O + 4ML + P 6

SD of Task = P - O 6 SIGMA 1 2 3 6 PV = FV (1 + i)n = = = = 68.26% 95.46% 99.73% 99.99% FV = PV(1 + i)n

COMM = N(N - 1) 2 Rough (Magnitude) estimate: -25% -> +75% Budget estimate: -10% -> +25% Definitive estimate: - 5% -> +10%

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Part D: Conflict Grids Using the Conflict Type pneumonic, reproduce the Conflict Types box. The equal signs on either side of the word Conflict types helps to identify it as the title (while allowing the C to appear in the middle of the pneumonic. Schedule =Conflict Types= Priorities Resources Technical Opinion I liked the following Conflict Resolution Grid so much, I borrowed it from another PMP. I havent seen this elsewhere, but it is supposedly based on reading an excerpt from Human Factors in Project Management: Handling Conflict. Step 1: Create a 6 x 6 grid with each Conflict Resolution Scenario as the column and row titles. Remember several of these have more than one name. For this version, we use Withdrawal, Smoothing, Compromising, Confronting, Forcing (Note: the 2 Cs are in alphabetic order)

W W S C C F

Step 2: Now we fill-in the Resolution Outcomes. For this version, we use Stalemate, Resolution (win/win), and arrows that point toward the winning party (the X or the Y, or the Columns Party or the Rows Party whichever you prefer. Fill-in the Stalemates with an S. All of these are along the diagonal. Top left 2 and bottom right 1. W S S S S C C F

W S C C F

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Step 3: Fill in the Resolutions in the remainder of the diagonal, then up 1 and left 1, from the center (for a total of 4 Rs). W S S S R C R R R S C F

W S C C F

Step 4: Fill in the rest. Arrows indicate who wins. Everything above the diagonal points up (to the Columns Party as the winner. Everything below the diagonal points left, to the Rows Party as the winner. W S C C F W S S S R C R R C R F S

Part E: Risk Types Using the Risk Type pneumonic, reproduce the Risk Types box. The equal signs on either side of the word Risk helps to identify it as the title (while allowing the R to appear in the middle of the pneumonic. =Risks= Technology Performance External Quality Organization Proj Mgt Scope

Part F: Sources of Power Using the pneumonics, fill-in the Sources Of Power box. Note the line at the halfway point. =Power= Reward Expert Formal Penalty Reward

PMBoK Best PM Inherent

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Part G: Network Diagramming: Kim Heldmans networking aide is very helpful. I split it in half and aligned it horizontally to fit, side-by-side, in the space below the conflict resolution grid.

The aide shows the attributes of each style of diagramming: The Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) is also called Arrow On Node (AON) and they use ONLY One Time Estimate. The Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) is also call Activity On Arrow (AON) and they can use MORE than one time estimate. Note: Version 4 of the PMBOK Guide no longer explicitly describes the ADM method. Just in case, I chose to leave the graphic on this brain dump. If you choose, you can structure your brain dump without it.

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Part H: Motivational & QualityInformation Step 1: Using the pneumonics, fill-in the first letter of the Motivational and Quality information. A C E H H M M ----C D J T Step 2 Then go back to each letter and fill in the rest of the line from memory.
Achievement theory: Motivated by achievement, power, & affiliation Contingency theory: Motivated by competency, will continue after competency Expectancy theory: Expectation drives motivation Hygiene Theory: The work environment pay, benefits, relationships are dissatisfiers Herzberg: Motivators are work itself Maslow: physiological, safety, social, self-esteem, self-actualization McGregor: X-lazy (sad face) top-down, Y-eager (smiley face) ------Crosby: Do it right 1st time. 0 defects, Prevention Over Inspection, Price for Non-Conformance, Conformance To Requirements Deming: 85% management, Plan Do - Check Act, SPC Statistical Process Control Juran: Trilogy Q improvement, Q Planning, Q Control || Fitness of work, Qual is not free, Qual circles, Taguchi: Prevention build quality into product,

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Tracking Your Marked Question Count:


2 3 4 69

Step 1: At the top-left corner of another sheet of blank scratch paper, write a 2, then draw a horizontal line about half an inch or so down from the top. Step 2: Below the line you just drew, write a 3, then draw another horizontal line about half an inch or so down from the first line. Step 3: Continue with the number 4 and finish with another horizontal line. The whole thing should only take-up about 2 inches or so. Step 4: In the upper right-hand corner write the number 69.

OK, so why do this? The technique below allows you to approximate how many responses you think you have a good chance of getting correct and how many you may not (or are unsure about). From your studies, you know you must correctly answer 106 of 175 real questions and 25 questions are trial questions; for a total of 200 questions. The problem is you have no way of knowing the trial questions from the real ones. So, in effect you need to be VERY sure of your answers for at least 131 questions (106 + 25) and be unsure of a maximum of 69 questions (200 - 131). Heres how you keep track. As you know, the test allows you to mark questions you are unsure about and, if theres time, go back to them. To mark a question, you place a check mark in a box in the upper-right corner of the question screen. The test engine can display a list of all your marked questions. To go back to a question, you click its number in the list. OK, so which questions do you go back to and attempt to improve your score? Heres a good method to select the questions to review. Each question has four possible answers. Normally, one is obviously wrong. However, the rest of them may be partially correct. You need to select the answer that is the most correct in the manner that the PMI wants. It is not always easy. Heres what to do when you are not sure. When you come to a question that you have no clue whether any of the 4 answers is correct, select your best guess. Theres a 25% chance youll get it right. Next, check that marking box in the upper-right corner of the screen and (with your pencil) add the question number (and a comma) in the area of the scratch paper you just created labeled 4, then move on to the next question. When you come to a question where you can definitely eliminate one answer, but cant determine the best choice from the remaining three, select your best guess. Theres a 33% chance youll get it right. Next, check that marking box in the upper-right corner of the screen and (with your pencil) add the question number (and a comma) in the area of the scratch paper you just created labeled 3, then move on to the next question. Similarly, when you come to a question where you can definitely eliminate two answers, but cant determine the best choice from the remaining two, select your best guess. Theres a 50% chance youll get it right. Next, check that marking box in the upper-right corner of the screen and (with your pencil) add the question number (and a comma) in the area of the scrap paper you just created labeled 2, then move on to the next question. There is no need to mark questions you are pretty sure you selected the correct answer. Keep on going until you finish all 200 questions. Now count the number of entries in those numbered rows on the scratch paper. This is the number of questions you are unsure about. Remember that 69 you placed in the upper-right corner of the scratch paper? Compare your number of unsure responses to the 69. To give yourself a buffer, you want to be as far below 69 as you can. Dana Safford, PMP Page 14 Updated: 14 APR 11 PMP Virtual Study Group Copyright 2011, Dana Safford, All Rights Reserved

To improve your chances, youll need to go back and look at those marked questions. Start with the ones listed on the 2 line. Reference the question numbers from the 2 row one-at-a-time and use the marked question list on the screen to select the question. Attempt to validate that you selected the correct answer. That will improve your chances of validating you already have the most correct answer selected. If you can remove a question number from the 2 row, or elevate a question from the 4 row to the 3 row, great! Instead of erasing the question number from the sheet, just draw a line through it (you might have time to go back to it again). For the 2 row only, dont forget to decrease the total number of unsure questions. When you finish the 2 row, start on the 3 row. Reference the question numbers one-at-a-time and use the marked question list on the screen to select the question. Attempt to eliminate the most wrong of the two remaining potential correct answers. If there is time, continue on to the 4 row. Reference the question numbers one-at-a-time and use the marked question list on the screen to select the question. Attempt to eliminate the most wrong of the three answers. If there is time, continue until diminishing returns sets in and you find you are not changing anything. Unless you can totally remove the question from unsure rows 3 & 4, dont decrement you unsure question count. Remember, you want that unsure question count to be as low as possible.

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