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Housing in Developing Countries – Areas of Concern
Severe shortage of houses in developing countries specially for poor people. Severe problem of management of agro industrial waste in developing countries. Mounting pressure on non renewable energy resources. Non-availability of energy efficient technologies for converting agro industrial waste and renewable local resources into alternative materials Expensive & scarce building materials and components.
Low Cost, Energy Efficient & EnvironmentEnvironmentFriendly Housing Technologies for Developing Countries
12th September,2007 R.K. Celly Executive Director
Building Materials & Technology Promotion Council Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation Government of India
Housing in Developing Countries – Issues & Opportunities
• Need for energy efficiency and environmental protection in manufacturing technologies. • Need to develop cost effective construction technologies to mitigate the effects of natural hazards. • Need to create employment and skill improvement opportunities leading to poverty alleviation. • Need to substitute expensive & scarce building materials and components by low cost locally available materials to suit local design typologies.
Major Causes of High Building Costs
Expensive materials Lack of necessary building skills Lack of guidelines in selection of appropriate building packages • Designs • Materials • Methods • equipment
Low Cost or Cost Effective Housing
Aims to reduce the cost of construction and at the same time not sacrifice any element of safety or serviceability of the house over the life cycle.
Various aspects for cost reduction
Optimisation of land use Functional design of buildings Optimum use of building materials Rationalisation of specifications New construction materials and techniques
There is need for adoption of : • strong, • • durable, • • functional, • • aesthetic, • environment friendly, • • ecologically appropriate,
energy efficient affordable and adaptable cost-effective materials appropriate technologies in construction.
Saving in time of construction. Saving in consumption of imported or scare materials. thus improving waste management & environmental protection Utilises local resources Substitutes wood – preserving forest cover Substitutes top soil – preserving soil for agriculture 11 12 . requires less energy in production Products – when used in house. even if no saving in cost is achieved. 8 Promotion of Technology for Low Cost Housing Materials – the Collaborative Effort Technology Technology for Alternative Materials for Low Cost Housing Employment Generation Environment Friendly Energy Efficient Energy Efficient Environment Friendly Employment Generating 9 10 • Simple Machines • Small enterprises • Local people involved • Utilization of agro – industrial wastes • Substitution of wood by composite materials made of waste and local natural resources • Top soil preservation • Simple Machines – Less energy consuming • Products – Better thermal comfort Technology for Alternative Materials for Low Cost Housing Technology for Alternative Materials for Low Cost Housing Energy Efficient Simple machines – saves energy in production Raw Materials – derived from agro-industrial wastes agroand natural fibres. Utilization of waste materials even if no saving is achieved. initial as well as recurring.Factors affecting Choice of Materials and Technologies • • • • • • • • • Availability/suitability of raw materials Availability of skilled labour Scale of construction Cost variation with conventional materials Availability of adequate power for production of components Typology based on geo-climatic conditions Disaster-resistant requirements Environmental aspects Acceptability by people 7 Technology Selection Criteria • • • • • • • • Saving in cost. Environment Friendly Converts agro-industrial waste into alternative agromaterial for low cost housing. Better layout for economy in external services. buildings provide better thermal comfort that results in conservation of operational energy. Better utilization of space. Achieving better utilization of equipment but not necessary leading to optimum saving in cost. Saving in quantum of skilled labour even if no saving in cost is achieved.
0 10 2.5 2. Glass 7.5 12 80 5 4 2. main chemical constituents.00 28.00 3.00 54. cellular concrete Steel plants Aggregate. Traditional light weight mineral viz.10 23.00 30.00 56. filler in FRP Alloys plants Aggregate.50 17. Sisal fibre (sisal plant) 9.50 235. boards. acety lime plants mortar. flooring.Technology for Alternative Materials for Low Cost Housing Technology for Alternative Materials for Low Cost Housing Resource and Energy Saving through Use of Natural Fibres and Agro-Wastes in Building Materials S.00 2. Sn ore Blended cement. ceramic. vermiculite or mica Energy Save % 30 40 15-20 40 25 15 Technology for Alternative Materials for Low Cost Housing Industrial wastes. Timber Timber.00 21.00 25. masonry cement. cement.00 11. Corn cobs (corn mill) 8.5 40 1. blocks 16 Each mineral waste has variable composition according to source of the main rock. brick. 11. cement. Polymer Timber. brick Sugar.) S. increases employment for unskilled and semi-skilled workers semi• Small enterprises – can be set up at decentralized locations • Production of components – involves local people after short training 13 Coir fibre-cement roofing sheet & panels Rick-husk. source Commercial product using natural fibre & agro-waste Traditional resource fully or partly saved Energy Save % Employment Generating • Simple machines – with manual handling. source 6. tiles. window Compressed and paper covered board Banana fibre + cotton pulp/paper pulp and polymer insulation boards Traditional resource fully or partly saved Timber fibres (in insulation board) Timber. aggregate roads Aluminium plants Cement. aggregate.00 33. Aluminium sheet 3. flooring.hullhulls (oil mills) cement building board 4.5 10 5 70 2. filler in beneficiation concrete. calcium silicate cellular concrete.00 94. Jute fibre Jute-fibre-polymer (jute mills) bonded panel. Rubber 5. leather. Ni. Technology for Alternative Materials for Low Cost Housing Energy Saving in Recycling of some Wastes S.30 44.00 14. polymer Asbestos fibre.cement building board board timber 3. Lime. Traditional Timber. Note : Average Chemical Constituent (%) Source SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO 55 25 15 1. Industrial 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. plaster Cutting of laterite blocks Building block.00 10. Rice husk (rice mill) Asbestos Resin (PF or UF) bonded particle Resin-bonded particle board timber Timber.00 26. block Fl. acid plants cement additive. Coir fibre (coir industry) 2. Total energy in primary product (MJ/kg) Total energy Saving % in recycled product (MJ/kg) Low Cost Building Materials – Characteristics Easy to manufacture Easy affordability Easy Erection/commissioning Faster & cheaper construction Effective Waste utilization Energy efficient and Environment friendly 17 18 19 1. door and window 5. 10. Paper 4. timber 10 20 20 10 25 14 Technology for Alternative Materials for Low Cost Housing Resource and Energy Saving through Use of Natural Fibres and Agro-Wastes in Building Materials (Contd. masonry cement.00 80. Wood products 33. Bagasse (sugar mills) 7. door. metal Gypsum. 9.00 . Cotton waste Cotton-lint-cement (textile mills) bonded board 1. Material No.00 100.5 30 2. paper.0 5 3. Waste and N. Rice straw & wheat straw (farms) 10 Banana fibre (banana plant) Commercial product using natural fibre & agro-waste Bagasse-polymerbonded boards Corn cobs-cement bonded boards Sisal fibre-polymer/ cement bonded roofing sheet. source and potential use S. Ground nut Ground nut. blended cement bricks and blocks Glass. Cement. Plastics (PVC) 6. No. block Phosphoric acid Hydrofluoric Gypsum plaster.5 5 5 5 5 1.0 6 0. brick plants Aggregate. Cu. Steel sheet 2.5 5 5 3 Thermal power plants Particulate composite in which used Flyash Blast furnace slag 35 Byproduct gypsum 95 Mine tailings Byproduct lime sludge Laterite waste Red mud 60 10 20 15 Metallurgical slag 32 Broken glass 70 & ceramics Stone quarry waste80 Limestone waste 10 18 35 (15 Tio2) 35 10 5 5 7 2 5 5 Aggregate. roofing Stone quarrying Limestone quarrying and lime kilns Blocks. brick paints.5 40 12 1. Waste and N.Zn. flooring paving Aggregate.
per cum Cast-in-situ RCC 578/. Cost-Effective Technologies CostIII. 10. RCC door frames Frameless doors (only inserts) Ferrocement door shutters RCC window frames RCC jallies Precast thin lintels Precast sunshades Timber Frames Frames and shutters Timber shutters (second class timber) Timber frames Timber windows/ventilators RCC lintels Cast sunshades 30 50 30 30 50 25 30 20 Estimated Cost Saving on using Innovative / Cost Effective Building Materials/Technologies …contd. ROOFING…contd. ROOFING 1. MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 1.R. 2. 9. 85 mm thick sloping RCC Tiles over RCC rafters Brick panel with joists Cuddapah slabs over RCC rafters L-panel sloping roofing RCC planks over RCC joists Ferrocement shell roofing Filler slab roofing Waffle roofing RCC channel units Jack arch brick roofing Funicular shell roofing Brick funicular shell roofing 110 mm RCC Tiles over timber rafters RCC CS over timber rafters RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC RCC 30 25 20-25 2020 10 10 40 22 15 12 15 18 30 19 Estimated Cost Saving on using Innovative / Cost Effective Building Materials/Technologies …contd. 5. 3.per sqm.per sqm. 7.cumlintel Brick on edge lintels Corbelling for lintels Brick arch for lintels Precast RCC shelves units Precast Ferrocement shelves Ferrocement manhole covers Ferrocement water tank RCC lintel-cum-sunshades lintel.P. Doors 950/Precast Ferrocement 450/- 20% Stair case. 15. MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS…contd. 2.C.13 T/M Rat-trap Bond Brick wall 1150/. (plastering) Cost Effective Dead Load 8.per sqm.Estimated Cost Saving on using Innovative / Cost Effective Building Materials/Technologies …contd.per RM 35% Door Shutters F. 10. 12. 5. Frames 100/. 11. ROOFING… 14. 15. + 37/. Cost-Effective Technologies CostIII. Sunshades. 4. 9. 8. 3.15 T/M English Bond Brick wall 1450/. 13. ITEMS… 8. 14.per sqm.per RM MS Tee frame Wooden Shutter 1200/. RCC Cast in situ 560/- Precast R. 6 7. Cost-Effective Technologies CostIV. Precast blocks over inverted TTbeams Micro-concrete roofing tiles MicroRCC Clay tile roofing AC sheet roofing 25 20 15 In place of Conventional options % of Saving In place of Conventional options % of Saving IV.per cum Precast RCC 456/.cumRCC lintels RCC lintels RCC lintels Timber/concrete Timber/concrete Casion/concrete Casion/concrete Rigid PVC 50 50 40 30 20-35 2035-45 3550-40 5060 In place of Conventional options % of Saving COMPARATIVE COST ECONOMICS Item Foundation Conventional Dead Load 10. Savings 20% Walls 20% Roofing 21% 6% Door & Window Frames Wooden frame 135/. 4. 11. 6. 13. Disaster Mitigation & Vulnerability/ Risk Reduction Environmental Protection through technology intervention Cost Reduction & Employment Generation Energy Efficiency in Materials production Focus Areas of Work 23 24 . Lintels 21 25% 22 BMTPC was established to bridge the gap between lab & land and facilitate low cost and safer constructions. Ferrocement sun shades-cumshades. 12.
26 Machines Developed/promoted by BMTPC Alternate Station Hydraulic Brick Press Solid/Hollow Concrete Block Machine (Egg laying Type) RCC Plank Casting Machine (Rotating Type) Machines Developed/promoted by BMTPC Ferrocement Wall Panel Machine RCC Plank casting Machine (Egg-laying type) Precast concrete Door/ Window Frame Machine Precast L-Panel Machine Precast Rcc Plank Machine Ferrocement Roofing Channel Machine TNG Rural Housing Kit Ferrocement C-Beam Machine RCC Joist Casting Machine (Egg laying Type) 27 28 Machines Developed/promoted by BMTPC Compressed Earth Block Machine Bi-Directional Vibro Press Bi-Directional Vibro Press Machines Developed/promoted by BMTPC Concrete Block Machine (Sakar) Stone/Coal Dis-integrator Micro Concrete Roofing Tile Machine C–Brick Machine Solid/Hollow Concrete Block Machine Compressed Earth Block (Balram) Terrazo/Chequered Tile Machine Stationary Block Machine Multipurpose Stone Processing Machine 29 30 . Employment generation varies from 4 to 14 per machine. energy-efficient. environment-friendly building components which are easy to operate. Ribbed Slab for Floors and Roofs • Precast Concrete Waffle Units for Floors and Roofs • Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete L Pans for Roofs • Precast Doubly–Curved Shell Units for Floors and Roofs • Precast Reinforced/Prestressed Concrete Ribbed or Cored Slab Units for Floors & Roofs • Reinforced Brick and Reinforced Brick Concrete Slabs for Floors and Roofs • Prefabricated Brick Panel for Floors/ Roofs 25 BMTPC has developed and promoted more than 30 machines for producing costeffective.Low Cost Building Materials/Components/ Technologies – Developed by BMTPC BUILDING MATERIALS • Calcium Silicate Bricks • Fly ash–Lime Bricks • Clay–Fly ash Bricks • Clay Flooring Tiles • MCR Roofing Tiles • Burnt Clay Flat Terracing Tiles • Fibrous Gypsum Plaster Boards BUILDING COMPONENTS • Precast Solid Cement Concrete Blocks • Precast Concrete Stone Masonry Blocks • Hollow & Solid Light Weight Concrete Masonry Units • Precast Reinforced Concrete Door and Window Frames • Ferrocement Door Shutters • Ferrocement Roofing Channels • Precast Ferrocement Water Tanks • Precast Concrete Manhole Covers & Frames • Bamboo Mat Corrugated Roofing Sheets BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES • Precast Channel Unit for Flooring/Roofing • Precast Reinforced Concrete Joist & Plank system for Flooring/Roofing • Thin R.C.
5 10 4 5 7 Nos 4 Nos. 14 9 3 Coal: 400 cft Stone:250 cft 5 Nos. Building Byelaws/ Regulations Assisted MHA for preparing Model Building Bye-laws ByeOrganising 1-day technical workshops on 1Model Building Bye-laws in 22 States Byeincluding NE States Provided Training to 5000 masons and 50 engineers in Gujarat Involved in Training to 300 engineers in J&K 478 model houses constructed in Gujarat 445 public buildings retrofitted Hospital Building at Kupwara School Building at New Delhi 36 Capacity Building Reconstruction / Retrofitting . No 7 EMPLOYMENT GENERATION (contd… ) Name of Machine Use Production Capacity per day 5 Nos. Skilled Labour Un-Skilled UnLabur Ferrocement wall panel making machine Ferrocement door shutter making machine Solid/Hollow concrete block making machine (standing type) Solid/Hollow concrete block making machine (egg laying type) Solid/Hollow concrete block making machine (surface petrol vibrator) For making ferrocement wall panels For making ferrocement door shutters For making solid/hollow concrete blocks For making solid/hollow concrete blocks For making solid/hollow concrete blocks 4 4 2 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 8 33 Sand cement brick making machine C-brick making machine For making sand cement bricks For making sand cement bricks 2 2 1 1 2 6 6 6 6 6 15 1 Nos. Reconstruction and Retrofitting 35 Activities for Disaster Mitigation…contd. No 20 EMPLOYMENT GENERATION (contd… ) Name of Machine Use Production Capacity per day 3000 Nos. flyash bricks For production of cement concrete bricks. 18 Nos. 24 1000 Nos. No 14 Name of Machine Use Production Capacity per day 1 No. Skilled Labour UnSkilled Labur S. Skilled Labour UnSkilled Labur Alternate Station Hydraulic brick Machine Bi-directional Vibro Press Coal/Stone Disintegrator Bar & Pipe cutting Machine Precast concrete Door Frame making Machine Precast concrete Window Frame making Machine For production of stabilised soil bricks. 19 MCR tile making machine For making micro concrete roofing tiles 200 Nos. 1 No. Skilled Labour UnSkilled Labur S. 16 500 Nos. 21 22 3000 Nos. blocks and pavers For crushing of large size stone boulders and coal For cutting of bars and pipes For making concrete door frames For making concrete window frames 3 2 1 1 11 8 Ferrocement Rafter Machine Ferrocement Purlins Machine Precast concrete Lintel & Shelves making machine RCC Plank casting machine RCC Joist casting machine L-Panel making machine For making ferrocement rafter for roofing For making ferrocement purlins for roofing For making concrete lintel & shelves For making RCC plank For making RCC joist For making l-panels for roof 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 32 2 7000 Nos. 1000 Nos. Compressed earth block For making stabilised making machine (Balram) soil blocks Compressed earth block making machine (Mardini) Solid/Hollow concrete block making machine (SAKAR) For making stabilised soil blocks For making solid/hollow concrete blocks 17 1000 Nos.EMPLOYMENT GENERATION WITH FULL SET OF MACHINES IN A DAY S. 4 4 6 6 31 12 13 6 5 Nos. Ferrocement roofing For making ferrocement channel making roofing channel machine EMPLOYMENT GENERATION (contd… ) S. 23 500 Nos. TOTAL 65 151 34 Disaster Mitigation & Management • Digitised Vulnerability Atlas of India : State/UT wise • Landslide Hazard Zonation Atlas of India • Damage Assessment Studies and Technology Options • Guidelines/Manuals on Disaster Resistant Construction • Building Byelaws/ Regulations • Capacity Building • Repair. 18 250 Nos. 2 11 4 Nos. 2 Nos. No 1 Name of Machine Use Production Capacity per day 10000 Nos.
Demonstration of Retrofitting Techniques Initiated retrofitting of 12 MCD Schools at New Delhi Retrofitted Five MCD Schools at New Delhi. CWC. SERC and BIS. Six certificates issued. Providing technical inputs to various Sectional Committees of BIS. Bhutan Exhibitions held Thailand Turkey Trinidad & Tobago Kenya Uganda Trinidad & Tobago Tanzania Venezuela Bhutan 1995 1996 1997 1997 1998 1999 2000 2002 2005 41 42 . IMD. J&K Prepared 10 Posters and a booklet in Urdu & English on safe construction practices Standardization and Product Evaluation The Government has authorised BMTPC to operate the Performance Appraisal Certification Scheme for the benefit of building materials and product manufacturers and user agencies and professionals. for formulation of Indian Standards on various subjects related to Civil Engineering. 37 38 Demonstration of Retrofitting Techniques Retrofitted SubDistrict Hospital Building at Kupwara.Disaster Management & Mitigation Vulnerability Atlas of India brought out in 1997 have been revised on Digitised Format with latest Housing Census Data 2001 and information from GSI. 39 40 Promoting Indian Technologies in Developing countries Construction Expo-2005. A number of applications are under various stages of processing.
Quality Assurance in Construction.ft. Orissa. MES. for ITBP at Leh 46 Demonstration Houses under VAMBAY in BANGALORE No.Seminar on “Technology Options for Cost Effective and Earthquake Resistant Construction in Housing” in Bhutan Capacity Building Programmes Realising the need of capacity building of professionals. GAIL. Maintenance & Rehabilitation of Buildings. Seismic Retrofitting & Repair of Buildings. Karnataka. Koddalu (Karnataka). 44 Field Level Application of cost effective technologies Demo Houses under VAMBAY Field Level Application of Cost effective technologies 45 252 demo units in Karnataka Constructing 540 demo houses under VAMBAY in Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh). of Dwelling Units 252 Unit covered area 275 sq. Rajasthan. etc. Concrete Mix . NTPC. Haryana.60. 43 Organised 26 training programmes during last year and trained more than 700 professionals from leading organisations like CPWD. Maharashtra No. Bhilwara (Rajasthan). Water Proofing and Damp Proofing.50. Nagpur (Maharashtra).000 Technologies Used Concrete Blocks •Filler Slab Roof •Wood alternate Doors 47 Demonstration Houses under VAMBAY in NAGPUR. Use of Chemical and Mineral Admixtures for Concrete Construction. Cost per Unit Rs. Trichy (Tamil Nadu). Punjab.Design and Quality Control. Dehradun (Uttranchal) 10 structures using bamboo based technologies in Mizoram 10 structures using bamboo based technologies in Tripura 3164 units in Bawana (Technical Assistance) Few buildings in Andhra Pradesh. Railways. PWDs.000 Technologies used •Fly Ash Blocks •Filler slab Roof •Ferro Cement and Fly Ash Polymer Doors 48 . BMTPC has continued its efforts in organizing structured training programmes on various themes for working professionals on regular basis : Earthquake Resistant Buildings. Repair. New Delhi Demo Structures in NE Region Other structures/public housing Green House Huts 2 Nos.ft Cost per Unit Rs. of Dwelling Units 70 Unit covered area 194 sq.
Faridabad.000 Technologies Used •Solid/Hollow Concrete Blocks •Filler slab Roof •Ferro Cement and Fly Ash Polymer Doors 51 52 Demonstration cum Production Units Technology Demonstration-cum-Production Centre at Greater Noida.ft. U. Bangalore No.000 Technologies used •Solid/Hollow Concrete Blocks •Pre cast Plank & Joist Roof •RCC Door frame •Wood substitute Doors 49 Demonstration Houses under VAMBAY in BILASPUR.P. (producing cost-effective environment-friendly building components using agroindustrial wastes like flyash.ft Cost per Unit Rs.40. gypsum and hydrated lime) 53 Production Unit at Village Sikri. of Dwelling Units 100 Unit covered area 194 sq.ft.45. of Dwelling Units 70 Unit covered area 194 sq.000 Technologies Used •Fly Ash Bricks •Pre cast Plank & Joist Roof •RCC Door frame 50 Demonstration Houses under VAMBAY in Kudalu. Haryana (Solid and hollow concrete blocks and pavers using flyash) 54 .Demonstration Houses under VAMBAY in DEHRADUN. Uttranchal No. Cost per Unit Rs.60. Cost per Unit Rs. of Dwelling Units 100 Unit covered area 194 sq. Chhatisgarh No.
COMPLETED Type II house at Circuit House Udaipur .COMPLETED Type II house at Circuit House Agartala COMPLETED Type II house at Luangmual. Aizawl . R.COMPLETED 59 Picnic Hut at Nehru Park.COMPLETED Type II house at Rajbhawan Agartala .COMPLETED School Building at Aizawl. .COMPLETED 60 . New Delhi 55 (Chequered tiles using flyash and marble dust) 56 Construction of demonstration structures using bamboo materials in Mizoram and Tripura Salient Features of the Structures • • • • Bamboo posts Bamboo grid ferrocement walls Bamboo trusses and purlins Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet Roofing 57 Demonstration Structures using Bamboo Technology in Mizoram 58 Construction of Demonstration Buildings using Bamboo Based Technologies in Mizoram Construction of Demonstration Buildings using Bamboo Based Technologies in Tripura Type II house at Lunglei.COMPLETED Picnic Hut at Tiangnuam. Aizawl .Puram.BMTPC is promoting Bamboo ‘A material for cost effective and disaster resistant housing used for construction of demonstration buildings and structures’ structures’ Technology Demonstration-cum-Production Centre at Building Centre.K. . Agartala.
Regional Cooperation Framework – Focuses on Environmental Protection Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Processes Reducing Poverty through Employment Generation Modernization of Manufacturing Process of Composite Materials by recycling Agro – Industrial Wastes Technology Transfer & Capacity Building South South Cooperation 63 64 Regional Cooperation Framework – Demand Driven • Sharing of experience. 66 • • • . Promoting energy saving technologies. Mizoram. • Making available its expertise. know-how for transfer to the recipient countries. especially in the alternative materials sector. • UNIDO facilitating the networking and knowledge transfer between the various partnering countries. Protecting environment by utilisation of renewable resources rather than fast depleting non-renewable ones.Bamboo Mat Production Centre in North Eastern Region Ongoing India UNIDO Initiative Interregional Programme on Capacity Building for Transfer of Energy– Efficient and Eco–Friendly Technologies and Promotion of Local Investments in the Area of Materials based on Local Resources for Low Cost Housing in Africa. expertise and technologies for manufacturing of building materials using agro– industrial wastes and employment generation potential of machines through micro and small enterprises • Regions to facilitate and promote technology sharing • Procurement of technical know–how and machines 65 Regional Cooperation Framework – deliverables • Building up capacities at institutional and enterprise levels for productive employment and technology transfer and adoption. technologies. Asia and Latin America Main Objective To establish appropriate mechanisms for promoting investment and technology transfer in the area of innovative and cost effective building materials based on agro – industrial wastes in the African. and assisting them in building up local capacity for sustained growth of housing sector. • The Advisory Council of ICAMT is providing the advice on means and ways of successful implementation of the project. making very significant contribution to gaseous emissions. India UNIDO Programme – Implementation Mechanism • The Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. Encouraging competitive enterprises to gain access to profitable markets. Government of India and its organisations BMTPC and HUDCO is providing support to UNIDO in the implementation of the project. 61 62 Eight Bamboo Mat Production Centres in Assam. Meghalaya and Tripura (2 each) are being established. especially of carbon dioxide. Asian and Latin American regions. and thus.
preSkill upgradation of local workers for implementation of disaster resistant housing technologies.Ministry and ICAMT-UNIDO Identification of the Universities. Saving in energy & material by adoption of pre-fabricated building components.Tools for Strengthening Regional Cooperation • Targeted Product and Technologies Waste and local Secondary Resource material based Building Products.bmtpc. Establishing linkages for technical cooperation at UNIDO supported centres of developing countries of Asian and African regions. PreCost-effective and alternative building Costmaterials based housing technologies Technologies for Natural Disaster Mitigation & Management 67 68 “Working Group” with BMTPC . Pre-fabricated building components. 69 Thank you for your kind attention www. Skill development through demonstration & training. R&D institutions. local enterprises in the area of innovative building materials and construction technologies. • • Expected Outcome of Regional Cooperation Programme Identification of local resource based new Technologies.org Strengthening the Technological base of Housing and Human Settlements Sector 70 .
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