This Additional Mathematics Project Work plays a role in giving students a chance to apply the knowledge of Additional Mathematics learnt in the school syllabus. I Raakesh a/l Tharmanathan from 5 Science 1, chose to do Additional Mathematics Project Work 1. Though, I faced many challenges to complete this project work, i successfully managed to fulfil the requirements of this project work with the help of close reliances. Therefore, I would like to take this opportunity to thank, Pn. Ong Lin Lin, my Additional Mathematics subject teacher in school. Without her guidance and tutelage, it would have been impossible for me to complete this project work. Besides that, I would love to thank my parents. First of all, for chauffeuring me around to my teammates residence to complete my project work. Secondly, for their continues support that they showered upon me. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my project work teammates, Sathish Kumar, Khairunnisa, Heng Jiao Faye and Nur Husna Qadirah for relentlessly working with me during the month period given for this project work.
Polygons play a vital role in mathematics, many industries and human life.
Polygons are evident in all architecture. They provide variation and charm in buildings. When applied to manufactured articles such as printed fabrics, wallpapers and tile flooring, polygons enhance the beauty of the structure itself. a) Collect six pictures. You may use a camera to take the pictures or get them from magazines, newspapers, internet or any other resources. Tile flooring
It is made up of a central hexagon surrounded by squares, equilateral triangles, and rhombi. Construction
The Pentagon, headquarters of the United States Department of Defense is made up of pentagon shape. Wallpaper
It is made up of several hexagons combined together. Nature
Bee's use the hexagon in their hives because it allows the most efficient use of space. Circles in a grid create spaces, and no polygon with more than six sides will be interlocking. Printed Fabrics
It is made up of several polygons such as squares, triangles and quadrilaterals. Handcrafts
Caere. A polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path. the line segments will be
. Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bradwardine. and the pentagram. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides.
Polygons have been known since ancient times. where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. In geometry a polygon ( pronounce as ˈpɒlɪɡɒn ) is a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a closed chain or circuit. appears on the vase of Aristophonus. The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολύς (polús) "much".e. The basic geometrical notion has been adapted in various ways to suit particular purposes. composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments (i. b) Give the definition of polygon and write a brief history of it. and may define a polygon accordingly. The interior of the polygon is sometimes called its body. forming three diamonds. dated to the 7th century B. and the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or corners. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks. and shading each diamond differently. to create complex polygons. Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane. Geometrically two edges meeting at a corner are required to form an angle that is not straight (180°).The hexagon is sometimes used to create the illusion of a cube by connecting every other vertex to the center. otherwise. In 1952. "many" and γωνία (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". These segments are called its edges or sides. Mathematicians are often concerned only with the closed polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not self-intersect.C. a non-convex regular polygon (star polygon).. by a closed polygonal chain).
For example. From wikipedia. In fields relating to computation.considered parts of a single edge – however mathematically.com. These straight sides meet at a point called a vertex. such corners may sometimes be allowed. polygon is defined as a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a closed chain or circuit. A vertex is therefore the meeting point of the two sides of a polygon. defines polygon as an enclosed figure on a plane that is bounded by three or more straight sides. the Form 1 mathematics textbook and the dictionary.
According to syllabus. look at the diagram below:
Vertex Types of polygon:
. The line that joins two non-adjacent vertices of a polygon is called a diagonal. the term polygon has taken on a slightly altered meaning derived from the way the shape is stored and manipulated in computer graphics (image generation).
The term "base" denotes any side. and h is the height or altitude of the triangle. The following is a selection of frequently used formulae for the area of a triangle. and "height" denotes the length of a perpendicular from the vertex opposite the side onto the line containing the side itself. State four different methods.Today a polygon is more usually understood in terms of sides as shown in the table above. the surveyor of a triangular field measures the length of each side. Although simple. The best known and simplest formula is :
Where b is the length of the base of the triangle. Using trigonometry
. Historical image of polygon(1699):
c) There are various methods of finding the area of triangle. For example. Calculating the area T of a triangle is an elementary problem encountered often in many different situations. this formula is only useful if the height can be readily found.
Various methods of finding the area of triangle may be used in practice. depending on what is known about the triangle. and can find the area from his results without having to construct a "height".
the altitude is h = a sin . Furthermore. Knowing SAS: Using the labels in the image on the right. Knowing ASA :
and analogously if the known side is b or c. angle at C and c is the line AB. The height of a triangle can be found through the application of trigonometry. Substituting this in the formula derived above :
The area of the triangle can be expressed as :
Where α is the interior angle at A.Applying trigonometry to find the altitude h. β is the interior angle at B. and similarly for the other
Knowing AAS :
and analogously if the known side is a or c. since sin α = sin (π − α) = sin (β + two angles :
is the interior
). Using Heron's formula
or half of the triangle's perimeter. The area of triangle ABC is half of this.
Three equivalent ways of writing Heron's formula are :
Using vectors The area of a parallelogram embedded in a three-dimensional Euclidean space can be calculated using vectors.y1) and AC as (x2. By Heron's formula :
Where the formula below is the semiperimeter.y2). The area of parallelogram ABDC is then :
which is the magnitude of the cross product of vectors AB and AC. expressing vector AB as a free vector in Cartesian space equal to (x1.
The area of triangle ABC can also be expressed in terms of dot products as follows :
In two-dimensional Euclidean space. Let vectors AB and AC point respectively from A to B and from A to C.The shape of the triangle is determined by the lengths of the sides alone. this can be rewritten as :
. Therefore the area can also be derived from the lengths of the sides.
. zB) and C = (xC. If we locate the vertices in the complex plane and denote them in counterclockwise sequence as a = xA + yAi.e. y = 0 and z = 0) :
. and c = xC + yCi.Using coordinates If vertex A is located at the origin (0. the equation is :
Which can be written as :
If the points are labeled sequentially in the counterclockwise direction. yC). 0) of a Cartesian coordinate system and the coordinates of the other two vertices are given by B = (xB. yB. yB) and C = (xC. and . yC. the above determinant expressions are positive and the absolute value signs can be omitted. x = 0. In three dimensions. then the area can be computed as 1⁄2 times the absolute value of the determinant :
For three general vertices. then the formula :
Is equivalent to the shoelace formula. and denote their complex conjugates as . The above formula is known as the shoelace formula or the surveyor's formula. zA). the area of a general triangle A = (xA. b = xB + yBi. B = (xB. yA. zC) is the Pythagorean sum of the areas of the respective projections on the three principal planes (i.
00 per metre : The cost needed to fence the herb garden = 300 m x RM 20.PART 2
A farmer wishes to build a herb garden on a piece of land. The garden has to be fenced with a 300 m fence.00 Therefore. where one of its sides is 100 m in length.
(The diagram below is not drawn to scale.00 = RM 6000.
. Using simple mathematics. to find the cost needed to fence the herb garden.00 per metre.)
Diagram 1 a) Calculate the cost needed to fence the herb garden. RM 6000. The cost of fencing the garden is RM 20. given that 300 m has to be fenced with the cost of fencing the garden is RM 20.00 is needed to fence the herb garden. Diagram 1 shows the shape of that garden.
69° 59. cos R = p + q . these values were omitted with the corresponding values of q (m).13° 44. q m and 100 m (given side).00° 59. the following formulae is used.r 2pq
2 2 2
While using this formulae. it is noted that I have the values of all three sides which is the values of p m.81° 53.75° 60.
p (m) 50 55 65 75 85 95 100 105 115 125 135 145 150 • •
q (m) 150 145 135 125 115 105 100 95 85 75 65 55 50
θ (degree) Undefined 28.13 3749.36 3092. because these values give a negatif value area (m²) and mathematically it is not correct to portray such negatif value area (m²).38 4130.99 3092. p m + q m + 100 m = 300 m To find the θ (degree).13° 57.100² 2(55)(145) cos R = 0.76 4308.75° 57.25° Undefined
Area (m²) Undefined 1887.69° 53.76 3749.b) Complete table 1 by using various values of p.25° 44.13 4308. Therefore.r 2pq cos R = 55² + 145² . Where.8809 R = 28.38 4330. θ (degree) and area (m²) also omitted. R = θ° r = 100 m (given side) For example. the corresponding values of q and θ. while keeping in mind that the total perimeter of the herb garden needed to be fenced is 300 m and the given side is 100 m.36 Undefined
The values of p (m) < 50 and p (m) > 150 are not portrayed in the above table.25°
2 2 2
.13 1887. Therefore. taking the values of p = 55 m and q = 145 m and r = 100 m : cos R = p + q .99 4130.81° 28.
The values of p (m) and q (m) are inserted.
The range of values of p is : 50 m < p < 150 m It is therefore known that. (ii) By comparing the lengths of p. By comparing the lengths of p. the range of values of q is : 50 m < q < 150 m It is therefore known that. determine the relation between them.Whereas to find the Area (m²). and when p(m) decreases. I came up with this relation that states : When p (m) increases. the range of values of p and of q are the same. Hence.13m . Therefore.36 m c) Based on your findings in (b).25° 2 = 1887. d) (i) Only certain values of p and of q are applicable in this case. the dimension of the herb garden is as such. then q (m) decreases. then q (m) increases. that the value of p should not be less than 50 m or equal to 50 m and the value of p should not also be more than 150 m or equal to 150 m. q and the given side.
. that the value of q should not be less than 50 m or equal to 50 m and the value of q should not also be more than 150 m or equal to 150 m. state the dimension of the herb garden so that the enclosed area is maximum. q = 100m with θ = 60° to make sure dimension of the herb garden has the maximum enclosed area. taking the values of p = 55 m and q = 145 m and R = 28. State the range of values of p and of q. Based on my findings in (b). Whereas. Area of ∠ pqr = ½ qp sin R For example.25° : Area of ∠ pqr = ½ qp sin R = ½ (145)(55) sin 28. q and the given side. the maximum enclosed area is 4330. p = 100 m. the following formulae is used.
The lengths of sides of a triangle for any given ∠ ABC. The cosine rule is also known as the law of cosine. If you know the length of one of the sides.2bc cos A
2 2 2
Therefore. it is said that : a = b + c . the name of the relevant theorem based on the above generalisation is Cosine Rule. The law of cosines is useful for computing the third side of a triangle when two sides and their enclosed angle are known. the area is given by the formula above. State the name of the relevant theorem. given the area 4330.13 m².(iii)Make generalisation about the lengths of sides of a triangle. thus to suggest five various other shapes of the garden that can be construsted.
If the length of the fence remains the same 300 m. can be found by the formula :
By definition. Where. provided it is a regular polygon.
Additional Mathematics Reference Book Math Open Reference
. and in computing the angles of a triangle if all three sides are known. all sides of a regular polygon are equal in length.13 m². as stated in part 2 : a) Explore and suggest at least five various other shapes of the garden that can be constructed so that the enclosed area is maximum. s = the length of any side N = the number of sides tan = the tangent function calculated in degrees Basically the formula above play a purpose in finding the length of one side.
Given the maximum enclosed area is 4330.
where s is the length of a side.64 m approx.80) approx.17)² approx.. Pentagon shape Area of pentagon is 1.72 (50.
65.72s2 approx. Tetragon shape Area of tetragon is s2.29 m² approx.80 m Below are five of the various other shapes of the garden that can be constructed so that the enclosed area is maximum.17 m Maximum enclosed area of pentagon = 1. tetragon shape : Maximum enclosed area = s N/4 tan (180/N) 2 4330. = 4329. 2 = (65. where s is the length of a side.. = 1.
50.13 = s (4)/4 tan (180/4) s = 65.72s² approx. Hexagon shape Area of hexagon is 2.598s2 approx.For example. where s is the length of a side.80 m Maximum enclosed area = s approx. 2 = 4329.
52)² approx. = 4.828s2 approx.72 m² approx.598(40.19 m² approx. = 4330.598s² approx. = 4329. = 4328.633(34.97 m² approx.95 m Maximum enclosed area of octagon = 4.633s² approx.
34.82)² approx.40.. b) Draw conclusion from your exploration in (a) if :
. = 2.95)² approx..52 m Maximum enclosed area of heptagon = 3.
29.828(29. Octagon shape Area of octagon is 4. = 3. where s is the length of a side. where s is the length of a side. Heptagon shape Area of heptagon is 3.828s² approx.82 m Maximum enclosed area of hexagon = 2.633s2 approx.
Uses of Agrimony : • Used as food plants by the larvae. and tiny yellow flowers borne on a single (usually unbranched) spike. Agrimony is a genus of 12-15 species of perennial herbaceous flowering plants in the family Rosaceae.
These are few herbs that the farmer can plant in the herb garden to meet the demand of herbs in the market : Agrimony
Agrimonia eupatoria is the scientific name for agrimony. The species name eupatoria relates to Mithradates Eupator. Suggest three types of local herbs with their scientific names that the farmer can plant in the herb garden to meet the demand. liver and kidneys. • To treat skin diseases. who is credited with introducing many herbal remedies.2 m tall.5 m . • Used by the ancient Greeks to treat eye ailments is made into brews to cure diarrhea and disorders of the gallbladder. with one species also in Africa. with interrupted pinnate leaves.(i) The demand of herbs in the market has been increasing nowadays. asthma. coughs. • Anglo-Saxons made a solution from the leaves and seeds for healing wounds (this used continued through the Middle Ages and afterward. The name Agrimonia may have its origin in the Greek “agremone”. in a preparation called "musket-shot water") prescribed for athlete's foot. • To treat urinary problems and urinary tract infections. The species grow to between 0. Colllect pictures and information of these herbs. native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Tongkat Ali
Wikipedia & Herbal Medicine
. gynecological complaints as a gargling solution for sore throats and ulcers. King of Pontus. • Acts as an astringent and bitter tonic.
as well as demonstrating anti-malarial effects." a tongkat ali extract in conjunction with a weight-training program." an extract of tongkat ali exerted antiproliferative effects against human breast cancer cells whereas in a 2003 study conducted at National Cheng Kung University and published in "The Journal of Natural Products. It is a genus of about 55 species of grasses. According to the British Journal of Sports Medicine. According to a study by S. is a popular herbal supplement with many purported benefits. According to a 2003 study by Ang HH. caused an increase in lean body mass and a loss of fat tissue relative to placebo.
The scientific name of lemongrass is cymbopogon." when an extract of tongkat ali was administered to middle-aged rats. Yusof in 2003 in "The British Journal of Sports Medicine. Hamzah and A. This supports the use of tongkat ali by athletes as an ergogenic aid. their sexual performance increased relative to the placebo group. (of which the type species is Cymbopogon citratus) native
. Uses of Tongkat Ali : • Ergogenic Aid :-
Ergogenic aid is a supplement that enhances the body's adaptive response to exercise. "Anticancer Research.Tongkat ali. a medicinal herb with the scientific name. eurycomanon. Ngai TH and Tan TH in "The Journal of Phytomedicine. and eurycomanol. Eurycoma longifolia Jack.According to a study by Tee TT and Azimahtol HL in 2005 in the journal." an extract of tongkat ali killed human lung cancer cells.
Libido Enhancer :As tongkat ali is thought to increase levels of the male sex hormone testosterone. the active constituents of tongkat ali appear to be eurycomalacton. it may have utility as a libido-enhancer or general male sexual aid.
Anti-Cancer Agent :Tongkat ali has also been studied as a possible cancer-fighting agent.
soon-mhway in Burmese. Singaporean. The plant is sterile. Chinese.to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World and Oceania. Lemon grass is also known as Gavati Chaha in the Marathi language. along with the other variety of pandan there (Pandanus fascicularis). Vietnamese. is assumed to have its origins in Malaysia. and Burmese foods. and is propagated by cuttings. Pandan leaves
Pandanus amaryllifolius is a tropical plant in the Pandanus (screwpine) genus. bladelike leaves and woody aerial roots. Democratic Republic of the Congo and Latin American countries). green plant with fan-shaped sprays of long. The leaves are used either fresh or dried. narrow. Uses of Lemongrass : • Used in teas (mostly in African countries. It has a subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered. • Is used both as a medical herb and in perfumes (mostly in India by using cymbopogon citratus). flowers only very rarely. The plant is rare in the wild. soups and curries. They have a nutty. It is an upright. bai tooey in Thai. also known as serai in Malay. or used fresh. It is a tall perennial grass. and in preparations like 'kadha. • Is used as an addition to tea. • Its oil which has anti-fungal properties is used as a pesticide and a preservative (it is put on the ancient palm-leaf manuscripts found in India as a preservative which keeps the manuscripts dry so that the text is not lost to decay due to humidity). In Bangladesh it is called ketaki. beef. and are commercially available in frozen form in Asian grocery stores in nations where the plant does not grow. and seafood. Thai. Filipino. It is also known as pandan wangi in Indonesian. Bangladeshi. • Has medicinal properties and is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine to help with relieving cough and nasal congestion. Sri Lankan. and lá dứa in Vietnamese. which is known commonly as pandan leaves. • Suitable for poultry.
. rampe in Sinhala. fish.' which is a traditional herbal 'soup' used against coughs and colds. It is widely used as a herb. West-Indian lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus). Lemongrass is native to India and tropical Asia. Uses of Pandan leaves : • Is used widely in Southeast Asian cooking as a flavoring. but is widely cultivated. botanical fragrance which enhances the flavor of Indonesian. Malaysian.
• Relieves spasms of the smooth muscle in the walls of the internal organs. It is a traditional herb that is widely grown in tropical areas. in wastelands and along roadsides.hence its Malay name. • Prevents or reduces cancer [when cancerous lab rats were treated with Misai Kucing. Uses of Misai Kucing : • Treats circulatory disorders. In the wild. it was found that it slowed tumor
. • The leaves can be steeped in coconut milk. • Woven into a basket which is used as a pot for cooking rice. • Consumed as a herbal tea. Misai Kuching [Cat’s whiskers]. • Can reduce swelling. the plant can be seen growing at fringes of the jungle. Misai Kucing
The scientific name for misai kucing is called as Orthosiphon stamineus. it was possibly introduced to the west in the early 20th century. The plant is a herbaceous shrub.• Is used to enhance the flavor of pulao. • Treats high blood pressure. jasmine rice and basmati rice (as well as bread flowers Vallaris glabra) their typical smell. known as Orthosiphon stamineus "purple" and Orthosiphon stamineus "white". The flowers have fine filaments that resembles cat's whiskers. with a unique flower. • Treats diabetes. • Enhance the functioning of the immune system and reproductive system. Also known as Java tea. • Have a repellent effect on cockroaches. There are two general species. which is then added to the dish. • Acts as an anti-inflammatory agents that are not steroids. payesh (in Bangladesh).5 meters. biryani and sweet coconut rice pudding. • Flushing the kidneys and urinary tract. • Provide a source of vitamin A. • Can protect cells from the damaging effects of free radicals. • For treating ailments of the kidney and bladder stone. It can grow to a height of 1. • Gives white bread.
You are given the task of designing a logo to promote the product. (ii) These herbs will be processed for marketing by a company. Draw the logo on a piece of paper size A4. You must include at least one polygon shape in the logo. The company wishes to design an innovative and creative logo for the packaging.
. The design of the packaging plays the an important role in attracting customers.development both in early and late stages of growth with no apparent side effects.
. only two polygons are used. still the impact is strong to show that the Misai Kucing is the main focus in the product which attract people to see this simple yet tranquil piece of design.MISAI KUCING
The logo is focused by the polygon shape of pentagon. Although. The rectangle shape is used to show the name of the product.
Heron’s Formula can be used to find the area of a triangle when the lengths of the three sides are known. This can be seen in solving mathematical problem involving polygons. From bedsheets to underwear. polygons are used in all kinds of fabrics. Most can be categorised as algebraic. Conduct a research using the internet to find out one proof of the Heron’s Formula in any one of the list categories.
. logos and etc. There are many proofs of Heron’s Formula. Furthermore. polygons enhance the beauty of the structure itself. the advertising industry makes a point in inserting polygons into advertisment banners. geometric. polygons are also evident in human life. Polygons are evident in mathematics. wallpapers.The hypothesis is accepted. and tile flooring. Besides that. For example. or trigonometric. polygons can also be seen in many industries.
let the length of segment BC be a. BI. of triangle ABC = a + b + c.
Given triangle ABC. the length of segment AC be b. B.
Let the point of intersection of the angles bisectors of angles A. is one of the proof of Heron’s Formula categorised under geometric and algebraic.
Next. Note the perimeter. and the point of intersection of the perpendicular line to side AB through point I be called point F. and CI. and the length of segment AB be c. s. let the point of intersection of the perpendicular to side AC through point I be called point D. the point of intersection of the perpendicular line to side BC through point I be called point E. and C be called point I.
Note: This proof was adapted from the outline of a proof on page 194 in the 6th edition of An Introduction to the History of Mathematics by Howard Eves.
A Geometric Proof of Heron's Formula by Shannon Umberger
. and so for triangle ABC. s = (a + b + c)/ 2. Half of the perimeter is called the semiperimeter. p. Construct segments AI.Below.
By definition. E. then angles IBF and IBE are equal.
. point I is called the incenter of triangle ABC. Therefore. since segment IB is the angle bisector of angle B.
Similarly. triangles CID and CIE (in green) are congruent by SAS. triangles BIF and BIE (in red) are congruent by SAS. The circle with point I as the center and that passes through points D. Note that segments IF and IE are equal since both are radii of the same circle.
Now. then they are equal. and F is called the incircle of triangle ABC. Since angles IFB and IEB are right by construction. and thus angles BIF and BIE are equal (since all angles of a triangle sum to 180 degrees).
Because corresponding sides of congruent triangles are congruent.Also similarly.
By using the formula that states the area of a triangle equals one-half the base times the height. segments CD and CE (in green) are equal. the area of triangle AIB = (1/ 2)*AB*IF. and segments AD and AF (in blue) are equal. it follows that segments BF and BE (in red) are equal... triangles AIF and AID (in blue) are congruent by SAS..
and the area of triangle AIC = (1/ 2)*AC*ID. the area of triangle ABC is the sum of the areas of triangles AIB... BIC.
Therefore.the area of triangle BIC = (1/ 2)*BC*IE...
.... and AIC..
the semiperimeter of triangle ABC. by substitution. Remember p = a + b + c = AB + BC + AC. But. the area of triangle ABC = (1/ 2)*AB*IF + (1/ 2)*BC*IE + (1/ 2)*AC*ID. and so by substitution. But AB + BC + AC = a + b + c. the area of triangle ABC = (1/ 2)*ID*p. Furthermore. Since segments IF. p = (BE + CE) + (CD + AD) + (AF + BF) = (BF + BE) + (CE + CD) + (AD + AF).
. p = 2*BE + 2*CD + 2*AD = 2(BE + CD + AD). IE. Now. Therefore. it follows with a little algebra that the area of triangle ABC = (1/ 2)*ID*(AB + BC + AC). Let the point of intersection of segment IH and segment AG be called point J. Again. Construct segment AH (in yellow). therefore. the area of triangle ABC = ID*AG. and so by segment addition and substitution. by substitution. p = 2(CG + CD + AD). AG = AD + DC + CG by segment addition. p = 2*AG. construct point G such that G lies on the same line as segment AC. and segment CG equals segment BE. Construct a line perpendicular to segment AI through point I (in pink) and a line perpendicular to segment AG through point C (in light blue). Since (1/ 2)*p = s. and so this sum is really the perimeter of triangle ABC. Let the point of intersection of these two lines be called point H.By substitution. s = AG. and ID are equal (they are all radii of the same circle). by substitution. then the area of triangle ABC = ID*s.
then triangles AIH and ACH are right. It follows that these triangles are inscribed in a common circle with segment AH as the diameter of the circle. segment AH. and so opposite angles AIC and AHC are supplementary.Since angles AIH and ACH are right (by construction).
This fact means that quadrilateral AICH is cyclic.
. Note the triangles share a common hypotenuse.
it follows that angle BIE = angle AHC. 2*(angle BIE) + 2*(angle CID) + 2*(angle AID) = 360 degrees. By substitution. But angle CID + angle AID = angle AIC by angle addition. by angle addition.
Since angles BIE and AHC are supplementary to the same angle. and so angles BIE and AIC are supplementary.
. and so angle BIE + angle CID + angle AID = 180 degrees. (angle BIF + angle BIE) + (angle CIE + angle CID) + (angle AID + angle AIF) = 360 degrees.Since the sum of the angles at point I is 360 degrees. thus angle BIE + angle AIC = 180 degrees.
and angles BEI and ACH are equal (both are right by construction). triangles IJD and HJC are similar by AA similarity. they are equal.
By substitution. because angles IJD and HJC are vertical angles. Therefore.
. by the definition of similar triangles. Now. Then. then triangles BIE and AHC are similar by AA similarity. AC/BE = HC/IE. angles IDJ and HCJ are equal (both are right by construction).Because angles BIE and AHC are equal. Also. AC/CG = AC/BE.
then. AC/CG = CJ/DJ. Then AG2/CG*AG = CD*AD/DJ*AD. This implies that (AC + CG)/CG = (CJ + DJ)/DJ. by transitivity. by substitution. then AC/CG + 1 = CJ/DJ + 1. Well. Thus. So AC/CG + CG/CG = CJ/DJ + DJ/DJ.By substitution. The next few steps of the proof require a few algebra tricks. HC/IE = HC/ID. AG/CG = CD/DJ. AC + CG = AG. So AG/CG * AG/AG = CD/DJ * AD/AD. then DJ*AD = ID2 (by the geometric mean). since triangle AIJ is right (by construction). HC/ID = CJ/DJ. and CJ + DJ = CD. But by segment addition. by the definition of similar triangles.
. Since AC/CG = CJ/DJ. Then. Therefore. and D is a point on the hypotenuse. AG/CG * 1 = CD/DJ * 1. Now.
remember that segment AG = s. Thus. AG2*ID2 = CG*AG*CD*AD. and so CD = s . QED.a)*(s . by transitivity. and so CG = s . Finally. Note that segment CG = AG . It follows that AG*ID = [CG*AG*CD*AD]1/ 2.b by substitution. So CD = AG .c)]1/ 2. Also note that segment CD = AG . the area of triangle ABC = [CG*AG*CD*AD]1/ 2.c by substitution.(CD + CG) by segment addition.
Therefore.AC by segment addition. By cross multiplication.b)*(s . by substitution. And note that segment AD = AG . But.a by substitution.So. and so AD = s .(CE + BE) by substitution.
.(AF + BF) by substitution. the area of triangle ABC = AG*ID. by substitution.(AD + CG) by segment addition. AG2/CG*AG = CD*AD/ID2. So AD = AG . the area of triangle ABC = [s*(s .
the quote patience and perserverence is the key to success was very obvious in my completion of the project work. I have learnt to solve a question by using various methods. The knowledge gained from this project not only can it be applied for exam purposes.
While you were conducting the project. from the most simple things like baking and decorating a cake. drawings. I have learnt to be more patient while striving to complete any kind of work. Besides that. We distributed the work in a very sophisticated manner and fairly. While conducting this Additional Mathematics Project work. thus my team and I learnt to cooperate with each other. I have learnt to cooperate. or even in a song. what have you learn? What moral values did you practice? Represent your opinions or feelings creatively through usage of symbols. At the very same time. I have gained a wide mathematical knowledge from completing this project work. I have also learnt that mathematics is used everywhere in daily life. illustrations. but it can also be applied in the future for other reasons. Saying so I had to work in a team. to designing and building monuments.
I took charge in steering my team to the right direction while doing this project work.mathopenref.wikipedia.
The definition of polygon and its brief history was obtained form http://en. I practised certain moral values while doing this Additional Mathematics Project Work. This project work had also taught me to be more confident when undertaking responsibilities.org/wiki/Polygon For more in-depth definition of polygon and its brief history the information was from Form 1 Mathematics Textbook The various methods of finding the area of a triangle was obtained from http://en. human life have become condusive and lively.
4. Besides that.org/wiki/Triangle To make generalisation about the lengths of sides of a triangle and to state the name of relevant theorem.com/index. the necessary information was obtained from http://www.
3. I learnt to take responsibility doing this project work by finishing it on time. the information was obtained from http://en. Wong Sin Mong and published by OXFORD FAJAR To explore and suggest at least five various other shapes of the garden that can be constructed so that the enclosed area is maximum.
These are the following resources used in the Additional Mathematics Project Work :
1.This project work has made me more prepared to face the challenges of the outside world in getting things done perfectly. This is because the outside world is getting more competetive and those with better knowledge of solving problems stand higher chances to be successful. information was obtained from SUCCESS. I learnt to sacrifice and manage my precious time to focus on this project while preparing for my mid year examination.wikipedia.net/?q=node/21
.med-terms. I successfully completed the project work.html To suggest three types of local herbs with their scientific names that the farmer can plant in the herb garden to meet the demand in the market.wikipedia. Given the time constrain. Hence. Additional Mathematics. I also learned to be a more disciplined student who is punctual and independent. SPM written by Wang Wei and Dr.org/wiki/Main_Page and from http://herbalmedicine. Thanks to the polygons. I practised to take responsibility. Moreover.
The information on Heron’s Formula in the FURTHER EXPLORATION was obtained from http://jwilson.edu/EMT668/EMAT6680.