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EPIDEMIOLOGY
Epidemiology is derived from three Greek words. Epi  Upon Demo  People Logos  Discussion or study According to above combination of the words, epidemiology may be defined as the study of specific disease in a given and specific population in a specific period OR Epidemiology is the study of frequency, distribution and determinants of disease and measures to control the disease. Epizootology: The study of the disease in a specific animal population in specific time and area called epizootology. Epidemics: Outbreaks of diseases in a human population are called epidemics. Epizootics: Outbreaks of diseases in an animal population are called epizootics. Zoonosis: Transmission of infectious disease from animal population to human population or human population to animal population called as zoonosis and the disease is called zoonotic disease. Epornitics: Outbreak of disease in birds population is called epornitics. E.g. bird flu, N.D, chicken pox etc. Endemic Occurrence: Regular occurrence of disease in a population is called endemic disease. e.g. H.S outbreak occurs regularly in august and September in cattle population in plain and semi hilly areas of Pakistan. Pandemic Occurrence: Constant presence of disease in a population is called pandemic. e.g.Actinobaccilosis and action mycosis in some Districts of Punjab. Hyper endemic: Presence of disease in population in a very high level is called hyper endemic. Sporadic: Irregular and haphazard occurrence of a disease in a population is called sporadic. Frequency: Amount of disease, level or magnitude or volume of disease. it is measured by measuring Morbidity No of disease cases. Mortality No of animals die due to a disease. Case Fertility No of animals Dead out of the affected animals.e.g.

01. EPIDEMIOLOGY TERMINOLOGY. 02. GENERAL CONCEPTS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 03. TYPES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 04. ZOONOSIS AND ITS TYPES. 05. DETERMINANTS OF DISEASE. 06. DETERMINANTS ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIROMENT. 07. INTERACTION DETERMINANTS. 08. DETERMINANTS ASSOCIATED WITH AGENT. 09. MAINTENANCE OF INFECTION. 10. MEASUREMENT OF DISEASE FREQUENCY. 11. VETERINARY MEDICINE COMBATING HUNGER AND MALNUTRATION. 12. CAUSE OF DISEASES. 13. USES or OBJECTIVES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 14. ROLE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE IN COMBETING HUNGER AND MALNUTRATION.

H. Death Rate: It is the total mortality rate for all diseases rather then one specific disease in a population. Mortality: No of deaths occurred in a known population due to any specific disease is called as mortality. Periodic prevalence No of cases at start + No of cases during period of study. well irrigated areas of N.W. Jehlum. Sporadic 1) Endemic Occurrence: Regular occurrence of disease in a population is called endemic occurrence.g. Host: Plant.F. Vector: An animate transmitter of an infectious agent or invertebrate animal usually arthropod that transfer infectious agent to vertebrates e. Spatial Occurrence: Means spot.P. HS is endemic in buffalo in central areas of Punjab.S outbreak occurs regularly in a august and September in cattle population in hilly areas and plains. .g. Morbidity: Amount of disease in a specific or various species of an area in particular time is called morbidity. place or area when disease occurs or occurred. Secondary host: Specie that is additionally involved in the life cycle of an agent. Variable: Any observable events that can be vary. Intermediate Host: An animal in which an infectious agent undergo some development frequently with asexual reproduction e. intermediate and final hosts.F. Pandemic 4. Anthrax is endemic in sheep and goat in areas of Baluchistan and N. Tank. Geography Or Demography: The measurement and description of size and characteristic of any particular population is called geography or demography. General Concepts of Epidemiology 1. Temporal Occurrence: Temporal occurrence means time of occurrence of any specific disease. Incidence No of new cases during period of study. Khushab and Bhakkar.5% Mortality Rate = Dead animals/Total animals = 200/4000*100 = 5% Case fertility Rate= Dead animals/Defected animals = 200/800*100 = 40% Prevalence: No of new+old cases Types: Point prevalence:- No of diseased animals at a point of time. Usual occurrence of disease in a population The constant presence of disease in population when endemic disease is present constantly in population at high level affecting all ages of susceptible animals then it is called hyper endemic. Biological vector: A vector in which an infectious agent undergoes either a necessary part of its life cycle or multiplication before transmission to the natural or secondary host. tsetse fly in trypnosomiasis. Mianwali. Rawalpindi. Epidemic 3. miracedium of liver fluke in snail (Lymnia trancatula). Paratenic Host: A host in which an agent is transferred mechanically without any further development.W.g. Primary host: An animal that maintains an infection in initial development stages of causal agent. 2) Epidemic Occurrence: Outbreak of disease/diseases in an area in a specific time. epidemic of HS in buffalo in central areas of Punjab in rainy season.2 No of animals = 4000 No of Affected animals = 500 No of Death animals = 200 Morbidity Rate = Affected animals /Total animals = 500/4000*100= 12. secondary. Examples of variable are weight and age of an animal and variation in No of cases of disease. BQ is endemic in cattle of District Attock.g. When endemic disease is described specification of affected population and its location must be specified e. FMD oftenly shown epidemic occurrence (in bovine) during autumn and spring season in Pakistan. e. Definitive Host: Parasitological terms describing a host in which an organism undergoes its final sexual phase of reproduction. Endemic 2.g. animal those are capable of being infected with infectious agent e. e.g.P. primary.

Sub discipline types of epidemiology: a. 3) Pandemic: Constant presence and wide spread of disease in vast area in a population is called pandemic occurrence. Bird’s malaria material is endemic in Sri Lanka but out breaks occurs in poultry imported from other countries by sea. Experimental epidemiology: This types of epidemiology is applied upon the lab animals. In large areas which may comprise on districts. Anthrax is sporadic in cattle.Q occurs in not rainy months of summer season.P. Analytic epidemiology: Analytical epidemiology is the analysis of observation using suitable diagnostic and statistical tests. H. Theoretical epidemiology: This type of epidemiology consists of representation of disease using mathematical models that attempt to simulate natural pattern of disease occurrence. Clinical epidemiology b. 4) Sporadic occurrence: Irregular and haphazardly occurrence of a disease in a population is called sporadic occurrence.g. B. mono cloner antibody and PCR.W.3 ND is endemic in rural poultry in Pakistan but show epidemic occurrence most frequently.g. swine flu causing huge economic losses. the data is analyzed mathematically and statistically. It help in close monitoring of programme. Nutritional epidemiology Clinical epidemiology: Clinical epidemiology is based upon those observations of an animal which are brought to the clinics or as indoor kept in clinic. peptide making nucleic acid. vaccine efficiency etc. E. day) of occurrence of disease.F. bird flu. E.S. This type epidemiology is based upon testing and analysis of causal hypothesis as well as confirmation. month. ND.g. This type epidemiology also provides information about time (year. in this type of epidemiology there is description of animal affected and died due to some peculiar disease in the specific period. Causal hypothesis are also confirmed by lab examination. observations.g. E. Data collected from clinical records is analyzing statistically and mathematically. Micro epidemiology f. Macro epidemiology: It describes the national pattern and social economic. Experimental epidemiology Descriptive epidemiology: It is subjective form of epidemiology including No of cases. control of disease e. Analytical epidemiology c. . Computational epidemiology c. FMD is not endemic in UK but sporadic occurrence thought to be associated with importation of infected birds from South America in October 1967. It has also worldwide distribution. Actinobaccilosis and action mycosis. E. sheep and goat in central area of Punjab but is endemic in sheep and goat in areas of Baluchistan and N. Descriptive epidemiology b. In this type epidemiology. rabbit. Pandemic occurrence of rinderpest. FMD. guinea pig etc). pathogenesis. provinces and countries. and season. It is first part of epidemiological investigation. finger printing. Genetic epidemiology d. hybridization. (rat. disease record and also casual hypothesis of disease. Genetic epidemiology: Genetic epidemiology is the study of cause. buffalo.g. Outbreak of transbounding disease. Macro epidemiology g.g. Molecular epidemiology e. FMD is frequently present in Pakistan. Computational epidemiology: Use of computer and other information in the epidemiological study to make it easy. political factor that influence it. e. Restriction enzyme analysis. Major types of epidemiology a. TYPES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY There are four major types and eight sub discipline types of epidemiology. Theoretical epidemiology d. distribution and control of the disease in relation to individual and of inherited defects in the population. Micro epidemiology: It is the study of disease in a small groups of individuals. Molecular epidemiology: It help in the study of causal organism using new biochemical techniques which have replaced previous or conventional serological techniques. Environmental epidemiology h. clinical trails etc for the confirmation of any specific strain.

it facilitates the pre time interception using comprehensive measures like vaccination. so first of all the exact cause is known either that is bacterial. accurate and complete level of expenses be kept at such a level that should not effect the efficiency of management. sex group and environmental condition of disease and location of area. It is preformed by strict watching normal procedure. mortality and morbidity rate etc. Investigation and control of disease whose cause is either is unknown or poor by known. This may be attained if Accurate data collection of population.4 Environmental epidemiology: This type of epidemiology Is related to ecology and ecosystem of diseases. normal implementation of planning programme to avoid any hazard. transportation and quarantine methods.g. E. It should be studied multidimentionally e.g. sex group etc by taking blood. Treatment cast. The epidemiological studies are conducted to take maximum information about predisposing. primary. Nutritional epidemiology: It deals and describes the nutritional factors influencing any disease. epidemiology tells us about such study. protozoal and parasitic and fungal diseases which are transmitted from the animal population to the human population by any means of horizontal transmission. It also study which season is suitable for the survival of causative pathogen.  Assessment of economic effects of disease. urine. age group. A well planned and well implemented project is ever successful. Uses/Objective/Application of Epidemiology: There are five objective/uses of epidemiology. In respects to determine the actual causes of the disease. goiter in iodine deficient areas. Rickets or bone deficiency in Ca. and skin scrapings. Assessment the economic effects of disease: Disease control management team. P. Disease may be controlled by applying the following techniques. protozoal or an others. clinical sign. history. economic and rapid. should be least as possible but it should be efficient. . viral. If unknown disease is spread in population it is quietly difficult task to study its property. vit D deficient areas. Accurate data analysis Known cause Known predisposing factor/factors Efficient team Proper managemental tools etc are variable Zoonosis and Its Types: Zoonosis: Transmission of disease from the animal population to the human population or from human population to the animal population in natural conduction is called zoonosis and diseases are called zoonotic disease. prophylactic cast.  Planning and monitoring of disease control programmes. Vaccination Medication Strict hygiene Vector control Biosecurity measures Rx of predisposing factor Quarantine measures Etiological and Natural History of Disease: Etiological history means information about actual cause and natural history means predisposing factors like breed. sanitation. it provides information about season/month of the occurrence of any disease. feces. tertiary cause of disease. Haemoglobinurea in phosphorus deficient area. Etiological and natural history of the disease means that how it is caused and what is the causative agent and also morphological and etiological features of causative organism. The samples are scientifically analyzed and organism is identified. Determination of cause: Determination of cause has prime importance so several types of studies are performed by determination of species. viral. protozoal or any other. Planning and monitoring of disease control programme: Disease control programme should be well planned from each side but it should be efficient. species.  Etiological and natural history of disease. secondary. viral. symptom.  Determination of cause  Investigation and control of disease whose cause is either unknown or poor by known. There are many major of bacterial. If an exact cause of the disease is unknown but can either be classified as bacterial.

bird flu.g.  Animal source  Agriculture source If comprehensive efforts are made by livestock and agriculture departments then it is possible to control90% zoonotic diseases. swine flu. 2) Secondary Determinants: These are also called predisposing factors. Human plague cause by yersina pest is transmitted by flies. Major examples are rabies. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Determinants: a. The knowledge about determinants facilitates identification and categories of animals that are at particular risk of developing diseases. meat value diseases. Looping ill Q fever by meat Malaria by mosquitoes 4> Sapro Zoonosis Sapro zoonosis is that type of Zoonosis in which diseases are transmitted by in animate host sources of transmission are soil. This type of zoonosis occures very rapidly and cause high mortality. anthrax are the example of Sapro zoonosis. Source of Transmission: There are two major source of transmission of zoonotic disease. glanders. Types of Zoonosis: Zoonotic disease are classified by the No of the intermediate host Nature of intermediate host There are four types’ of zoonotic diseases. pasturella multocida. So their study helps in diagnosis and prevention of disease. bird flu. diet is a determinants in nutritional disease.g. water. their variation (pathogenically) in a population directly influences on frequency and distribution of diseases. canine heart valve in cotenance . severity and distribution of diseases. 2> Cyclo Zoonosis: It is that of zoonosis which requires at least two vertebrate hosts for completing and maintaining its life cycle e. or in soil or in feed or related to rapid grass growth. and remain a challenge for the health workers to have control on it. hydrated cyst of echinococcus granulossus need two vertebrate intermediate host to approach to human population. host and environment related determinants Primary and secondary determinants: 1) Primary determinants: These are the basic causes of diseases. E.g FMD virus. Determinants of Disease: Determinants are the characteristic that effects the health of population e. 1) Direct zoonosis 2) Cyclo zoonosis 3) Meta zoonosis 4) Sapro zoonosis 1>Direct Zoonosis: It is that type in which disease are directly transmitted from animal population to the human population without involvement of any intermediate host. rift valley fever is transmitted by mosquitoes.g. 3> Meta zoonosis: In such type of zoonosis the diseases are transmitted by invertebrate host from animal population to the human population.g. . Mostly these diseases occur by direct contact with infected animal or their herd. incidence is high in female and low in male.g. Determinants are the multiple factors which influence the onset. e. E. tetanus. Their presence or absence has prime importance. swine flu and SARC etc. hypomagnesaemia is due to low magnesium level in blood. In prevention of such disease a veterinarian play a key role. morbidity and economic losses. As the invertebrate play a role of bridge for the completion of zoonotic cycle. pox.g. Toxocara gondicystcarnivoresexerted in the feces in the form of cysteaten by sheep and goatinfected meat eaten by human beings. frequency and distribution of diseases. wind and contaminated materials. They play a vital role on the occurrence. and clostridium perfrengens. e. a) Primary and secondary determinants b) Intrinsic and extrinsic determinants c) Agent. scabies and sars. Major examples are rabies.5 There are numerous numbers of zoonotic disease which are highly fetal to the human lives. Intrinsic or Internal determinants: Means factor which are internal to host or animal due to intrinsic determinants are the determinants which are related with body of patient that may be genetic makeup. e. Classification of determinants: Determinants are classified into three different classes. These are also called the necessary causes of diseases. such type of zoonosis can easily be controlled by breaking the bridge. HS.

Glanders high incidence in old animals Sex: There are different sex hormone in male and female e. e. these determinants may be: Specie. solar radiation. b.g. humidity and wind are the component of macro climate.g. Species of host: Some diseases are host specific e. vitamins and protein deficiency. climate husbandry. 1) Macro climate: Such as rain fall. parasitic or any other. Climate: Has two parts.g. Agent. Brucellosis Breed: Some breeds are not susceptible or less susceptible to the diseases. genetic abnormality which influence the onset of genital disease. breed. mastitis Some diseases are sex influencing e. temperature. intrinsic determinants are also called endogenous determinants. Stress: Emotional. color plays the role of disease determinants such as white coat cat get cutenous squamous carcinoma most frequently then other. Agent has great influence on frequency and distribution of disease. age. Location: It is also called the geological distribution of disease and considered as environmental determinants. This is due to absence of melanin pigment in their skin and hence they get diseases. sex and color. may be as small as few milli meter or as large as calf horse. Environment: Has significant effect on the onset of disease e.g.g. age. e. e. TransportationTraumawoundtetanus SmokingLungs infectionCancer Decreased iodineGoiter c.  Strangle and Glanders Equine FMD and HS Cattle. Canine heart valve incotenance is higher in males rather then females.g. Extrinsic or external Determinants: (Means a factor which is external or outside the host) Extrinsic determinants also called exogenous determinants. some diseases are sex limited e.g. Diet: In husbandry diet is also a determinant especially in multinutritioned diseases deficiency e. diarrheahigh incidence in young animal. Age: Mostly diseases have different frequency in different age groups. housing. e. buffalo but decrease effects on all the species. Hair coat colors are primary determinant of squamous cell carcinoma Determinants Associated with Environment Such as location.g. sex and color. Strangleshigh incidence in young horses. Determinants associated with the host: Same determinants are closely related to the host and influence upon the occurrence of various diseases.g. Husbandry: Husbandry of an animal and composed up (to take care of an animal) is also an important disease determinant. Agents are the basic causes of disease that is bacterial. Hot humid environment will decrease the resistance of an animal and promote the onset of HS. So more prone to diabetes mellitus. These determinants may be species. viral. In estrusincreases estrogen levels. TB high incidence in old animals.6 e. diet and stress. breed. 2) Micro climate: Is that climate which occur in a small defined space. These are related with factor which influence outside of the body e. Rains will effect on the clostridium spore and promote the onset of BQ. accidental injury Color: In some diseases coat.g. Host: These are the determinants which are closely related to host influence upon the occurrence of various diseases.g. High incidence of traumatic pericarditis in industry areas Increased metallic objects Promote traumatic pericarditis. solar radiations are the primary determinants of squamous cell carcinoma. conflict and displeasure is termed as stress in case of human medicine but in case or veterinary medicine stress is a results of sudden .g. Host and Environment Related Determinants: Agent Related Determinants: How agents effect the environment? Agent pullets the environment. FMD incidence high in exotic breed.

The signs appear may be mild signs. Determinants Associated with Agent: Pathogencity and Virulency: Pathogencity Means ability to cause a disease. It may be acute.g. As biological interaction factor mostly act as synergetic to each other as in low ventilation. pathogenic and non-pathogenic. b) Transduction Transfer of genetic material to recipient by lysis of donor cell which released. Recombination Mutation: Two types 1) Point mutation Mean change at one segment of nucleotide. Virullency: It is the degree of pathogencity. high virulence. the genetic material in surrounding which is picked up by the receipt. Interaction determinants are classified in two major classes. Coat color: In some diseases the coat color play a role of disease determinants such as white cat cutenous souamous carcinoma much more as compared to other. 2) Deletion mutation Whole segment is missing. so when there quantitative amount are measured into different form may be in additive or man additive form e. Mutation b. These may be. So more prone to diabetes mellitus. Mesogenic strain Moderate virulence cause 50% mortality. Gradient infection may be Silent infection: Means the lowest quantity of infection in matter detected from signs and symptoms or lab examination. overcrowding. hunger and thirst. 2) Statistical interaction Quantitative facts into two hour more then two factors. In these phenomena the genes which are pathogenic are transfer from donor. ND or ranikhet disease. shearing. moderately virulence. In other word we can also say that in the presence of the host opposing responses quantity of infection is called gradient of infection. Clinical Infection: Clinical infection can easily be diagnosed by clinical examination and lab aid. sever signs and death. OR Organism capsulated High virulence Non capsulated Low virulence OR Organism has timbre Virulence Organism has non timbre Non virulence Notepathogenetically and virulency is controlled by phenotypically and genotypically. bacteria are proan to get multiplication disease. . Gradient of infection: Gradient of infection means that responses in combine form of agent against the host immune responses. mild virulence and low virulence. Interaction Determinants The interdependent operation of factors to produce an effect is called interaction determinant. Stress is another managemental determinant of many undiscribed diseases. Recombination: Such as a) Conjugation Transfer of genetic material from donor to recipient through sex Pilli. sub acute or chronic.7 change with the normal state of an animal as weaning. Types of Organism Two types. E. Outcome of infection: There are two outcomes of any infection. Bitch in estrusincrease in estrogen. Lentogenic strain Mild virulence causes 510% mortality. If these are two or more then two factors involved in disease occurrence. Death or recovery. 1) Biological Interaction Dependants between two factors based on physical or chemical association is termed as biological interaction. This is due to absence of melanin pigment in their skin hence they get infection. Sub clinical Infection: If organism is present but signs do not appear. Genotypic characteristics are change by a.g. moderate signs. Genetic makeup influences them. Velogenic strain High virulence cause 100% mortality.

. Different organism applies different methods and techniques for persisting in the host body to maintain the infectious maintenance. In the 2nd one there are two types of factor are responsible. virus. This is possible when hazard to infectious agent should avoided. 3) Rapidly in.g. e. Types: 2 types a) Point prevalence No of diseased animals at a specific point and time. If a direct transmission way is by vector transmission By ingestion of combinants+vertical turns Ventral turns Saraphasy resistant 2) Resistant Form: Those agents which are resistant to both external environment and host body environment are resistant forms which are more capable to maintain the infection such as some bacteria form spores e. FMD. Latent Infection: Latent infection means is that infection which presents in an individual without showing sign and symptoms and may develop in any stage of life in any form. Maintenance of Infection Maintenance of infection need infectious agent to be kept survives in the host body by providing their required environment in the host body.g. Measurement of Diseases Frequency Prevalence: Number of new + old cases. Such as Immunosupporation Copulation Mutation Cystation Resistance 5) Extension of Host Range: It is important and most common strategy of an infectious agent to have wide range hold on different host and causes infection in them. 4) Persistence in Host: If the infectious agents are capable to persist in the host body for long period it occurs when host defense system is failed to eradicate the agent. e.8 Death: As death of the host is source of infection but recovered animal get immunity against infection and may act as 1) Carrier state animal 2) Latent infection animal Carrier State Animal: Broadly carrier state animals are those animals which do not show any sign but act as source of infection for other non immunized animals. Rapidly out Strategy: This strategy means that these organisms which are capable to enter rapidly into the host body to multiply rapidly and leave the host body before host response can maintain infections. Prevalence may be defined as amount of disease in a population at particular in point and time. Host body environment External environment In the former one there should be depressed unable immune response to the infectious agent from the host body.g. This is the greatest successful strategy to maintain the infection. hence it will be able to multiply and will continue and increase its pathogenic action without any opposing action. many viruses in URT (upper respiratory tract) do this strategy. These are given as under 1) Avoid external environment: As in external environment two factors in combine form ultra violet light and desiccation are lethal to infectious agents. which are. b) Period prevalence No of cases at start + No of cases observe during period. The carrier animal may be Incubatory Carrier: Some animals spread infectious agent before showing and developing the clinical stage of the disease (during incubation period) e. These two in combine form kill them or reduce their multiplication. Maintenance Strategies: The way in which infectious agents are maintained called maintenance strategies. clostridium species.g. rabies in dog from their saliva. Convulsant carrier: Those animals spread infectious agent during their recovery period. decreased humidity and ultra violet radiations. Prevalence may be annual prevalence and life prevalence.

P= Number of diseased animals/total No of animals. But this is for short period of time. quality and quantity product obtaining is a challenge for increasing population.g. As now a days. S=N-D/N N=No of diagnosed cases D=No of dead animals Veterinary Medicine Combating Hunger and Malnutrition Veterinary science is the second largest department of agriculture which is playing an important role in hunger and malnutrition in human population by producing major nutrients to human by different method. this time of its on side as produce animal products for human population. A.T= No of individual developing disease/Total no of population exposed to primary case Relation Between Prevalence and Incidence Rate: Cross sectional study has revealed that prevalence “P” depends on duration “D” and incidence rate “I” and directly proportion to “D”. The quality means contained standard composition an pathogen feed products while quantity means which to provide sufficient amount of products to the increasing population to fulfill their needs. This is all due to veterinary medicine. P= 20/200=10% Incidence: (New case during period of time) The No of new cases occurs in a known population in a specific time. P=ID This means change in prevalence due to Change in incidence rate Change in both incidence rate and duration Change in average duration of disease Mortality: Number of deaths occurs in known population due to any specific disease. It is proportion of non disease individual which become affected during a course of observation study. M=Death/Total No of individuals at risk. it has two types: a) Cumulative incidence: Also known as risk. that net only achieving target for combating. The 2 nd attack rate is the numbers of individuals exposed to primary case which develop the disease in range. As know we can say without any hesitation. Probability is given below. . Total No of animal=4000 Affected=500 animals Death=200 animals Case fertility=Death/effected animal=200/500*100=40% Survival: Survival is the probability of an individual with a specific disease remaining alive for a length of time. agriculture department and crossed its goals. For example total population is 200 animals out of which 20 are ill. As we know that the amount of protein in human nutrition is obtained from meat and eggs or an animal product and also vitamin and important minerals in the form of milk also an animal product.9 Annul Prevalence: Annul prevalence means no of cases of disease occur in a given population within a year while life prevalence is the No of individuals known to have disease for at least a part of their life. But now a days it assist other.I No of diseased individuals become/disease during a particular period/No of healthy individual at the beginning.M): It is ratio between died individuals with the total No of individual at the beginning of that period. Attack Rate: Description of the proportion of animals that develop the disease is called attack rate. Case Fertility Rate: Percentage of death out of affected animals is called case fertility e. In past we can say that due to in sufficient facilities but after getting some development in the same field. there are in continuous struggle to control the maintained problems in human population. Death Rate: Is the total No of mortality for all diseases rather then one specific disease in a population. Mortality may be a) Cumulative Mortality (C. CM= No of individuals die in specific period/Total No of population b) Mortality rate: Is the percentage rate death of individuals over the some of all individuals at risk. b) Incidence rate: Measure the rate of development of new cases in particular time. such as C.

i. f) The host immune response should appear regularly after exposure to the cause and will be most efficient if reexposed to the cause. mortality and morbidity etc. 1) Koch postulates: Postulate Anything assumed without proof. Assessment the economic effects of disease 1. 2) Evan’s postulates: Evan’s (1976) has produced a set of postulate that is consistent with modern concept of causation. e) The host response from mild to sever should followed exposure to the causative by biological gradient.Determination of Cause: The need of determination of cause due to its economic losses so various types of studied of farm performed like determination of species. clinical sign. . The samples are scientifically analyzed and organism is tried to be identified. These postulates state that an organism is causal of disease if a) It is presented in all cases of diseases b) It does not occur in other diseases c) It is isolated in pure culture from diseased animal But after experimental work done by other microbiologists. by taking blood urine. Investigation and control of disease whose cause is either unknown or poor known iii. epidemiology told us about such study. symptoms. age group. h) Removal or modification of the cause should decrease the occurrence of disease. This seem to be very interesting that the cause of disease unknown but disease should controlled epidemiology study conducted to take maximum information about predisposing. secondary and tertiary cause of disease. primary.10 Veterinary medicine has achieved the target by applying different techniques such as Disease control and eradication in human population Decreases economic losses due to disease by prophylactic measure Introduction of new applying techniques for quality and quantity products Has provided important jobs for human Has decreased important disease condition in human transmitted from animal and ultimately decreases expenses via health Introduce new productive breeds Cause of the diseases Different biologist had described the cause of disease differently but two of them are most effective. viral and protozoal etc. a) Proportion of the causative agent or organism should be high. j) All relationship and association should be biologically and epidemiological credibly. Determination of cause ii.g. reveal that disease is cause by mixed microorganism can not be isolated purely from diseased animal if not inoculated to SPF lab animal. In respect to determine the exact cause of disease it should be studied multidimentionally e. Ecology and natural history of disease iv. so first of all the exact cause is known either that is bacterial. Planning and monitoring of disease control programme v. feces and skin scraping.Investigation and Control of Disease: Whose cause is either unknown or poor known. 2. d) The disease should follow after exposure to the causation but have an incubation period. If unknown disease spread in population it is quietly difficult task to study its property. Edward Jenner control disease of small pox in human beings. g) Experimental reproduction of a disease should occur with greatest frequency. Koch in 19th century described the infectious agent and given his postulates. Uses or objectives of Epidemiology There are 5 uses or objectives of epidemiology. sex group. b) Exposed to supposed cause should be present more commonly then those which are healthy c) No of causes of disease should be significantly high in those individual exposed to the cause first time then those which are already exposed. history. i) Preventive measures against the cause in host should decrease/Eliminate the supposed cause.

efficient and rapid.Ecology and Natural History of Disease: It is very much important to know about relation of disease with environment. 3. awareness and comprehensive measure to save the animals from serious health problems. It is because of snail live in moist surrounding and the causative parasite of fasciolosis. Epidemiological studies are also used to determine the causes of disease so that the most appropriate control techniques are applied. It is perform by strict watching normal planning procedure. vaccination. Because causative agent of disease are disease carrying agent live in specific environment e.g.Assessment the Economic Effect of Disease: Disease control must learn prophylactic cost. vitamins. g) It has given incentives for keeping animals to improve human economy and show purpose. minerals. c) It has significantly reduced the economic losses by the reduction in morbidity and mortality rates in animals. It should be economic. It has an objective of providing healthy animals to obtain maximum benefits from the animals. Malnutrition has created some other serious problems like low resistance power.Veterinary medicine is a broad term being used for medicine. growth and production of human being. So well planned and well implemented programmed are ever successful. It is directly or indirectly involved in combating hunger to overcome the consequence of hunger like poverty and terrorism. The nutrition enriched in protein. d) It has provided a vast field of employment. It is also directly involved in combating the major problem of the malnutrition. from the beginning of human life has a vital role.Planning and Monitoring of Disease: Disease control programme well planned from each side.Veterinary medicine. vector control and bio security.11 Cow pox virus is although at that time cause of the small pox in human being was not identified.Ever increase in the human population as a dire need of standard quality nutrition. so that chances of neoplasm are minimized in offspring. normal implementation of planning programme. a) Veterinary medicine has produced quality products by applying new techniques and continuous research. 5. fat etc is keen necessary for the maintenance. to avoid any hazard activity. In this way if we have information about the ecosystem of causative agent then we can adopt the effective control and eradicative measure against that cause and this knowledge is only given by epidemiology. b) Veterinary medicine has a significant role in the control of zoonotic diseases and other diseases. Fasciola hepatica spent part of its life cycle in snail. causes of fasciolosis usually occurs in poorly trained dumpy areas. 4. The second example is squamous carcinoma in hair ford cattle. The exact cause of that disease was not known at that time. vaccine. Rx cost should be kept at best as level of expenses that do not effect efficiency of management team. f) It has introduced new productive breeds. medication strict hygienic. e) It has increased the health in human lives with the control of zoonotic diseases. Accurate data collection of population Accurate data analysis Known cases Known predisposing factor Efficient team Management level Role of Veterinary Medicine in Combating Hunger and Malnutrition Veterinary medicine is second largest department of agriculture playing an important role in combating the serious problems of hunger and malnutrition. decreased working ability and increased expenditure on human treatment. So on this basis breeder used such breed for breeding purpose whose eye lid was pigmented.Veterinary medicine has done and is playing following important roles. But epidemiological studies have shown that animal with unpigmented eyes. . It may be controlled by applying the following techniques.