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10
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11
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12
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Mum;&w,fvYkd atmufarhrdw,f/

13
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h e&mrSm cspfolrsufESm [m

14
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15
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16
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17
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18
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19
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21
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22
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23
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d m bmvJarar) vkdY
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poor    and    the    weather    is    very    hot.)  (ArmjynfrSm raecsifb;l / odyfqif;&JNyD;
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kd Spfa,muf[m
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usef;rma&; ukd ay;pGrf;EkdifwJh aq;ynmudk 0goemygwJh trsKd;orD;rsm; jzpfvmvkYd bGm;bGm;rSm

24
0rf;om&ao;w,f/ q&m0efrsm; tjzpfukd acsmacsmarmarm a&mufygapvkYd qkawmif;arwåm
ykYo
d &ao;ouG,/fh a&mhtif½d;k   (Rock'en    Roll) uNyD; zif vIyfvy
I feJY? acgif;vIyfvIyfeJY
taemufEdi
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J &m/
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J if uk,
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EGm;wpfaxmifxJu rxdef;wwfvdYk EGm;ig;&m ao oGm;tkH; ykdufqHukefwmyJ&Sdw,f/

25
orD;wpfa,muf £ajE´r&vkYd txdef;todrf;rwwf&if rdbrsm; t&SufuJa
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tdro
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d mudk vku d f jznf& h wm nOfhajcmufem&DvJxkd;a&m
bGm;bGm;vJ tdyf&m ay: ypfvJa&m/

26
uk,d [ fh mukd,fawmh taeomBuD;aygh/ 'gayrJh bGm;bGm; pdwfu tdyf&muEkd;vm&if
bGm;bGm;rsufESmvJ NyHK;xm;w,f/ tdrfazmfawGvJ NyHK;aeapcsifw,f/ ajymwJp h um;oHutp
at;at;jrjr csKdcsKdomom jzpfapcsifw,f/ rsufESm&Spa f cguf csKd;rsm; tdyf&mu xçxjcif;jrif&&if
&ifxq J Yqkd dYo k Gm;wmyJ/
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vkud fjrufckwfwmyJ/
jcawGpm;vkYd tdrfMurf;jyifawG jyifaejyefawmhvJ vuf orm;awG a&ay:xk;d aeNyDvm;qkd oHtoGm;
wyfrxm;wJh a&ay:twkukd om;BuD;vufxJ xnfhay;xm;&w,f/ Murf; ay:rSm a&ay:pmxkd;wm
acR;rsm;ukd NydKufNydKufusvY/kd wpfcg wav om;BuD; emeDeYJ tcef;wpfcef;ay;xm;NyD; wHcg;
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tcsdefwefvkdY tcef;xJrS vTwfvu kd w
f meJYwpfNydKifeuf aZmif;uvTwfvkdufwJh jrif;vm;
atmufarh&w,f/ om;[m NcHxJukd wpf[w k fxJ ajy;qif; oGm;wmyJ/ bGm;bGm;jzifh aeYwkdi;f
emeDw,f&Dukd ajym&w,f/
]]reuf rk;d vif;vif;jcif; Aku d fjynhfatmif xrif;eJY BudKuf wmwpfckck pm;xm;yguG,f/
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bGm;bGm; EIi
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d fom&Sd&if}} Mum;&olwpfzufom;

27
armfwmeJY &if0ypfvdu
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h cg om;
BuD;&JUazazukd ar;Munf/h
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kd &m arhoGm; wmyJ}} wJ/h
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pmb,fvu kd sufNyD; pmar;yGJ b,frmS atmifyghrvJ/ NyD;awmhvJ q&m0efwpfa,muf jzpfvm&if
jywfom;wdus wJh tqkH;tjzwf tjyKtrlukd em&Dykdif; rdepfydi
k ;f twGif; ray; Ekdif&if wpfaeYwpfaeY
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a':wifOD;yJ/ bGm;bGm;u vG,ftdwfwpfv;kH vG,f NyD; ½kH;wuf? ½k;H ujyef ausmif;wuf/ bGm;bGm;
wuf&wJ½
h ;kH u OD;pdwfjref (OD;Ek) BuD; tkyfcsKyfw½
Jh ;kH / oluvJ emrnfuom OD;Ek/ ykHpHukduf? tcsdefukduf
pdwfjrefvufjref vlwpfa,muf/ bGm;bGm;wkdY ½k;H tzGUJ 0ifawG[m we*FaEGuvGv
J Ykd a*Zuf0if
½k;H ydw&
f ufrsm;qkw
d m b,f&ufawGvJvkdY rodcJhbl;/ ½k;H csdef uvJ eHeuf q,fem&Duae nae
ig;em&DvkdYom owfrSwf wm;w,f? olac:csifwJhtcsdef vSrf;ac:&if rk;d rvif;ao; bl; xajy;&w,f/
nae ½k;H qif;csdefqkdwmuawmh rSefw,f ukr
d &Sdb;l / u&if aomif;usef;olrsm; &efue
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½k;H wuf&w,f/
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H Hu vmjyefa&m/ ]]a[h....xrif; jrefjrefpm;?
q&mcsufyfrif; a&mufaew,f}} qka
d wmh pmoifcef;ukd ajy;&w,f/ bGm;bGm;u tvkyfwpf zufeJY

28
(tkdifat) Oypmwef; ajzaeawmh t*Fvdyfpm wpf bmomukd pdefaygvfu t*Fvdyfpmjyq&m
rpöwmcsufyfrif; eJY oif&w,f/
pmvJoifNyD;a&m bGm;bGm;vJ xrif;awmif rMunfhcsifbl;/ tdy&
f mxJ ypfauG;aerdw,f/
wpfcgwavrsm; orD;BuD; ]rd}ukd olUa':BuD;eJYtwl tdyfaewJh tdyf&mxJomG ;NyD; ezl; av;ukd
erf;Munfh&w,f/
bGm;bGm;&JUrru ]rd} ukd i,fi,fuxJu usL&SifvJ ray;&bl;/ vkdr,fxifwb
Jh momrSm
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k fjyw,f/ ]]usL&Sifay;jcif;[m i,f&G,fwJhuav;ukd OD;aESmufyef;½kHru uk,
d u
fh ,
kd fukd
tm;uk;d pdwf enf;yg;apw,fwJh}}/ ]rd} [m rufx&pfom atmifoGm;a&m? usL&Sif ray;cJhb;l /
olUa':BuD; a':wifOD; uG,fvGefomG ;awmh qufvuf ykHoGif;olujzifh rif;&JUbb OD;ykHpHBuD;yJ/
wpfcgu om;BuD;&JU bbu ajymw,f/
]]rwifOD;[m txufwef;ynmukd roif&ayrifh ]rd} ukd tkyfxdef;wJhpepfujzifh
pepfwusyJw}Jh }/ olvJ uG,fvGef umrS rr&JUt&nftcsif;ukd tuJjzwfrdw,f xifyg&JUuG,f/
bGm;bGm;[m tkyfcsKyfuGyfurJ IrSm nHz h sif;w,f qk& d r,f/ wpfenf; pdwåaA'ac:wJh pdwfynmeJY
bGm;bGm;uk,
d fukd bGm; bGm; avhvmMunfhw,f/ pdwa å A'ukd bGm;bGm; wuúokdvf rSmwkef;u
roifMum;cJyh gbl;/ wwfoavmuf rSwfoavmuf uk, d hfu, kd fukd pdppfMunfa h wmh bGm;bGm; yxrqkH;
tvkyf vkyf&wm bBuD;Ek (OD;Ek) &JU 0efBuD;csKyf½kH;? ol wku d f½kduftkyf csKyfwJh twGif;a&;
twGif;0eftjzpf vkyf&w,f/ oluvJ pdwfjrefukd,fjref acgif;rmwmyJ/
]]ol ta&;wBuD; ac:,lvkdufwt Jh cgrSm ig tqifoifh jzpfae&r,f qkw d }Jh } pdwfapmaerI[m
atmufvufi,fom; wpfa,muftzkdY roufombl; om;BuD;/
wpfcgwav ol bmajymwwfvJqkdawmh ]]rdcif,k igeJY twlaepOf (Training) ukd
&atmif,lprf;yg/ awmifxy d f wpfckukd rdepfig;q,ftwGif; a&mufatmifwuf&r,fqkd&if wuf&rSm
rifwm0efyJw/Jh b,fvkdwuf&rvJ? b,fenf; vrf;? vkt d yfwJh ypön;f ud&d,m wefqmyvm?
(zufpDvwD) qkdwmawGukd ighqD jyefvnfawmif;qkdaezkYd rvkb d l;wJh}}
uJ....oluvJ ykHpHwpfrsKd;yJuG,fh/
twlae&ol bGm;bGm;&JUazazqkdjyefawmh oluvJ ]]OD; tcsdefre
S f}} rif;bkd;bkd;BuD;
tcsdefrSeftaMumif;uawmh bGm; bGm; ]]azaz}} 0w¬KrSm a&;cJhNyDrkdY om;BuD; pmzwfwwfvm&if
zwfMunfhayawmh/
vufxyfxm;&wJh bGm;bGm;&JUcifyGe;f onf rif;bb uawmh ]]OD;ykHpH}} yJ/ olUtaMumif;ukdawmh
om;BuD; wjznf; jznf; odvmrSmaygh/ bGm;bGm;uawmh ]]uRefr\cspfol}} pmtkyrf Sm a&;aeqJyJ/
tJ'D vlawGMum;rSm BuD;jyif;vm&wJh bGm;bGm;[m tNrJ yJ (Attention) (owd) qkdwJh
taetxm;rSm &yfwnfae& w,f/ Mumawmh tJ'D ywf0ef;usifudk bGm;bGm; odyfNiD;aiGU w,f/
pufqy
k fw,f/ uefYvefYumwpfckvkd qGJNzJvkdY&&if qGNJ zJ ckwfawmufypfvdu
k fcsifw,f/
'Dawmh bGm;bGm;[m tdrf&Sir
f qkw
d Jh ae&mwpfcku,
kd lNyD; tkyfcsKyfvmawmh uk,
d c
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kd Jh taetxm;) rSm raeapcsifb;l /
raumif;wwfvGef;vkdYom/ jzpfrsm;jzpf Eki
d f&if ]]rif;wkv
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d fBuD;rSm xifovkdae? igvJ igh
uavmifwpfacsmif;eJY jzpfovkdaer,f/ reufwpfeyf n wpfeyfom xrif;auR;MuygawmhuG,fvkdY}}
ajymcsifvmwJh tjzpfawmif a&mufvmrdw,f om;BuD;&,f/
wu,fawmh tawG;ygav? b,fjzpfEdkifyghrvJ om; BuD;&,faemf/ tdrf&i
S frwpfa,mufu

29
tJ'Dvkdomvkyfvu
kd f &if olUtdrfBuD;&JU tajccH pnf;½kH;rI[m z½kdz&J jzpfrSmaygh/
tJ'Dawmh bGm;bGm;u ESpfb0ae&w,f/ wpfb0u tdrf&Sir
f BuD;ayghav/ wpfb0u
uk,
d u
fh avmifeJYjzpfjzpf? tm;xkwfxm;wJh 0dyómw&m;eJjY zpfjzpf olwkdY t½Iyt
f axG; awGukdpe
G NfY yD;
at;csrf;&mrSm ukd,fhpdwfukd em;ae&w,f/ 'g aMumifh rif;bGm;bGm; ydea
f nmifav;[m touf
zkwfvdu
I f zkwfvIduf&SLNyD; touf&Sifaeao;wmyJuG,/fh
'gawmif wpfcsDwpfcsD tdro
f m;rsm;u ]]bGm;bGm;[m tkyfcsKyfuGyfuJrInhz
H sif;onft
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tdrfaptvkyform;rsm; [m a&mifhwufNyD; pnf;urf;ysufw,fwJh/ 'Dvjkd zpfjcif;onf bGm;bGm;
wpfw&m;cH}} wJ/h
bGm;bGm;u &,fwmaygh/
]]'Dvkdqkd&if 0rf;ajrmufpGmeJY tdr&
f Sifrwm0efudk vTt
J yf ay;yghr,f/ tcsdefra&G;ygyJ}} vkdY
jyefajzvkud wf ,f/
bGm;bGm;ukd olwkdYu b,fvkdrsm; t"dyÜm,ftaumuf t,l rSm;aevJ rodygbl;uG,f/
'gaMumifh tvGefcspfvSygw,fqkdwJh om;BuD;ukdawmif b,fvdy
k kHpH jzpf&r,f/ bGm;bGm;vkd
uavmifwH ukdifyg/ bmjzpfatmifvkyfyg/ nmjzpfatmifvy k fyg/ bmrS rajym csifawmhbl;/
om;BuD; 0goemygvkYd wlukdifukdif? wHZOfudi k fukdif? pl; uki d fukdif? aqmufudi k fukdif? uavmifwH
pkwfwa H wG ukdifcsif ao;oyghqv kd J uki d fyJ/
]]wpfavmuvk;H ukd uRefawmh* f DwoHawGeJY NzdK;NzdK;a0NyD; pka d jy&Tifvef;apcsifoy l gAsm}} qkdwJh
t,ltqeJY *DwtEk ynm&Sif jzpfcsifvJ om;BuD;oabmyJ/
wcsKdUuvJ ajymMuouG,?fh tkd;xdef;onf[m vufcwf eJY BudKufovkdtacsmowfNyD; olUtkd;ukd
jyKjyifrGrf;rHw,fwJh/
yef;ykq&m[mvJ pl;aqmuf tp&SdwJh ud&d,mrsm;eJY qifpG,f? opfom;? ausmufom; ponfukd
xkvkyfNyD; rdrd BudKufwJh yef;yk½kyfukd oGef;vkyfw,faygh/
bGm;bGm;u olwkdYukd rqefYusifvkdygbl;? rSefygw,f? okYad omf ....
&TUH rsm;? opfom;? ausmufom;? qifpG,f tp&So d nfwYkd [m "gwfcMGJ unfh&if yx0D? awaZm?
tmayg? 0ga,m qkdwJh tpkta0;rQom jzpfw,f/
vlom;qkw d mu [k0d w¬Kypön;f awGvdk yx0D? awaZm? tmayg? 0ga,mqkdwJh "gwfaygif;pkeJYwuG
olUrSm uH? pdwf? Owk? tm[m& qkw d Jh taMumif;w&m;av;yg; arG;uwnf; ukdu ygvmwm/
]]'Dvkdqkd bGm;bGm;u ajr;OD;rkdY cspfw,fvJ qka
d o;&JU? olwYv
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ar;p&m&Swd ,f/
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em;vnfr,fh pum; r[kwfygbl;/ wjznf;jznf; vlysKd&, G jf zpfvmNyD; BuD; vm&if odrSmayghav/
rMumcifyJ olwkdY tawmiftvufpkHvm&if bGm;bGm; cspfygw,fqkdwJh om;BuD;ukd om;&JU
azazeJY ararwkdUu bGm;bGm;&ifcGifu qGJxkwfNyD; ta0;uka d c:oGm;MurSmyg/
bbBuD; OD;ykHpHuvJ om;&JU bGm;bGm;ukd &Jabmfwpf a,muf tvkyform;wpfa,muf
cspfenf;rsKd; cspfaewm yg/ (bGm;bGm; txifvJ& G ifvJ bGm;bGm; i&JBuD;rSmyJ)
'Dawmh ]]tcspfiwf&wJhol}} bGm;bGm;rSmawmh tcspf iwfrBuD;? tcspf½l;rBuD; rjzpf&atmif (0g)
tMuifvdc k sif aom taMumif;w&m;wkYo d nf &S\
d / xkv
d c
kd sifaom qE´wdYk ukd

30
awmifhw&jcif;onfvnf; 'ku©yJw/Jh "r®pMum w&m; awmft& vkc d sifwm r&aomqif;&Jukd
cHpm;ae&wJr h def;r BuD; rjzpfatmif tcspfukd bGm;bGm;uyJpNyD; jzwfaeNyD qkw d muda
k wmh om;BuD;ukd
0rf;enf;aMuuGJpGmeJYyJ ajymyg& ap om;BuD;/
om;BuD;ukd ykHpHroGif;vkdaomfvJ bGm;bGmwpfa,muf i,fpOfujzifh
b,fvdBk uD;jyif;vmw,fqkdwm om;BuD;ukd bGm;bGm; ajymcJr h ,faemf

bkef;r,fi,fuH

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vluav;wkYt
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wnf&rSmaygh/ olrsm; oGif;csifwy
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ta0;uyJ Munfhcsifwp
Jh dwf &Sdygw,f om;BuD;&,f/
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yg&awmif rif;bb ab;aemufqG,fu tomcyfu,G uf G,fyJvu
kd cf w
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awmfygao;&JU/ rif;&JUbbeJY azaz ararwkYu
d bGm; bGm;tay: txifrvGJayvkYa
d ygh/
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d Jh &ifxJuarwåm apwemawG[m olwkdYeJY,SOfNydKif&if
rykd&ifomae&r,f? ravsmhygbl;/ 'Dawmh xm;tyfwa
Jh rwåm[m om;BuD;tay: rSm qufvufNyD;

31
xm;oGm;rSmyJ/ arwåmqkw
d Jh cspfjcif;ukd tvGef tbk;d te*¢wefwJh &wemawGev
JY J vJvkdYr&bl;/
odMum;rif;&JU 0&ZdefvufeufrsKd;eJv
Y J bGm;bGm; tonf; ESvkH;xJu cGJ,lvkdYr&bl;qkdwm om;BuD;
t&G,fa&muf&if odvmrSmyJ/
'DavmuDbt kH EGr;f qkwd Jh Zmwf½Iyr
f Sm bGm;bGm;vkd at; at;aevkdwJh vlawGua
kd wmif
yk'frtrsKd;rsKd;wyf pGyfpGJNyD; Zmwfpifaxmifhwpfae&muawmif MunfhcGifr&atmif qGJ
xkwfypfcsifwhv
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d m&wm[m olwYkd BuD;jyif;ayguf yGm;vmwJh b0ywf0ef;usifuvJ
roefYvYa kd ygh/ (&Si;f &Sif;a&; &&if bGm;bGm;wkdYacwfuvJ roefYvkdYaygh/)
'Dawmh wnfNidrfaomacwf? at;aq;Nidrfoufaom acwfrSm oabmxm;jynfh0wJh
vli,frsm;tjzpf om;BuD; tygt0if vluav;rsm; BuD;jyif;vmapcsifygw,f/ 'Dwi kd f; jynf&JU
arQmfud;k p&m tm;xm;p&m[m 'gyJ&da S wmhw,f om; BuD;/ bGm;bGm;wkdYacwf&JU tarGqkd; tusifhq;kd
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k fNyD; rif;orD;BuD;vkyc
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wpfZmwfvkH;ukd ol BudKufwJhyp kH HoGif;csifwJh trsKd;orD;AsvkdY tpGypf GJcH&&if? 'DpGyfpJGrI ukv
d J om;BuD;azaz
ararwkdYeJY bbOD;ykHpHBuD;wkdYu ,kHch& J if awmh ]]bkef;r,fi,fuH}} vkdY qkdNyD; bGm;bGm;&JU b0uH
taMumif;ukdyJ ykc
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ckawmhjzifh tcspfukd ryki
d favaom bGm;bGm;[m ]]olwkdY ok;H OD;}} BudKufovkdyp
kH HoGif;r,fh
om;BuD;ukd ta0;uMunfhNyD; tjznfc
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tJ....ta&;&,f taMumif;&,f jzpfvmvkdY a&SUyki
d f;u a&;cJhovkd wpftdrv
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f JU puf,EÅ&m;BuD; &yfcgeD;qJqJ a&mufvmjyefvYkd ]rdcsKd} xOD;?
bmvkyfygOD;vkdY rif;bb OD;ykHpHu trdea fY wmfjyefawmh vJ reufav;em&Duae bGm;bGm;
xNyD;vkyf&wm ntdyf csdefxdyJaygh/ b,folu &yfNyD; vufykdufMunfhaeEki
d frSmvJ om;&,f/
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d fvJ rwwf vIyfvIyfuav; jzpfaeayrifh
ta&;taMumif;&Sv
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0ifvmyga&m/
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wpfa,mufuawmh q&m csufyfrif;/ ol uG,fvGef&SmNyD/ olu a&mfbifqifu½l;qkd; pmtkyfu kd (Bed 
side  book) tjzpfeJY bmaMumifh a&G;cs,f oifhvJvkdY bGm;bGm; tkdifattwGuf olUqD pmoifwkef;u
ol ajymjyw,f/ a&mfbifqifu½l;qkd;&JU olUuk,
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jyóemwpfckeYJ &if qkdifvm&if....
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kd fukd od'¨dE;Id &w,f om;BuD;/

32
bGm;bGm; t&G,fa&mufvmawmh tifrwef tESpo
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33
(tJ'D olwkdYu atmfypfc&
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kd Sdc;kd ? NyD;rS ausmif; pmoifcef;ukd 0if&w,f/

34
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d l;? tajymeJY atmfatmfNyD;ikdwmyJ/

35
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vuf[efajc[efeJY pum;ajymwwfwJh tusi[
fh m bGm;bGm;rSm i,fi,fuxJu ygvmw,f/

36
'Dwke;f u bGm;bGm;wkdYtdrfrSm tvkyf&Sif&,f? tvkyf orm;&,f rcGJjcm;ygbl;/ aq;vdyfckH
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ykjH yifawG ukd aoaocsmcsm em;axmifwwfwt
Jh usifh ygvmwmaygh/

a&Tpmvk;H eJY om;a&zkH;eJY edygwfawmfZmwf? Ak'¨0if? r[m 0if? &mZ0ifpmtkyfawG tdrfay:u


acgif;&if;cef;rSm&Sa
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d J
pum;ajyavmufom zwfwwfao;wJht&G,frSm 'D pmtkyBf uD;awG tem;uyf&rSm tvkv
d kd
ruyfcsifb;l / ckvkd q&mBuD;u yka
H jymovkd ajymjyawmh ykBH udKufMuwJh uav; awGt&G,e
f JY
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J ef;wmyJ/
wpfcg ]] aemuftzdwfaeYus&if tarBuD; Oykof,lNyD; wJt
h cg ighukdar;&if igjyefajym&r,f}}
qkw
d p
Jh dwfu&Sa
d eawmh q&mBuD;ajymorQ pl;pl;pku
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bGm;bGm;tpfua
kd wG&,f? twlae aqGrsKd;wcsKdUawG&,f em;Mum;jyif;uyfw,f xifyg&JU/
]]rdcif,k[m pum;axmif pm;r aomufjrifuyfp&m aumif;w,f}} ajymMuvGef;awmh bGm;bGm;
idw
k myJ/
av;wef;a&mufawmh OD;azarmifwif jrefrmzwfpm xJrSm tusnf;wefaom
bJuav;taMumif; oifwht
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d feJY cHpm;&wm
csif;wlwZ
Jh mwfvrf;awG yka
H v;awGzwf&&if odyfoabmus wmaygh/
]]bJrBuD;[m tusnf;wefwJh om;av; tygt0if wjcm; om;orD;rsm;eJt
Y wl Muufqif
bk&ifrBuD;ukd oGm; uefawmhwt
Jh cg ]]rif;arG;wJhtxJrSm 'DbJav;wpfaumif [m
tusnf;wefvScsnfvm;}} vkYd ajymoHMum;awmh bJav; [m acgif;razmfcsifavmufatmif&SuNf yD;
pdwfnpfoGm; w,f}} wJ/h tJ'Dtcef;a&muf&if bGm;bGm; rsuf&nfusvm a&m/
olUrdcif toki
d f;t0kdif;u ½kef;uefxGufoGm;awmh olU crsm EkYo
d nftdrf a&mufoGm;w,f/
tpGr;f jycsifwhJ ra&T Muufru ]]olUvkd uawmfawmfatmfprf;/ MuufO tkjyprf;}} cki
d f;vkdufao;/
bJowå0g jzpfygw,fqr
kd S Muufvkd uawmf uawmf b,fatmfwwfrvJ/ bJtxD;av;ygqkdrS
MuufO jyprf;ygwJh/ obm0ruswmawGckdi;f NyD; olwkdYuyJ bJav;ukd tok;H rusbl;vkdY
ajymMuao;w,f/
wpfcg aMumifr vmao;w,fav/ olUvkd ]]anmif anmif}} atmfjyprf;ygOD;wJ/h bJ-ygqka
d erS
aMumifvkd ]]anmif anmif}} vkYd atmfwwfyghrvm;/ olwkdYtatmfci
kd f;wm vku
d f ratmfwwfvkdY
aMumifuvJ txifao;NyD; ]]rif; bmrS tokH;rusygbl;}} wJ/h

37
bGm;bGm;jzifa
h v tJ'DykHav;zwfNyD; odyfvJoabmus? idkvJ idw
k ,f/ NyD;awmh pdwfxJrSm ]]igrsm;
tJ'Dvkd aMumifawG MuufawGea
JY wGUvkYd obm0ruswmrsm; vmckdif;&ifawmh vm;uGm? aoayap
cHcsrSmyJ}} vkY d pdwfxJu cHjyif;vmw,f/
(tifzD;&D;a,mh&wD; aumfyvufpf) qkwd Jh rdrdukd,frdrd txifao;pdwf0ifvm
pdwf"gwfusvmvGe;f awmh bJav; [m trJvkdufacG;BuD;u olUbmom tif;xJu a&wdrfxJrSm
ajy;vm&if; bJav;ukd vQmBuD;yJxkwfjyNyD; ruku
d fbx
J u
G f oGm;wmuky
d J ]]ig tusnf;wefvGef;vkdY
xifyg&JU? acG;BuD; awmif ighukd rukdub f l;vkY}d } aMumufpdwfeJY awG;rdowJh/
bGm;bGm;vJ i,fi,fu tJ'vD kd tpfukdawGukd tatmf cH&vGef;awmh wpfcgrSm
b,favmufpdwf"gwfusoGm;vJ qkd&if....
]]ig[m olwkdYeJY armifESrt&if;rS [kwfuJhvm;}} qkw d Jh oHo,jzpfvmw,f/ pdwfxJu
raeEkid fawmhbl;/ ½Iu
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bGif;bGif;yJajymyg? orD;&JU azaz arar t&if;ukd awGUyg&ap}} vkYd ajymrdw,f/
araru tvGefpd;k &drfoGm;w,f/ bGm;bGm;ukd rsuf&nf awGokwfay;NyD;
]]uJ....uJ....ighorD;ukd oufaocHjyr,f? roef;a& q&mr a':rdukd oGm;ac:yg}} wJ/h
q&mra':rd qkw d m tpkd;&vufrSwf& 0rf;qGJq&mrBuD;aygh/ oef;oef; uvJ csufcsif;yJoGm;ac:w,f/
q&mrBuD; a&mufvmawmh araru q&mrBuD;ukd ajymjyw,f/ ]]uJ....a':rda& jyóem
&Sif;ygOD;? rcif,k&,f olUukbd ,foa l rG;wmvJ}} wJ/h
q&mrBuD;u tm;yg;w&&,fw,f/ olu 00wkwf wkwf cspfp&mBuD;/
]]atmifrav; ighorD;ES,faemf tawG;acgifwwf yav/ orD;ukd wifwif (rodef;wif) 0rf;xJuukd
tar uk,
d fwdi
k f arG;ay;cJh&wm/ wjcm;uav;awGvkd obm0 twki
d f; arG;csdefrSm acgif;rvSnhb
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d x
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araru jyw,f/
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rsufvkH; b,favmuf wlvJ/ rsufc;kH xlxl? rsufv;kH 0ki d f;0ki
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rwlb;l vm;/ ararhrsufEmS uka
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azazhukd oGm;wlwmukw
d .
Jh ...}}
araru pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf &Sif;jyw,f/ om;BuD;vJ bGm;bGm;&JU ararhykHukd awGUcsif&if
ckbk&m;aqmifrSm ol q,ho
f ;kH ESpf 13-ESpforD;u ½kdufxm;wJy
h kH &Sw
d ,f/ oGm;Munfh ayawmh/
bGm;bGm; 'gaMumifh uav;awGukd a'goavsmuf atmfcsifrd&if pdwu
f kdxdef;vku
d w
f ,f/ rdom;pk
wpfppk krmS bGm;bGm;vkd tusnf;wefol wpfa,mufwavyg&if bGm; bGm; uk,
d c
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d a&;ay;w,f/ [kw d pfacwf uawmh uav;wpfa,mufukd t&rf;atmfwm yufyuf pufpuf
ajymwm[m uav;wpfa,muf&JUpdwfukd b,f avmuf pdwf"gwfusapw,fqkdwm
owdrrlMubl;aemf/
ausmif;rSm tzdwfaeY wpfywfwpfcg Ak'¨bmomqki
d f&m edygwfawmf ykjH yifawGukd

38
em;axmif&½kHru? twef;wkdif;&JU pmoifcsdef tcsdefZ,m;rSmukd Ak'¨bmom oifcef;pmqkdwm ukd
owfowfygw,f om;BuD;&JU/
Oyrm-yxrwef;? 'kwd,wef;qkd r*Fvokwf/ wwd, wef;? pwkw¬wef;qkd avmueDwd/
yÍörwef;rSmqkd tjyif atmifjcif;/ qXrwef;rSm twGif;atmifjcif;/ ckepfwef; a&mufawmh Ak'¨0ifeJY
jrefrmpmxJrSmvJ ZmwfBuD;q,fbGJU xJu a0óEÅ&m? Zeuú? ok0PÖomr tp&SdwmtxJu wpftkyf
tNrJjy|mef;w,f/
tJ'Dawmh Ak'¨bmompmay[m ausmif;rSmvJ roif rae&? tdra
f &mufawmh
pmzwfcsdefra&mufcif nOD;ykdif;rSm bGm;bGm;wkYd armifESrawGtm;vkH;eJY uav;upm;azmfawG [m
bk&m;&Sdcd;k NyD; y&dwfBuD; q,fokwfukd &Gwf&w,f/ pm usufNyD; tdyf&m0ifcgeD;&if tarBuD;utp
wpftdrv
f ;kH vlBuD;awGudk uefawmhNyD;rS tdyf&m0ifMua&m/ 'Dvkd ausmif eJY tdrfeJY ESpfbufn§yfNyD;
uav;wpfa,mufukd Muyfrwf vmMuwmyJ/
rrwkYa
d usmif;awGrSmawmh Ak'¨bmomukd oifcef;pm wpfcktjzpf oif&vm; roif&vm; rodbl;/
bGm;bGm;rkv dY Y.
kd ...
avmueDwd? y0u©mrd? ememowå? ork'¨#H rm*a"ae0? oHacyH? 0E´dwGm? &wewå,H?
tp&Sw d Jh avmueDwdusrf;? tpuky d Jusu&
f if olwdYu k &,f w,f/
odyÜH? twwfESihf orHwlaom? "eHOpömonf? ew¬r d &Sd/
odyÜHtwwfukd? apm&m? ckd;olwYo kd nf? e*PSEd?Å r,lEi kd fue
k f/
£"avmau? þavmuü? odyÜHtwwfonf um;? rdwåH taqGcifyGef;jzpf\/
y&avmu? wrvGefb0ü? okcg0[H? csrf;om ukd aqmifwwf\/
jrefrmvkd &Sif;&Sif;a&;&ifawmh....
twwfynmESifhww l hJ Opömypönf;qkdwm r&Sdbl;wJh/
twwfynmukd ck;d olwkdY? rck;d ,lEdi k fbl;wJh/
twwfynm[m taqGcifyGef; tppfyw J /Jh
twwfynm[m vuf&Sd rsufarSmufb0rSmwif tusKd;ay;wm r[kwfbl;? wrvGefqdw k Jh
aemifb0 rSmvJ aumif;usKd;csrf;omukd ay;pGrf;Eki d fw,fvkdY....
qkvd w
kd m om;BuD;&JU/ rrwkdY? uku d dkwkdYuawmh bGm;bGm; tJ'D pmyJusuu f suf twef;BuD;vmvkdY
]]tMuifjrwfpGmbk&m;ocifonf? *d&darcvm trnf&a
Sd om qifud?k wufpD;xaom? tvGefzef
qif;tyfaom? vufeufEi
S fhwuGjzpfaom? wpf axmifaomvuf½kH;&Sdxaom?
Murf;wrf;pGmxaom? ppfonfESifhwuGaom? rm&fewfom;uk?d 'geyg&rD tp&Sad om?
w&m;wnf;[laom? tpDt&ifjzifh? atmifawmfrlavNyD/
rm&fewfom;ukd? atmifjrifawmfrlaom? jrwf pGmbk&m;ocif\wefckd;awmftm;jzifh?
tuREkfyftm;? jrwfaomatmifjcif;r*Fvmonf?jzpfygapownf;/
qkw
d Jh tjyifatmifjcif;? twGif;atmifjcif;awGukdyJ EIwfwuf½Gwf½Gwf? olwkdYu
bkef;BuD;ausmif;olrav;a[h vkYd aemufajymifwmyJ/ olwYkd ausmif;awGrSmawmh 'DpmawG oif&vm;
roif&vm; bGm;bGm; rodbl;/
om;BuD;&JUarar ]rd} BuD;vmawmh olaewJh ausmif;awG uawmh aocsmw,f/ 'gawG bmrS
oifray;awmh r*Fv okwfukd bGm;bGm;wkdYu tdrfrSm oifay;&w,f/ edygwfawmf vm
½k;d &mykHjyifawGua
kd wmh ntdy&
f m0ifcgeD;&if olUa':BuD; u olUukd ajymjy&wmaygh/

39
y&dw&
f Gww
f hJ tusifhawG bmawGvJ bGm;bGm;wkYv
d dk armifESrç rrsm;? olu
wpfa,mufxq
J kdawmh r&Gwfwwf bl;/ bGm;bGm; y&dw&
f GwfwmyJ ol em;axmifwwfawmhw,f/
om;BuD;&JUarar rdukd bGm;bGm;u r*Fvmw&m; ok;H q,fh &Spfyg;qkdwm 'gawGyJvYkd jrefrmvkd
&Sif;&Si;f yJ atmufygtwkdif; ajymjy&w,f/
1/ vlrkdufwYu
kd dk rrSD0Jrqnf;uyf&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
2/ ynm&Sa
d omolwkdYukd rSD0Jqnf;uyf&jcif;vnf; wpfyg;/
3/ ylaZmfxkdufaomolwYu
kd dk ylaZmf&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
4/ wifhtyfavsmufywfaomt&yfü ae&jcif;vnf; wpfyg;/
5/ a&S;a&S;aomukd,f\tjzpfü jyKtyfaom aumif; rI&a
Sd omol\ tjzpfvnf;wpfyg;/
6/ rdrdud,
k fukd aumif;pGm aqmufwnf&jcif;vnf; wpfyg;/
7/ tMum;tjrifrsm;aom ol\tjzpfvnf;wpfyg;/
8/ tjypfr&Sdaom twwfwkdYukd wwf&jcif;vnf; wpfyg;/
9/ aumif;pGmoiftyfaom 0denf;w&m;vnf;wpf yg;/
10/ aumif;pGmqkdtyfaom pum;vnf;wpfyg;/
11/ trdtbwkdYukd vkya
f uR;jyKrl&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
12/ om;r,m;wkYt d m; oN*FKd[faxmufyHh&jcif;vnf; wpfyg;/
13/taESmifht,Sufr&Sa
d om trIvnf;wpfyg;/
14/ tvSLay;&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
15/ w&m;awmfESit
fh nD usifh&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
16/ taqGtrsKd;wkdYtm; oN*FKd[faxmufyHh&jcif;vnf; wpfyg;/
17/ tjypf&da
S omtrIvnf;wpfyg;/
18/ raumif;rIrS a0;pGmMuOfa&Smif&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
19/ raumif;rIukd txl;ojzifh MuOfa&Smif&jcif;vnf; wpfyg;/
20/ aot&ufudk aomufjcif;rSm aumif;pGmMuOf a&Smif&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
21/ ukokdvfw&m;wkYü
d rarhravsmh&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
22/ ½ka
d otyfaomolwkdYukd ½kdao&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
23/ rdrdud,
k fukdEr
Sd c
fh s&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
24/ a&mifh&Jv,
G fjcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
25/ olUaus;Zl;ukd od&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
26/ avsmufywfaomtcgü w&m;awmfud k em&jcif; vnf;wpfyg;/
27/ onf;cH&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
28/ olawmfaumif;wkYq
d H;k r&m vkdufemvG,f&jcif; vnf;wpfyg;/
29/ &[ef;ykPmÖ ;wkdYtm; zl;ajrmf&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
30/ avsmufywfaomtcgü w&m;pum;ukd aqG;aEG; ar;jref;&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
31/ NcdK;NcHpmG usifh&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
32/ jrwfaomtusifhukd usif&
h jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
33/ t&d,mopöm w&m;wkYu
d kd odjrif&jcif;vnf; wpfyg;/

40
34/ edAÁmefukd rsufarSmufjyK&jcif;vnf;wpfyg;/
35/ avmu"Hw&m;&Spfyg;wkdYESifh awGUBuHKjim;aomf vnf; &[EÅmyk*¾dKvfwY\
kd pdwfonf
wkefvy
I fjcif; r&Sdonfvnf;wpfyg;/
36/ pk;d &drfjcif;r&Sdonfvnf;wpfyg;/
37/ &r®u[ f laom jrLuif;jcif;onfvnf;wpfyg;/
38/ ab;r&Sdjcif;vnf;wpfyg;/

ckvkd jrefrmpum;ajyeJY vG,fv,


G u
f lula&;xm;awmh om;BuD; em;vnfvG,frSmayghaemf/
wpfaeYuawmh Ak'¨uvsmP,k0toif;u qkay;yGJukd bGm;bGm; oGm;NyD;wufw,f/ qk&MuwJh
ausmif;om;ausmif; olrsm;eJw
Y uG wufa&mufwJh {nfhonfawG? oHCmpifay:u
oHCmawmfrsm;tm;vkH;[m r*Fvmw&m;ukd ygVdtwki d f; &Gwf qkMd u&awmh bGm;bGm;i,fi,fu
aecJh&wJh OD;bkd;xif ausmif;av;ukd oGm;owd&w,f/
]]aMomf....r*Fvmw&m;awmf[m raysmufuG,fao;yg vm;}} qkw
d Jh yDwd[m &ifxJrSm
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k ;f awG
b,fwdi
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d f r*Fvmpmay; yGJajzqko
d lawG wkd;wufvmw,f/ b,fNrdKUe,fawGuawmh
qkwf,w
k foGm;w,f pojzifhygvmw,f/ r*Fvmw&m;awmf ukd wk;d wufjyefy
Y Gm;NyD; ajzqko
d lawG
rsm;jym;vmwJh wki d f;xJ rSm bGm;bGm; arG;zGm;vmcJh&wJh {&m0wDwi
kd f;[m wk;d wufwJh wki
d f;xJrSmygvkdY
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ckawmhjzifh om;BuD;&JUarar ra&Trad ewJh ausmif;rsKd; aysmufNyD; ausmif;wkdif;[m
jrefrmh,Ofaus;rIyif&if;ukd tajcwnfvmvkYd bGm;bGm; 0rf;ajrmufygw,f om;BuD;/
ra&Trd i,fpOfuxm;cJ&
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d J rarhoifb
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d omfvJ ]rd} pdwfxJ rSm yifukd,f
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f wpfzuf xdef;ay;cJh&w,f/ vlwpfa,muf
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[myGiha
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d u
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bGm;bGm;wkw
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d fiHjcm;u "avhyp
kH Hukd ul;,l&rS
taumif;xif w,f/ jrefrmrSm t&ifwe
k f; u 'Dvt
kd ajccHr&Sdovkd ajym MuvGe;f vkYd bGm;bGm;
&ifemw,f/
r*Fvmw&m;awmfxJrSmygwJh tykd'a
f wGxJrSmukdu vlU jynfavmuD rsufarSmufrSm
b,fvdu
k siBfh uHNyD; avmukwå&m rSm b,fvkdae&r,fqdw
k m ygNyD;om;yg om;BuD;/ b,fawmh rS
jrwfpGmbk&m;ocif&JU w&m;awmfawG[m atmufajc rvGwfbl;/ rdrdud,
k fukd
aumif;pGmaqmufwnf&r,f/ rdr&
d JU ywf0ef;usifvJ b,fvda
k umif;atmif BudK;yrf;&r,f/ tepf
emcH&r,fqkdwm edygwfawmfvm ykjH yifawG trsm;BuD;yJ/ 'gaMumifh aemufyi
kd f;rSm om;BuD;ukd
rSwfavmufwJhykHjyifav; ajymjyoGm;r,faemf/

41
a&SUu bGm;bGm; a&;om;cJw
h t
Jh xJrSm bGm;bGm;uawmh ykp
H HroGif;vkdawmhygbl; ajymcJw
h ,f/
[kwfw,f/ vufcwf awG ykHpHawG rsm;rsm;eJY tkd;xdef;onf[m olUtkd;ukd ]]jyifvGef; awmhvJ
zifcRef;wwfw,f}} om;BuD;/
uJ....bGm;bGm;u ]]ighom;BuD;ukd cspfve G f;vkdY jrom;vkd udEé&m½kyfo@ef urÇmausmf
yef;ykq&mBuD;ac:NyD; xkvkyf xm;ygNyDw/Jh tJ'D t½kyuf av;ukdvJ aMu;rkHjyif (rSef) ukd aeYpOfMunfhovkd
MunfhcsifvGe;f vkYd {nfc
h ef;rSm xm;ygNyDwJh/
om;BuD;u jrom;vkd yx0D? awaZm? tmayg? 0ga&m qkw
d Jh "gwfBuD;av;yg; tpkta0;csnf;yJ
r[kwb
f l;/ om;rSm ]]twdwfuH}} u b,ffvkd ygvmovJqdw
k m rod/ ]]pdwf}} qkw
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50
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51
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txufudk oGm;avQmufawmh wmygyJvYkd em;pGefem;zsm; Mum;rdwmyJ/
(½IdU....wkY.
d ...pH....) qkdvdYk om;BuD;u *syefpum;vkY d xif raeeJOY D;/ *syefpum;rSm
(tkdcsDpH....tkdum;pH) qkw
d Jh (pH) toH xGufawG&SdvYkd toHjcif; a&moGm;OD;r,f/
(½IdU....wkY.
d ...pH....) u bGm;bGm;xGifwJh pum;vHk;yg/ ol wzufom;ukd ½IdUwkYNd yD;rS
uk, d u
fh kvm;xki
d fav; NrJNrJxdi
k fNyD; ]]pH}} pm;vkw
d Jh tcpm;pdwf&a
Sd om vlrsm;ukd
(½IdU....wkY.d ...pH....) vlwef;pm;vkYd bGm;bGm;u a0g[m&topfxGifwmyg/ wcsKdU vJ ]][ef}}
Munfhvdu
k f&if ½I;d tjynfy
h J/ olemrnfBuD;atmif olU[mol 0g'jzefYxm;wmuvJ tjynfhy/J
olUpdwf"mwfuawmh zufqpf*syefacwf vlvm;ajrmufvYv
kd m; rodygbl;/ *syefuu
kd yf ½IUd -wkdY-pH
tvkyf vkyfaewmukdjrifNyD; pGv
J rf;vm yHjay:w,f/ 'Dvv
kd w
l ef;pm;uawmh t*Fvdya
f cwf? *syef acwf?
z q y v tpkd;&acwfuwnf;u &Sa
d ewm ckxy
d g bJav? om;BuD;wkYa
d cwfa&muf&ifawmh
aysmufaumif;yg&JU/ yHkpHroGif;bl;qkdaomfvJ wpfca
k wmhrmS yg&ap/ ]]vQmjywfNyD; om aoygap/ ½IdU-wkY-
d
pH vlwef;pm;xHrsm;awmh bGm;bGm;&JU om;BuD; woufrygygeJ. Y ...}}
txufuvlBuD;rif;rsm;u bGm;bGm;tay: em;vnf MuNyD; apwemxm;MuayvkdYyJ/ 'guawmh
opömqkdwm wpfOD;u&Sa
d wmhvJ wpfOD;u &S&
d pNrJayyJu;kd /

54
]]cifEi
S f;,konf ckrS pma&;onfr[kwf? ,ciftpk;d & vufxufuwJu olUapwemtrSefeYJ?
olU ,lqcsufukd wifjyvmcJo
h nf/ 'gaMumifh cifESif;,k&JU apwemukd qufvufapmifMh unfy
h g}}
qkw
d Jh oabmrsKd;eJY oabmxm;jynfjh ynf&
h MSd uayvkYa
d ygh/ EdYkrY&
kd if bGm;bGm;awmhvm;/ 'Dpmtkyfawmif
qufa&;Edi
k frSm r[kwfbl;/
opömw&m;ukd vrf;aMumif;wpfct
k jzpf csrSwfNyD; csrSwf wJv
h rf;aMumif;twdi
k f;vJ usifhoHk;zkY?d
rif;bbu ajymbl; w,f/
]]....avmutoD;oD;&Sdw,f/ pmayavmu? wyfrawmfavmu? twGif;0ef½k;H avmu?
*Dwavmuponfjzifh &SdMuayw,f/ olUavmueJYol rlyi
kd fvu©PmawG&MSd u w,f/
wyfrawmfq&
kd if vGwfvyfa&;twGuf wku
d fyGJ 0ifcMJh uwJh tykdif;wkef;u aeyH?k xki
d fy?Hk qufqHyHk?
wku
d fyHk? tepfemcHyHk? oabmxm;BuD;yHk? jzpfovkd aewwfvkyf wwfykH?
uGufausmfu,
kd u
f sKd;rMunfbh J vkyfp&m&Sw
d m vkyfoGm;wwfykH? bmjzpfaeae tcsif;csif;
em;vnfNyD; wpfOD;ukdwpfOD; &JabmfpdwfeJY ulnDyH?k wGa
J c:oGm;ykH uav;awG[m wyfrawmf&JU
rlvy#doaE¨pdwfyJ/ rlv OmOfy/J wpfvwpfcg vpmukd vufrSwfxkd;,lNyD; pm;ae ayrifh
tJ'DrlvOmOfusawmh wjcm;tpkd;&XmeawG&JU rlvOmOfeJY rwlbl;/ 'DrlvOmOf raysmufoa&GU wyf
rawmfom; yDowmyJ/
wyfrawmf rlyikd fjzpfwJh opömw&m; &Sa d ew,fvkdY ac:&r,f/ 'DrlvOmOfay:rSmyJ acwftavsmuf
tjyif yef;tjrif ykp H HtrsKd;rsKd; aqmufwnfoGm;&rSmyJ/ tJ'D ae&mrSm 'DOmOf 'Dopömukd
ÓPfrsufpdeJY rjrifbJ tay: ,Hjyxm;wJyh kHpa
H vmufukdom MunfhNyD; avQmufvky&
f if awmh
rlvopömw&m; aysmufoGm;NyDvkdY qk&
d r,f/ rlv opömw&m; aysmufoGm;wJt
h csdefa&muf&if
wki
d f;jynf&JU tcsKyftjcmtmPmukd xdef;odrf;umuG,f&wJt
h yki
d f; rSm tcsdwftquf
ysufoGm;Ekdiw
f ,f/ uk,
d fawmhjzift
h J 'D rlvOmOfudk wG,fzufxm;w,f/ rlvOmOf aysmuf
ysufavmufatmif ay:vmwJh ab;tEÅ&m,f tao; tzGJutp tBuD;txdukd
uk,
d fwwfEkdiforQ umuG,f w,f/ aysmufoGm;rSm ESajrmvGef;vkdYyg/ tJ'DOmOfukd
oHa,mZOfw,
G v
f Ykd wpfaMumif;/ tcuftcJawGUae wkef; uk,
d fa&;MunfhNyD; cGr
J oGm;Ekdifbl;/
b,fb0u yg& yg& tJ'D toki
d f;t0kdif; tzGUJ xJrSmygNyD; vkyfae&rS wm0efausw,fvYkd ,kw
H ,f/
ywf0ef;usifeJY vlqw
kd Jh oabmawmhvJ &Sa
d yoayghav/ uk,
d a
fh pwemxm; awmh uk,
d u
f vJ
jyefxm;&wmyJ/
tJ'g[m rlvOmOfvdxk def;NyD; oHa,mZOfeYJukd ayaw aeyghr,fqkdwJh opömw&m;
vrf;aMumif;ukd csrSwfvkduf wmyJ/ tJ'vD rf;aMumif;xJu rxGufrad tmufvJ b,f
vka
d vmfu"HeJYawGUawGU vrf;auGUroGm;atmif xdef; odrf;atmifhtnf;onf;cHNyD;aejcif;qkdwJh
oabmukd usifho;kH aew,f/ 'Dopömw&m;vrf;aMumif;ukd usifhokH; aewJh vIyf&Sm;rI[m
wyfrawmfavmu&JU ]]tvS}} yJ/
wpfcsdefwkef;u wyfrawmfukd vlcspfw,fqw
kd m tJ'D ]]tvS}} ukd cspfMuwm/
wjcm;avmuawGxuf xl;jcm;wJh ]]tvS}} yJ/ ukd,uf vJ tJ'gukd 0goemyg awmh 'D ]]tvS}}
ukd vkyfae&w,f/ vc&w,f? aiG &w,fqda k yrJh tJ'D ]]tvS}} ryg&if w,fpdwfrygcsifbl;/ ig
xrif;eyfrSefrSef pm;&½kH vkyfaeygvm;qkNd yD; uk,
d b
fh 0ukd jrifjh rwfw,fvYkd w,frxifbl;/ tvum;
tcsdefue
k fae&ovkdyJ/

55
tJ'DvkdyJ pmayavmurSmvJ oHa,mZOfnDp&m ]]tvS}} uGufwpfckawmh &Sa d yvdrhfr,f/ tJ'D
]]tvS}} ukd raysmufatmif wpfOD;csif; apmifx h def;zkdY opömw&m; wpfckawmh csrSwf&vdrr fh ,f/
csrSwfNyD;&ifvJ vufawGU usifho;kH Mu&vdrfhr,f/ tJ'o D pömw&m;awGukd (tkdif'D (tjrif) uav;rS
r&SdbJeJY aiG&NyD;a&m? vc& NyD;a&m? emrnfBuD; NyD;a&m? txufp;D &&if NyD;a&m? tmCmw eJY
yk*¾v"d|mef ESdrf&&ifNyD;a&mqkdwJh tjyifyef;tjrif aumif;wJh ykHpHukd tESpo f m&BuD; oabmxm;NyD;
vkyf ae&ifawmh vlxku arwåmjyefp&m ]]tvS}} uGuf ? oHa,mZOfnDp&m ]]tvS}} uGuf?
MunfndKp&m ]]tvS}} uGuf? wki d f;jynfu tm;xm;avmufwhJ tawG;tac: ]]tvS}} uGuf
aysmufrSmyJ/ tJ'D ]]tvS}} uGuf r&S& d if awmh pmayavmurSm xrif;eyfrSefrSef pm;ae&½kH vkyf
ae&ovkdyJ/ pmayavmu[m ysur f SmyJ/
*DwavmuvJ 'DoabmyJ/ jrefrmhtokdif;t0kdif; twef;tpm;tpk& H JU pdwfukd qGaJ qmifEi kd fwJh
av,l avodrf;? toH? wD;uGufeJY &o*Dw ryg&if *Dw r[kwa f wmhbl;/ ]]Armpdwf}}
0ifaeatmif rvkyfEkdif&if tm;r&Sad wmhb;l / *Dw&JU ]]tvS}} r&Sdawmhb;l /
tpkd;&XmeBuD;awG avmu uawmh rlvOmOf[m xl;xl;jcm;jcm; &SdvmcJhwm r[kwfbl;/
tqifhtwef;eJY at;at;ZdrfeYJ vkyfaeNyD; vcwk;d &zk?dY txufucdkif;wm vkyfzkdY?
tpkd;&trIxrf;OmOfukd tajccHwmygyJ/ ]]tvS} uGufukd tckawmh xnhfaew,f xifw,f/
'gayrJh rlvOmOfqw
kd mu azsmufzkdYrvG,fb;l /
uk,
d t
fh aeeJYawmh ]]tvS}} uGuf r&SdbJeJY vpOf 0ifaiGav;&½kavmuf H eJY vkyf&rSmawmh
odyfrvG,fbl;/ pGpJ &m opömwkdY? tvSwkdY r&SdbJeJYawmh odyfpdwfr0if pm;bl;/
'gaMumifh wyfrawmfavmuxJrSm aewmyJ/ wyf rawmf&JU ]]tvS}} uGuftay:
oHa,mZOfvJ &Sdw,f/ wyfrawmf paxmifuwnf;u uk,
d fwdi
k fygaeawmh oHa,mZOf
yk&
d w
Sd maygh/ ]]tvS}} raysmufzYv
kd J BudK;pm; r,f/ 'D ]]tvS}} uGuf[m wki
d f;jynf&UJ tcsKyftjcm
tmPm aysmufroGm;atmif xdef;EkdifwJhtm;eJY jynfp
h kH wJh tvSvkdYvJ ,kw
H ,f/ tJ'DtvSukd
ylaZmfr,f? xdef odrf;r,fqkdwJh ]]vrf;ay:ukd avQmufyghr,fqkdwm[m uk,
d &
fh JU opömw&m;yJ}} wJ/h

om;BuD;&JU bbu pma&;q&m r[kwa f omfvJ ol ,kMH unfwJh ]]opömw&m;}} eJU tvkyfvkyf&mrSm
wm0ef,l&m rSm pGJvrf;p&m ]]tvS}} taMumif;ukd bGm;bGm;eJY aqG;aEG; pOftcgrSm tcka&;jywJt h wkdif;
ajymjycJhw,f/ tJ'D ]]tvS}} [m tvkyfwdkif; wm0efwkdif;rSm r&SMd ubl;/ wpfOD;csif;BudKuf wJh ]]tvS}}
csif;vJ wlcsifrSwr l ,f/ olUtzkYa
d wmh vlvm; ajrmufuwnf;u tJ'Dtoki d f;t0ki
d f;? tJ'D ]]tvS}} eJY
wGNJ yD; BuD;vmwmuk;d / MumawmhvJ pGJvrf;aeygvdrr fh ,f/
bGm;bGm;wkdY pmayavmu (tEkynmavmu) rSm omNyD; ]opöm} w&m;&JU ]]tvS}} ty[m
&Tef;jrawmufy aeapcsifwmaygh/ okYa
d omfvJ bGm;bGm;txufu ajymcJw
h Jh ½IdU-wkY-
d pH
vlwef;pm;wcsKdUaMumifh uk, d p fh maye,fom; tcsif; csif; owfrSwfxm;wJh pmayabmif[m
usOf;vGef;vm& w,f/ Zmwfwlom;csif; w,fpm;csifouk;d / pmaye,frSm igom txufpD;&ç&r,f/
ighpmom yHkEy Sd f&r,f/ ig-ig vkyfNyD; olrsm;ykwfcwfwJh oabm,kwf&Sdae&if y&dowfu vufrcH
awmhbl;/ pmukd pdefpDxm;ayr,fh y&dowfu twGif; tjyif odww Jh pfaeY vSnMfh unfhrSm r[kwfbl;/
oabmr,kwfzkdY? oabmrykyfzYkd ta&;BuD;ygw,fav/

56
bGm;bGm;[m pmwpftkyfa&;&if tvGwfra&;bl;/ pm a&;wki d f; tmCmwuif;aMumif;
bk&m;a&SUrSm uefawmhNyD; opömqkNd yD;rS a&;wm/
Oyrm-pmwpftkyfa&;NyD; qkyd gawmh....
]]t&Sib f k&m;/ bk&m;wynfa h wmfonf þpmtkyu
f kd a&;ygawmhrnf/ rnfolUukr
d S
xdckdufvakd om apwem r&S½ d ;kd trSey f g/
vlwkdif; pdwfcsrf;ompGmjzifh aeEkdifMuzkdYudo
k m OD;wnf ygonf/ OD;Ek 0efBuD;csKyftjzpf
acgif;aqmifaom zqyv tpkd;& vufxufuwnf;u vlxktrsm;pk\ cHpm;&csuftay:
tajcwnfNyD; rw&m;bl;[lí awGU& aomtcsufrsm;ukd vufñId;xk;d axmufjycJhygonf/
þtcsufukd vuf&Sd txufvlBuD;tcsKdU odNyD;jzpfyg onf/ ,cifacwf txufvlBuD;tcsKdUvJ
odMuyg onf/ þrSefaom opömpum;aMumifh wynha
f wmfr onf 0wfaMumifpGefYí
edAÁmefa&mufaMumif; 0dyóem w&m;ukd uRwfuRwfvGwfvGwf tm;xkwfEkdifygap ownf;/
wki
d f;oljynfom; vltrsm;vJ csrf;ajrhom,mjcif; jzpfygapownf;....
vkYd tNrJ opömqkdw,f/ reuf av;em&Dxkd;&ifvJ rsuf ESmawmif rjrifbl;wJh ]]½IUd -wkY-
d pH}}
vlwef;pm;rsm;eJY txuf vlBuD;rsm;ukd tNrJ pl;pl;pku
d fpkduf tm½kHjyKNyD; 0dyóemÓPf ppfppfeJY
arwåmykYy
d gw,f/
0dygu0#f&d&
S ifawmh cH&rSmayghav/ tJ'Dawmh Armjynf tjzpfuyJ bGm;bGm;wkdY tdrfaxmifpktjzpfeJY
wlaeav ovm;/ bGm;bGm;wkdY tdrfaxmifpktjzpfuyJ Armjynftjzpf eJY wlaeavovm;awmh
rodb;l /
]]azaz0w¬K a&;wkef;uvJ olUrSm 'Dvt
kd azrsKd; tppfr&Sb
d l;}} vkYd bGm;bGm;
rdwfaqGwpfa,mufukd ]]½IdU-wkY-
d pH}} vlwef;pm;xJu wpfa,mufuajymw,fvYkd od&w,f/
tJ'Dawmh bGm;bGm;&JUrdwfaqGu ]]'Daumifrav; wkYd rsufpa
d tmufrSm BuD;vmwmyg
armif&if&,f/ olUtazBuD; taMumif; wkYd todq;kH yg/ pmxJutwki
d f; trSey
f gyJ/ ckxd touf&Sif&uf
&Sy
d gw,f/ taMumif;od½kHuav; ckepf&uf avmuf tJ'DtazBuD;eJY twlaeMunfhygvm;}} vkdY
ajymvku
d f &w,fqkdyJ/
olwkdYawGtaMumif; tomxm;NyD; pmtkyt
f aMumif; qufa&;&OD;r,f/ ]]i½kwo
f D;q,fjym;bkd;}}
aqmif;yg;eJY ]]a&csKdwi
G f;}} vk;H csif;0w¬K[m txufvlBuD;rsm;u oabm xm; us,fjyefYpGmeJY
em;vnfMuygaomfvJ rif;bbBuD; OD;ykHpH u bGm;bGm;ukd t"dymÜ ,f&Sif;jyzkYd ar;ao;w,f/
]]þaqmif;yg;eJY 0w¬Kukd bmOD;wnfcsufeJY a&; ygovJ....}} wJh/
'DwpfcgawmhjzifhbGm;bGm;u olUukd tonf;ESvkH;wkYd bmwkYe
d YJ pum;rajymawmhbl;/ wku
d ½
f u
kd fyJ
yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajymjy&w,f/
]]tpwkef;u....ukBd uD;uyJ rdcsKd pmayorm;qkd wm opöm&Sd&w,f/ wkYd wyfrawmfrSm
opöm ]]av; csuf}} &Sdovkd pmayorm;rSmvJ &S&
d w,f/ rdcsKd&UJ pmay[m jynfolvlxkeJY
wajy;wnf;&S&
d r,f/tvkyform;? v,form; vlwef;pm;ukd OD;wnf csuf&Sd&r,f/ wki
d f;jynfeJY
vlrsKd;tay:rSm opöm&Sz
d Ykd uawmh wkYw
d yfrawmfeJY xyfwy
l J/
wyf&if;rSL;uawmfBuD;&,fvkdY armfawmfum;BuD; pD;NyD; armfawmfum;ay:u tjrifeJY
pmayukd ra&; &bl;qkd/
'DawmhvJ tcsKdUu yvufazmif;ay:avQmufNyD; yvufazmif;ay: vlwef;pm;eJY xdawGUorQ
i½kwf oD;q,fjym;bkd;ukd a&;½kd;trSefyg/

57
'Dx
h ufuo
kd abmygwJh umwGef;awG? aqmif;yg; awG? wki
d fpmawG? atmfpmawG? [moawG
wpfyHk BuD; wjcm;vlawG a&;Muygw,f/ a&csKdwi
G f; 0w¬K uvJ yefwyGwf aepOfwe
k f;u
BuHKcJh&wJh wu,fh tjzpftysufukd &yf&GmeJY emrnfvTJNyD; azmfjywmu vGv
J Ykd rSefwmukd
wifjycJy
h gw,f/ tJ'D v,form;? v,fulvD rdom;pk[m wu,fvJ&dScy Jh gw,f/ tzsufvJ
r[kwy f g/ rrSefwma&;wmqkd&if bGm; bGm;u (vIdifxdya
f cgifwif ajymovkd ]]ausmufpD "g;}}
qkw
d Jh pum;vk;H awmh r[kwfygbl;/ ausmufpD "g;acwfrS r[kwa
f wmhyJu;kd ) vufoH;k awmf
oHrPd aoewfeJY &if0om ypfvkdufygawmh}} vkYd ajym& awmhw,f om;BuD;/
cufygw,f om;BuD;? ajrBuD;ay:utaMumif; a&; awmhvJ ]]ajrBuD;apmfeHowJ}h } jzpfMuOD;r,f/
ajrBuD;eJY vç urÇmMum; tmumoc&D;ukd pwifoGm;MuwJh *g*g&ifwdYv
k kd vlwef;pm;taMumif;
a&;&ifvJ ½k&Sm;apmfeHw,fvkdY ajymMu ayvdrhfOD;r,f/ vçurÇm ajccsEki d fwJh trfpxa&mif;wkYu d kd
tm;uszYt kd aMumif;a&;&ifvJ ewfuç&m MunfharmNyD; tar &duefapmf eHowJhvYkd ajymMuOD;r,f/
'Dawmh bGm;bGm;jzifh cspfvSpGmaom pmzwfolrsm; vufcHxm;oa&GU bGm;bGm;rdom;pk
]]ydpdan§mufuyfav;}} taMumif;ukdyJ zGJUEGJUwifjy&wmyJ/ yki d fykdifEkdiE
f kdifvJ 'Drdom;pk taMumif;rSmyJ
&Sw
d ,f/
pmukd ra&;bJrS raeEki d fyJud;k / a*gufoD; 0goemtkd; awGvkdaygh/ tdrfawmf0efa[mif;
OD;MuLpdefBuD;[m a*gufoD; ½ku d faecsdefqkd olUcspfvSpGmaomZeD; rreDBuD;ukd vkH;0 owd r&awmhbl;/
aeylyl rk;d &Gm&Gm a*gufoD;uGif;xJ tcsdefwef &if qif;&rS/ at;....a*gufoD;u
½ku
d f&if;pOfxGufoGm;NyD; wpfa,mufa,muf oGm;rSefwwfovkd bGm;bGm;uvJ bGm;
bGm;rdom;pkav;taMumif; a&;&if;u pmvk;H awGu wpfcg wavpOfNyD: (tmCmw rygavbJ)
wpfa,mufa,muf oGm;rSea f eavovm; rod/ rSefwm&S& d ifvJ cGiv fh w T fzkdY awmif;yefygw,f/
wrif&nf&G,f&if; r&Sdygqkdwm/ wpfcg wav 'Dhxuf yki d fyi
kd fEkdifEkdif a&;csifwmawG&w Sd ,f/ [kt
d jrif eJY
a*smufwGef;rSmpkd;awmh csKdxm;&wmawG&w Sd ,f/
wwfEdkifygbl;av....uk,
d fucspfvdYk 'Duavmif &ifrSm yku
d Nf yD; 'Dc&D;avQmufcJhNyDukd;/ 'Dc&D; 'Dvrf;
Murf;orQ EkorQ cH&r,fqw
kd Jh cH,lcsufu pmaye,frSm &Sdxm;wmuvm;/ jzpforQtaMumif;ayyJaygh/
trSeaf wmh ]]a&csKdwGif;}} [m 0w¬Koabmayghav/ vk&
d mqG,
J laygh/ &nf&G,c
f sufvJ &Sif;ygw,f/
0w¬K ]tp} uAsmav;uom wpfrsKd;aygh/ uAsmukd t&ifpyfNyD;rS 0w¬K u aemufrSa&;wm/ uAsmqkw
d Jh
pmqkd &ifxr J Sm&SdwJh ]]tawG;}} ukd um&efeJY azmfjy&mrSm 0w¬Kvkdawmh r[kwfbl;/ uAsmq&m
qkv
d ckd sufukd okH;av;bufu jrifMu? MunfMh u? ok;H oyfavhvmMuwmyJ/ vGwfvyfpGm
awG;cGia
fh y;Mu&wmyJ/
bGm;bGm; a&csKdwGif; uAsmukd a&;pOfu wu,ft
h ajccH uawmh jyifyrSm vuf0J vuf,m
Eki
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h uFmukd &Gwjf y&r,fqkd&if....

63
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'gayrJh olMum;&wJh toHu cgwkdi;f Mum;ae&wJh toH rsKd;awG r[kwfbl;/

64
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armholudk acsmhjrLrQm;onfokdY

65
0ifpm;um onf;ajcBudKufvQifjzifh?
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66
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k m ok0PÖomr &S&
d muky
d kdYyg}} vkdY
awmif;yefwm aygh/

79
rif;BuD;vJ om;tavmif;ukjd rif&if ykr
d kdpdwfqif;&JrmS pk;d vkYd trsKd;rsKd; taMumif;jyNyD;xm;ayrifh
'kulveJY yg&dum [m wm;vkdYr&bl;/ 'gaMumifh rif;BuD;[m aemufqH;k ok0PÖ omr&Sd&mukd rdbESpfyg;
ac:aqmifvmcJ&
h awmhw,f/
om;tavmif;ukdjrifawmh rdbESpfyg;[m rdbwkYc d spf jcif;eJY jyif;pGm ida
k <u;wmayghav/ rdcifjzpfwJh
yg&dum[m om;ukdkukdiNf yD; rsufESmcsif;tyfawmh olUom;&JUuk, d f[m ylaEG;aeao;w,f/ xGufouf
0ifouf ESmacgif;avaiGUaiGU &Sa
d o;w,fqkdwm od&ifyJ? ighom;[m raoao;bl;?arhajrm
rdef;armoGm;wmyJ? 'Dawmh ig opömjyKr,fqNkd yD; opömqkd w,f/
]]ighom; ok0PÖomr[m a&S;tcgu ukokdvfw&m; q,fyg;ukd usifhaomoljzpfygw,f? þrSefaom
opömpum; aMumifh ighom; ok0PÖomronf jrm;qdyf aysmufap ownf;/
ighom; ok0PÖomronf a&S;üjrwfaom tusifhuo kd m usifhí [kwfrSefaom pum;uko d m
qkwd wfayw,f/ (vdrf vnfrajymbl;aygh) þrSefaom opömpum;aMumifh ighom; ok0PÖomronf
jrm;qdyaf ysmufapownf;/
ighom;ok0PÖomronf trdtzwkdYuv kd J vkyfauR;? toufBuD;olwYE kd i
S fhwuG rdbukd ½ka d ow,f?
þrSefaom opömpum;aMumifh ighom;ok0PÖomronf jrm;qdyaf ysmuf ygapownf;/
ig\om;jzpfaom ok0PÖomuukd ig[m ightouf xuf ykr d c
kd spfjrwfEkd;cJy
h gw,f? þrSefaom
opömpum;aMumifh ighom; ok0PÖomronf jrm;qdyfaysmufapownf;/
ighukd,fwikd faomf¤if;? cspfom; ok0PÖomr\ zcif ukd,fwi kd faomf¤if; trSwfrxif jyKvmcJhaom
ukokdvf aumif;rIrsm;onf trsm;tjym;yif&Sd\/ þjyKtyfaom ukokdvfaumif;rIwYa kd Mumifh ig\cspfom;
ok0PÖomronf jrm;qdyfaysmufapownf;/}}
tJ'Dvkd rdcifjzpfol yg&dum[m opömqkw
d ,fqkd&ifyJ ok0PÖomr[m wpfzufapmif;NyD;
arhajrmae&mu vIyfvm NyD; tdyo f wJh/'Dvkd touf&Sdao;w,fqw kd t
Jh jzpfukd od&ifyJ zcif jzpfwJh
'lukv[m opömqkdkjyefw,f/ yg&dum opömqkw d Jh pum;vk;H twki
d f; opömjyKvkdu& f ifyJ ok0PÖomr[m
aemuf wpfzufujkd yefNyD; apmif;owJh/
aemufqH;k tBudrfrSmawmh [kb
d 0u r,fawmfjzpfwJh A[kokE´&D ewforD;u opömqkjd yefw,f/
]]igonf tcsdefumvMumjrifp
h Gm *E¨rm'eawmifü ae \/ ighom; ok0PÖomrrSwpfyg;
wpfpHkwpfa,mufaom cspfjrwfEd;k tyfaomolonf igür&S/d þrSefaom opömpum; aMumifh ighom;
ok0PÖomronf jrm;qdyfaysmufapownf;/
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d nf eHo
Y mtwdNyD;í arT;aom&eHjY zifh
zk;H vTr;f ukef\/ eHo
Y m r[kwf aom wjcm;aom opfyifonfr&Sd? þrSefaom opömpum; aMumifh
ighom; ok0PÖomronf jrm;qdyfaysmufapownf;}}
'Dvkd rdbok;H OD;pvk;H opömqkdvu
kd w
f meJYwpfNydKifeuf? ok0PÖomr[m ikwfwkwfxNyD;xkdifowJh/
jrm;'Pf&m[mvJ tem&Gwfuav;awmifrusefbJ aysmufuif;oGm;w,f/ rdbjzpfwJh 'kulveJY
yg&dumwkdY[mvJ rsufpduG,&
f mu jyef NyD; tvif;a&mif&vmw,f/
eHeuft½kPfwufrSm 'Dvt
kd Hhz,
G fo&J wpfNydKifeuftjzpf ukd jrif&wJh bk&ifBuD;[m
odyftHhMooGm;wmyJ/
olUjypfrSm;rItwGuf cGifhvTwfzkdY ok0PÖomrukd rif;BuD;uawmif;yefw,f/ NyD;awmh b,fvkdjzpfvkdY
olUrsufpdatmuf rSm aoNyDvkdYxifwJh ok0PÖomr[m csufcsif;jyef&SifovJ vkdY rif;BuD;u ar;owJh/

80
]]t&Sirf if;BuD; rdbukdvkyfauR;olwkdYtm; ewfwkdYonf aq;ukoay;w,f}} vkYd ok0PÖomru
ajzwmaygh/

wpfzef rif;BuD;u ewfjynfa&muf&ef b,fuJhoYkd usifh &rvJ? oifrif;om; ajymjyygOD;qkdawmh


ok0PÖomru twkc
d sKyfNyD; rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg;ukd ajymjyw,f/
1/ tvSLay;jcif;/
2/ oDvaqmufwnfjcif;/
3/ pGefYBuJay;urf; csD;ajr§mufjcif;/
4/ NcdK;NcHpmG usifhjcif;/
5/ aqGrsKd;? a>c&H? rSL;rwf? jynfolwkdYEi
S fh rqefYusif jcif;/
6/ onf;cHjcif;/
7/ trsufapmif;rmef rxefjcif;/
8/ jynfon? wki d f;om;wkYt
d m; n§Of;qJuvl? tyl rwku
d fjcif;/
9/ El;nHhaom u½kPmarwåmuko
d m tcgrjywf a&S; ½Ijcif;/
10/ w&m;vrf;&Sw
d i
kd f; ajzmifr
h Sef&m oabmukdom tvk&
d jSd cif;/ ok0PÖomr[m
txufygtwki
d f; rif;usifhw&m; q,fyg;ukd a[majymNyD; rif;BuD;ukd ig;yg;oDv ay;w,f/
ig;yg;oDvuawmh-
1/ olU toufrowfjcif;/
2/ olUYOpömrckd;jcif;/
3/ olrsm;om;r,m;ukd rjypfrSm;jcif;/
4/ rkom;pum; vdrfvnfírajymjcif;/
5/ ao&nf ao&uf raomufjcif;/
rif;BuD;vJ ig;yg;oDvcH,lNyD; umoduwkdif;ukd jyef<u oGm;NyD; aumif;pGm rif;jyKw,f/
('D ok0PÖomr Zmwfawmfukd jrefrmpum;ajy ½k;d ½kd;eJY bGm;bGm; a&;aewkef; w&m;usp&m
aumif;vkdufwm/
'Dpmtkyu
f kd a&;vmpOfu bGm;bGm; ajymcJy
h gyaum/ bGm;bGm; i,fpOfuaecJhwJh
jrefrmpmoifausmif;? ausmif; tkyq
f &mBuD;[m OD;bkd;xifvkdY ajymcJhw,f/ ckyJ ol uG,fvGef oGm;NyD
qkw
d t
Jh aMumif; owif;Mum;&w,f/ aemufqH;k uef awmhjcif;eJY olUtavmif;ukd
oGm;a&mufuefawmh&w,f/)
uJav 'Dpmtkyfav;NyD;wJhtcsdefxd olom touf&Sif cJ&
h if 'Dpmtkyz
f wfNyD; ol
b,favmufMunfEl;&SmrvJ/ avmurSm ynmESihw
f a
l om tarG[m r&Sdbl;/ ]]ighwynfh ukd
wpfoufpm;rukefwJh tarG igay;cJh&ayw,f}} vkYd ol MunfEl;&SmrSmyJ om;BuD;&,f/ckawmh
'DpmtkyfawmifrS ol zwfroGm;&bl;/ auG; aomvuf rqefc
Y if? qefYaomvuf rauG;cif aojcif;
w&m;[m jrefvkdufwm/
(q&mBuD; tqkH;trukd rSND yD;? 'Dpmtkyfa&;cJhwm rkdY? 'Dpmtkyf a&;&jcif;aMumifh &&Sdaom
ukokdvf aumif;rI tzkYu
d dk q&mBuD; OD;bkd;xif trQ....&yg apownf;..../)

81
yef; ESifh vufeuf

bGm;bGm; apmapmu a&;jyovkdyJ? q&mBuD; OD;bkd;xif ajymwJh edygwfawmfvm


Zmwf0w¬KawGxJu Zmwfwpfckukd om;BuD;ukd yka
H jymovkd bGm;bGm; ajymjyr,f/
yxr a&;jycJhwJh r*Fvmw&m;awmfxJu tykd'feYJvJ qki
d fw,f/ r*Fvmw&m;xJrmS tao0emp?
tpcsDwhJ tykd'f rSm vlrkduw
f dYu
k kd raygif;&bl;/ ynm&Sdukd aygif;&r,fwh?J uk;d uG,&
f r,faygh/
oifhwifa
h vsmufywfwt
Jh &yfrSm ae& r,fqw
kd t
Jh aMumif;eJv
Y J oufqi
kd fw,f/
a&S;a&S;wkef;u Owå&yÍömvNrdKUrSm yÍömv rif;BuD; rif; jyKw,f/ awmBuD;wpfck&JU
awmif0rS f;wpfckrSm vufyHawm BuD;wpfck &Sdw,f/ tJ'D vufya H wmrSm bk&m;tavmif;[m
aus;rif;&JUom; jzpfawmfrlw,fw/Jh tJ'D aus;om;rSm nD av;jzpfwJh aus;om;wpfaumif &Sw
d ,f/
vufya
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d ,f/
awmif&UJ av atmuf (atmufzuf) t&yfrSmuawmh &aoh ig;&mwkY d aewJh ausmif;ocFrf;
(&aohausmif;) wpfck &Sw
d ,f/
aus;om;av; nDtpfudk tawmifaygufp t&G,f a&mufawmh avjyif;rkefwdi
k ;f BuD; tBuD;tus,f
wku
d fw,f/ avu jyif;xefvGef;awmh aus;om;av;awG&JU tokduf[m avxJrSygoGm;a&m/
tpfukdjzpfwJh aus;om;u &aohawGaewJh ausmif;rSm pku
d fysKd;xm;wJh yef;yGiha
f v;awGtv,f
usoGm;owJ/h 'g aMumifh olUukd ykyæu vkYd trnfay;w,f/ (ykyæu qkdwm jrefrmvkd yef;yGifhvkdY
t"dymÜ ,f&w,f)/ 'Daus;om;uawmh &aoh &[ef;wkdYtv,frSm BuD;jyif;vm&wmaygh/
olUnDjzpfwJh aus;om;av;uawmh olckd;wkdY&GmrSm olckd; awGpkxm;wJh vufeufykHay: usowJ/h
'gaMumifh olcdk;rsm;u owåd*krÁvYkd trnfay;w,f/ oluawmh olc;kd awGtv,f rSm
BuD;jyif;vm&wmaygh/
wpfaeYawmh yÍömv rif;BuD;[m rif;0wfwefqm tpkH tvif qif,ifNyD;awmh ta>ct&Hrsm;eJY
orifvu
kd fzkdY (orif zrf;zkY)d NrdKUeJY reD;ra0;jzpfwJh awmxJukd xGufoGm;wmaygh/ awmxJa&mufawmh
wma0w,f ac:&rSmaygh/ jrefrmpum; ½k;d ½k;d eJYajym&&if olUtyki
d f;eJo
Y l jcm;NyD; rif;csif;a,musfm; awGeJY
&Gmol&mG om;awGukd orifzrf;zkYd wm0efcJa
G 0wmaygh/ uk,
d b
fh ufukd ajy;xGufvmwJh orifukd
rvGwa
f tmif zrf;& r,faygh/
vlawG[m {PDqw kd Jh om;aumifwpfaumifudk awGUawmh qlqlnHnH awmacsmufNyD;
nmoHay;Muw,f/ &Sif bk&ifBuD;&Sdwb
Jh uf wpfckxJuom wdwfqdwfaew,f/ tJ'D om;aumifu
&Sifb&
k ifBuD; apmifhaewJhbufu xGufajy;vkY d vGwfoGm;a&m/ rSL;rwf AkdvfygawGu 'Dom;aumif[m
'gavmuf 0ki
d f;&Hxm;wJhtxJu b,fae&mu xGufoGm; ygvdrv
fh Ykd vku
d fMunfa
h wmh &Sifbk&ifBuD;
wm0ef,lwJhbufu xGufajy;rSef; odMuowJh/ bk&ifukd aMumuf&awmh ajAmif rajym&Jbl;/
olwkdYtcsif;csif; bk&ifBuD; Mum;avmufatmif ajymMuwmaygh/ (a&Torif bufuxGuf rif;BuD;wmu
xGuf) vkdY ajymifovkd ajymMuwmaygh om;BuD;&,f/
'Dawmh rSL;rwf AkdvfygawG ysuf&,fjyKwJp h um;ukd Mum; awmh? [kwfvJ [kwfaeawmh
bk&ifBuD;u &SufoGm;w,f/ &Sifbk&ifqw
kd m rif;pdwf rif;rmefv&
J a
Sd wmh ]]ighbufu xGuf ajy;wJhorif
ig t&vkdur
f ,f}} qkdNyD;awmh &xm;pD;NyD; {PD om;aumif xGufajy;wJhbufukd twif;vku
d w
f ,f/
rSL;rwf awGvJ aemufuvku
d faywJh rif;BuD;ukd rrSDbl;/ usef&pfcJh Muw,f/

82
rif;BuD;vJ rGef;wnft
h csdefavmufom a&mufa&m? om; aumifudr
k awGUbJ aysmufoGm;awmh
vSnfhjyefvmwmaygh/ vrf;ckvwf olckd;wkYa
d ewJh &Gmtem;rSm acwåem;NyD; tyef; ajz&if;
wa&;warmtdyfw,f/ tdyv
f Ya
kd wmh ESpfESpfNcdKufNcdKuf raysmfb;l / Ek;d vku
d f aysmfvdu
k faygh/ 'Dtcsder
f Sm
ck;d om;awGvJ&GmjyifxGufaecsdefqda
k wmh owåd*krÁaus;om;eJY xrif;csuf wJh ywd{umvkrÁ ESpfOD;om
usef&pfMuw,f/
owåd*krÁaus;om;[m &Gmjyifxu
G fMunfNh yD; &Sifbk&ifeJY &xm;xdef; tdyfaewmjrif&ifyJ wpfcgxJ
&GmbufjyefNyD; xrif;csuf ywdaumvkrÁukd ajymw,f/
]]ywdaumvkrÁ? &xm;rSmvJ ypönf;tjynft
h pkHeJY &Sif bk&ifBuD;rSmvJ em;a!mif;awG? &wemawG
pDjc,fxm;wJh ezl;oif;uspfawGeJY qif,ifxm;w,f/ ckvkdtdyfaewkef; t0wfwefqmawGujkd zKwf?
ywåjrm; em;a!mif;ukdvJ vk,l NyD;awmh olwkdYESpfa,mufvkH;ukd owfypfNyD; opf&GufeJY zk;H xm; &atmif}}
vkYd ajymowJ/h
xrif;csufu xGufMunfa
h wmh &Sifbk&ifre
S f; odNyD; aMumufwmaygh/ ]]toifaus;om; &Sifb&
k ifukd
'Dvkd rvkyf xku
d b
f l;/ wefc;kd tifrwefBuD;w,f}} vkYd ajymowJh/ 'Dawmh aus;om;av;u....
]]toif xrif;csuf[m odyfowådeJwmyJ? bmaMumifh ck;d & wku
d f&rSmukd aMumufovJ}} vkdY
ajymowJh/
'Dvkd owåd*kraÁ us;om;eJY xrif;csufeJY tjyeftvSef ajymaewJh pum;ukd tdyfraysmf waysmf
jzpfaewJh &Sifbk&if BuD;uMum;awmh 'Dae&m[mjzifh aevkdYoifhavsmfwhaJ e&m r[kwfbl;/
tEÅ&m,f&w
Sd a
Jh e&myJvYkd awG;rdww
Jh pfNydKifeuf olU&xm;xdef;ukd ol EI;d w,f/
]]&xm;xde;f tck tjrefxawmh? aus;iSuf ajympum; ukd ig rESpfoufbl;/ tckyJ
wjcm;wpfae&mukdoGm;&atmif}} &Sifbk&ifBuD;u tJ'v
D a
kd jymNyD; &xm;ukd tjrefq;kH jyifqif NyD;
armif;ESix
f Guo
f mG ;w,f/ owåd*krÁ aus;om;u 'Dvkd &Sifbk&ifeJY &xm;xdef; &xm;ukd tjrefarmif;ESif
ajy;xGuf oGm;wmukdjrifawmh ukef;atmfowJh/
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d eMu olckd;awG b,fajy;ukeMf uovJ? yÍömvrif; [m &xm;xdef;eJt
Y wl ajy;xGufoGm;NyD?
vku
d fMuygawmh vm;/ yÍömvrif;ukd vGwfroGm;apeJY? "m;awG vSa
H wGeJY vku
d f Mu zrf;Mu?
&wemawGukd vkyg}} eJY eif;uef atmfwmaygh av/ rif;BuD;vJ ck;d olwYa
kd ewJh&mG uvGwfNyD; &aoh
&[ef;rsm; aewJh ausmif;ocFrf;teD;ukd a&mufoGm;owJ/h
&aohwkdY[m opfoD;rsm;&SmazGzYkd awmxJukd xGufomG ; aeckdufqda
k wmh ykyæu
aus;om;av;wpfaumifom ausmif; rSm usef&pfcw Jh mayghav/ aus;om;av;[m rif;BuD;ukd jrif
w,fqd&
k ifyJ ,Of,Ofaus;aus;eJY csKdcsKdomom EIwfquf owJh/
]]t&Sirf if;BuD;/ t&Sifrif;BuD; <uvmjcif;[m aumif; aom <uvmjcif; jzpfygayw,f/ 'Dt&yfukd
b,fvdu
k dpöeJY rsm; <uvmawmfrlygovJ/ rif;BuD; tvkd&Sd&mukd rdefYMum; awmfrlyg/
]]wnfo;D ? vGefoD;? o&ufjzLoD;? ocGm;oD;awGvJ &Sy
d gw,f/ 'DtoD;awG[m ysm;&nfvkdyJ
csKdwJht&om &Sdygw,f/ aumif;Ekd;&m&m? t&Sifrif;BuD; BudKufwJhtoD;ukd pm;awmf ac:awmfrlyg/
(pm;awmfrlyg) awmifusprf;a&ukd cyfxm; wJt h wGuf a&rsm;uvJ tifrwef at;jrygw,f/ aomuf
a&tkd;xJrSm tqifoif&h y
Sd gw,f/ a&tkd;pifu cyf,lNyD; aomufyg? ok;H aqmifawmfrlyg/
]]þausmif;rSmaewJh &aoh &[ef;rsm;[m opfoD;&Sm xGufoGm;Muygw,f/ tuRefYrSmawmh
vufr&Sv
d Ykd ,lNyD;ray; Ekdifygbl;/ t&Sifrif;BuD; uk,
d w
f i
kd fxNyD; BudKuf&mokH;aqmif awmfrlyg}}

83
tJ'Dvkd aus;om;av;u csKdcsKdomom acsacsiHiHeJY ajym oHMum;w,fq?kd &Sifb&
k ifBuD;&ifxJ
at;jroGm;wmyJ/ wpf vrf;vkH; ajy;vTm;vm&vkYd armyef;wmvJ ajyoGm;wmaygh/ csufcsif;yJ owåd*krÁ
aus;om;ukd owd&oGm;NyD; &xm;xdef; ukd ajymw,f/
]]&xm;xde;f ? 'Daus;om;uawmh avmu0wfausyg ayw,f/ ({nf0 h wfausayw,f qk& d rSmaygh
om;BuD;&,f) aumif;ygayw,f? tvGefw&m;apmify
h gayw,f/ 'kYdrsm; yxrawGUcJw
h Jh aus;om;uawmh
]]'D rif;BuD;ukd zrf;Muyg awmhvm;? owfMuygawmhvm;/ vkMu? ,ufMu? vGwfroGm;
apeJY....}}qkNd yD; atmfvkduf [pfvu
kd w
f m tHhMop&mayyJvYkd rif;BuD;u &xm;xde;f ukd ajymowJ/h
rif;BuD;ajymwJp h um;ukd ykyæuaus;om;u Mum;awmh rif;BuD;ukd avQmufxm;owJh/
]]jrwfaom rif;BuD;/ oifrif;BuD; awGUcJw h hJ aus;om; [m tuREkfyf&JUnD jzpfygw,f/ tuREkfyfu
tpfukd jzpfyg w,f/ wpftlxkHYqif; rdcifwpfOD;xJu arG;zGm;vmwJh nD tpfukdt&if;acgufacgufrsm;
jzpfMuygw,f/ opfwpfyifxJ rSmyJ twlBuD;vmMuygw,f/ avrkefwi kd f;&JU'PfaMumifh
uREy kf fwYn kd t D pfukdESpfa,muf uGu J GmoGm;MuNyD; uREy kf f&JUnDu olckd;wkq dY D a&mufomG ;NyD; olckd;rsm;eJYtwl
BuD;jyif;vm&yg w,f/ uREkfyfuawmh &aohausmif;rSm a&mufvmNyD; &aoh wkdYeJYtwl
BuD;jyif;vm&ygw,f/ uREkfyf&JUnD owåd*krÁ aus; om;[m ol,kwfwkdYvufxJa&mufNyD;
vlrkdufwYe kd Yt
J wlae& NyD; uREkfyfuawmh ynm&Sd olawmfaumif;wkdYeJY twlae&wJh twGuf trlt&m
tusifhpm&dwå uGjJ ym;ygw,f/
]]jrwfaomrif;BuD;/ owåd*r k Á[m olcd;k rsm;? &Gmom;rsm; ukd owfjzwfjcif;? zrf;qD;jcif;?
vdrfvnfí aiGawmif;,l jcif;? &Gmukdzsuf? tkd;tdrfuz kd sufNyD; tEki d ftxuf vk,ufwJh tusifhukd
oif&ygw,f/
]]tuREkfyfrmS awmh &aoh olawmfaumif;wkYd &ifcGifrSm BuD;jyif;vm&awmh opömw&m;?
okp½dkufw&m;? rn§Of;qJ jcif;? apmifp h nf;jcif;? £ajE´ukd xdef;odrf;jcif;? csKdomaom pum;ukd
ajymqkw d wfjcif;qkdwhJ rdrdu, kd u
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tvGefMunfndKav;pm;pdwf jzpfomG ; owJh/

84
tJ'DtcsdefrSmyJ opfoD;&SmoGm;wJh &aohrsm;[m ausmif; ukd jyefa&mufvmMuw,f/ rif;BuD;eJYawGUqkNH yD;
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kd f vkyfauR;apw,f/
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k f; awm xJrSm vGwv
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xrif;b,fu jzpfoenf;

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tEébm&qkw
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85
aumif;csD;ay;ygovJ}} vkY d ar;owJh/
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f ljrwfukd
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wkid fyifNyD;rS olaX;BuD; ukd taMumif;jyefyg&apvkYd qkdowJh/
yapöuAk'¨g t&Sijf rwfqD ajy;vku
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a*gwrjrwfpGm bk&m;ocif vufxufa&mufawmh a*gwr jrwfpGmbk&m; ocif&JU
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f ,f/

86
rdcifvkyw
f o
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'Dawmh odatmif jyKrS yJvkdY}} pOf;pm;rdw,f/
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f pfct
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vSL'gef;cJhwJh 'geaMumifh NrdKUapmife
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tJ'DvkdeJY tEk½k'¨grif;om;vJ t&G,f a&mufvmw,f/
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&[ef;jyKMuw,f/
'Dawmh r[merftrnf&dSwJh omuD0ifrif;u tEk½'
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trsKd;xJrSm wjcm; omuD 0if rif;om;rsm;enf;wl &[ef;jyKoifw
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87
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pum;[m odyfwefzd;k &Sw
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88
toufyifaoao

wpfcgwkef;u Am&mPoDjynfrSm&SdwJh jA[®'wfrif; rif; jyKw,f/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm edaj*m"orif


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89
NyD;&if uRefawmfr oGm;í towfcHyghr,f/ eufjzeftwGuf wjcm;orifwpfaumifukd pDpOfay;yg}} vkdY
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90
tJ'Dtcsdet
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91
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w&m;a[mw,f/

92
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93
uyGJMunfa
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ra&TZifonf w½kwfjynfopfukd ZmwfcHkay:wGif &SmazG íMunfhonf/ Munf&
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94
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xrif;pm;yGJukd Munf&
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aemufaeYreufwGif yDuif;ukd c&D;qufxGuf&eftwGuf jyifqif&jyefonf/


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okYa
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95
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96
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wrsKd;jzpfaejyefonf/ tpnf;ta0;onf cPyif usif;yí NyD;qHk;oGm;onf/
tu,fí jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;ukd þvkt
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ö xd yGifhvif;&Jwif;pGm
ar;Muayrnf/

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G fvnfwJhtcg uRefawmfeJYtwl
vku
d fygcifAsm}}
rpöwm&efonf t*Fvdyfvkd oGufvufpGm ajym&if; ra&TZifukd rdwfquf\/ ]&ef} onf
vlysKdBuD;wpfa,mufvdk £ajE´aumif;\/ olUcE¨mukd,frSm BuD;rm;xGm;usKdi;f jcif; r&Sd aomfvnf;
ykñSufao;auG;aomvli,fwpfa,muf r[kwf ay/ xlxJaom rsufrSefatmufrS olUrsufv;Hk rsm;onf
awG; awmBuHqwwfjcif;ESifh MuifemiJhñSmaom ESv;Hk om;rS wefjyef[yfaom ta&mifjzifh
awmufyíaeonf/ olU EIwfcrf;\ xlxJodyfonf;yHkrSm ol\ BuHUckdifaompdwf"gwf ESifh BuD;rm;aom
£ajE´ukd o½kya
f zmfíaeayonf/ trSwfwrJh Munfv
h Qif pma&;q&m uko
d ef;aqGESifh ]&ef} \ rsufESm
rSm qifqifwlayonf/
ra&TZifonf rSwfÓPfenf;aom rdef;uav;ayyJ? þ w½kwjf ynfwGif ]&ef} ESifh b,fwe k f;u
pwifawGU&Sdonf[l í rrSwr
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d &mufrS ]&ef} onf ol\ rdwfaqGBuD; wpfa,mufjzpfaerSe;f
owdxm;rdayonf/

97
]csL} uawmh ]&ef} xuf t&yfjrifhayonf/ ]&ef} onf pum;ukd cyfwnfwnfajymoavmuf
]csL} uawmh csKdcsKd NyHK;NyHK;pum;ajymwwf\/ jzLí Ekaom olUrsufESmrSm uav; i,fwpfa,muf\
rsufESmvkd tjypfuif;pifpGmESifh Munf Munfvifvif&dSayonf/ wpfcgw&H zkwfNyD;p aygifrkefYvkd
jzLjzLEkEkaxG;axG;av; jzpfaeayonf/ pum;ajymwki d f; olU acgif;ukd ñTwu f m ndwfum
ajymwwfayonf/
]]rpöwmcsLu tjyifudk xGufwht J cgrSm OD;oefw
Y Y?kd OD;0if; azwkdYeJYtwl vkduf&ygvdrfhr,f....}}
]&ef} u xyfí ajymvkdufvQif csLonf acgif;ndwfí jyjyefavonf/
trSeaf wmh jrefrmjynfukd jyefa&mufonfhtcsdefxd OD; av;oefYESifh OD;0if;azwkYd tonf;pGJco hJ nfrSm
csL\ csKdjraom tNyHK;rsufEmS jzpfayonf/
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w½kwjf ynfukd b,fol rS rrSDbl;uG,}fh } [lí OD;av;oefYu rSwc f sufcsayonf/
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kd f;jynf\ ,Ofaus;rI? wki
d f;jynf\
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Mum;vkdufovkd &Sd w,f? w½kwfjynfrS a½S;a[mif;pmayeJY trSwftom;awGukd rD;½IUd ypfw,fqw
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] &ef } \ ajzqky
d kHonf rSefayonf/ aEG&moDpHeef;awmf aqmif;&moD pHeef;awmfESi fh (Temple 
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xkt
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vGifhysHUíaeonf/ oDcsif;tjyD;wGif owif;ESia fh 0zefcsuftcef;xGufí vmjyef onf/
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h aeEkid fb;l }} wJh ]&ef}

98
u jidrfoufae&mrS vSrf;í pum;ajym vku
d f\
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k f0rfudpöudk at;at;aq;aq;eJY
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d f0rfjyóem[m
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]]uRefrpk;d &drfwmu xki
d f0rfukd wu,fvYw
kd ½kwfjynfr BuD;u0ifjyD;wkdur
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kd d&
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d aeeJUu aea&mifatmufrSm
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[kefrSefwJhtaMumif; cki
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f &;xk;d Mu ygw,f/ jyD;awmhvnf; tar&duefu
ajymw,f? olwYkd jynfaxmifpkumuG,fa&;twGuf tar&duefppfwyfrsm;udk xki
d f0rfuRef;ay:rSm
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d f;jynfukd umuG,f&eftwGufvYq
kd djk yD;
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r[kwE f i
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'kwd,urÇmppfBuD; rjzpfay:cifu zufqpf0g' &JU qk;d oGr;f vmr,fh tajctaeukd jrifyg&ufeJY
urÇmhEkdii f H BuD;awG[m zufqpf&JU t<uif;tusef rD;p? rD;eukd tNyD;wkdif rokwfoifchJbl;wJh/
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pum;pjywfí ukd,ft
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tar&duefwY\ kd awmfvSefa&; orkdif;ukdvnf; zwfMu&if; wki d f;jynfcspfpdwf awmfvSefa&;
pdwfwdYo
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t*FvdyfwYv kd ufatmufwGif awmfvSefa&;ukd BudK;yrf; Muukefaom tar&duefom;wkdYukd
aoG&if; om;&if;wku dY Jh okdYyif xyfwMl uifem cspfcifcJhMuonf/ tar&duefrS pmtkyf qkv d Qif
rufarmpGm zwf½IcMJh uonf/ tar&duefom;wdYk e,f y,fopfxa l xmifyHktcef;rsm;ukd zwf½I&onfrSm
rufarm zG,faumif;aom 0w¦Krsm;uJo h Ykd vli,fwYkd ESv;Hk om;wGif pGv
J rf;cJMh u&avonf/

99
,ckwavm &efukefwGif xyfwvJvJ xyfum xyfum jyíaeaom  For  whom  the  bell 
tolls}} ½kyf&Sif um;rsKd; qkv
d Qif ½ky&
f Sif\ t&omrSm MunfholESvHk;om;ukd pdrí
fh oGm;apavonf/
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a&;udy
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f Gif tar&duefukd
Munfñkd av;pm; pdwfay:vmonf/okYa
d omf ,cktcgwGif rsm;aomtm;jzifh ta&SUtm&S
awmifydi
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pmtkyq
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kd Qifvnf; ]bdef;} vkdyif udfi
k f&rnfukd vufwGeMfY u&ygvdr.
fh .../ 
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rxdawmhay/ nmaewmyg? 0g'jzefa
Y ewmyg....[lí pdwfxr
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&mZ0ifuv
kd nf; yxrurÇmppftxdrQom zwfvkdpdwf &Sv
d mMuawmhonf/
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h Ykd tvkv
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cspfpdwf0ifaeaom wki
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tar&duefom;wkYt
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awG;&if; awG;&if; 0efBuD;csKyf\ pum;wpfv;Hk ukd rqD rqki


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jzpfoGm;avonf/ tawG; &yfí ra&TZif Munfhvu
dk c
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G i
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100
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vlrI0efxrf; aqmif&u G f &m vkyfief;rsm;wGif jrefrmtrsKd;orD;rsm; rnfuoJh kdY yg0if aqmif&Gufyku H kd
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a&SUaqmifjcif;? vif aovQif r,m;yki
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101
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uRefawmfwYudk k,
d fudk uRefawmfwdkY vufudkifwkwftvkyfcNH yD; w½kwjf ynfoo
lY r®wEdkifiBH uD;udk
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k fcdkufzdkY twGuf avwyf? a&wyf? ukef;wyf pcef;awG ay;r,fq&
dk if uRefawmfwYdk jrefrmEdi
k fiHrSm
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k fiHawmftwGif;udk &efol? olvQdKawG? &efoltzsuf orm;awG apvTwfzdkYtcGifhta&;
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0efBuD;csKyfonf olp Y ;dk &drp
f dwfudk þpum;ESifh pcsDí zqyv tpd;k &tzGoJY nf rnfol\
vufuki
d fwkwfrS rjzpfEdkif onfh taMumif;? vufudkifwkwfqo dk nfrSm ud,
k fo@mef rSm
vl\udk,fo@mefjzpfí pdwf"gwfrSm wd&pämefpdwf"gwf jzpfaMumif;? vufuki
d fwkwfonf
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d ocifh toHuo
dk m jyefí[pfwwfaMumif;? xdkYaMumifh jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEdi
k fiHawmftpdk;&tzGYo
J nf olrsm; vufudkifww
k f tjzpfrcHbl;qdkonfh taMumif;udk
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k vonf/
ed*Hk;csKyfwGifrl 0efBuD;csKyf\ rdefYcGef;onf Nidr;f csrf;a&;odY k o,f,líoGm;avonf/ olonf
urÇmNidrf;csrf;a&;udk vdv
k m;
onfhtaMumif;? avmavmq,fq,ftm;jzifh ta&SUawmif tm&SwGifwif;rmrIrsm; avQmhyg;í
jyóem&yfrsm;ukd Nidr;f csrf;pGm ajz&Sif;apvkdaMumif;ESifh olonfaygufuGJawmhrnfh qJqJjzpfaom
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d ,rf;tkd;BuD;rsm;Mum;wGif ol\
Nidr;f csrf;a&;aMu;pnfoH ukd wD;cwfvu
kd favonf/ 'DEkdifiHESpfEi
kd fiHpvHk;[m qd;k wJh EkdifiHawG
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d E
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102
arwåmvIi
d f;oHwkdYjzifh jynfhíaeaom 0efBuD;csKyftoH onf npmpm;aeaom cef;rBuD;ukd
zH;k vTr;f í oGm;onf/ w½kwftrsKd;om;rsm;\ rsufESmrsm;onf wpfpkHwpfck xl;jcm;
aeovkjd zpfaeavonf/

xkn
d pmpm;yGJwGif jrefrmoH½Hk;tzJUG 0ifrsm;ESifh 0efBuD;csKyf tzJGUom;rsm;u {nfc
h H&aomyGJ jzpfayonf/
ra&TZifonf wpf0kdif;wnf;xkdifaeaom w½kwt
f rsKd;orD;tvkyform; rsm;ESihf rpöwmcsLwkYt
d m;
bJom;rsm;ukd vS;D jzwfí xnfa
h y; &onf/ tpm;tpmrsm;ukd *½kpu
kd fauR;arG;&onf/ þaeY rSm
trsKd;orD;wkE
dY Sifh aemufqHk; awGUqHk&aomaeYjzpf\/
xkn
d ESifh NrdKUawmf0efay;aom npm pm;yGJrv
S í
JG w½kwf trsKd;orD;tajrmuftjrm;
wufa&mufonfhyJu G dk rawGU &ay/yDuif;rS xGufcGmMu&ayawmhrnf/
av,mOfysHuGif;ukd oGm;&mvrf;wavQmufwGif t aqmuftODopfrsm;onf wpf&pfNyD;wpf&pf
jrifrh m;í vm onf/ rIy d Gifhrsm; yGiv fh movkd vsifjrefpmG wk;d wufvmay onf/
w½kwt f rsKd;om;wkYo d nf vlxktm;jzifh olwYjkd ynfopf tm; xlaxmifvsuf&SdMuonf/ Muyfrwfí
wif;rmaom pnf;urf;atmufwGif olwYo
kd nf vSyoef& Y Si;f aom yDuif; NrdKUawmfopfukd
wnfaqmufaeMuonf/
olwkdYenf;ESifholwdkY jynfopfudk wnfaqmuf&mwGif ]]tcuftcJrsm;tm;vHk;ukd
vGwfajrmufatmifjrifEkdifygap}} [lí ra&TZifu pdwfxJwGif qkawmif;rdayonf/
]]a':a&TZif&,f? uRefawmfawmh jrefrmjynfukd vku d fNyD; rke[ fY if;cg;pm;csifw,f....}}
0efBuD;csKyf\ pum;jyef uka d t;onf jrefrmvkd yDopGm vmíajym\/ olonf jrefrmjynfwGif
MumjrifhpGm aevmí jrefrmhtpm;tpmrsm;ukd ESpfoufatmufarh[ef wlay onf/
jrefrmoH½Hk;tzJUG 0ifrsm;ukd EIwfquf&if; pdwfxJrSm av;í vmonf/ aEG;aomaejcnfwYjkd zifh
awmufyaeonfh uk, d whf i kd f;jynfukd jyef&rnfh ra&TZifhrsufvHk;rsm;rSm awmufy aeoavmuf olwkdY
rsufvHk;rsm;u rIef&Dí aeayonf/ avrsm;u at;pufpufwdu k fcwfNrJyifjzpfí ESif;cJrsm;u vnf;
t&nfraysmfao;ay/ þtawGUrsm;ukd tNrJjrif&avav? jrefrmjynfrS aejcnfrsm;ukd
atmufarhMurnfrSm rvJa G y/
]]uRefrwkYtd wGuf a':a&TZif rke[ fY if;cg;ykdpm;vku
d fyg}} [lí oH½Hk;olwpfa,mufu qkdjyefonf/
rkefY[if;cg;onf Eki d fiHjcm;a&mufow l dYtk zkdY vGrf;qGwfatmufarhp&m rkefYwpfck ygvm;/
w½kwt f rsKd;om; rdwfaqGrsm;ukd vkduí f EIwfquf& jyefonf/
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]]jrefrmjynfukd jyefa&muf&if uRefawmfwkdY b,fvkd jyKpk w,fqdw k mawGukd cifAsm;&JU
rdwfaqGawGukd ajymjyygaemf uRefawmfwkdYukdvJ rarhygeJ}Y } [k rpöwmcsLu csKdcsKdNyHK;NyHK;ESifh vmí
ajymjyefonf/
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f nf/
av,mOfysHbufokdY ajcOD;vSnhfvu kd f&onf/ pdwfxJwGif yDuif;ajray:ü usef&pfoltm;vHk;tm;
aqmif;tcgwGif vufaqmifwpfca k y;csifonf/ xkv d ufaqmifrmS jrefrm jynf&dS ylaEG;aomaejcnfyif
jzpfayonf/

103
0efBuD;csKyfonf av,mOfwHcg;0rSaeí w½kwftrsKd; om;rsm;tm; vufa0S& Y rf;í
EIwfqufaeonf/ ol\ w½kwf jrefrmcspfMunfa&;tzJGUonf w½kwfjrefrm ESpfjynf axmif
cspfMunfrIwi G fru urÇmhNidr;f csrf;a&;uky
d g zefwD; Ekid fygap[lí ra&TZifu pdwfxu J
qkawmif;rdayonf/
av,mOfysHonf ajrrS cGmpjyKavonf/ ajrjyifay:&Sd vltm;vHk;ukd rIefrIefrTm;rTm;om
jrif&awmhonf/ pdwfxJrSm av;í wif;MuyfMuyfjzpfvmaomaMumifh tomrSe d f;í ae vkdufrdonf/
rsufpdxJwGif uav;rsm;? ¤if;jyif 0g;jcrf;rsm;uyfí csnfxm;aom uefwe k f&Sd *E¨myef;rsm;onf
wpfvn S p fh D ay: vmonf/ owif;pmq&mrsm;ESifh trsKd;orD;rsm;ukv d nf; yef;wkY\ d aemufwGif
jrifa,mifvmonf/
þwki d f;jynfonf yef;wki d f;yGifhMuonfrSmawmh rSefay onf/
okYad omf 0g;jcrf;wGifuyfí BudKuf&myHa k zmfjcif;ukd yef; av;wkY d rcH&vQif obm0twki d f;
yGifhvef;vSyayvdrfhrnf [k pdwfxJwGif xifjrifra d yonf/ w½kwfjynfopfBuD;\ yef;NcHtxGufwGifrl
þuJo h Ykd yHa k zmfjcif;onfyif ,aeYtzkYd olUNcHESifholUyef; yeH&íyif jzpfayonf/
ESif;cJrsm;zH;k aeaom ajrjyifukd EIwfqufí ylaEG;aom aejcnfrsm; jrL;wl;&m ajrjyifqDokdY
a&SU½IcJhygonf/

cifEi S f;,k
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kd f(jr0wD)

Eki
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Ekid f;jrpf&&
Sd mokYd uRefroGm;aomtcsder
f Sm qnf;qmcsdef jzpfonfukd roGm;cifuyif uRefr
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qnf;qmcsdey
f ifavm? Munfvifawmufyaom ae a&mifjcnfjzifh tm;opfwufzG,faumif;aom
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þaea&mifjcnf atmufwGif uRefrwkdY tm&S? tmz&duwku
d frSm pma&;q&m wkYd awGUqHMk u&ayonf/
uRefrwkYd tonf;ESvHk;wGif yGifhMu aom yef;rsm;ukd yGifhvif;pGm Munfh½IcGi&
fh Muayrnf/ vJvS,f cGifh
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f Gi fh
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ESpfcefYuyif Eki
d f;jrpfukd rjrifzl;bJEi
S fh cspfaeonf/ a&S;a[mif;tD*spfuk d Egyptain  ac:
(tD*spfNrdKUom;BuD;) 0w¦Kukd zwfNyD;uwnf;u rsufpdxJwGifjrifaeonf/ tdyf rufrufaeonf/
wpfaeYaomf tD*spfjynfBuD;ukd rsuf0g; xifxif jrif&ayrnf[k jyif;pGm,HMk unfco
Jh nf/

104
0w¦KxJwGif Zmwfvu kd o
f rm;awmfBuD; qDEl;onf Eki d f; jrpfurf;yg;wGif arG;zGm;vmoljzpf\/
olonf arG;puwnf; u Eki d f;jrpfa&wGif arsmygvmcJo h ljzpfonf/ t&G,fa&muf jyefawmhvnf;
Eki
d f;jrpfay:wGif a&yef;rsm;wzGm;zGm;wuf atmif avSmc f wfomG ;aom tD*spfavSBuD;rsm;ukdMunfhum
olonf tm;wufonfhtcgvnf; wufcJh\/ 0rf;enf;onfh tcgvnf; enf;cJhonf/
okYad omf 0w¦KqHk;umeD;wGifrl olUwki d f;jynftajctae Munfhum olpdwy f sufc[
Jh efwlonf/
]]ae0ifcsdefukd Munfz h Ykd olarG;zGm;cJyh gwum;}} [laom ol\ nnf;ñlou H dk uRefr rarhay/
ol\ ,HMk unfcsufukd rpGefYvTwa f omaMumifh bk&ifu olUukd e,fESif'Pfay;cJo h nf/ olUukd
ay;tyfaom &mxl;ukd yifr,l? tm;vHk;ukd pGefYvTwfum e,fEi S f'Pfay;&mokYd xGuf cGmoGm;cJo h nf/
Zmwfvdu k fBuD; yg0ifaomtuGufwYw kd i
G f tD*spfwkdY\ ZGJ? owåd? ,HMk unfrIwYu kd dk cyfaphaphav;ay:
atmif qDEl;onf azmfjyoGm;cJo h nf/
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rsuf0g;xif xif jrif&ayNyD/ okYa
d omf Ekdif;jrpfurf;yg;onf a&S;a[mif; tD*spfr[kwfawmh? tm&yf
jynfaxmifpktjzpf trnfajymif; xm;aom acwfopftD*spfjzpfí aeayNyD/
uRefr tm;wufoa&m arQmfvifhwrf;wcJhaom tm&S tmz&durS pma&;q&mrsm;ukdvnf;
awGU&ayNyD/

uRefronf tonf;ESv;Hk \ vGwfvyfci


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wki
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f wGuf tpkd;&qDuvnf; r,l &if aumif;r,f?
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&ufvk;H vH;k vkdvkd oufqkdif&m wki
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kd mG ;&m rD;½I;wefaqmifozG,f jzpfygap[k
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yxr 2 &ufNyD;onfah emuf aumfrwDrsm; cJx
G i
kd f&mwGif uRefrtm;
wwd,aumfrwDjzpfonf.The  revaluation  of  the  History  of  Afro­asion  Peoples  and 
culture  wGif 0if a&mufaqG;aEG;zkY d jzpfonf/ okYad omf q&mZ0eu twd tus ñTeMf um;xm;jcif;rl

105
r&Sday/ 0ifa&mufaqG;aEG; vku
d vnf; aqG;aEG;? raqG;aEG;vkduvnf; aeEkdifygonf [kq\
kd / uRefr
jyifqifvmaom tqkv
d Tmukdyif wifjy [lívnf;rajym? rwifjyESihf[lívnf; rajymay/
okYa
d omf tpnf;ta0;xki
d fpOfwGifrl wjcm;wki
d f;jynf toD;oD;u tqkv
d Tmrsm; wifjyvmygvsuf
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jzpfrdayonf/ okYa
d omf olwkdYtcsif; csif; pum;rsm;aepOf wjcm;wki
d f;jynfrS wifvmaom tqkd rsm;ukd
uRefr uref;uwef;zwf\/ tpnf;ta0;cef;um; uRuu
f Run
f Hí aeavonf/ OuúXESifh
twGif;a&;rSL; a&G; cs,fíyif þtpnf;ta0;ukd xki
d frnfavm? twGif;a&;rSL; wpfa,mufyif
a&G;cs,fí olUtm; ulnDrnfholwpfa,muf wGz
J ufa&G;cs,fum tpnf;ta0;xki
d frnfavm/ xko
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wki
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pum;rsm;Mu awmhonf/ pum;rsm;aom tyk'd frSm yxrpum;csD;wGif yg0ifaom....
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uRefrum; uRefruavmifudk jrwfEkd;pGm &if0,fykduf xm;vku
d fyg\/
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d fyg\/

106
jrefrmEki
d fiHwGif aepOfuyif uRefr cspfjrwfE;kd aom tpk;d &tm; vpf[if;aeonfxifygu
uRefruavmifjzifh xkt
d csufukd &J0HhpGm wifjycJhygonf/ Oyrm ]]arQmfvifhvYjkd zifh rqH;k Ekdi}f } 0w¦KwGif
tajccHOya'\ tcGifhta&;rsm;onf pm&Gufay:rSmwif &Sdonf/ vlxw
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],Ofaus;rI} trnfcHí ]zsufqD;rI} oabm yg0ifvm aom tar&duef\ pmaytcsKdUESihf
taemuf,Ofaus;rI rsm;\ tEÅ&m,fukd uRefr0w¦Krsm;xJwGif azmfjyí ½IwfcscJh onf/ &ifqkdifí
wku
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kd r
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0DvD,0 H wf0'f uAsmrsm;ukd uRefr ESpNf cdKuf\/
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uRefr OD;jynfhpHktm; jyefajymaepOfwi
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olwdkYu *syeftqkdukd axmufcHayonf/

107
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b,fvdtk oGifey
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qefYusifzkdYq& kd if uRefr tqifoifhyJ/ 'gayr,f h (Particular)  emrnfBuD; azmfjyNyD;
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pum;jyefrav;url uGduGESifh trfykd;ukd ajymvku d f\/ ]]'Dvkdqkd tJ'e D mrnfawG aemufu
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d if;ajym&if;rS wuwnf;
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dk f;[m taemufzufwpfckxJ u vmwmr[kwfbl;aemf?

108
urÇmhav;rsufESmu tcsder
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uki
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kd fygrnfenf;/ tb,frSmvQif
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d omf
olUtoHum; a'gooHwkdY Mum;wGif aysmufuG,foGm;\/

109
cP&yfem;csdefwGif uRefronf q&mZ0etm; apmifv
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kd tjyifwi
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d g\/
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h HkeJY awGU w,f/ &SifwYq
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0ki
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h / pmayukd aqG;aEG;vkdvQifvnf; ]]pmay
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D dwfaqGrsm;
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f Sif tD*spfjynfom;wkY d uRefrwdkYtm; vkd avao;r&Sd
txl;{nfhcHykw
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k dr
k l uRefr txl;aus;Zl;wifrd ygonf/
tm&yf jynfaxmifpkor®wEkdifiH\ or®wBuD;emqm rSmvnf; olUpGrf;tm;&Sdoavmuf
olUwkid f;jynf\ tajc taetm;avsmfpGm yHa
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110
azazmf0g&Dv 10 &ufaeYwGifrl uRefronf ukdif½r
kd S ta&SUbufjrefrmjynfokdY jyef&ef
jyifqif&awmhonf/ q&m wkYu
d m; taemufbufokdY c&D;qufxu
G fMuayrnf/
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f Yo
kd mG ;aom av,mOfay:wGif uRefr ygvm cJ\
h / av,mOfysH jrifhwufvmavav uRefr
cspfaom Ekdif;jrpfukd jywfom;pGm jrif&\/
þork'& ´ ma&,mOf0,f Eki d f;? {&m0wD? tdE´K? &efp?D odrf;jrpf? a0gvf*g? rpöpöyDjrpfESihf tmarZH
tp&Sad om jrpf wkYo
d nf at;jrcsrf;Nidr;f pGm pkpnf;aygif;pHkEdkifMuygvsufuRefr wkYv
d lom;wkdYonf
tb,faMumifh at;csrf;pGm ,SOfwí
GJ rae Ekid fMuygoenf;/
aumif;uifwGif aevH;k onf wjznf;jznf; avQmus vmonf/
þqnf;qmcsdefum; nOfhtarSmifoYkd ul;ajymif;rnfh qnf;qmcsdea
f ywnf;/ yef;wkdif;ukdvnf;
yGifhapcsifygonf/ yGifhaomyef;wkdif;vnf; arT;apcsifygonf/ arT;aomyef;wkdif; vnf;
tEÅ&m,fuif;apcsifonfwum;f/

cifEi S f;,k
1962 ckESpf? {NyDv (jr0wD)

ZD0Zk;d

NyD;cJhaom ZGefvxkwf ½Ir0wGif uRefronf uko


d ef;aqG taMumif;ESiy
fh wfoufNyD;
]ca&mif;awmrS ½kwfjcnf;x} í [laom aqmif;yg;ukd a&;cJhygonf/
xka
d qmif;yg;xGufvmNyD;aemuf pmzwfy&dowfxHrS pmrsm;vm&mwGif
trsm;qHk;vmaompmrsm;rSm ]]uRefronf ukdoef;aqGtm; rSí
D (0g) uko
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kd m;vnf; pif wifay;yg&ef}} arwåm&yfca H om
pmrsm;ygonf/
xkp
d mrsm; rvmcifuwnf;u uRefrxHokdY pmrlrsm;? vufa&;ESiha
f &;xm;aom AvmpmtkyE
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vufca
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d jkd cif;yifjzpfayonf/
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jiif;qkdrdaomtcg ]]rcif,k 0w¦KrSmawmh olrsm;awG trSmpma&;ckid fNyD; olrsm; 0w¦KrSmawmh
bmaMumifh trSmpma&;ray;wmvJ}} [lí tajymcHcJh&ygonf/

111
uRefrpdwfxJrSm xifygonf/ trSmpma&;jcif;? pmtkyf rsm;ukd a0zefjcif;? pmrlwpfckukd
awmfrawmf &mr&m wnf; jzwfjyifqifjcif;rSm t&nftcsif;wpfck? ynm&yfwpfck[lí
uRefr,lqayonf/ uavmifwpfacsmif;ukdifí uavmifemrnfwpfckudk ,lxm;wki
d f;vnf;
txufygtvkyfrsKd;ukd vkyfEkdifvdrhfrnfr[kwf[í l uRefrxifayonf/ tb,f aMumifq
h a
kd omf
uRefrud,
k w
f i
kd fwGif xkt
d &nftcsif;rsKd; r&Sd aomaMumifw
h nf;/
udo
k ef;aqGü pma&;jcif;[laom twwfynmwpfck wnf;om &So
d nfr[kwf? pmrlwpfckukd
ydi
k f;jcm;a0zef qH;k jzwfwwfaom t,f'DwmOD;aESmufvnf; &So
d nfukd pmzwf y&dowfrsm;
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d o
Jh Ykd olu wnf;jzwfjyif qifNyD;aom pmrlukd xnf&
h efvnf; olu,
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pmrlrsm;ukv
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S fh pmrlrsm;ukd uRefrxH ay;ydMkY uonf/
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kd o
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yif vku
d í
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xifygonf/ yHa
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f wmh
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ygonf/
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pmaytaMumif; (okrdY [kw)f pma&;q&mjzpfva
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h yonf/ tb,fa h Mumifq
h a
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f di
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k kd tm;jyKí
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ajymjycJhygonf/ ]]rr pmrlawG ty,fcHchJ&bl;ovm;? uRefrawmh pNyD; pma&;uwnf;u
b,fr*¾Zif;wkud u
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d JhokdY

112
xl;jcm; aom yg&rD&Sifrsm;twGur f l pma&;q&mjzpfzYtkd aMumif;rSm tcuftcJr&Sday/
uRefrtzkYr
d mS rl tcuftcJaygif;rsm;pGmukd ausmfjzwf vm&½Hkru ,ckvnf; jyif&if;? qif&if;?
&Sm&if;? azG&if;? em;axmif&if;? avhvm&if;? rSwfom;&if;ESihfyif aoom oGm;rnfxifonf/
tvkyfuawmh NyD;qH;k rnfrxifyg/ tb,faMumifq h a kd omf pma&;q&mqko
d nfrSm bDat? trf at?
trfbDbt D ufpf tp&Sdaom ynm&yfrsm;uJhokdY ]]jy|mef; aom 'Dpmtky?f 'Dprf;oyfrIrsm;ukd
zwf½a I vhvmoifMum;NyD; jyDjzpfí oifwef;NyD;qH;k NyD? a&mh 'Du&Dwpfc}k } [lí ydki;f jcm;
owfrSwfxm;jcif;r&Sad omaMumifhwnf;/
tu,fí uk, d u
hf ,
kd fukd ]]ighpmay aumif;yg&ufe?JY pifwifay;aom t,f'Dwm okYr d [kwf
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pmayqktzJUG wGif vufa&;rlESifh pmrlrsm; vufcHaeNyDjzpfí rdrda&;csifonfrsm;ukd a&;om;ay;yka dY p
csifygonf/ uRefrwkYd acwfxuf tcGiht f vrf;omaeNyDjzpf í BudK;pm;Muapvkdygonf/

r*¾Zif;wku
d frsm;okv
dY nf; tm;ravsmhbJ a&;om;í ykYa
d pcsifygonf/ txl;ojzifh
aiGwm&Dr*¾Zif;wku
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S fh wuG
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S fcsufukd Munfjh cif;tm;jzifh t,f'Dwmrsm;onf omrefum&Sefum
vkyfaeMujcif;r[kwf? wpfOD;wnf;oabmESifh vkyfaeMujcif;r[kwf? aocsmpGm avhvmpdppfonfukd
pma&;vkdolrsm; owdjyKrdMuayvdrfh rnf/ xkYa
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d f;&ygvQif pma&;jcif; twwfynmrSm
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f ,
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kd f NyD[k rdrdu,
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pma&;jcif;rSmvnf; zwf½IrI[lonfrSmawmh zwfEi
kd f orQzwfvQif taumif;qHk;yifwnf;/
tawGUtBuHKavhvm rIwGif rl 0dyóemw&m;wGif tm½Hkajcmufyg;ü jzpfysuforQ a0'emukd
½I&ouJo
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d lwkdYonf uRefrwkYd ywf0ef;usifESifh xdawGUqufqHaezkdYrSm

113
tm½Hkajcmufyg;pvH;k vka
d yonf/ xkt
d m½Hkajcmufyg;wGif vma&mufxdawGUaom a0'emrS uRefrwkdY
pmayrsm; jzpfay:vmonf[k uRefr taeESihf ,lqrdayonf/ (trSef[w
k fonf[líawmh
wxpfcsrqkdvkdyg)
tb,faMumifq
h a
kd omf uRefrudkf,fawGUwGifrl a0'em [laom cHpm;rIr&Sb
d J uRefr bm0w¦KukdrS
a&;í r&aom aMumify h ifjzpfonf/
xkc
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l sm;?
rdrdtm;xm;aom q&mrsm; w&m;tm;xkwfol\ ESvHk;om;onf oDvjzifh yGwfwu
kd f
aq;aMumxm;onfjzpfí pifMu,faeouJo
h Ykd pma&;ol ESvHk;om;onfvnf; rSefom;aumif;aom
aMu;rHkjyifuJhokdY pifMu,faeoifhayonf/ xkr
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ESvHk;om;wGif xifxif&Sm;&Sm; trSet
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S f;
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abmifcwfcsifMuonf/ qk&
d S,fvpf pmayrS pmaytppf? qk&
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tus,f0dw¦m&zGifholawGvnf; tajrmuftjrm;yif/ wpfcg u uRefrMunfñkdaom
pma&;q&mwpfa,mufuyif qk&
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kd ftrsm;BuD;ESifh 0w¦Kukd
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Zmwfvdu
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f if vlU avmuwGif ujyoGm;&&Smaom Zmwfaumifvlom;\
taMumif;ukda&m pmayrSwfwrf;wGif rwif&NyDavm/
uRefrawmh pmayESifhywfoufvmvQif t&yfq,frsuf ESmukd zGix
fh m;apcsifonf/ 0w¦Kjzpfap?
wjcm;a&;om;p&m rsm;jzpfap? taMumif;t&mrsm;onf ajrBuD;? rD;zkr
d Sonf aumif;uifxktxd &S\
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Oyrm q&mZ0eonf aMu;rHkowif;pmwGif ol rEÅav; oGm;pOfu qDjyóem b,favmufcufcJí
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pma&;q&m OD;odef; azjrifhESifhawGUpOfu ]]rcif,k&,f? rif;wkYa
d cwfu pma&;ol awG[m
olwkdYpmawGukd vlawGem;vnfatmif ra&;Mubl;/ zwfwho
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d efukd oabmusí
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J Ykd olwpfyg;em;vnfatmif (0g) pmzwf ol raemü acsmacsmBuD;usatmif a&;EkdifvQif
aumif;aom[efjzpfonf[lí xifayonf/
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d r;cGef;ukd uRefr omí rajzwwfyg/ 0w¦KwGif

114
0w¦KwnfaqmufyHk yifrausm½kd;ta&;BuD;onfua
kd wmh uRefrodonf/ b,fvkd aqmuf&rnfua
kd wmh
rajymjywwfyg/ wjcm;ynm&Sifrsm; odvQif pmzwfolrsm;uk,
d fpm; uRefruyif awmif;yefvkdyg onf/
þ½Ir0r*¾Zif;rSm a&;om;jyMuapvky
d gonf/
o'´genf;rSefzkdYESihf pmvHk;aygif;owfyr
Hk Smrl oif,v
l Qif &ygonf/ uRefr0w¦Krsm;wGif 0gusrsm;
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116
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1964 ck? Zlvdi


k f (½Ir0)

117