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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

0wÅKwdkrsm; (4)
rpE´m

pm&dkufwifqufol vrif; (LinHtet Forum)


Editing & PDF vrif; (LinHtet Forum)
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

yxrtBudrf?
2001-ckeSpf? Mo*kwfv?
tkyfa& 1000
tzHk;yef;csD pHwkd;

yg&rDpmay
230? 29-vrf; (txufvrf;)
&efukef
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

rmwdum

1/ *smat;ukd &dkufygvkdU
2/ oHo&m
3/ rdk;nkdtwGuf apmifwpfxnf
4/ at;Nidrf;csrf;\ c&D;oGm;rSwfwrf;
5/ om"kESpfcg ac:vdkufyg\
6/ &DuGef;'D;&Sif;
7/ udkarmifarmifoef;\ pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;
8/ {NyDt&l; (2)
9/ vl
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

*smat;ukd&dkufygvdkU

pufbD;eDeDav; aemufbufwGif cHktydkuav; ygonf/ ypönf;


wifcsifwif? rwifvQifvnf; nDrav;NzpfNzpf? armifav;NzpfNzpfwpf
a,mufa,mufudkwifum pD;Ekdifonf/ araru ]orD;a& r*smat;
qD tpdwfom; oGm;0,fprf;} odkUr[kwf ]tmvl; tpdwfom; oGm;0,f
prf;} ]i&kwfoD;rIefU wpfrwfzdk; oGm;0,fprf;} [k rMumcP ckdif;wwf
onf/ xkdtcsdef xdktcgrsdK;wGif atmufem;u pkwfaeaom *g0efukd
vufwpfzufESihf pkukdifum BudrfNcif;tpkwfav;udkqGJNyD; cyfidkufikduf
oGm;rnhftpm; pufbD;uav;ay:okdU vTm;ceJckefwufNyD; armharmhu
av;pD;í oGm;csifprf;vSonf/ avt[kefxJwGif qHyifaysmhaysmhu
av;rsm; wvGihfvGihfESihf0JysHaeatmif pufbD;udk wtm;ukef eif;ypf
vdkufcsifonf/
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]tazuawmh aNymw,f? xDayguf&if 0,fay;r,fwJh}}


tkd;ykwfao;ao;uav;txJokdU &THUap;rsm;udk zdodyfNyD;xnhfae
aom nDrav;udk Munhf&if; *smat;u wpfOD;wnf;aNymonf/
]]xDu b,fawmhaygufrSmvJ[if}}
nDrav;u vSrf;ar;awmh *smat; enf;enf;pdwfwkdoGm;onf/
xdkar;cGef;\taNzudk olvnf;odcsifonfyif/ tazu xDaygufpOf
udkMurf;wGifNzefUNyD; xDvufrSwfuav; udkifum xDwkdufaevQif *sm
at;crsm &ifwvSyfvSyfckefaewwfonf/ ]aygufNyDuG} [katmf&if;
xrsm; ckefavrvm;[k tazhukd rsufawmifrcwf pdkufMunhfNyD;tuJ
cwfae&wwfonf/ okdUaomf tazonf wpfcgrQ xrckefzl;ao;ay/
xDvufrSwfav;udk ypfcsum acgif;cgonfudkom awGU&wwfonf/
]]'Dwpfcgvnf; rygNyefbl;uGm}} [laom toHudkomMum;&wwf
avonf/tarurl ]xDqdkwmBuD;ukdvnf; apmifhNyD; xdk;raecsifawmh
ygbl;uG,f/wpfaeUwkef;u xDqkdifem; a&mufao;w,f? ydkufqHxkwf
NyD;rS aiGESpfusyf tqHk;rcHawmhygbl;? uav;awGzdkU a&Tz&HkoD;rkefU0,f
oGm;wmu ydkNyD;vufawGUusao;w,fvdkU awG;rdwmeJU rkefUyJ0,fcJh
w,ftpfudka&} [k tazhukd aNymaeonfudk *smat; Mum;cJh&ao;
onf/ tazuawmh ]b,fawmhaygufr,fawmh rodbl;? aygufawmh
aygufrSmaygh orD;&m} [k tm;ay;wwfavonf/
]]tm Al;}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

tawG;aumif;aeaom *smat;\aygifay:odkU armifuav;u


zufwuf&if; AI;rIwfvdkufonf/ vufuav;wpfzufudk aNrSmuf&if;
*smat;\rsufeSmudk rrDrurf;ESihf vSrf;NyD;ukwfqGJonf/
]][ aumifav;? emw,f[}}
*smat;u armifav;ukd vSrf;zufum yg;udkerf;onf/ ESyfacs;
aMumif;xifaeaom yg;Nyifonf rarT;ysHUEdkifvSay/
]][if; arT;vnf; rarT;bl;? tvum; acs;tdk;wHk;uav;}}
armifav;\eSmacgif;0wGif ESyfawGNyLusaeoNzihf *g0eftem;
vSefum okwfay;&if; ]rrBuD;ukd cspf&JUvm;} [k ar;onf/armifav;
u olUrsufeSmudk vSrf;ukwfonf/ rrDawmh qHyifukd vSrf;NyD;qkyfqGJ
avonf/
]]tm; emw,f? emw,f? a[m'DrSm taza& armifav;udk Munfh
ygOD;}}
*smat;u wtm;atmfawmh tdrfaemufaz;wGif uefpGef;&Gufoif
aeaom tazu xGufvmonf/ wif;wif;qkyfxm;aom armifav;
\vufrsm;udk ulNyD; aNzay;onf/ armifav;u rausreyfESihfatmf
idkawmh ]a[haumif iqkd;? rif; awmfawmfqkd;aemf}[k Mudrf;armif;&if;
wifyg; zifaNymifuav;udk cyfqq&dkufonf/
]]tazhom; EdkUqmaeNyDvm;rS rodwm}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]at; qm&ifawmh ighEdkUyJ pdkUckdif;&awmhrSmyJ? tdrfrSmvnf; EdkU


rIefUukefaeNyD}}
tazu pdwfwkdawmif;pGmaNymonf/ tdyfa&;ysufoNzihf acsmif
usaeaomrsufeSmwGif yifyef;EGrf;e,frIu txif;om;ay:aeonf/
]]'Dvdkqkd taru tdrfrSmyJaeNyD;? armifav;udk ekdUwkdufaeygvm;?
bmNzpfvkdU tvkyfoGm;vkyfaewmvJ}}
nDrav;u &THUayaeaomvufudk *g0eftem;ESihf okwfvdkuf&if;
tvdkufuef;qkd;rodaNymawmh tazhrsufeSm ykdNyD;nkdoGm;onf/ nDr
av;udk tazpdwfqkd;NyD; atmfvdrhfrnf[k *smat; xifrdaomfvnf;
tazu ratmfay/ ]tazh0ifaiGeJU ravmufvdkUaygh orD;&,f} [k cyf
wdrfwdrfaNymavonf/
]]uJ orD;? armifav;udk xdef;xm;OD;? taz uefpGef;&GufaMumf
vdkufOD;r,f}}
taz rD;zdkacsmifNyef0ifoGm;awmh *smat;onf armifav;udk
aygifay:wif&if; ]udkudk uRefawmhfukd csmwdwfvdkUrac:eJU? emrnf&Sd
w,f rBudKufbl;od&JUvm;? udkudkeJUuRefawmf t&yfcsif;wkdif;Munhfr
vm;} [laomoDcsif;udkqkdum uav;xdef;onf/ olUtoHudk onf;
nnf;cHEkdif[efrwlaom armifav;u EIwfcrf;udkvSrf;NyD; ukwfqGJ
onf/ *smat;u acgif;udkiJhum a&Smifwdrf;&if;
]]rDcgeD;NyD? 'guav;vm;? tm; [m; [m;} [k qufí[pfonf/
]]*smat;}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

nDrav;u wkd;wkd;ac:onf/
]]igwkdUawGu qif;&Jw,faemf}}
]][ rqif;&Jygbl;}}
*smat;u uref;uwef; Niif;csufxkwfonf/ olUudk,folawmh
qif;&Jonf[k rxif/
]]'Dvdkqkd csrf;omvm;}}
]]csrf;awmhvnf; b,fcsrf;omrSmvJ}}
nDrav;aNymrS *smat;yif twefi,f awGa0oGm;onf/ qif;&J
vm;? rqif;&Jvm;awmhrod/ olwkdUwpfawG rcsrf;omonfuawmh
trSefyif/ tdrfa&SUu zkd;wkwfwkdUtdrfwGif uufquf&Sdonf/ ckewkef;
u olqkdaomoDcsif;udkvnf; xkduufqufrS Mum;zl;Ncif;Nzpfonf/
acgif;&if;u BuD;awmfat;wkdUtdrfwGifum; a&'D,dk&Sdonf/rsufapmif;
xkd;wpftdrfausmf&Sd ik0gwkdUtdrfwGifum; uufqufa&m? a&'D,dka&m
ESpfrsdK;vHk;&Sdavonf/ useftdrfrsm;onfum; *smat;wkdUeSihftwlwlyif
uufqufvnf;r&dS? a&'D,dkvnf;r&Sd? {nhfonfvmvQifvnf; xkdifp
&m ukvm;xkdifr&Sd? uRef;ckwifawG? rSefAD&dkawGvnf; r&Sd? uawmf
r,m;rsm;wGifvnf; pdef? a&TaNymifaNymifvufvuf r&Sday/ xkdUtNyif
tvkyfuvnf; vkyfMu&onf/ BuD;awmfat;u aps;xJwGif ukefpdrf;
a&mif;onf/ zdk;wkwfwdkUtaru taMumfa&mif;onf/ ik0gwkdUtaru
qD;xkyfxkyfonf/ *smat;wkdU taru t&ifwkef;u bmrQrvkyfaomf
vnf; tckawmh aq;&HkwGif vlemapmihfvkyfavonf/ wpfaeUukdq,fh
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

ig;usyf? ESpfq,f&awmh taraeUwkdif;om vlemapmihf&vQif tarh0if


aiGu tazh0ifaiGxufyif omonf/ 'Dawmhvnf; taruvlemapmifh
aomtvkyfudk bk&m;ay;aomtvkyf? odBum;ay;aomtvkyfvdk o
abmxm;NyD;? av;av;pm;pm; vkyfavonf/
reufrkd;vif;onfeSihf xrif;tkd;wpfvHk; wnfay;um yJNyKwfig;
rl;zdk; 0,fNyD; tdrfrS cyfokwfokwfxGufoGm;wwfonf/ naerdk;csKyf
NyD; zdk;wkwfwpfa,muf pmatmfusufaerS tarNyefa&mufvmwwf
onf/ tara&mufNyD; rMumrD tazu tdrfrS xGufoGm;&Nyefonf/
tazu owif;pmwkdufwGif vkyfonf/ nbuf tvkyfqif;&onf
[k aNymavonf/
]]qi;f&JvdkU wd&pmäef&kH ra&mufzl;wmaygh}}
nDrav;u rausrcsrf; xyfaNymawmh *smat;vnf; pdwfvuf
&IyfaxG;NyD; acgif;ukwfrdonf/ NyD;cJhaom rwfvuyif *smat; t
ouf igESpfNynhfcJhNyD[k taruaNymonf/ nDrav;u av;ESpf&SdNyD?
armifav;uawmh udk;vom &Sdao;onf/ olwkdUwpfawG wd&pämefO
,smOfokdU wpfcgrQ ra&mufzl;Muao;ay/ wd&pmäO,smOfwpfckwnf;
udkom r[kwf? a&Twd*Hkbk&m;? ql;avbk&m;? or®w&Hk ponfrsm;udk
vnf; ra&mufzl;ay/ u&0dwfqkdwm odyfvSaMumif;? xkdae&mwGif
a&cJrkefU a&mif;aMumif;qkdwmukdvnf; Mum;zl;&Hkom &Sdavonf/
]]tm Al;}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

armifav;u Al;rIwfNyefonf/ xkdUaemuf NidrfNidrfraebJ cg;udk


aumhfum atmfonf/ aNcaxmufESpfzufudk w'kdif;'kdif;aqmifhonf/
]]ay; igcsDr,f}}
]]tr,f EkdifvkdUvm;}}
*smat;u armifav;udk rEdkifreif; csDum vrf;avQmufonf/
olcsDonfu udk,fBuD;vdrfum cg;aumhaeoNzihf roufromNzpfae
aomfvn;f armifav;u acwÅawmh tidkwdwfoGm;onf/
]]taruvn;f tdrfrSmyJaeNyD; armifav;udk EdkUwkdufwm r[kwf
bl;}}
nDrav;u rausrcsrf; aNymNyefonf/
]]tckawmh rkd;vif;wmeJU xGufoGm;a&m}}
]]tvum; oGm;wmr[kwfbl;? tvkyfoGm;vkyfwmygqkdaerS? eif
uvJ}}
]]bmvdkU vkyf&wmvJ}}
]][ tazhvkyfpmeJU ravmufvkdUygqkd? wuxJrSyJ}}
]]'Dvdkqkd qif;&JvdkUaygh}}
]]at;[m at;[m qif;&JvdkU? qif;&JvdkU? tJ'g bmNzpfvJ}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

*smat;u a'goeSihfatmfonf/ olu nDrav;udk atmfNcif;Nzpf


aomfvnf; armifav;u vefUoGm;avonf/ *smat;\rsufESmudk plk;
pl;pdkufpkdufMunhfum 0g;ceJ xidkonf/
]]tkd;tdk;tdk wdwf wdwf? armifav;udk aNymwm r[kwfbl;aemf?
wdwf wdwf}}
armifav;u cg;udkaumhum vSefcsonf/ aNcaxmufESpfzufudk
ZGwf&kef;&if; wtm;atmfonf/
]]vdr®mygw,fuG,f? wdwfwdwf? u&0dwfukd vkdufydkUr,faemf?
a&cJrkefUawG pm;r,faemf}}
*smat;u olvkyfcsifonfudk olaNym&if; acsmhonf/ ckewkef;u
tdyfrufrufaeaom pufbD;eDeDuav;u acwÅrQ rSdefNyD;aysmufoGm;
onf/ pufbD;ae&mwGif u&0dwfa&mufvmonf/ oGm;vdkU&vQif u
&0dwfukd tckyif aNy;NyD; oGm;vkdufcsifonf/
]][aumif iqkd; atmfvScsnfvm;}}
pdwful;aumif;aeoNzihf olUab;okdU taza&mufvmonfyif r
odvkdufacs/
tazhvufxJwGif oHZvHkav;ygonf/xrif;udk qDqrf;qm;NzL;
NyD; xnhfvmavonf/
]]vm om;? rHrH pm;r,f}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

tazu xrif;qDqrf;ukd 0g;NyD; armifav;udk cGHay;onf/armif


av;u pm;aomfvnf; tidkaumif;aumif;rwdwfay/ oHk;av; vkwf
pm;NyD;awmh NyefNyD;axG;xkwfawmhonf/ xkdUaemuf wtm;idkonf/
]]olu EdkUbl;yJ pkdUcsifwm}}
]]wpfaeukef EdkUrS rpkdU&yJukd;}}
]]oMum;azsmfwkduf&ifaum taz [if r&bl;vm;}}
]]oMum;vnf; r&Sd? EkdUqDvnf; r&Sd? xrif;&nfvnf; r&Sdbl;
orD;&,f}}
]]taruvnf; EdkUrIefUukefaewm odom;eJU apmapmu 0,fay;cJh
ygvm;}}
nDrav;u tvdkufuef;qkd;rod aNymNyefonf/ tazu ouf
Nyif;omcsonf/ bmrQNyefraNymawmhay/
]]pm;yguG om;&? rHrH rHrH zdk;vrif;BuD;a& xrif;qDqrf; a&Tvif
Aef;eJU ay;yg/ rHrH xrif;ryg&if aeygapAsm? a&TvifAef;BuD;ypfcsay;
vdkufprf;yg rHrH}}
tazuacsmhNyD; auR;onf/ tazESihfarmifav;udk ai;Munhf&if;
*smat;onf ol\pdwful;urmÇxJokdU rD;a&mifpHkawGESihfxdefxdefvif;
aeaom u&0dwfBuD;ukdyg qGJxnhfvdkufonf/ u&0dwfu tNyefwd&
pmäefO,smOfESihf uefawmfBuD;udkyg 0ifNyD;vnfrnf/ pufbD;eDeDav;
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

udkvnf; ,loGm;rnf/ *g0efeDeDav; 0wfoGm;rnf/ zJNym;eDeDav;


pnf;oGm;rnf/
]]orD;wkdU xrif;pm;awmh? taz uefpGef;&Guf aMumfNyD;NyD/ ig;yd
&nfudkawmh tazzdkU csefxm;BuOD;}}
tazu ykvif;xJwGif a&xnfhNyD; armifav;udkwkdufonf/armif
av;u tirf;r&ESihf w>ywf>ywfpdkUNyD; a&rSef;odawmh EdkUbl;ukdwGef;
ypfum atmfavonf/
]]a[; rkd;&Gm&if rkd;a&csdK;r,f/ arar vm&if EdkUpkdUr,f? EdkUpdkUNyD;
&if om;om; tdyfawmhr,f? arara& vmygawmhAsm}}
tazu armifav;udk ycHk;ay:wGif xrf;&if; tcef;usOf;usOf;u
av;xJwGif acgufwHkUacgufNyef vrf;avQmufonf/ tazhaNccsu
odyfrnifomavawmh awhqufqufNyD; cif;xm;aom Murf;cif;rsm;
uRdceJ uRdceJ NrnfoGm;wwfMuonf/
*smat;wkdU nDtpfrvnf; wdwfwdwf qdwfqdwfyif xrif;pm;
Muonf/
]]tarvm&if u&0dwfvdkufydkUcdkif;OD;r,f}}
*smat;uaNymawmh nDrav;u acgif;cgonf/
]]igawmh raNymbl;}}
]]bmNzpfvkdUvJ}}
]]aNymvdkU&rSmrS r[kwfwm}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]&csif&ifvnf; &rSmaygh[m}}
*smat;u twefi,f pdwfysufoGm;onf/ nDrav;aNymvQif
rSefwwfonf/ taruvnf; aNymwwfonf/
]]ti,fru tvdkufuef;qkd;rod? aNymcsif&m aNymwwfayr,hf
vl&dyfvluJukd odw,f? aNymcsifvdkUom oufoufrJhqkd;NyD; aNymwm?
wu,f t wmu tBuD;r}}[k rMumcP aNymwwfavonf/
]]igawmh aNymMunhfOD;r,f? u&0dwfoGm;zkdUu xDaygufp&mrvdk
ygbl;}}
*smat;uawmh tm;cJxm;onf/ tarwkdU tazwkdU olUudk puf
bD; 0,fray;csifae? td&SH*g0efvSvS 0,fray;csifae? wd&pmäefO,smOf
av;? u&0dwfav;udkawmh wpfacgufwavavmuf ykdUoihfonf[k
olxifonf/
]]orD;wkdU armifav;awmh idk&wmarmNyD; tdyfoGm;NyD/ tazhudk
zsm cif;ay;OD;}}
tazu armifav;\ab;wGifyif vSJtdyfonf/ nDrav;u
acgif;tHk;,lvmay;awmh taz tdyfaysmfaeayNyD/
]]naeawmif a&mufaeNyD/ armifav;u 'DtcsdefBuD; tdyfae&if
nus&if tdyfawmhrSm r[kwfbl;? tarawmh pdwfnpfawmhr,f}}
*smat;u avSum;wGifxkdifum tarhudk arQmf&if;rS awG;rdonf/
]]tazuawmh oem;ygw,fav/ nus&if rtdyf&bl;wJh}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

tdrfa&SUrS zkd;wkwfu pmusuf&ef [efNyifaeacsNyD/ zdk;wkwfudk


ai;Munhf&if; ]aemufESpfus&if igvnf; ausmif;ae&awmhr,fwJh}[k
awG;rdonf/ vufa&;vSpmtkyfawG? twGufpmtkyfawG? cJwHvSvS ?
aywHvSvSav;awG vkdvmawmhrnf/ rkd;umav; wpfxnfavmuf
vnf;vdkrnf/tazu ]xDaygufawmh 0,fay;r,f} [líawmh raNym
wefaumif;bl; xif&onf/ odkUaomf ausmif;awGrzGihfcif ausmif;p
rwuf&cif u&0dwfEiS hf wd&pmäefO,smOfudkawmh wpfcgavmufa&muf
zl;csifonf/ olESihf ab;csif;,SOfNyD; xkdifr,hfoli,fcsif;udk u&0dwfrS
a&cJrkefU rnfrQpm;aumif;aMumif; aNymNycsifonf/
]]taz x x zkd;wkwf pmusufaeNyD}}
nDrav;u tazhudkEdI;onf/ zdk;wkwfpmusufNyDqdkvQif taz
tvkyfoGm;&cgeD;NyD/ xkdUNyif tarvnf; NyefvmcgeD;NyDNzpfonf/
]]a[m}}
vrf;xdyfu "mwfrD;wdkifatmufwGif tarht&dyfudk awGU&onf/
vufwpfzufu qGJNcif;udk qGJNyD; vufwpfzufu txkyfwpfxkyfudk
ydkufxm;onf/
]]tar vmNyD}}
*smat;u 0rf;omtm;& atmfonf/ avSum;xpfay:rS ckefqif;
NyD; tarhqDaNy;oGm;onf/ tarhvufxJrS Ncif;awmif;udkulqGJonf/
ydkufvmaom txkyfudk bmrsm;vJ[k armhMunhfawmh EdkUrIefUbl;Nzpfae
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

onfudk awGU&onf/ olUtwGuf td&SH*g0efav; r[kwfonfukdawmh


e*dkxJu odom;yif/
]]armifav; aumif;aumif;ae&JUvm;}}
]]edkUqmvdkU idkw,f}}
]]tif; edkUrIefUukefaewmudk;}}
taru yef;vspGmaNymonf/
]]taza&m oGm;NyDvm;}}
]]roGm;ao;bl;}}
]]tdyfaevm;}}
]]Edk;ygNyD}}
tarubmrQqufraNymawmh *smat;u ]]orD;wkdUvnf; xrif;
pm;NyD;NyD}} [kNznhfíaNymonf/ taru acgif;ndwfNyavonf/
tdrfem;a&mufcgeD;awmh *smat;u tarhvufudk qGJumaNym
onf/
]]tar tar}}
]][if}}
]]u&0dwf oGm;&atmifaemf}}
]]bm&,f}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]wd&pmäefO,smOfukda&mav? aysmfyGJpm;}}
tarhrsufESm wif;ceJNzpfoGm;í taNctae raumif;aMumif; od
aomfvnf; *smat;u aNymcsifpdwfukd rrsdKodyfEdkifay/
]]aemf tar? aysmfyGJpm;}}
]]uJ[m tJ'g aysmfyGJpm;? wuxJ 'DrSm arm& yef;&wJhtxJ? at;
at; pm;ae&&if at;at;aewmr[kwfbl;}}
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&nf&G,fNyD;ygoavm? r&nf&G,fygoavmawmh rod? twGif;tm;
awmh tawmfygoGm;yHk&onf/ *smat;crsm ausmaumhoGm;onf/]tD;}
ceJatmfum idk&onf/
]]EdkUrIefUyg&JUvm;}}
]]ygw,f}}
]]b,favmuf ay;cJh&vJ}}
]]&Spfq,fh ckepfusyf}}
tarhtoHu qwfaeonf/ *smat;onf olUausmudkolvuf
ESihf rrDrurf;yGwf&if; tazhudk vSrf;Munhfonf/ tazhrsufeSmxm;u
twefi,faysmhaeaomaMumifh tazhqD &dIufikdNyD; oGm;onf/
]]tar&dkufw,f taz}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

*smat;u tazhab;wGif uyfxdkif&if; &dIufoHESifh wdk;wkd;av;


wdkifonf/ tazu olUausmudkyGwfay;onf/ yihfoufudk rodrom
&dIufonf/
]]tar&dkufwm r[kwfygbl; orD;&,f}}
]]'gNzihf b,fol&dkufwmvJ}}
]]ol&dkufwmaygh &Spfq,hfckepfusyfwefBuD;av}}
tazu olUab;wGif tarcsoGm;aom EdkUrIefUbl;ukd vufESihf
ykwfNyavonf/

ayzl;vTm 1986/

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

oHo&m

]]arar}}
orD;u ac:vdkufonf/
]]wDcsmhzdkU ay;vdkufr,fqkd}}
]]tif [kwfom;yJ}}
arausmhvGifonf vufonf;qkd;aq;av;udk nDatmif owd
xm;í qkd;ae&if;rS tdrfrSm bmrsm;tqifoihf&Sdygvdrfh[k taNy;t
tvTm; pOf;pm;onf/
]]tawmfyJ? raeUwkef;uorD;azaz eufpfaumfzw
D pfykvif; vuf
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eufpfaumfzDrIefUu t*FvefNzpfawmh r[kwfacs/ tdEd´,NynfNzpf
Nzpfavonf/ odkUaomf ykvif;BuD;qkdawmh wpf&mausmfawmh wefvdrfh
rnfxifonf/
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]raeUwkef;u aroEÅmat;&JU taruawmh wDcsmhudk axmywf


wpfbl; ay;aewm awGUw,f}}
]][kwfvm;}}
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[k auseyfpGmawG;&if; pm;yGJay:&Sd ykvif;udk ,lMunhfonf/ tdEd´,
NynfrSmvkyfonf[laom pmvHk;ae&mwGif twefi,f pGef;ayaeonf
udk awGU&onf/
]]arar 'Dem;rSm enf;enf;ayaew,f}}
]]udprö &Sdygbl; orD;&,f? eufpfaumfzDqkdwm ykvif;u tzdk;wef
wmrS r[kwfwm? trIefU tzkd;wefwmyJ[m [kwfbl;vm;}}

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

]]tif; aomufvdkuf&&ifawmh awmfawmf t&om&Sdr,f}}


a':vSvSat;u tzHk;udkzGihfNyD; cJom;tydwfudk vufESihfyGwf
Munhf&if; awG;rdonf/ tomt,merf;Munhfrdawmh oif;ysHUaom&eHU
u &ifxJtxd xkd;azmuf0ifa&mufoGm;avonf/
]]'DESpfxJa&mufvmwJh uav;rdbawGu tawmfcsrf;omyHk&w
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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vSat;u udk,hfvdyfNym udk,fvHkavonf/ okdUaomf rdrdom;orD;ukd
awmh rsufeSmom &apcsifaom ausmif;om;rdbrsm;u aumif;Edk;&m
&muav;rsm; vufaqmifay;vmonfudkvnf; Niif;y,f&ef roihf
awmfay/
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wpfbl;qkd&if rqkd;bl;xifw,f}}
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NrdKUopfydkif;wGifNzpfonf/bwfpfum;oHk;wefavmufpD;&onf/ausmif;
uvnf; tv,fwef;ausmif;Nzpfonf/ ,ckausmif;uawmh bwfpf
um; wpfwefwnf;pD;&onf/ emrnfBuD; txufwef;ausmif;vnf;
Nzpfonf/ ,cifu rdk;vif;vQif ausmif;rD&ef uwdkufu&dkufoGm;?
ae0ifrS tdrfNyefa&mufaom a':vSvSat;onf ,ckawmh &Spfem&DcGJ
tdrfrSxGufum ausmif;tqif; aps;0if0,fNyD;rS at;at;aq;aq;
Nyefí&onf/ tdrfNyefa&mufonfESifh Ncif;awmif;csum om;ig;udkif
&if; OD;omaX;aus;Zl;BuD;vSonf[k rMumcP pOf;pm;rdonf/
eufpfaumfzDrIefUbl;&,f? udwfrkefUwpfvHk;&,fqdk&if rqkd;bl;?
enf;aeao;&if vdar®mfoD;q,fvHk; xyfxnhfvdkufr,f/a':vSvSat;
pOf;pm;&ifauseyfoGm;onf/
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]vufa&G;pif aumfzDrIefUawmif wpfaygif av;q,feD;yg;Nzpfae


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OD;omaX;u olUrdef;rtm; vSrf;aNymonf/ uav;oHk;a,muf
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]]b,favmuf wefrvJ rodbl;aemf}}
]]aps;xJrSmawmh awGUaeom;? 0,fzdkU pdwfrul;awmh aps;awmif
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]]vkyfygOD; rdef;r&? nus&if eufpfaumfzDav;udk oMum;ppfppf
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NcH7aomfvnf; wwfrsm;wwfEdkifvQif 'DvQmwpfacsmif;\ tvdkudkt
qHk;tpr&Sd vdkufavsmvdkufcsifonf/
]]udkudk&,f olrsm;uefawmhvdkU &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg;av; &vmwm
tvum; aomufrypf prf;ygeJU}}
]][ tvum; aomufrypfvkdU bmvkyf&rSmvJ? teHUyJ&Iae&rSm
vm;? tvSyJ Munhfae&rSmvm;}}
]]udkudkuvnf; cufawmhwmyJ}}
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ESihf vSrf;Munhfonf/
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]]udkukd *syefudk avhvma&;oGm;zkdUudpu


ö OD;armifarmifoGif NyD;
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]]at;av}}
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vnf; oDwif;uRwfwkef;u [dkNzLNzLydefydefq&mwpfa,muf vm uef
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]]tJ [kwfom;yJ}}
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pm;&if; NyHK;rdavonf/

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
]]q&m0efudk bmay;&rvJ pOf;pm;aewm tawmfyJ}}
a':wifwifpdefu tndka&mif wufx&uffpudk NzefUMunhfonf/
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bDcsKyfvdkU aumif;yghrvm;}}
]]aumif;ygw,fuGm ay;vkdufyg}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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awmh yifeDwdkufyHkav; wpfxnfavmuf vdkcsifonf/
]]'Dvdkqkd q&m0efudk bmay;&yghrvJ? rmrDu taNctaeodyf
aumif;wm r[kwfbl;? awmfMumae aq;&Hkqufcsif wufae&rSm}}
]]tJ'D eufpfaumfzD ykvif; ay;vkdufaygh}}
]][if 'Dwpfykvif;xJvm;}}
]]tck[m uBudKay;xm;wmayghuGm? aq;&Hkwuf&r,fqkdawmh
xyfay;wmaygh/ rwuf&bl;qkd&ifvnf; NyD;wmyJaygh [kwfbl;vm;}}
a':wifwifpdefuaumfzDykvif;udk vSrf;,lonf/ wpf&mausmf
avmufawmh wefrSmyJ? odyfawmh renf;ygbl;/ vdktyf&ifvnf; xyf
ay;vdkU&wmyJ/ 'grSr[kwf om;vdkcsifaewhJ wufx&ufpfpudkyg acsmh
awmif;NyD; wpfygwnf; twlay;vdkuf&aumif;rvm;[k trsdK;rsdK;pOf;
pm;&if OD;aESmufenf;enf; aNcmufoGm;avonf/

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

]]rdef;ra& 'DwpfywfxJawmh aumfzDrIefU"mwfpmusaew,f xif


w,f? wpfykvif; &vmNyefNyD}}
a'gufwmausmfrdk;vGifu olUZeD; arausmhvGiftm;vSrf;ay;onf
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]'DaeUawmh &ifxJ Nynhfu,fu,feJU? xrif; rpm;awmhbl;uGm?


aumfzD wpfcGufomay;}}
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b,fvkdrsm; Nzpfaeygvdrhf}}
arausmhvGifu aumfzDrIefUykvif;udk pm;yGJay: vSrf;wifvdkufum
yefumcvkwfudk enf;enf;avQmhcsvkdufonf/ cifyGef;onf tat;
ywfoGm;rSmudk pkd;aomaMumihf Nzpfavonf/
]]tawmfyJ? arausmha&? tJ'Dykvif; azmufvkdufygvm;}}
]]udkudkvGifuvJ? eufpfaumfzDqkdwm emrnfomBuD;om tdrfrSm
taph0,fNyD; udk,fwkdifMudwfwJh aumfzDrIefUavmuf t&om&SdEdkifyghr
vm;? arausmhuNzihf ukdukdvGif aumfzDppfppfaomuf&atmif aumfzD
aphudk aps;wumaps; ESHUatmifvdkuf&SmNyD; rNywf0,fxm;&wm}}
wkdufyHktusu
Ð dk ulcRwfay;&if; arausmhvGifu EIwfcrf;av;rod
rom plum cyfacsmhacsmhaNymonf/
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]uJ uJ 'Dvdkqkd aumfzDppfppfom azsmfapAsm;}}


a'gufwmausmfrkd;vGifu EIwfcrf;plvQif ydkívSaom ZeD;acsmudk
Munhf&if; Munfel;oGm;onf/
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Nrefvm[Jh}}
arausmhvGifu oufNyif;av; usdwfcsum aemufaz;buftm;
vSrf;atmfonf/ xkdUaemuf auseyfpGm awG;rdavonf/
]]tif; 'Dwpfcgawmh om;&JU wDcsmudk ay;vkdufOD;rS xifyg&JU}}

pHy,fNzL? 1986? rwf/

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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

rdk;ndktwGuf apmifwpfxnf

pdrhfNyD;at;aom todESihftwl tarEdk;vmonf/ ydef;ydwfatmif


arSmifaeoNzihf bmudkrQ rNrif&aomfvnf; tusJtpdyf rnDvSaom
0g;x&Haygufrsm;rSaeNyD; ESif;rIefazG;azG;rsm; yuf0ifaernfudk pdwf
rsufpdESihfNrifonf/ ydk;pm;NyD; aqG;pNyKaeNyDNzpfaom "edrdk;onfvnf;
eSif;rsm;ESihf &TJ&TJpdkaeayvdrhfrnf/ tcsdKUae&mwGif pdrfh,dkum usaeay
vdrhfrnf/
]]csrf;vdkufwm}}
csrf;vGef;oNzihf vIyfyif rvIyfcsif/ aNczsm;rsm;? vufzsm;rsm;u
at;pufum xHkusOfaeaomfvnf; rsufvHk;rsm;u ylaeonf/tmacgif
aNcmufaeonf/
]]ig zsm;NyDxifw,f}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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tdyfrufxJwGif tarhom; atmifcsrf;udk awGUonf/ olU[eft
wkdif; uGrf;awGwNrHKUNrHKU0g;aeonf/ eDMuifaomoGm;rsm;udkay:atmif
NyHK;&if; tarhudkMunhfum ]tarhiSufzsm;uvnf; ckxd raysmufao;
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

awmh ydefuyfyg;vSyfaom tar\cE¨mudk,fav;onf apmifatmuf


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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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vdyfNyD; av;oGm;onfrkdU ]a[m'Du wkdufBuD; oHy&moD;? oHk;vHk;rS
wpfusyfwnf;? aygwkef;0,fxm;? oeyfvkyfpm;}[k tmus,fygus,f
ratmfEkdifawmhay/ tckawmh taracR;r reef;tdonf tarhae&mudk
,lcJhNyDNzpfonf/ reufav;em&D rxdk;rDxNyD; uDvDaps;aNy;um tar
wkdU&yfuGufaps;uav;xJ ig;em&DcGJtrD a&mufatmif NyefwwfaeNyD
Nzpfonf/
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vm; tpfr&,f? 0,foGm;? NyKwfpm;? rap;awmh NyefvmaNymvSnhf
[kwfvm;} [kcyfwnfwnfaNymNyD;awmhvnf; a&mif;wwfaeNyDNzpf
onf/ 0,folwkdU "r®wm rap;awmhvnf; ][if ap;vnf; rap;bl;}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

[k tdrfu xrif;0dkif;rSmwGifaNymum NyD;&rnfhtaMumif;udk olodxm;


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rap;vQif NyefvmaNym[kom aNymvdkufNcif;Nzpfonf/ ydkufqH Nyefay;
rnf[k aNymNcif;r[kwfay? olUtaNymESihfolUtawG;ESihfawmh olU[mol
[kwfvdkUyif/
aps;uGJawmhrS [if;csufp&m0,fum uref;uwef;Nyefvm u
wdkufu&dkufcsuf&aom olUcrsm yifyef;onfuawmh trSefyif/tdrfrSm
usefcJhaomtaru xrif;wpftkd;udkyif tekdifedkifcsuf&Ncif;Nzpfonf/
[dkay:ukwfwuf? 'Day:zufwufESihf arsmuf&IH;atmifaqmhwwfaom
rkd;ndkudkvnf; NzpfaNrmufatmif rxdef;Edkif/ taraumif;pGm rqGJvGJ
EdkifoNzifh rkd;ndkcrsm [dkay:u vdrfhus?'Day:u vdrfhusESihf xdyfayguf
vdkuf? EIwfcrf;uGJvdkuf Nzpfonfuvnf; rMumcPyif/ 'Dawmhvnf;
reef;tdonf naeaps;qkdvQif rdk;ndkudk ab;wGifxdkifckdif;um ][Jh
aumifav; NidrfNidrfaeygqdk? eihfudkyg csdefcGifxJ xnhfNyD;a&mif;vdkuf&
rvm;} [k qkdum aNymumESihf aps;a&mif;&&Smavonf/
]]tif; eef;tdom r&SdvQif ighrvJ tcufyJ}}
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onf/ tarhom; atmifcsrf;u tarhtwGuf a,mxbDxufvnf;
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oGm;udk wusdusdMudwfum tdyfaysmfaeqJNzpfavonf/
]][Jh rdef;uav; eef;td? av;em&Dxdk;NyDav}}
]][kwfuJh tar}}
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]]tar csrf;w,f}}
rkd;ndku olUtar&ifcGifxJ wkd;0ifaecsifao;onf/ tarhukdwG,f
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]]tarBuD;eJU tdyfcsifbl;}}
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0if;ceJvufvmaom rD;cGuf\tvif;a&mif0,f tdyfcsifrl;wl;
ESifh ikwfwkwfxxdkifaeaom rkd;ndkudk awGU&onf/
]]oGm; rkd;ndk? eifhtarBuD;qDoGm;? reufvif;awmhrS aps;udkvmcJh
tar rkefUMumaph 0,fwdkufr,f}}
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taEG;tusÐudk0wfonf/ tqifqef;qef;? tuGufqef;qef;tusÐESihf


tvSBuD;vSoGm;aom olUtarudk rkd;ndku ai;NyD;Munhfaeonf/
]]eef;tda& NyD;yvm;a[h}}
]]at; vmNyD? vmNyD}}
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cyfokwfokwfNyefvSnfhvmNyD; EIwfcrf;eDqkd;onf/ rD;cGufu rD;nGefUu
,drf;xkd;vIyf&Sm;aeonf/ reef;td\t&dyfuvnf; 0g;x&Hay:wGif
w,drf;,drf; wEGJUEGJUNzpfaeavonf/
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avm eef;tdwpfa,muf odyfNyD;vScsifaeovkdyJ/tif; t&G,fuvnf;
i,fao;wmudk;/ aemuftdrfaxmifrsm; xlcsifaeyvm;rodbl;} [k
awG;&if; tarhpdwfxJwGif av;vHoGm;onf/ tckaersm; atmifcsrf;
udkawGUvdkufvQif taru ]icsrf;&,f eifb,foGm;aeowHk;?eifhr,m;
eef;tdu aemufvif,lcsifaeNyD[Jh} [kaNymum rsuf&nfusrdrnfvm;
raNymwwfay/
]]vm vlav;? tarBuD;eJU vmtdyf}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

ikwfwkwfxdkifvsufom; ikdufaeaom rkd;ndkudk vufqGJac:NyD;


a&eHqDrD;cGufudk rIwfvdkufonf/ t&dyfrsm; ,drf;xkd;vIyf&Sm;aeaom
tdru
f av;onf &kwfceJ tarSmifusoGm;onf/
]]csrf; w,f}}
rdk;ndkESihftwl ,SOftdyfNyD; *syfckwfapmifBuD;udk twlrQNcHKvdkuf
onf/ tay:bufuwpfzef olwkdUom;trd twlNcHKaom bmblapmif
udk xyfvdkufawmh av;NyD; aEG;oGm;onf/
]]aEG;oGm;NyD r[kwfvm;[if}}
]]csrf;ao;w,f}}
]]cPae&if aEG;oGm;rSmyguG,f}}
rdk;ndku tarSmifxJwGif Nidrfaeonf/ aEG;vmrnfhtcsdefudk Nidrf
Nidrfoufouf apmihfqkdif;ae[efwlavonf/
rkd;ndkonf olUtarESihf rsufESmNym;yHk? udk,fvHk;wkwfyHk?tom;NzL
yHkrSpí tawmfwlonf/ atmifcsrf;\ udk,fyGm;uav;&vdrhfrnf[k
arQmfvihfcJhaom tarhtwGufawmh pdwfysuftm;avsmhzG,fNzpfonf/
BuD;vmav tarESihfwlavrdkU reef;tdvdkyif xbD tusÐ0wfay;vdkuf
ygu reef;td tao;pm;av;yif NzpfoGm;vdrhfrnfxifonf/
]]aEG;vmNyDvm; [if}}
]]aEG;vmNyD}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

rdk;ndku wkd;wkd;aNymonf/ ae&mrS vIyfvdkufvQif tat;"mwf


0ifvmrnfpdk;[efESihf Nidrfaeonf/
]]tarBuD; apmifBuD;u odyfaEG;wmyJ}}
]]tJ'g vlav;taz ay;wJhapmifav/ vlav;rarG;cifuwnf;u
tarBuD; NcHKcJhwm}}
]]MumvSNyDayghaemf}}
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topfwkef;u rmawmifawmifhESihf NcHKíraumif;vSaomfvnf;
tckawmh aysmhNyD;tdvmonf/ raysmhbJ rtdbJvnf; rcHekdif p&onfh
aeUupNyD; aEG? rdk;? aqmif; OwkoHk;yg;ra&G; tar npOf nwkdif;NcHKcJh
onfrSm ig;eSpfausmfNyD; aNcmufESpfyif NynhfvkeD;ayNyD/
]aMomf ighom;BuD; igeJUcGJcGmoGm;wmvnf; av;ESpfausmfygaygh
vm;}
taru awG;rd&if; ESvHk;om;xJwGif pl;epfemusifaoma0'em
udk cHpm;&Nyefonf/ rsuf&nf0Jvmaom rsufvHk;rsm;u ylNyD; pyfae
onfukd owdxm;rdavonf/
ESmacgif;rS &Ixkwfvdkufaom avrsm;onfvnf; ylNyD;aEG;ae
onf/
]]zsm;NyefNyD xifyg&JU[,f? pdwfnpfygw,f}}
]]tarBuD; zsm;NyefNyDvm;}}
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]]at;}}
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av;ESpfom;omqkdaomfvnf; zsm;vQif aq;zdk;ukefrnfudkMudK
Nrifaom rdk;ndkukd twefi,f pdwfwdkoGm;onf/
]]eifhtar ydkufqHrukefap&bl;[hJ/ pdwfcs? ig aq;rukbl;
odvm; uJ}}
]]aq;ruk&if aorSmaygh}}
]]ao ao}}
taru cyfqwfqwfaNymonf/ 'DurmÇ? 'DavmuBuD;wGif bm
udkrQvn;f rwG,fwmcsifawmhay/ wG,fwmp&mqkdí aNr;wpfa,muf
om&Sdonf/ &SdonfhaNr;u udk,fhom;ESihfrwlbJ acR;rESifh cRwfpGyfwl
aeawmh pdwfu cyfysufysufNzpf&onfhtxJ 'DvkdtaNymrsdK;awGMum;&
awmh tarh&ifxJ emovdkvdk&Sdonf/ csD[,f ydk;[,f xrf;[,f ydk;
[,fESihf xdef;ausmif;Ncif;rNyKEdkifoNzihf uav;uvnf; olUtem;
wGif raysmfydkufonfudkawmh xnhfrwGufcsif? yHkwdkywfpuav;rsm;
aNym&atmifvnf; tarudk,fwkdif bmyHkudkrQ a&a&&m&mrod? a&T,kef
eSihf a&Tusm; oufu,f&dwfoGm;onfhyHkudkyif 0g;wm;wm;omod
onf/
]]tarBuD; b,fawmhraorSmvJ[if}}
rkd;ndku wkd;wkd;av;ar;onf/
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]]bmvJ eifu aoapcsifvSNyDvm;}}


taru uav;eSihfzufum &efNzpfcsifaeonf/ acgif;uwppf
ppfESifhudkufum &ifxJwGifysdKUNyD; Nynhfu,fu,fNzpfvmonf/ rxlEkdif
atmif zsm;awmhrnf[k olUudk,fol BudKodaeonf/
]]ighudk aq;uk&wm ydkufqHukefvdkUvm;? auR;&wm ydkufqHukef
vdkUvm;? eihftarydkufqHeJU igpm;wmr[kwfbl;/ighom; yifpif&Sdw,f
ighom;yifpifeJU igpm;wm? ighom;&JU t&dk;u ihgudkvkyfauR;aewm}}
taru uav;qefpGm avQmufaNymaeonf/ rkd;nkdu bmrQr
aNymbJNidrfaeavonf/ pdwfwkdif;rusvQif wzspfawmufawmufaNym
aeusNzpfaom tarhtaMumif;udk odxm;awmhvnf; olUtwGuf odyf
rqef;awmhay/ tararmNyD; NidrfoGm;awmhrS wkd;wkd;av;aNymonf/
]]tarBuD;aovQif tarBuD;apmifudk om;,lr,faemf}}
pdrfhNyD;at;aomtodESihftwl tarNyefNyD; tdyfaysmfoGm;onf/
tusJtpdyf rnDvSaom 0g;x&Haygufrsm;rSaeNyD; ESif;rIefazG;azG;rsm;
yuf0ifaeavonf/

uvsm? 1987? Zefe0g&Dv/

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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

at;Nidrf;csrf;\ c&D;oGm;rSwfwrf;

6? 4? 87
'DaeUn udk;em&D&xm;eJU orD;wkdU rEÅav;udk oGm;Muw,f?orD;
u toufckepfepfcGJ&SdaeNyDrkdU uav;vufrSwf0,f&w,fvdkU araru
aNymw,f/ armifav;uawmh wpfESpfcGJyJ &Sdao;vkdU vufrSwfr0,f&
bl;wJh/
rD;&xm; tdyfpifESpfa,mufcef;rSm azaz? arar? bGm;bGm;wihf?
armifav;eJU orD; tm;vHk;aygif; ig;a,mufvkdufcJh&w,f/ tm;vHk;
twGuf &xm;cu av;&mhaNcmufq,fusw,fvkdU azazuaNymw,f
araruvnf; ]vufrSwf&wm uHaumif;vdkufwm}wJh/
nusawmh orD;eJUazazu tay:xyf bGm;bGm;wifhu atmuf
xyf? armifav;eJU araruawmh Murf;ay:rSm om;a&Nym;cif;NyD;tdyf
Mu&w,f/ ae&mu usyfawmh rD;Ncpfbl;xJu rD;NcpfqHav;awGvdk
qefUqefUav;awG tdyf&w,f/ aiGav;&mhaNcmufq,f ukefNyD; Murf;
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

ay:rSm tdyf&wmudk araru ]uHaumif;vdkufwm} vdkUbmaMumihfrsm;


aNymwmvJ? orD; pOf;pm;vdkU r&ygbl;/

7? 4? 87
'DaeUreuf q,fhwpfem&D rEÅav;udka&mufw,f/ bGm;bGm;at;
eJU udknDykwkdU vmBudKMuw,f/ orD;wkdUtm;vHk;vnf; ylNyD;tdkufaeMu
w,f/ bGm;bGm;at;u tdrfrSm rD;rvmwm oHk;&uf&SdNyDvdkU aNymw,f?
a&pufawGvnf; a&rwifekdifbl;wJh/ orD;u &efukefrSmyJrD;ysufwwf
w,fxifwm? rEÅav;rSmvnf; ysufwmygyJaemf/

9? 4? 87
'DaeUreuf w&kwfwef;aps;oGm;Muw,f/ araru tom;ckwf
wJh w&kwf"m;BuD; wpfacsmif;0,fw,f/ tusÐpawGeJU "mwfbl;vnf;
0,fw,f/ orD;eJUarmifav;zkdU vnf&SnfzdeyfawGvnf; 0,fw,f/
]ypönf;awG odyfaygwmyJ?NyefcgeD;usrS xyf0,f&OD;r,f}vdkUaNymw,f/
nusawmh bGm;bGm;nGefUu orD;ukd,fukdwkdif;NyD; oDv&Sif0wf
pHkcsKyfay;w,f/
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

10? 4? 87
'DaeUvnf; odyfrtdkufbl;/ bGm;bGm;wihfeJU bGm;bGm;at;u
awmh tvItwGuf rkefUawG vkyfaeMuw,/ Muufom;awG 0ufom;
awG 0,fzdkU wm0efcGJaeMuw,f/
orD;wkdUuav;awGuawmh wpfaeukef aqmhMuw,f/

11? 4? 87
reufydkif;u aps;csdKoGm;w,f/
aeUcif;usawmh avawGwtm;wkdufNyD; rkd;awG t&rf;&Gmw,f/
yltdkufae&mu at;NyD; csrf;awmif csrf;w,f/
bboif;uawmh avawG rkd;awG &moDOwkazmufNyefvGef;wm
wJh/ 'gudk oMuFefrdk;vdkU ac:r&bl;wJh/ oMuFefrdk;qkdwm zGJzGJav; usJ
usJav;om &GmwmvdkUaNymw,f/

12? 4? 87
'DaeU naeydkif;a&mufawmh bbxGef;a&m? bboif;a&m azaz
a&m? udknDwdkUa&m tukefvHk; acgif;wHk;wHk;Mu&w,f/
naeusawmh bboif;eJU azazwkdU nDtpfudkaNcmufa,mufu
bkef;BuD;ausmif;udkoGm;NyD; udk&ifBuD;0wfMu&w,f/aemufNyD;ausmif;
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

rSm aecJha&m/ eufNzefreufcif;usrS odrfwuf&r,fwJh/ armifav;u


awmh azazae&pfcJhvdkUwJh idkufvdkufwm t&rf;yJ/

13? 4? 87
'DaeU oMuFef tMudKaeU/
a&pyufNyD/
orD;udkawmh reufapmapmuwnf;u oDv&Sif0wfay;w,f/
{nhfonfawGu orD;udk oDv&Siftppfav;eJUwlw,fvdkU csD;usL;Mu
w,f/ armifav;uawmh zdk;olawmf0wfpHkeJU "mwfyHk&dkufw,f/
naeusawmh bGm;bGm;odef;eJYtwlwl ppfudkif;u omoemhyg
vacsmifudk vkdufcJhw,f/ arar? armifav;? ykykeJU a':av;cspfwkdU
vnf; vdkufvmw,f/
naeusawmh xrif;qmwmeJU tapmBuD; tdyfvdkuf&w,f/

14? 4? 87

15? 4? 87
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

16? 4? 87
oDv&Sifausmif;rSm q&mav;awGeJUtwlwl bk&m;pmawGusuf&
w,f/ nusawmh bk&m;0wfwuf&w,f/ reufapmapmx&w,f/
a[wkypöa,m &NyD/
naewkdif; qmw,f/ csdKcsOfawG trsm;BuD;pm;vdkU acsmif;qdk;ae
NyD/

17? 4? 87
'DaeU ESpfqef;wpf&ufaeU/
orD;wdkUwpfawG reufapmapmxNyD; rEÅav;NyefcJhMuw,f/ um;
cu wpfa,mufudk ckepfusyfay;&w,f/ usyfvdkufwmvnf; t&rf;
yJ/ rEÅav;0ifawmh orD;wkdUpD;vmwJhum;BuD;u "mwfqDenf;aeNyDqdk
NyD;awmh tdrfwpftdrf0ifNyD; "mwfqDxnhfw,f/ um;q&mBuD;u
]"mwfqD wpf*gvef wpf&mausmfaeNyDAs}vdkU rsufESm&IHUNyD;aNymw,f/
'gayrJh olUum;ukd "mwfqDawG trsm;BuD;xnhfw,f/ ykdufqHawGt
rsm;BuD;ukefrSmayhgaemf/ bGm;bGm;at;wkdUtdrfuum;u wpfywfudk
"mwfqD eSpf*gvefyJ&NyD; 'Dum;usawmh trsm;BuD;&ovm;vdkU orD;
uar;awmh araru ESpf*gvefqkdwm tpkd;&"mwfqDqkdifu &wm/'g
utNyifuvdkUaNymw,f/ ]'DtNyifu"mwfqDua&m b,fqkdifu&wm
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

vJvdkU} orD;uodcsifvkdUar;awmh araru orD;udkaigufw,f/ ]u


av;yDyD wdwfwdwfaeprf;}wJh/ bmrSef;vJrodbl;/
aeUcif;usawmh bGm;bGm;wifwkdUeJUtwl bk&m;pHkzl;Muw,f/ bk
&m;BuD;u a&Tom;rsufeSmMuufudkvnf; zl;cJh&w,f/ a&TusD;Nrifbk&m;
u pdefbk&m;? Nrbk&m;awGvnf; zl;cJhw,f/ ae&mwkdif; bk&m;wkdif;rSm
vlawG wdk;MudwfaewmyJ/ 'DurmÇBuD;rSm vlawG 'Davmufaygrsm;ae
wm orD;t&ifu rodygbl;}}
naeusawmh azazwdkU vl0wfvJMuw,f/ orD;vnf; vl0wf
vJvdkufw,f/
nusawmh w&kwfwef;aps; avQmufNyefa&m/ ararw&kwfypönf;
awG0,fNyefa&m/ Nrefrmypönf;0,fzdkU owdr&Nyefbl; xifyg&JUaemf/

18? 4? 87
'DaeUn aNcmufem&D&xm;eJU orD;wdkU rEÅav;u NyefcJhMuw,f/
&xm;wGJu rD;vif;ayr,fh yefumrvnfbl;/Nywif;ayguf cvkwf
awGuvnf; wcsdKUysufaew,f/ a&ydkufacgif;uvnf; a&rvmbl;/
ompnftvGefusawmh &xm;&yfoGm;w,f/ acgif;wGJysufvkdUwJh/
Nyifr&bl;wJh/ ysOf;rem;u acgif;wGJudk vSrf;rSmNyD; csdwf&r,fwJh/
&xm;ysufNyD; awmfawmfMumawmh yefumawGvnfvmw,f/ 'D
awmhvnf; rD;uysufoGm;Nyefa&m/ arSmifuarSmif? tdkufutdkufeJU t
ukefvHk;yJ tdyfidkufaeMuw,f/ araruawmh ]igwkdUNrefrmawG[m cEÅD
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

yg&rDeJU NynhfpHkw,f}} vdkUaNymw,f/ cEÅDyg&rDqkdwm bmrSef;roday


r,hf rar;awmhygbl;/ ar;&ifvn;f ]uav;yDyD wdwfwdwfaeprf;}vdkU
yJ aNymrSmyg? orD; odygw,f/

19? 4? 87
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avmifvQif rD;ab;u,fq,fa&;ypönf;ay;&HkESihf rNyD;aMumif;udkod&
awmhonf/ rD;ab;eSihftwl vlrIa&;Nyóem tcuftcJrsm;u twl
,SOfwGJNyD; ygvmavonf/
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p&mr&Sdawmhbl;}}
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Nywif;aygufwGif &yfum tNyifbufodkU arQmfMunhfrdonf/ v
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

usJusJ &yfaeMuonf/ nOfoh ef;acgif\ avNynfat;u woGifoGif


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o,faqmifvmygonf/
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awmh 'DwpfESpf a0;MuNyefNyDaygh}}
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awmh tvHktavmuf&SdzkdUvkdao;onf r[kwfygvm;/ olwkdUcrsm
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]][l; ylvdkuf tdkufvdkufwmAsm? rkd;uvnf; ckxdrusao;bl;}}
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usKyfwkdUawmh rdk;&GmrSmudk aMumufvGef;vdkU}}
]]tif; 'guawmh rdk;Nyóem? rsdK;Nyóemaygh}}
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avmifaNrudk ai;Munhf&if; wpfpHkwpfOD;udk Nrifa,mifaeonf/ olU
pum;ukd Mum;a,mifaeonf/
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odkU a&mufNyD; a&SUwef;pxGuf&aomtcsdefNzpfygonf/ a&SUwef;rI;rSm
AdkvfrI;bkdausmf Nzpfonf/ AdkvfrI;eSihftwl a&SUwef;odkUpxGufpOf ,ck
aNriH&GmodkUa&mufcJhonf/ e,faNrtaNctaeuvnf; ,ckavmufr
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taNctaeudk owif;axmufvSrf;í nDaxG;udk &GmvlxkESihf rdwfquf
ay;ygonf/
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&if; pdrf;vef;pdkNynfaeaom v,fuGif;rsm;? a&wGif;a&uefrsm;ESihf
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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onf/
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NynfeJUomom,m,m&SdovJ/ 'DuRef;wdkifBuD;awGudka&m MunhfygOD;?
NymyHkb0u NyefNyD; xlaxmifxm;wmaemf? ta[mif; ta[mif;awG
b,fvdkcsKyfNidrf;ygap? topf topfawGuawmh tNrJwrf; NyefNyD;ay:
vmwmyJ}}
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aemufrSm armif&ifwkdUyJ 'De,faNrrSm ppfa&;? pnf;&Hk;a&;utp OD;
aqmif&rSm}}
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'Pf&m&vdkU 'ku©dwNzpfcsifNzpfr,f/ ppfom;NzpfvmrSawmh 'gawGr
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csifus? ruscsifvnf; aowJhtxd wm0efukd xrf;aqmifMu&rSmyJ}}
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

]wdkufyGJrSm uscsifus? rus&ifvnf; aowJhtxd wkdif;Nynfwm


0efudk xrf;aqmif&rSmyJ} wJh/
nDaxG;u tarSmifxkudk pdkufMunhf&if; &ifxJrS Nyefvnf&Gwfqkd
vdkufonf/ nDaxG;\vufOD;q&m? rdbuJhokdU &dkaoav;pm;&aom
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&if; ucsifNynfe,f a&SUwef;wpfae&mwGif usqHk;cJh&ygonf/olnTef
NycJhaom pdrf;vef;pdkNynfaeonfh aNriH&Gmuav;onfvnf; NymyHkb0
odkU a&mufoGm;&NyefacsNyD/ ol udkifNycJhaom uRef;wdkifvHk;rsm;onf
va&mifrIef0g;0g;atmufwGif rD;aoG;wkdifBuD;rsm;tNzpf xD;xD;BuD;
&yfaeonfudk awGUNrifae&onf/
ypönf;ocFg&? vlocFg&? b,ft&mrS rNrJygwum;/

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

]]udkat;aqmif xrif;xkyfydk&if uav;rsm;wJhtdrfudkom xyfay;


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wJholawGu vmwkdifaeMuNyD}}
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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rnfonfhu,fq,fa&;ypönf;rSvnf; r&? xrif;xkyfa0onfh txJ
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bl;}}
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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ygw,f AdkvfBuD;&,f}}
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cifAsm;wkdUudkvnf; xnfhay;yghr,f}}
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NyKzG,fNzpfygonf/
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Nzpfonf/
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aemufESpfaygif; eSpfq,f tpdwftwGif; aNriH&GmBuD;onf pnfpnf
um;um;ESifh NyefvnfpdkNynfvmOD;rnfrSm rvGJyg/ rD;aMumifh ESpfpOf
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enf;/
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Nyif;aomaMumifh xrif;rsm; okd;eHUatmufeHUxGuf ukef&Ncif;Nzpfonf/
]]uRefawmhfqDrSm MuufONyKwfygw,f? OD;OD;pm;rvm;}}
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av;rsm;ud kowd&aeonf/ uav;awG aEGausmif;ydwfrSavmifonf
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vQifawmh olwkdUav;rsm;crsm pmtkyfvnf;r&Sd? cJwHvnf;r&Sd? wufp
&mausmif;vnf; r&SdESihf tawmfav; 'ku©a&mufMu&rnfNzpfonf/
nDaxG; tdrfNyefa&mufawmh &efukefrS tpfr\pmu qD;MudKae
onf/

inDav;
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pm;aewmawmif aoG;rwdk;bl;/'gayrJh 0vGef;vdkU aygif&if;
u usdK;xm;wJhae&mu emw,f/ tckawmhtpm;NyefavQmh
aew,f/Oykof&uf&SnfapmifhrvdkUwJh/

tpfru rdom;pk usef;rma&;udk tvsifysdK;um olU0wDtwkdif;


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aomif;ausmfukefw,fwJh/wD;0dkif;iSm;wmuvnf;ig;axmif
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

ausmfw,fwJh/yef;tdk;xdk;wmu axmifausmfw,fwJh/owdkU
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rsm;xuf b,favmufydkukefw,fqkdvm;? igvnf; tao;
pdwfawmh rrSwfrdawmhbl;/
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awGuvnf; aysmfvkdU? ouFef;BuD;wzm;zm;eJU aqmhaeMu
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aqmufzdkUvSLwmig;aomif;wJh/ olwpfOD;wnf;tvSLvdkU
aNymwmyJ/ wHwkdif;wpfavQmuf olUemrnfBuD;awG a&;xm;
vdkufwm [D;aewmyJ/ eif om"komtNywfac:ayawmh/
nDaxG;\tpfru a&mufwwf&m&m avQmufa&;xm;onf/ nD
axG;onf pmudkzwf&if; ]igom olwdkUvdk odef;oef;csDNyD; csrf;om&if
b,fae&mrawGrSm vSL&&ifaumif;rvJ} [k pOf;pm;aerdonf/
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

aus;&Gmav;rsm;wGif t"duvdktyfaeaom aq;ay;cef;? pmoif


cef;rsm;aqmufrnf/ wHwm;Nyifrnf/ aq;awG? pmtkyfawGvSLrnf/
aemufNyD; a&ab;? rD;ab;'ku©onfrsm;twGuf xrif;xkyftaumif;
pm;awG vSLrnf/ uav;awGtwGuf rkefUvSLrnf/
]]AdkvfBuD; bmawGpOf;pm;NyD; NyHk;aewmvJ}}
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]]uRefawmfpdwfxJrSm tvSLay;aewm OuúXBuD;a&U}}
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yif csrf;omolr[kwf/
aqG;aEG;yGJ rprD nDaxG;onf rD;avmifaNrudk ai;Munhf&if; tpf
rqDokdU Nyefa&;&efpmukd pOf;pm;aerdonf/

]]qDOD;axmywfpm;NyD; zD;aewJholawGudk tqDwpfxyfwdk;?ukyfydk;


wpf&pfwufatmif bmvdkUrsm; wcrf;wem;zdwfNyD; auR;aeMuwmvJ
Asm/ nDom rrav;vdk pma&;wwf&if tckavmavmq,f awGUae&
wJh rD;ab;'ku©onfawGtaMumif; a&;Nycsifvdkufwm/ olwkdUcrsm x
rif;eyfrSefatmifpm;&zdkUtwGuf renf;BuD; &kef;uefMuOD;rSmqkdawmh
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

xrif;wpfeyfvnf; wpfeyfrSef;odod wefzdk;&Sdaeygw,f/ rrav;&JU


tvSL&SifBuD;awGudkAsm uRefawmfhqDu 'ku©onfawGudk tom;av;?
ig;av;eJU xrif;wpfeyfavmuf vmauR;zdkU? rauR;Edkifvnf; tvSL
aiGxnhf0ifzdkU aNymay;ygvm;Asm/ Z&yfawG? wHwkdif;awGaqmufNyD;
urÁnf;tBuD;BuD;xdk;aewJh a':pdeftdwkdU? a':0if;0if;cifwkdU tvSLudk
awmh rrav;u om"kac:ygqdkvkdU nD om"kESpfcg ac:vdkufygw,f/
om"k om"k }}/

ppfNyef? 1987? ar/

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

&DuGef'D;&Sif;

]]olwkdUqDu oHk;NyD;om; um;awG wm,mNyefvJ? aq;NyefrIwf?


vdktyf&ifvnf; tif*sifyg vJay;vdkufw,fwJh/ topfr[kwfayr,fh
topfeD;yg;aumif;atmif NyKNyifay;vdkufw,f qkdygawmhuGm?topf
eJUaps;uuGmavawmh tJ'D&DuGef'D;&Sif; (Recondition) awGudkyJ ig
wkdUqDrSm oabFmom;av;awGu 0,fNzpfMuwmrsm;w,f/ 'DawmhvJ
NrefrmNynfudk &DuGef'D;&Sif;awG vSdrfh0ifvmwmaygh/ 'DrSm um;aps;u
vnf; odyfaumif;wm r[kwfvm;}} [ka0rm\ 'uf'Du aNymzl;av
onf/
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
]]rdMunfMunf? nnf;orD;udk nnf;enf;enf;rS MunhfraNym
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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tbGm;av; rNyefrcsif; tcef;xJrS rxGufbJae&ef qHk;Nzwfvkduf
onf/

uvsm? 1988? Zefe0g&D/

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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

udkarmifarmifoef;\ pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;

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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

xkdpmydk'fudk zwfNyD;awmh rrav;u rsuf&nfa0aomrsufvHk;


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Nrefrmhqdyfurf; ESpf 100 Nynfh/

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

{NyDt&l; (2)

rnfonfhEdkifiHwGif rnfonfhtcsdefupNyD; ay:vmonfudkawmh


taotcsmrod/ {NyDwpf&ufaeUwGif cifrifoltcsif;csif; t&l;vkyf
usDp,favh&Sdonfuawmh eSpfpOfyif/
'DESpfwGifawmh udkayzl;ESihf ra&TvTmwkdU ZeD;armifrESHudkaemuf
aNymifusDp,f&ef r0gndkeSihf rauoDwkdUu qHk;Nzwfxm;Muonf/
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

udkayzl;ESihfra&TvTmonf olwkdUtrnf&if;awmh r[kwfay/ odkU


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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

aom trnfudk vufcH&&Sdawmhrnfta&;udk aNy;íNrifaomaMumifh


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b,fol a':b,folb,f0g ponfNzihf wGifus,faeMuaomfvnf;
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onf/
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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wJhtNyif ydkao;}}
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zdk;? pmtkyfzkd;? usL&Sifzkd;? zdeyfzdk;? aq;zdk; ponfponfrsm;xJwGif
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awmh ESpfa,mufvkyfpmyif Nzpfaomfvnf; wpfvrQ ydkonfvQHonf
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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a&mufvmMuonf/ tvGefta&;BuD;aomudpu ö dk aNymouJhodkU ra&T
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]]'DrSm vTmvTm eifhudk igaNymr,f}}
]]tif;}}
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]]tif; eifwkdU b,folUudk acsmufcsOD;rvkdUvJ}}
]]udkayzl;}}
]]bk&m;a&? igha,muFsm;udk}}
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rSmvJ/ olwkdUrdkU tm;wkdif;,m;wkdif; awG;Edkifawmekdif MuHEdkifpnfEkdif
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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ZeD; 0rf;emíaq;&HkydkUvdkuf&onf/ tNrefNyefvdkufcJhyg[k zkef;quf
onf/ olUrdef;ruvnf; trSefwu,f aeUaphvaphrdkU OD;rkd;atmifu
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aom olUZeD;u tdrfrSm&kyfNyzwfaepOf? OD;rkd;atmifcrsm aq;&HkwGif
[kdar; 'Dar;? [dkaNy; 'DaNy;ESihf tawmfuav; a,muf,wfcwfcJh&
onf/
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rsm;udk auR;arG;NyKpk&ef olUtdrf&Sd&mokdU naeig;em&D ta&mufvmcJh
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pm;vdkufrnf? aomufvkdufrnf[k 0rf;omtm;& a&mufvmolrsm;
0dkif;um udka&Tat;wpfa,muf touf&IawGrSm;um rsufESmav; qD;
&GufavmufcefUom&Sdawmhonf/ olUyg;pyfyif olro'´gí raomuf
&ufbJ odrf;xm;aom t&ufykvif;ESpfykvif;omru tdrfwGif&Sdaom
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]][if b,fvdk}}
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]]igwkdUu odyfcspfwm}}
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]]at;v? ol&Hk;Nyefaemufuswmudk ql&if NzpfEdkifw,f/olatmuf
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vnf; NzpfEdkifw,f/ tkduGm aemufqHk; &Sihfacgif;u qHyifawGubm
vdkU NzLvmwmvJqdkNyD; Nzpf[m}}
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]]eif igwkdUqD qif;cJh}}
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]]ighuav;awGyg ac:cJh&rSmvm;}}
]][m ac:vdkU b,fNzpfrvJ}}
0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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awmhbl; / pdwfukefaeNyD? bmnmaNymayhg[m? olodyfNyD; pdwfnpf
0rf;enf;vmawmhrS igwkdUawG olukd {NyDt&l;vdkUac:NyD; 0dkif;&,fMu
r,fav}}
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]]olcsufcsif; vdkufrvm&ifaum}}
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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NiD;aiGUcsifaeonfrSm MumNyD/ wpfcgwpf&Hawmh pdwfvGwfvufvGwf
[uf[ufyufyuf &,fypfvkdufcsifonf/ ausmif;aewkef;uawmh
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&drfylyefaewwfaom ra&TvTmwpfa,muf odyfr&,fNzpfonfrSmvnf;
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++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

{NyDvwpf&ufaeUwGifum; ra&TvTmonf r0gndkwkdUqDodkU trSef


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um;r[kwfay/
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ra&Tvmu c&D;a&mufrqkduf aNymum w&Iyf&Iyfikdonf/
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ra&TvTm &dIufaeonf/
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a&TvTmu &Iyf&Iyfidk&if; pm;yGJay:csxm;aom r0gnd\vufukdify0g
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]]iguawmh uav;av;a,muftar NzpfaeNyDav/ toufu
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]]ypf csif NyD}}
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

rSefovJ? a,muFsm;awG&JU cspfvScsnf&JU? MudKufvScsnf&JUqkdwJhpum;


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uHaumif;vdkU a,muFsm;r,lrdw,f} [kawG;&if; oufNyif;ukd [if;ceJ
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]]NyD;awmh NyD;awmh ol [kd[mrudk ,lrSmaygh/ vufxyfrSmaygh
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]]tkd 'Dvdkawmh b,fNzpf&rvJ}}
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0wÅKwdkrsm; (4) rpE´m

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