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Restructuring the Postwar World: 1945 - Present
1. Contemporary Age: Cold War, Communism, and Colonial Revolutions Why did the international situation in 1945 encourage the development of the Cold War? What may be said about the possible attitudes and motives of the Soviets in the early postwar years? Of the USA?
Even before World War II ended, the U.S. alliance with the Soviet Union had begun to unravel. The United States was upset that Joseph Stalin, the Soviet leader, had signed a nonaggression pact with Germany in 1939. Later, Stalin blamed the Allies for not invading German-occupied Europe earlier than 1944. Driven by these and other disagreements, the two allies began to pursue opposing goals. Despite agreement at Yalta and their presence on the Security Council, the United States and the Soviet Union split sharply after the war. The war had affected them very differently. The United States, the world‘s richest and most powerful country, suffered 400,000 deaths. But its cities and factories remained intact. The Soviet Union had at least 50 times as many fatalities. One in four Soviets was wounded or killed. Also, many Soviet cities were demolished. These contrasting situations, as well as political and economic differences, affected the two countries‘ postwar goals 2. How would you summarize the major episodes of the Cold War between 1945 and 1948?
Europe now lay divided between East and West. Germany had been split into two sections. The Soviets controlled the eastern part, including half of the capital, Berlin. Under a Communist government, East Germany was named the German Democratic Republic. The western zones became the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. Winston Churchill described the division of Europe. Churchill‘s phrase ―iron curtain‖ came to represent Europe‘s division into mostly democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe There was also economic turmoil—a scarcity of jobs and food. In 1947, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the United States give aid to needy European countries. This assistance program, called the Marshall Plan, would provide food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild Western Europe. Beginning in the late 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for influence not only among the nations of the world, but in the skies as well. Once the superpowers had ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) to deliver nuclear warheads and aircraft for spying missions, they both began to develop technology that could be used to explore—and ultimately control—
space. As these alliances were forming, the Cold War threatened to heat up enough to destroy the world. The United States already had atomic bombs. In 1949, the Soviet Union exploded its own atomic weapon. President Truman was determined to develop a more deadly weapon before the Soviets did. He authorized work on a thermonuclear weapon in 1950.These conflicts marked the start of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. 3. Analyze the nature and significance of the Marshall Plan. What may be said of the motives behind it? What were/are the results?
Much of Western Europe lay in ruins after the war. There was also economic turmoil—a scarcity of jobs and food. In 1947, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the United States give aid to needy European countries. This assistance program, called the Marshall Plan, would provide food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild Western Europe. As Congress debated the $12.5 billion program in 1948, the Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia. Congress immediately voted approval. The plan was a spectacular success. Even Communist Yugoslavia received aid after it broke away from Soviet domination. 4. Explain the steps taken toward economic and political interaction in Western Europe. What obstacles to unity appeared? How did the Soviets view these developments?
U.S.-Soviet relations continued to worsen in 1946 and 1947. An increasingly worried United States tried to offset the growing Soviet threat to Eastern Europe. President Truman adopted a foreign policy called containment. It was a policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism. Containment policies included forming alliances and helping weak countries resist Soviet advances. Much of Western Europe lay in ruins after the war. Truman‘s support for countries that rejected communism was called the Truman Doctrine. It caused great controversy. Some opponents objected to American interference in other nations‘ affairs. Others argued that the United States could not afford to carry on a global crusade against communism. Congress, however, immediately authorized more than $400 million in aid to Turkey and Greece. 5. Describe the military arrangements made for the defense of Western Europe... What problems arose in connection with these arrangements?
While Europe began rebuilding, the United States and its allies clashed with the Soviet Union over Germany. The Soviets wanted to keep their former enemy weak and divided. But in 1948, France, Britain, and the United States decided to withdraw their forces from Germany and allow their occupation zones to form one nation. The Soviet Union responded by
and they had the power to veto. 1947 stating that the U. Truman stated the Doctrine would be "the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.) The Soviet Union cut off highway. (See map on next page. Vocabulary: San Francisco Conference . 1945). During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere. Marshall Plan . The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program. Rome treaties .San Francisco Conference. European Coal and Steel Community . the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway. (April 25–June 26. The city faced starvation. water.The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was a six-nation international organization serving to unify Western Europe during the Cold War and create the foundation for the modern-day developments of the European Union.The Truman Doctrine was a policy set forth by the U. The ECSC was the first organization to be based on the principles of supra nationalism. Great Power veto .S. road and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. or the right to reject a decision or proposal. In May 1949. Stalin gambled that the Allies would surrender West Berlin or give up their idea of reunifying Germany. international meeting that established the United Nations. because these "totalitarian regimes" coerced "free peoples. ERP) was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet communism.The ‗Treaties of Rome‘ is the term used to refer to the legal foundation of the European Community.holding West Berlin hostage. But American and British officials flew food and supplies into West Berlin for nearly 11 months. Berlin Blockade . Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength and diplomatic and cultural influence which may cause small powers to consider the opinions of great powers before taking actions of their own." they represented a threat to international peace and the national security of the United States. formally United Nations Conference on International Organization. and rail traffic into Berlin‘s western zones. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel. Historians often consider it as the start of the Cold War.The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War." Truman reasoned. it too had been divided into four zones.S. which came into force on 1 January .A great power is a nation or state that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale. The basic principles of a worldwide organization that would embrace the political objectives of the Allies had been proposed at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in 1944 and reaffirmed at the Yalta Conference in early 1945. Truman Doctrine . President Harry S Truman in a speech on March 12. Although Berlin lay well within the Soviet occupation zone of Germany. the Soviet Union admitted defeat and lifted the blockade.
The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955. in response to the American call for the rearmament of West Germany.The Soviet Union was a single-party stateruled by the Communist Party from its foundation until 1990. NATO – It is also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance. the Dunkirk Treaty signed between Britain and France. the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The Comecon was the Eastern Bloc's reply to the formation of theOrganization for European Economic Co-operation in western Europe. Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Italy.The European Economic Community (EEC) (sometimes simply known as the European Community. Germany.The Treaty of Brussels was signed on 17 March 1948 between Belgium. meant to harness its military potential in case of conflict with the Soviet bloc. it provided a basis upon which the 1954 Paris Conference established the Western European Union (WEU).1958. as an expansion to the preceding year's defense pledge. Communist China refers to the territories of China controlled by the Communist Party of China from 1927 to 1949 during the Chinese Civil War with the Nationalist-led Republic of China. Brussels treaty . also known as the Common Market in the English-speaking world) was an international organization created with a view to bring about economic integration (including a common market) among its six original members—Belgium. and the organization constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. Soviet Satellites and Communist China .Warsaw Pact. the French President of the Council (name of Prime Ministers until 1958). Belgium. European Economic Community (Common Market) . the Soviet state was structured under a highly-centralized government and economy. the regional economic organization for the communist states of Eastern Europe. Luxembourg. Warsaw Pact . is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty.The European Defense Community (EDC) was a plan proposed in 1950 by René Pleven. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon). Soviet Union. The intention was to form a pan-European defense force as an alternative to Germany's proposed accession to NATO. France.Comecon was an economic organization under the organization of Soviet Union comprising the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist state selsewhere in the world. in the Eastern bloc. European Defense Community . was a mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. Soviet satellite states refers to Communist satellite states of the Soviet Union. As the Treaty of Brussels contained a mutual defense clause. France. Council for Mutual Economic Aid . in Warsaw. Soviet Union and Soviet Satellites . which was signed on 4 April 1949. A federal union of 15 subnational Soviet republics. NATO headquarters are in Brussels.
it seemed that the progressive Malenkov. 3. Stalin‘s reluctance to allow free elections in Eastern European nations was a clear violation of those countries‘ rights. with Lavrenti Beria as his deputy and chief of state security. relief. It remained nonaligned. The Soviet leader‘s American partner at Yalta. 2. In a speech in early 1946. To Roosevelt‘s successor. Still. Stalin's death provoked a mixture of grief. not every country joined the new alliances. Hungary. How and in what stages did communism spread in Europe during and immediately following the war? What major political and economic changes took place under the new regimes? As World War II drew to a close. the largest Communist country. With no clear successor evident. At war‘s end. Truman pressed Stalin to permit free elections in Eastern Europe.1. In 1961. and Yugoslavia. the Soviet troops pushed the Nazis back across Eastern Europe. Hungary. Malenkov was also appointed first secretary of the Communist Party. Truman. Poland. Romania. Czechoslovakia. Roosevelt. 1945. was emerging as Stalin's heir. Stalin regarded these countries as a necessary buffer. in July 1945. and Albania. The Soviet leader refused. How would you characterize the Soviet leaders since’ Stalin’s death and the changes they introduced? Among the Communist leaders in Moscow. the East Germans built a wall to separate East and West Berlin. came to distrust the Soviet Union. but his name was listed first among the five secretaries of the party secretariat. Germany. It was called the Warsaw Pact and included the Soviet Union. Stalin's old position. Romania. Truman. Franklin D. East Germany. Stalin and Churchill met at Potsdam. the Council of Ministers and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet publicly declared a form of collective leadership. Nikita Khrushchev's role was not entirely clear initially. . Harry S. Poland. There. or wall of protection. Georgi Malenkov was appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers. in effect premier. The Soviet Union saw NATO as a threat and formed it‘s own alliance in 1955. to the West. then just fifty-one years old. He ignored the Yalta agreement and installed or secured Communist governments in Albania. Stalin declared that communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world. like India. Molotov returned as foreign minister and Nikolai Bulganin as minister of the armed forces. but nine days later he was forced to surrender this post (which in six months would fall to Khrushchev) when the new leadership decided that all the top offices should never again be held by one person. Discuss the political atmosphere in the USSR during Stalin’s last years. chose not to align with either side. The Berlin Wall symbolized a world divided into rival camps. Bulgaria. And China. these troops occupied a strip of countries along the Soviet Union‘s own western border. and anxiety for the future. Some. However. Czechoslovakia. Bulgaria. had died on April 12. But this merely masked the beginnings of a bitter power struggle.
for most Soviet citizens it had been an era of greatness for their country. and many grieved as if they had lost a family member. the others were leading members of the Politburo. This changed the perspectives in many of the eastern European countries as they slowly started active protests. He and more moderate Soviet leader allowed satellite countries more independence. This empire included Poland. which they all wanted to end. "There is no disputed or unsolved question. which had punctuated Stalin's final months. as were tens of thousands of other political prisoners. "which could not be settled by peaceful means with any foreign country. the satellite countries. in one of his first speeches. In the West they were called satellites because they clung closely to the Soviet Union like satellites round a planet." 4. For decades Stalin had been the "father" of the nation. All those who had been arrested in Stalin's final days were released. the death of Stalin in March 1953 was a shattering event. Each had a Communist government. the Presidium approved a general amnesty for anyone who had been sentenced to a term of less than five years' imprisonment. Mao Zedong had already decided separately on this. was now described as a "provocation and fake. which included Georgia and other eastern European countries. Pyongyang was ordered to resume the armistice talks in earnest. Czechoslovakia and East Germany." Less than a month after Stalin's death. After Stalin's death. Malenkov hinted at a new mood of coexistence with the West. What major changes were discernible in the Soviet satellites after Stalin’s death? Between 1945 and 1949 Stalin created a Russian empire in Eastern Europe. several mourners were killed in the crush to file past the bier. His death marked the end of an era. While Zhou was in Moscow. were able to form their own government after their encounter with the rampage of Russian Communism." he stated. What persistent problems continued to trouble the economy? For many millions of Soviet citizens. In spite of his brutal repression and his rigorous control of the economy. Stalin was still hugely popular throughout the Soviet Union. . so within a fortnight of Stalin's death. Bulgaria. 5. Then. The socalled Doctors' Plot. the generalissimo who had defeated fascism. Zhou Enlai. Hungary and Czechoslovakia were from the first countries that started revolutions. Rumania. including the United States. China's premier and foreign minister. Tens of thousands of ordinary Russians wept openly in spontaneous and genuine displays of public grief when crowds gathered in Moscow to pay their last respects. Nikita Khrushchev was the dominant next Soviet leader. was one of the pall bearers. Hungary. Malenkov and Molotov met with him to discuss the war in Korea. Generally. as long as they remained allied powers with the Soviet Union.Dignitaries from throughout the Communist world assembled in Moscow to pay final respects to the man who had been their unchallenged leader. Summarize postwar Soviet economic developments.
then he would control the mainsprings of Soviet power. the old revolutionary. There was even a prisoners' strike in Siberia. Molotov. If Soviet strength rested on ever more powerful nuclear weapons and he was in charge of developing them. Khrushchev became convinced that Beria was preparing to make a grab for absolute power. Within days of the quelling of the rising in East Germany. After Stalin's death Beria took more direct control of the Soviet nuclear project. What trends in the satellites were observable for about a dozen years after 1956? How did the Soviet leaders react to developments in Czechoslovakia in 1968? In Poland in the period after 1945? There were anti-government riots in Czechoslovakia as well. Beria calculated. Malenkov concurred. Without consulting his colleagues. The power struggle in the Kremlin now reached new intensity. On either side of the Iron Curtain. continued to see the Cold War as a clash between two opposing systems. while supporting the campaign for civil rights for Northern Ireland's Catholic minority. part of Dulles's "rollback" of communism in Eastern Europe. and strikes in Hungary and Romania. he ordered scientists in the closed city of Arzamas-16 to race ahead with developing a hydrogen bomb to rival America's thermonuclear weapons. the Cold War was seen in strictly practical terms. viewed as a unifying symbol for the nations of the Yugoslav federation Cominform: The common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties. for Malenkov and Beria. ‗Iron curtain‘: Symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. ruling in various roles from 1945 until his death in 1980.6. and he denounced Beria at a meeting of the Presidium. both of whom owed their power base entirely to Stalin. However. Tito was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. The Soviets saw behind these events a well-orchestrated campaign to undermine the Soviet Union and its allies. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian. He believed wholeheartedly in the Marxist/Leninist line that capitalism would ultimately destroy itself. stated that such rights could only be achieved through the establishment of a socialist republic for all of Ireland. It was founded on 9 October 1968 at Queen's University Belfast. It was . Times had changed. Vocabulary People‘s democracies: A political organisation that. and his diplomacy exploited what differences he could discern between the United States and its West European allies. states developed their own international economic and military alliance Jan Masaryk: Czech diplomat and politician and Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1940 to 1948. Marshal Tito:A Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman. But this sort of arrogance was no longer acceptable inside the Kremlin.
The novel is named after its protagonist.It refers to the ties in a society that bind people to one another Khrushchev: Led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. Space Race: A mid-to-late 20th century competition between the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US) for supremacy in space exploration. Dr. 1968 Pravda article. the dreaded secret police. in 1938. Yuri Zhivago. and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers. for backing the progress of the early Soviet space program. the third and last Soviet Constitution. Nagy's second term ended when his non-Soviet-backed government was brought down by Soviet invasion in the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Executed in 1953 Constitution of 1977: On October 7. presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982 Andropov: A Soviet politician and the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 12 November 1982 until his death fifteen months later. The official name of the Constitution was "Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Gierek: A Polish communist politician. entitled ―Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries.‖ Leonid Brezhnev reiterated it in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers' Party on November 13. shown by a society or group with people and their neighbors. Kovalev in a September 26. Zhivago: A 20th century novel by Boris Pasternak. and degree and type of integration. the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern Execution of Beria: Beria was appointed. first published in 1957 in Italy. 1977. was unanimously adopted. the Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. first and most clearly outlined by S. a physician and poet. which were seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of technological and ideological superiority Brezhnev: The General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union(CPSU). resulting in Nagy's execution on charges of treason two years later. and for several relatively liberal reforms in areas of domestic policy. Imre Nagy: A Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary on two occasions. 1968. Between 1957 and 1975. head of the NKVD. Brezhnev Doctrine: Was a Soviet Union foreign policy. It tells the story of Zhivago's life and how it is . Solidarity: the integration. from 1958 to 1964. Khrushchev was responsible for the partial de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union. or Premier. also known as the Brezhnev Constitution.
Janos Kadar: A Hungarian communist leader and the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party. they controlled much of northern . opposing Chinese armies faced one another. conflict did not end with the defeat of the Japanese. a bitter civil war was raging between the Nationalists and the Communists when the Japanese invaded China in 1937. Communist China Summarize the main stages in the conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communists after 1927 (Watch China in Crisis). affected by the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the subsequent Russian Civil War. What explanations can e advanced for the triumph of the Communists? In World War II. Thanks to their efforts to promote literacy and improve food production. the political opponents temporarily united to fight the Japanese. helped to raise global awareness of the gulag. Eleventh Five-Year Plan: A set of goals designed to strengthen the country's economy between 1981 and 1985. and again from 1956 to 1970. Gulag Archipelago: A book by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn based on the Soviet forced labor and concentration camp system. the Communists had a stronghold in northwestern China. China fought on the side of the victorious Allies. The three-volume book is a narrative relying on eyewitness testimony and primary research material. The plan was presented by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikolai Tikhonov at the 26th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Sputnik: The first artificial satellite to be put into Earth's orbit. as well as the author's own experiences as a prisoner in a gulag labor camp. through his often-suppressed writings.The book was made into a film by David Lean in 1965 Solzhenitsyn: A writer. who. However. 1. During World War II. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Unionon 4 October 1957 Gomulka :A Polish Communist leader. the Communists won the peasants‘ loyalty. China‘s civilian death toll alone was estimated between 10 to 22 million persons. He was the de facto leader of Poland from 1945 to 1948. Japan‘s armies had occupied and devastated most of China‘s cities. the Soviet Union's forced labor camp system – particularly in The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. During the war. From there. presiding over the country from 1956 until his forced retirement in 1988. By 1945. But the victory proved to be a hollow one for China. Mao Zedong. This vast country suffered casualties second only to those of the Soviet Union. two of his best-known works. But they continued to jockey for position within China. Under their leader. they mobilized peasants for guerrilla war against the Japanese in the northeast. In 1945.
S. the Nationalists and Communists resumed fighting.China. The mainland. He proclaimed it the People‘s Republic of China. Instead of benefiting the army.000 people. Instead. Those feelings only grew after the Chinese and Soviets signed a treaty of friendship in 1950. Mao‘s troops were also enthusiastic about his promise to return land to the peasants. did little to win popular support. Jiang gathered an army of 2. Jiang‘s army actually fought few battles against the Japanese. The peasants . and raised children in communal nurseries. the Nationalist army saved its strength for the coming battle against Mao‘s Red Army. thousands of Nationalist soldiers deserted to the Communists. Protected from the Japanese by rugged mountain ranges. At first. From 1942 to 1945.5 million men. In the strictly controlled life of the communes. about 26. Describe the major political and economic developments under the Communist regime in China in 1949.000 communes had been created. with an area of 13. Jiang and other Nationalist leaders retreated to the island of Taiwan. The existence of two Chinas. China had split into two nations. Mao Zedong gained control of the country.000acres and supported over 25. peasants worked the land together. What seem to have been Mao’s objectives in the purge of the 1960s? What were the results? To expand the success of the first Five-Year Plan. the Nationalists had the advantage. or People‘s Republic of China. One was the island of Taiwan. slept in communal dormitories. This plan called for still larger collective farms. With China‘s economy collapsing. And they owned nothing. however. which Westerners called Formosa.000 square miles. or Nationalist China. 2. The Nationalist forces. had an area of more than 3. however.5 million square miles. The average commune sprawled over 15. By the end of 1958. and the conflicting international loyalties they inspired. After Japan surrendered. China‘s major cities fell to the well-trained Red forces. anti-Communist feelings. Which features were similar in Soviet experience and which were different? How would you assess the balance sheet of achievements for Mao’s programs? The renewed civil war lasted from 1946 to 1949. Their army outnumbered the Communists‘ army by as much as three to one. or communes. Meanwhile. intensified the Cold War. 3. Mao proclaimed the ―Great Leap Forward‖ in early 1958. Mao Zedong‘s victory fueled U. the Nationalist forces under Jiang Jieshi dominated southwestern China. The remnants of Jiang‘s shattered army fled south. the United States sent the Nationalists at least $1. In spring 1949. these supplies and money often ended up in the hands of a few corrupt officers.5 billion in aid to fight the Japanese. In October 1949. Many people in the United States viewed the takeover of China as another step in a Communist campaign to conquer the world. And the United States continued its support by providing nearly $2 billion in aid. They ate in communal dining rooms.
India. As a result.had no incentive to work hard when only the state profited from their labor. In 1962. industries hampered growth. In 1953. How would you evaluate Mao’s role in the Chinese Revolution? What changes have been introduced in the last thirty years? Mao was determined to reshape China‘s economy based on Marxist socialism. 10 percent of the rural population controlled 70 percent of the farmland. or brought under government ownership. Mao launched a five-year plan that set high production goals for industry. steel. Eighty percent of the people lived in rural areas. The fighting stopped but resentment continued. who followed their religious leader. the United Stateshelped him set up a Nationalist government on that small island. and southern. private companies were nationalized. Later. when Soviet forces occupied the northern half of Korea after World War II and set up a Communist government. He then divided the land among the peasants. the United States supported a separate state in the south. and technical aid to Communist China. The Chinese promised autonomy to Tibetans. China‘s output of coal. cement. . China Expands under the Communists In the early years of Mao‘s reign. China took control of Tibet. The Great Leap Forward was a giant step backward. For decades. or Inner. Mongolia. the Chinese and the Soviets pledged to come to each other‘s defense if either was attacked. military. Poor planning and inefficient ―backyard. For example. Instead. What role has Communist China played in world affairs in 1949? What sources of friction were there with the United States. It was called the Republic of China. Mongolia. the Dalai Lama fled to India. In addition. resentment between India and China grew. the government forced peasants to join collective farms. Under the Agrarian Reform Law of 1950. and electricity had increased dramatically. The United States tried to halt Soviet expansion in Asia. or Outer. engaged in civil war or fighting with Japan. China had been in turmoil. India welcomed many Tibetan refugees after a failed revolt in Tibet in 1959. 5. Mao seized the holdings of these landlords. So. but most owned no land. when the Communists took power. Chinese troops expanded into Tibet. to further Mao‘s socialist principles. In a brutal assault in 1950 and 1951. When China‘s control over Tibet tightened in the late 1950s.‖ or home. The Soviets gave financial. which bordered the Soviet Union. By 1957. they clashed briefly over the two countries‘ unclear border. Gradually. Northern. Each of these farms was comprised of 200 to 300 households. the Dalai Lama. remained in the Soviet sphere. North Korea and the Soviet Union? After Jiang Jieshi fled to Taiwan. The program was ended in 1961 after crop failures caused a famine that killed about 20 million people 4. Mao‘s changes also transformed industry and business. His forces killed more than a million landlords who resisted.
they moved rapidly to strengthen their rule over China‘s 550 million people. Matsu. For example. They left their classrooms and formed militia units called Red Guards Vocabulary Kuomintang: Translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party. and leader of theChinese Revolution. and other minor islands. Each sought to lead the worldwide Communist movement. Factory workers could compete for wage increases and promotions. The spirit of cooperation that had bound the Soviet Union and China began to fade. Originally based in mainland China. which forms over 99% of its current territory. Of what significance has the existence of the Communist regime in China been for international communism? China was facing external problems as well as internal ones in the late 1950s. The People's Republic of China is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China Mao Tse-tung: A Chinese Communist revolutionary. the Kuomintang (KMT). as well as Penghu. 6. is a sovereign state located in East Asia. Mao reduced his role in government. In 1966. They also aimed to restore China as a powerful nation. He was the architect and founding father of the People's Republic of China . the Republic of China now governs the island of Taiwan (known in the past as Formosa). and remains one of the main political parties in modern Taiwan Chang Kai-shek and the Nationalists: A political and military leader of 20th-century China Chiang was an influential member of the Nationalist Party. People‘s Republic of China: Officially the People's Republic of China (PRC). Marxist political philosopher.‖ Millions of high school and college students responded. they faced numerous territorial disputes. Mao thought China‘s new economic policies weakened the Communist goal of social equality. from 1912 onwards. After the failure of the Great Leap Forward and the split with the Soviet Union. farm families could live in their own homes and could sell crops they grew on small private plots. and was a close ally of Sun Yat-sen. guerrilla warfare strategist. is the world's most-populous country with a population of over 1.3 billion. Other leaders moved away from Mao‘s strict socialist ideas. he urged China‘s young people to ―learn revolution by making revolution. He became the Commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy. As they also shared the longest border in the world. was one of the dominant parties of the early Republic of China. He was determined to revive the revolution. Kinmen. and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT when Sun died in 1925 Taiwan: Officially the Republic of China (ROC).
People‘s communes: The highest of three administrative levels in rural areas of the People's Republic of China during the period of 1958 to 1982-85 until they were replaced by townships. The members consisted of Mao Zedong's last wife Jiang Qing. he nonetheless served as the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 to 1992. Gang of Four: The name given to a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials. Yao Wenyuan. They came to prominence during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76) and were subsequently charged with a series of treasonous crimes. The revolution marked the return of Mao Zedong to a position of absolute power after the failed Great Leap Forward. reflected in planning decisions from 1958 to 1961. forming foreign policy. Deng was a reformer who led China towards a market economy. statesman. Polycentrism: The principle of organization of a region around several political. Empires into Nations . which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of rapid industrialization and collectivization. and to impose Maoist orthodoxy within the Party. social or financial centres. Examples of polycentric cities include the Ruhr area in Germany. As leader of the Communist Party of China. While Deng never held office as the head of state. its stated goal was to enforce socialism in the country by removing capitalist. Chou En-lai: The first Premier of the People's Republic of China. traditional and cultural elements from Chinese society. and Stoke-on-Trent in the UK. The movement politically paralyzed the country and significantly affected the country economically and socially. Cultural Revolution and the Little Red Book: A social-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976. Great leap forward: An economic and social campaign of the Communist Party of China (CPC). and developing the Chinese economy. the leading figure of the group. Teng Hsiao-p‘ing: A Chinese politician. and her close associates Zhang Chunqiao. and Wang Hongwen. then Chairman of the Communist Party of China. head of government or General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (historically the highest position in Communist China). Set into motion byMao Zedong. and diplomat. serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976. Zhou served under Mao Zedong and was instrumental in consolidating the control of the Communist Party's rise to power.
1947. In 1945. The British came to India at the start of the seventeenth century. As a result the Indians formed large groups and revolted against the British. The British passed many acts that were met with dissatisfaction and resentment by the Indians. the British introduced the railways. telegraph and postal service in India. arose and openly condemned the British. The British annexed many princely states and formed laws and policies of their own. This was the time when the British East India Company was established in India to break the Dutch monopoly over spice trade. India was able to gain freedom from the British and progress till the present times.1. India gained independence from them on 15th August. With time the East India Company increased its powers and started to administer the country. Finally after 200 years of British rule. The changing leadership allowed for national groups who resented Dutch imperialism to form and grow. In the following lines. Each movement was brutally crushed by the British forces. The Dutch finally recognized their loss and liberated Indonesia from the colonial control in 1949. Slowly but rapidly the entire Indian sub continent came under the British rule. This led to the downfall of the company and the administration of India went directly under the Queen. After World War II. How did the Dutch rule end in Indonesia? Comment on Indonesian political and economic developments since independence. Jawaharlal Nehru. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi. the Dutch regained control of Indonesia but only for a very brief period of time. The partition of India and Pakistan spread incidents of brutality and horror in both the countries. Japan occupied Indonesia from 1942 to 1945 and controlled the trade and government of the archipelago and removed Dutch control during the war. Subhash Chandra Bose. Sukarno was declared President and he established the Republic of the United States of Indonesia. The Nationalist movement that arose while the Japanese were in power led to . Lala Rajpat Rai. These new educated elites and reformers. The British rule over India changed the course of history in India. 2. Read about the British colonialism in India. The introduction of telegraph and postal services simplified communication all over the country. such as Sukarno. when Queen Juliana of Netherlands proclaimed that Inodnesia was free of Dutch rule. led the Indonesian Revolution. They were people's leaders who inspired the masses not to be afraid of the forces. etc. This was a move to establish their rule permanently in India. Many innocent lives were sacrificed for this achievement and India was also separated from Pakistan. Describe the British rule in India and what has happened since 1947. The Dutch school that had been previously set-up produced new educated elites who eventually took control of the nationalist movement in Indonesia and expressed their contempt towards the Dutch rule. But due to the effort of the leaders and the ever sacrificing masses. The first railway line was from Howrah in Calcutta to Raniganj in Bihar. During the Second World War. By mid nineteenth century. However its policies were disliked by Indians and together they revolted against the company. you shall find information regarding the period when India was under British rule.
Laos. Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Of what continuing significance was this area of Asia for the contemporary world? (role change over time) In the early 1900s.) But nationalist independence movements had begun to develop. He fled into exile. a year after the Japanese seized control of his country during World War II. While the superpowers were struggling for advantage during the Korean and Vietnam wars. Ho Chi Minh City. What is meant geographically by the Muslim World? What important developments have taken place in the Arab states in the last sixty years? Geographically the Muslim World represents those states which are secularly known a Islamic Republics. Ho Chi Minh believed that independence would follow. they also were seeking influence in other parts of the world. Communist oppression caused 1. With U. Although Communists still govern Vietnam. 3. Most escaped in dangerously overcrowded ships.000 ―boat people‖ died at sea. After World War II.000 eventually settled in the United States or Canada. but France intended to regain its colony. They also sentenced Ho to death. Ho and other nationalists founded the Vietminh (Independence) League.S. Fearing Iran might turn to the Soviets for support. Describe the nature and outcome of the colonial struggle in Indochina. oil industry wealth fueled a growing clash between traditional Islamic values and modern Western materialism. The Japanese were forced out of Vietnam after their defeat in 1945. In no country was this cultural conflict more dramatically shown than in Iran (Persia before 1935). (French Indochina included what are now Vietnam. Iran‘s leader.expulsion of the Dutch. Ho Chi Minh. the victorious North Vietnamese imposed tight controls over the South. in 1953. Ho‘s Indochinese Communist party led revolts and strikes against the French. They nationalized a British-owned oil company and. About 70. A young Vietnamese nationalist. Sukarno remained president and established the guided democracy as the central governing method in Indonesia. Throughout the Middle East. the United States helped restore the shah to power. forced the shah to flee. The French responded by jailing Vietnamese protesters. The survivors often spent months in refugee camps in Southeast Asia. They nationalized industries and strictly controlled businesses. During the 1930s. embraced Western governments and wealthy Western oil companies. and Cambodia. 4.5 million people to flee Vietnam. but returned to Vietnam in 1941. They also renamed Saigon. France controlled most of resource-rich Southeast Asia. Iranian nationalists resented these foreign alliances and united under Prime Minister Muhammed Mossadeq. Officials sent thousands of people to ―reeducation camps‖ for training in Communist thought. the country now welcomes foreign investment. the South‘s former capital. After 1975. . turned to the Communists for help in his struggle. After colonialism ended in Indonesia. The United States normalized relations with Vietnam in 1995. More than 200.
ultimately. as well as the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. featured gleaming skyscrapers. however. The original idea of establishing dual Israeli and Palestinian state in Palestine seems to have been doomed to failure. the shah fled Iran in 1979. was at the heart of his foreign policy. and modern factories. with the ayatollah‘s blessing. By the end of the 1950s. Many Arabs see the Palestinian Diaspora as being no different from its Jewish equivalent. In 1979. America's seemingly unqualified support for Israel at every turn has led to a deepening Arab nationalism. What impact has the creation of the democratic state of Israel had on the Middle East? Determine three key reasons for the continuing conflict there. Millions of Iranians.S. which in turn led to the Six Day War of 1967 in which Israel's quick victory not only left them in occupation of the West Bank and Golan Heights. the shah westernized his country. Faced with overwhelming opposition. can point the same finger at those Arab nations who offered little in the way of carving a homeland for the thousands of Palestinian refugees. yet western nations have taken little effort to help create a state for them. They took more than . Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini. the very concept of carving a Jewish state promised to bring trouble to the region. Iran‘s capital. The shah tried to weaken the political influence of Iran‘s conservative Muslim leaders. to the Camp David Accords. support for the shah. Further destabilizing the already tenuous relationship between Israel and its Arab neighbors was the outcome of the Suez Canal Crisis. Even before its independence was recognized by most of the rest of the world. and along with that fundamentalism throughout the region has come the rise of terrorism. it is not just the presence of Israel that has led to the continued violence in the region. Iranians rioted in every major city in late 1978. because of U. This attempt by Egypt and Syria to reclaim land lost during the Six Day War might have undone the sense of Israeli might if US intervention had not instead led to a ceasefire and. but also demonstrated that the balance of military power in the region had demonstrably shifted. was living in exile. The creation of the nation of Israel in 1948 forever changed the geopolitical landscape of the Middle East. The leader of this religious opposition. embassy in Tehran. The initial problem stemmed from the inability of the architects of the state of Israel to find a satisfactory answer to the question of what to do with the Palestinians. young Islamic revolutionaries seized the U. But hatred of the United States. How did events in Iran reflect resentment at modernization? What form has anti-Western reactions taken? Strict adherence to Islam ruled Khomeini‘s domestic policies.S. Spurred by his tape recorded messages. Clearly. still lived in extreme poverty. of course. Tehran. A triumphant Khomeini returned to establish an Islamic state and to export Iran‘s militant form of Islam. 5. The impact of the Israeli military might in the Middle East could well be different today if the Yom Kippur War of 1973 been allowed to play out without US intervention. foreign banks. who opposed Western influences. 6. known as ayatollahs.support. Israel. then.
60 Americans hostage and demanded the United States force the shah to face trial. was a realist. Explain why this may be true. Iraq. this policy heightened tensions between Iran and its neighbor and territorial rival. In March 1962 a cease-fire was finally arranged between government and FLN representatives at Evian. This in turn brought counterterrorism. as colons and French army units raided Muslim villages and slaughtered the civilian population. held the following July. France. A Committee of Public Safety demanded the return to office of General Charles de Gaulle. charging it with vacillation. Algeria voted overwhelmingly for independence. FLN strategy combined Abd al-Qadir's guerrilla tactics with deliberate use of terrorism. while indiscriminate murders and kidnappings of Europeans and Muslims who did not actively support the FLN created a climate of fear throughout the country. however. governed Iraq as a secular state. How did it affect political developments in France? In March 1954 Ahmed Ben Bella. Most hostages remained prisoners for 444 days before being released in 1981. as the only one who could settle the war and preserve French Algeria. an ex-sergeant in the French army. 8. and communications installations. A steady rise in guerrilla action over the next two years forced the French to bring in reinforcements. In the longawaited referendum. the FLN launched its bid for Algerian independence by coordinated attacks on public buildings. French. The guerrilla tactics effectively immobilized superior French forces. and Spanish all had claims. Describe the nature and outcome of the Algerian war for independence. 7. 000 French troops were stationed in Algeria. before the end of the year most of them had left the country. In May 1958 the colons and French army officers joined hands in Algiers to overthrow the French government. How did the British. joined eight other Algerian exiles in Egypt to form a revolutionary committee that later became known as the National Liberation Front. Khomeini encouraged Muslim radicals elsewhere to overthrow their secular governments. Intended to unify Muslims. Britain and France were the two major European powers involved in the colonization of Africa. military and police posts. In 1959 he announced his intention of allowing Algerians to choose between independence and continued association with France. France predominantly focused upon colonizing North Africa. 400. When examining colonial Africa. they were for the most part minor in comparison to the African ambitions of Britain and France. he recognized that the war was unwinnable. Belgians. The colons began a mass evacuation. the wartime leader of the Free French. extending down into the . especially along the Mediterranean and West Africa. Belgian and Portuguese end in subSaharan Africa? These new African states often appear to be a string of kleptocracies with a clear need to improve material and political rights of the citizens. De Gaulle. eventually. A few months later . Although the Germans. Once in power. Saddam Hussein. Italians. A military leader. In 1956 the war spread to the cities.
The British colonized Sub Saharan Africa vigorously.northern regions of what is characterized as Sub Saharan Africa. When Winston Churchill introduced the Charter to Parliament. Overall. Colonialism is a political term referring to keeping a country in a subordinate position and controlling its people and resources by another country. Guam. It is the largest (with a minuscule population) colony. however. and Italy had small claims along the East African Coast. After World War II. 'Comoros'. Some African countries are very rich in natural resources but could not unite and work for their development. was the autonomy of imperial colonies. The developed countries go to them promising help but their quid pro quo is obviously long term control of natural resources. and firmly entrenching Great Britain as the most powerful European power in Africa. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss the postwar world. United States President Franklin D. the British still considered their African colonies as "children" and "immature". some of the countries are unable to manage themselves freely. One of the provisions.Pierre & Miquelin (Fr). with 'Mayotte' breaking away and rejoining French Empire as France's Overseas Department. Egypt was a major British colony in North Africa. named Rio de Oro. a group of 4 principal islands near Madagascar when given independence had a civil war on their hands. while the British focused on a North South axis of colonization. Though many countries have gained freedom the last few decades. So colonialism is still very much alive in the world today. the vestiges of colonialism still continue because. which ended with France being expelled from modern day Sudan. Then there are plenty of Island territories scattered over Pacific. they introduced democratic government only at the local levels. introduced by Roosevelt. In what sense does colonialism remain around the world today? (I don’t mean the Falkland Islands. The two empires collided in the Sudan. Falkland Islands (Br). present day Eritrea. is a colony and colonized by the Danish. Some other countries are not able to grapple with their problems of poverty and lack of education. Spain held a small colony in present day Mauritania. The result was the Atlantic Charter. St. Perhaps it is because Comoros proclaimed a strong Islamic identity. Their internal situations are not conducive to development of healthy democratic institutions. 9. he purposely mistranslated the colonies to be recently captured countries by Germany in order to get it passed. On February 12th 1941. After the war. Annobon. The next biggest colony is 'French Guiana' north of the mouths of Amazon in the Atlantic. while Sub Saharan Africa was largely controlled by the British. North Africa is usually associated with the French. France pursued a policy of creating a West to East African colonial empire. . Madagascar was colonized by the Portuguese. Germany held relatively small claims in southeast Africa. Greenland with only a handful indigenous people to talk of. Indian Oceans and Caribbean Sea (grouped as West Indies). Bonaire & Curacao (Dutch). but also pursued colonial aims in North Africa. The Belgians held small colonial claims in the Congo. or Gibraltar) Under a mile high ice. the US and the African colonies put pressure on Britain to abide by the terms of the Atlantic Charter. which were increased under the rule of Bismarck following the Franco-Prussian War.
the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. Suharto (see Transition to the New Order). is an ‗intergovernmental organisation of fiftyfour independent member states. Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for independence from the Netherlands and was Indonesia's first President from 1945 to 1967. She was the first woman to become prime minister in India Bangladesh: A sovereign state located in South Asia. Ayatollah Khomeini: An Iranian religious leader and politician. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian political spectrum. . and she remains as the world's second longest serving female Prime Minister as of 2012. Sukarno: The first President of Indonesia. Following the revolution. Being a political party to secure the interests of the Muslim diaspora in British India. the Shah of Iran. located in central Bangladesh. All but two of these countries (Mozambique and Rwanda) were formerly part of the British Empire. Commonwealth of Nations: Formerly known as the British Commonwealth. in 1906. It is bordered by India and Burma and by the Bay of Bengal to the south. out of which the Commonwealth developed. the Muslim League played a decisive role during the 1940s in the Indian independence movement and developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state in the Indian subcontinent Congress Party led by Nehru: One of the two major political parties in India. The official state language is Bengali. on August 14th and 15th. in the context of the circumstances that were generated over the partition of Bengal in 1905. Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader — a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation — until his death. Gandhi was the second female head of government in the world after Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka. respectively Indria Gandhi: An Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms (1966–77) and a fourth term (1980–84). This led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) which took place in 1947. Vocabulary Muslim League: Founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka (nowBangladesh). and remained under house arrest until his death. The name Bangladesh means "Country of Bengal" in the official Bengali language. He was replaced by one of his generals. Partition: The partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics. The capital (and largest city) is Dhaka.
or "the river that swallows all rivers" Guided Democracy: Also called managed democracy. The battle occurred between March and May 1954 and culminated in a comprehensive French defeat that influenced negotiations over the future of Indochina at Geneva. whose participation was suspended in November 2011) Nasser: The second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death. Iraq. It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt. Zaire: The name of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo between 27 October 1971 and 17 May 1997. as well as the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Viet Cong (NLF or VC) during the Vietnam War. It is bordered by Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) to the west. The word Ghana means "Warrior King"and is derived from the ancient Ghana Empire. Suez Expedition (1956): A diplomatic and military confrontation in late 1956 between Egypt on one side. Geneva Agreement of 1954: A conference which took place in Geneva. and socialist reform in Egypt together with a profound advancement of pan-Arab nationalism. Kenyatta: Served as the first Prime Minister (1963–1964) and President (1964–1978) of Kenya. in other words. the first president. Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Dine Bien Phi: The climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minhcommunist-nationalist revolutionaries. the government has learned to control elections so that the people can exercise all their rights without truly changing public policy Ho Chi Mien: A Vietnamese Marxist-Leninist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1945–1955) and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). France and Israel on the . Ghana: A country located in West Africa. which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan. and Southwest Asia (Middle East). Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949). while free and fair. Burkina Faso to the north. and Syria. including a shortlived union with Syria. itself an adaptation of the Kongo word nzere or nzadi. Arab league: Officially called the League of Arab States. is a regional organization of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa. Saudi Arabia. Togo to the east. and heralded a new period of modernization. Or. and Britain. The Arab League currently has 22 members (including Syria. is a term for a democratic government with increased autocracy. He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945. The name of Zaire derives from the Portuguese: Zaire. whose purpose was to attempt to find a way to unify Korea and discuss the possibility of restoring peace in Indochina. A colonel in the Egyptian army. He is considered the founding father of the Kenyan nation. Nasser led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 along with Muhammad Naguib. and the Gulf of Guinea to the south. are used by the government to continue their same policies and goals. Governments are legitimated by elections that. Switzerland. Lebanon.
and Syria. until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990. and attempted to purge the country of all colonial cultural influence. the Gold Coast. by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic). Six – Day War (1967): Fought between June 5 and 10. Great Satan: A derogatory epithet for the United States of America in some Iranian foreign policy statements. was fought from October 6 to 25. the holiest day in Judaism. Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organizations and was practiced also in South West Africa. France and Israel to withdraw. he formed an authoritarian regime. Nkrumah was the first President of Ghana and the first Prime Minister of Ghana. with the United States. Occasionally. The outcome was a swift and decisive Israeli victory. amassed vast personal wealth. the Soviet Union and the United Nations playing major roles in forcing Britain. and the Golan Heights from Syria. Jordan. serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. which was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate (revoked in 1966). and launching the Infitah economic policy . between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria. other. departing from some of the economic and political principles of Nasserism by re-instituting the multiparty system. from 1952 to 1966. While in office. the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan. Yom Kippur War: Also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War and the Fourth Arab–Israeli War. these words have also been used toward the government of the United Kingdom Nkrumah: The leader of Ghana and its predecessor state. Israel took effective control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. 1967. while also maintaining an anti-communist stance. An influential 20thcentury advocate of Pan-Africanism. The war began when the coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur. 1973. Overseeing the nation's independence from British colonial rule in 1957. he was a founding member of the Organization of African Unity and was the winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1963. Apartheid: A system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party governments of South Africa between 1948 and 1994. which happened to occur that year during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan Anwar al Sadat: The third President of Egypt. In his eleven years as president he changed Egypt's direction. Mobutu: The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (also known as Zaire for much of his reign) from 1965 to 1997. After a period of high tension between Israel and its neighbors. under which the rights of the majority non-white inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and white supremacy and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained. the war began on June 5 with Israel launching surprise air strikes against Arab forces.
As president. he frequently gave priority to reconciliation. while introducing policies aimed at combating poverty and inequality in South Africa . and its paramilitary wing is regarded as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab and Muslim worlds. Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to democracy in 1994. and sentenced to life in prison. the Netherlands. spending many of these years on Robben Island. As head of the Irgun. Canada and Israel classify Hezbollah as a terrorist organization. and counter-terrorism operations by the French Army. It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" by the United Nations and over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations. the United Kingdom. Australia. and the leader and co-founder of Umkhonto we Sizwe. An important decolonization war. Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990. founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of the State of Israel. Mandela was a militant anti-apartheid activist. He proclaimed a revolt. and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Nelson Mandela: Served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. which was opposed by the Jewish Agency. in whole or in part French – Algerian War: A conflict between France and Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962. Menacham Begin: A politician. the armed wing of the African National Congress(ANC). In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges. Hezbollah: A Shi'a Muslim militant group and political party based in Lebanon. The United States. he targeted the British in Palestine PLO: A political and paramilitary organization which was created in 1964. Mandela served 27 years in prison. the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah. which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. on 1 February 1944. he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun. terrorism against civilians. it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare. the use of torture on both sides. maquis fighting. Before his presidency. Before independence. against the British mandatory government. It receives financial and political support from Iran and Syria. and has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations since 1974.
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