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**Esmael H. Dinan and Bijan Jabbari George Mason University
**

This article presents an overview of the spreading techniques for rect sequence CDMA cellular networks. We briefly review the theoretical background for sequences used in CDMA and wideband CDMA, and discuss the main characteristics of the Maximal length, Gold, and Kasami sequences, as well as variable- and fixed-length orthogonal codes. We also describe different methods of multiple spreading for channelization and scrambling in CDMA and W-CDMA realizations.

order to minimize the overall envelope variations and achieve high amplifier efficiency, a complex spreading technique can also be used, as shown in 2 . When the s i m a l is received. the

spreading is remov he continuous growth in traffic volume and emerwith the same PN e gence of new services have begun to change the received PN. When e structure of wireless networks. Future mobile communications generated by other users’ signals, there is no despreading. systems will be characterized by high throughput, integration That is, each spread sp of services, and flexibility. The high capacity required to supwere uncorrelated with port these characteristics can be obtained by using the specsame band. Therefore trum as efficiently as possible and by flexibility in radio very low cross-correla resource management. Spread spectrum code-division multicodes with zero cross-c ple access (CDMA) approaches have been proposed for a variety of digital cellular mobile and wireless personal comthe bandwidth efficiency of cellular CDMA systems. The importance of the code seq munications systems. Cellular CDMA systems offer the potential of high spectrum efficiency. This capacity advantage, nications is difficult to ov together with other features such as soft capacity (or graceful degradation), multipath resistance, inherent frequency diversity and interference rejection, and the potential use of advanced antenna and receiver structures, have contributed to and cross-correlation of some important PN and orthog growing interest in this technology for proposed second- and especially third-generation cellular mobile systems. A spread spectrum CDMA scheme is one in which the transmitted signal is spread over a wide frequency band, much wider than the minimum bandwidth required to transmit the information being sent [l,21. It employs a waveform that for outlines the importance of mu1 all purposes appears random to anyone but the intended CDMA networks and presents di receiver of the transmitter waveform. Actually, for ease of spread the information signal, and both generation and synchronization by the receiver, the cludes the article. waveform is pseudorandom, meaning that it can be generated by mathematically precise rules, but statistically it nearly satisfies the reuirements of a truly random sequence. In spread spectrum CDMA all users use the same bandwidth, but each Figure 3 shows the transmitter is assigned a distinct code. length linear feedb A block diagram of the baseband model of a direct sequence length sequences (m (DS) CDMA modulator and demodulator is shown in Fig. 1. Spreading consists of multiplying the input data by a pseudonoise (PN) sequence, the bit rate of which is much higher than the data bit rate. This increases the data rate while adding redundancy to the system. The ratio of PN sequence bit rate to data bit rate is called the spreading factor (SF). The resulting waveform is wideband, noiselike, and balanced in phase, and has a flexible timing structure. In case there are two different I and Q branches, each channel can be spread separately. In Figure 1. The baseband model of a DS-CDMA transceiver.

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0163-6804/98/$10.00 01998 IEEE

since iff@) were maximal length.1. . We define the generating function of the sequence as A m G(D)=ao +a1D+a2D2 +.. the period of the sequence generated by l/f(D) is less than or equal to the least common multiple of (2a1.e.101.I + D2 + D3 + D4 1+07 1 This is also given by [2] @.codes that can be generated by a given shift register or a delay element of a given length [3]. depends solely on the connection vector c1. i=l + Table 1 presents the code length and the number of msequences for some values of n. 2f121) < 2n . G(D)can be expressed as a ratio of finite polynomials where {Pi. we may reduce the latter to the finite recurrence relation Figure 3. Figure 4 illustrates a three-stage LFSR sequence generator. all terms are binary (0 or l). a-1 and determines the phase shift of the sequence. the period of the sequence would be 2n . of degree n1 andf2(D) of degree n2 (it is clear that n1 + n2 = n). where D is the delay operator. f m # f l ( ~ ) f i ( ~Suppose thatf(D) = fl(D)fi(D) WithflP) >.. the number of integers s less than m which are relative&prime to m TPFF Pnmmliniration< Magazine Seotember 1998 49 .a-2 = a-1 = 0. als exist for all degrees n > 1. If the sequence generated by G ( D ) has period N . (1) and (2). this division yields to + + + + G ( D )= 1+ D2 + D3 + D4 + D7 + D9 + D'O The maximum period of the sequence generated by the first term is 2 n 1 . This is a contradiction.1 for all nonzero initial vectors.1 and that of the second term is 2n2. Golomb [3] showed that the number of primitive polynomials of degree n is equal to1 From this. The number of codes increases vely fast when n increases. k . and G(D) = 1/(1 0 2 0 3 ) . Then we can write..I This sequence is periodic with period 7..k } is the prime decomposition of 2n - 2" f ( D ) is called the characteristic polynomial of the linear feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence generator.a0 + u ~ + a2D2 +.1.l D N . i = 1. These polynomi- + D" + D14 +.. References [4. Considering the feedback connections.5] give tables of primitive polynomials for m 5 40. by partial fractions..l ) + i=O D .1. On the other hand.-3 Let us consider the initial condition of the registers to be a-3 = 1.(N) n where aP(m) i the Euler totientfunction. . .3. c.. A primitive polynomial of degree n is simply one for which the period of the coefficients of l/f(D) is 2n . we havef(D) = 1 D2 D3... The complex spreading technique in W-CDMA. sufficient to generate sequences of period up to 240.1. Hence. .. If the sequence is periodic with period N (i. a++ .1011100. M-sequence generator structure. The polynomial go(D) depends as well on the initial condition vector a+. and determines the main characteristics of the generated sequence. Unfortunately this condition is not sufficient. = az-2 a + = {1011100. that is.enough for most purposes. 2n .."+cnai-n i E 2ckai-k k=l (1) Here. then G(D) can be written as G ( D ) = i D i N ( a o a l D + a 2 D 2+ . (3) and (4) that f ( D ) must divide 1 W .... The irreducible polynomials that generate an m-sequence are called primitive. then the sequence ai is equal to (i 2 0) a.. = ai+N). where ni is an integer...= XaiD' i=O (2) Figure 2. + o N . A necessary condition for G(D) to generate an m-sequence is that f ( D ) be irreducible (nonfactorable).It has been proven that every LFSR sequence is periodic with period N .. the sequence ai is generated according to the formula a. 1. it can be shown from Eqs. that is.1E 10l2.g(D) = 1. This leads us to define the m-sequence as s an LFSR sequence whose period N = 2 n . 2. .1. The sequence ai is generated according to the recursive formula n a clai-1 +c2ai-2 +.+ aN-lDN-' (3) l+DN Combining Eqs.. a. and addition and multiplication are mudulo-2..1 = nqnz . that is. Each clock time the register shifts all contents to the right.

Since the correlation between different shifts of an m-sequence is almost zero. It can be demonstrated that msequences satisfy the following three randomness properties in every period of length N = 2n . they can be used as different codes with an excellent correlation property. among them those by Lindholm [7]. a‘ = a [ q ]has period N if and only if gcd(N.). Note. / S =fi MN-1 (7) 1 + 2 2 forneven Finding preferred pairs of m-sequences is necessary in defining sets of Gold codes. Cross-correlation of two codes is of similar importance. and they may have large cross-correlation values..d variables just as for random sequences. Welch obtained the following lower bound on t h e cross-correlation between any pair of binary sequences of period N in a set of M sequences [6]: R. Gold sequences are useful because of the large number of codes they supply... I t is also of some interest t o note that even when the codes used exhibit excellent cross-correlation properties when averaged over their entire length. Sequence autocorrelation C ( k )= CUAU. a . short-term cross-correlation. = 1 . An example of a maximal LFSR sequence generator. the cross-correlation between the codes is uniform and bounded [4. If the code waveformp(t) is the squarewave equivalent of the sequence a. 114 have length 2. C ( k ) is a random variable with a distribution similar to the sum of binary i. and if we define IO. With the above characteristics an m-sequence is indistinguishable from a pure random code when N is large. and a second sequence a’ obtained by sampling every qth symbol of a. -1. a a’. however. with pulse duration T. They can be chosen so that over a set of codes available from a given generator. and 1/2k length k (k < n). Consider an m-sequence represented by a binary vector a of length N. The family of codes defined by { a . Wainberg [8].(k) 2 N . Autocowelation function of p(t). 1 this function is shown in Fig. In this section we describe how we can generate a set of Gold sequences. n odd or n = 2 (mod 4) a’ = a [ q ] . Let a and a‘ represent a preferred pair of m-sequences having period N = 2n .2an is the -t 1 sequence. The composite codes presented in the next sections are of great utility when cross-correlation is a prime consideration (especially when the users are asynchronous to each Figure 5. This characteristic autocorrelation is used to great advantage in communications. In synchronous networks all base stations and users use a common time reference using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the pilot sent by the base stations. are the elements of the two sequences with period N. Cross-correlation is the measure of agreement between two different codes and is given by N GOLDSEQUENCES A goal of spread spectrum system designers for a multiple access system is to find a set of spreading codes or waveforms such that as many users as possible can use a band of frequencies with as little mutual interference as possible. the set of Gold sequences are not maxi- I1+2 n+l - fornodd n+2 + + + + m-sequences are of great interest in synchronous cellular spread spectrum networks. a’. and Fredricsson [9]. and the notation a’= a[q]is used to indicate that a‘ is obtained by sampling every qth symbol of a. where “gcd” denotes the greatest common divisor. The second sequence is said to be a decimation of the first.The coefficients of G ( D ) present exactly the same sequence obtained by the recursive equation. It can be proved that the N + 1 elements of a Gold codes set have the property that any pair of codes in the set has the above threevalued cross-correlation spectrum.1. Autocorrelation refers to the degree of correspondence between a sequence and a phase-shifted replica of itself. A number of papers in the literature deal with this problem. q) = 1.. With the exception of sequences a and a‘.. that when correlation is over a much shorter span than N. 10. Then each base or mobile station is identified by a unique offset of its PN binary sequence in fomard and reverse channels. that is. otherwise then if N > > 1.i. 50 IEEE Communications Magazine September 1998 . DN-l a ’ } where D is the delay element is called the set of Gold codes for this preferred pair of m-sequences. and b. can occur.where q is odd and either q = Zk 1 or q = 2“-2h 4. Half the runs of ones and zeros Figure 4.k ) = for n = 2(mod4) 2 The cross-correlation spectrum between a preferred pair is three-valued. respectively. t(n) -2 where + i t(n)= n=l where a. Two m-sequences a and a‘ are called the prefered pair [4] if: n z 0 (mod 4).1: The number of ones and zeros is nearly equal.1 1 forn odd gcd(n. a D ~ u ’. quite effective in disturbing communications. 111. Any pair of m-sequences having the same period N can be related by a’ = a[q]for some q. C(T) s N E q(2 . The m-sequences are not immune to cross-correlation problems. and it is of most interest in choosing code sequences that give the least probability of false synchronization. where those three values are -t(n). other).~ = N6(k) n=l N where 6(k) is the Kronecker delta and a‘. 0 have length 1. a D a’. 5. 1/8 length 3.iNT.

M = 2flI2. -1 f KASAMISEQUENCES 2fl/2. sequences such that R.if than purely random sequences. if we observe 1023 bits of W Table 1. and even larger. The significance of this theorem is that it tells how to select shift register connecbits of sequences a and a' we form a new set of sequences by tions. s 129. -(2n/2 l ) . which will generate maximal linear sequences with a adding. linear sequences chosen in accordance ber of such sequences is M = 23n/2if n = 0 with this technique perform better with respect to their cross-correlation properties (mod 4). a'.and let ft(0) the minimal polynomial of a'(fl). It is interesting to compare the peak cross-correlation value of Gold sequences with the known lower bound developed by Welch. It can be verified scrambling code in W-CDMA systems. we will see 33 repetitions of the the number of maximal systems.1 + + + + + CODES . In this procedure we begin with an msequences are one of the candidates for the sequence a and we form the sequence a' by decimating a by 2"/2 + 1.-1 f 2n/2 1). the bits from a and the bits from a' and all known bound on the cross-correlation function.2 cyclic shifts of the bits from a'. There more efficient than for the Gold codes.1. The Welch bound is not asymptotically tant types of binary sequence sets because of approached. It can be shown that the characteristic H Figure 6 An illustration of generating a Gold code set. We note furand contains both the Gold sequences and the ther that for purely random sequences with small set of Kasami sequences as subsets. 2fl/2-1 }. let f ' ( D ) be the generating function of Gold sequences will generate the small set of Kasami sequences with M = 2n/2 binary sequence a". Code length and the bandwidth efficiency of spread spectrum sequence a'. Hence. Then the sequences generated by f l ( D ) and ft(D) are two preferred m-sequences. are two different sets of Kasami sequences. the ORTHOGONAL period of a is N = 1023 and the period of a' Orthogonal functions are employed to improve is 31. Figure 6 illustrates the generation of 33 Gold codes of . Regarding the characteristic polynomial of the preferred pairs. modulo-2.sing different initial The autocorrelation and cross-correlation loads of the shift register. i ( D ) is termed the f be minimal polynomial of a. If m-sequence a is generated by f(0)and a' withf(D). for n = 13 ( N = 213 . where bothfl(D) and f f ( D )are of degree n . These even.1. while Gold The laige set of Kasami sequences again consequences guarantee the selection of pairs of sists of sequences of period 2fl. which is the same as ues from the set {-1. 131. For example. take all sequences formed by adding a. all length 31 by adding the output of two LFSR sequence generathe elements of the small set of Kasami seauences can be eentors.1. A Extending the generation function of the small procedure similar to that used for generating set.(k) I max s 2(n+2)/2. The comolete familv of Gold codes for erated by the generating iunction f ( D ) f @ ) . for n even. Each mobile user uses one member LFSR sequences. The numhence. let a be any primitive element of GF(2fl). their autocorrelation functions are not two-valued.where n is sequences generated by f ( D ) f (D)f ' ( D )form the large set of Kasami sequences. and the there exist pairs of these sequences whose small set of Kasami sequences is optimal. the period of m-sequences. this generator i's obtained . The period of any functions of these sequences take on the valcode in the family is N . Hence.1. correlation values are at R. . By including a in the acteristic polynomials of the preferred pairs can be found in set. the Welch bound is lower by d2 for n odd and by 2 for n even. A list of char2fl12. by taking N = 2" . Let f i ( D ) be an irreducible polynomial of degree n with the root of a.1 satisfies the Welch lower bound for a set of = 8191) there are 630 maximal sequences and 2f112sequences of length N = 2" .mal sequences. that the resulting a' is an m-sequence with period 2n/2. we have I R. All the values of auto-correla) tion and cross-correlation from members of this set are limited to the five values {-1. the maximum cross-correlation value For example [lo]. 31-bit sequence. and it takes the same three values as cross-correlation. For h r g e N . it can be deduced that all the sequences of period N = 2fl.1. Let this length we would expect the cross-correlam-sequences a' and a" be formed by the decition function to exceed 2 0 = 2 x 8192112 = mation of a by 2fl/2 1 and 2(n+2)/2 1. n = 2 (mod 4. if n = 10. but the packing of signal space is their very low cross-correlation [4. and a" with different shifts of a' and a". and 180 for 5 percent of the correlation values. Hence. polynomial of the sum of these two sequences is fi(D)ft(D). With this larger set of Kasami sequence sets are one of the imporsequences. Now. = 703. we obtain a set of 2fl/2 binary sequences of length N = 2fl [12].

respectively.. These functions can form orthogonal modulation symbols. Another method can be used to modulate the orthogonal functions into the information stream of the CDMA signal. The Hadamard matrix of desired length can be generated by the following recursive procedure: [O 0 0 01 where N is a power of 2 and the overscore denotes the binary complement of the bits in the matrix. The outputs from correlators are compared. If there are n bits per block. each bit is spread by a Walsh function.of a set of orthogonal functions representing the set of symbols used for transmission. Improving the capability of multimedia communications is one of the targets for WCDMA mobile communications systems. Note that 0 is the Kronecker product and is defined as follows: (8) where @ ( and @@) are ith and jth orthogonal members of . So the multiple spreading technique is also used in the reverse channel. 52 IEEE Communications Magazine SeDtember 1998 . -l}. 0. While there are many different sequences that can be used to generate an orthogonal set of functions. a pilot signal is not sent in the reverse link. Figure 7 illustrates the application of Walsh functions and PN codes in IS-95-based cellular CDMA systems. the signal of one user cannot be distinguished from others. Walsh code spreading can be used if the receiver is synchronized with the transmitter..0 K2 n times = (K2)'" (10) x@L(h)@l(W = 0. The orthogonal functions have the following characteristic: M-1 Hadamard matrices can also be obtained using the following formula: Kzn = K2 0K .Application of Walshfunctions and PN codes in the forward and reverse links of cellular CDMA. A i s the length of the set. With orthogonal symbol modulation. In the forward link. the information bitstream can be divided into blocks so that each block represents a nonbinary information symbol associated with a particular transmitted code sequence. VARIABLE-LENGTH ORTHOGONAL CODES Figure 7 . In the spread spectrum transmitter. and the symbol with the largest output is taken as the transmitted symbol. Walsh functions can be constructed for block length N = 2n. Each row of K presents a Walsh function. Therefore. the Walsh and Hadamard sequences make useful sets for CDMA. each matched to the code function of one symbol.l) a an orthogonal set respectively. These functions have zero correlation between each other. Walsh functions are generated by mapping codeword rows of special square matrices called Hadamard matrices. since all the users use the same orthogonal functions. In W-CDMA the pilot is sent in both directions. k=O i+j where the'elernents of K are the unique mapping of the elements of H. because the cross-correlation between different shifts of Walsh functions is not zero (some functions are just the shifted version of others). and 4 z i s the symbol duration. Therefore. Orthogonal spreading codes can be used if all the users of the same channel are synchronized in time to the accuracy of a small fraction of one chip. In IS-95 system. l} onto the (1. (0. In this technique the signal spectrum is spread by the factor 2nJn. the spreading factor is equal to N . and the remaining rows each have equal numbers of ones and zeros. the base station can transmit a pilot signal to enable the receiver to recover synchronization. one of the set of N = 2n functions is transmitted in each symbol interval. therefore. Walsh symbol modulation is used from the mobile station to the base station. These matrices contain one row of all zeros. The signal at the receiver is correlated with a set of N-matched filters. in CDMA systems each user's signal is also spread by a distinct PN sequence after orthogonal modulation. The concept of multiple spreading will be expanded in this article.

.768-chip code used on the downlink. that unique base station identification can be obtained. The reverse link uses the other users requesting lower rates.. and different proposals are under MULTIPLE SPREADING investigation. the pilot signal is a pseudorandom binary onal except for the case that one of the two codes is a mother sequence signal with a period of 32. all tive to zero offset code.768 chips. a set of 2k spreading codes with the As mentioned. these variable length orthogonal codes can be codes independent from other cells. These restrictions are imposed in order Table 2 summarizes the spreading codes used in DSto maintain orthogonality. mother codes same 32.. but each base station is identified by a unique time code to the root of the tree or the sub-tree produced by the offset of its pseudorandom binary sequence. fied Hadamard transformation is presented in 1141. This means that the number of available codes is the radio system can correctly decode the information from n'ot fixed but depends on the rate and spreading factor of an individual mobile station. C4(1). multiple-rate transmission needs multiple spreading factors (SF) in the physical channels. Cs(l). It is possynchronous or asynchronous techniques. each cell site can use short spreading As a result. Now we present different spreading used in CDMA and W-CDMA reverse and forward links. Orthogonality are 256 chips long.)c64(8).in) is spread by a code of length N = 2n. For example.W-CDMA is designed to support a variety of data services from low to very high bit rates..} generated from this code cannot be assigned to in dense microcellular environments. in Fortunately. same sequence in the forward (reverse) link. In other words.~. This large number of offsets ensures the codes {c16(1). operation each cell site is assigned to a distinct Gold sequence. and so are not orthogonal sequence corresponds to a period of 26. the pilot pseudorandom binary Cz(1) are mother codes of c32(3). c64(1). while European and the same cell while maintaining mutual randomness only Japanese systems use the asynchronous technique where in between users of different cells. for example.66 ms. a range for the code length can be obtained. providing 511 unique offsets relatilon. Each mobile {C4(1).. understood from Eq. the scrambling codes can be based on the intercell provides flexible system deployment and operation. . Let CN be a matrix of size N N and denotethe set of N binary spreading codes of N-chip length. CDMA and W-CDMA systems. C32(1). Since the spreaded signal bandwidth is the same for all users. Figure 9 shows two different channel code assignments used for forward links in CDMA and W-CDMA.. all of C16(2). hiigher rates. Starting from Cl(1) = 1. Consider that each bit of the lowestbit-rate service (R.. in addition. .2288 Mchipls. Cz(l)} of Cs(1) cannot be assigned to users requesting station uses a different time shift on the PN code. each physical channel. such binary orthogonal sequences is the variable-length Walsh orthogonal set. -&32(4). Since the bit duration for rate 2Rminis half the duratioa of a bit in the minimum rate. Since this set of codes includes more can be achieved by first multiplying each user's binary input than one million different codes. we need a spreading code of length NI2 = 2n-1 for spreading. {CN(n)}n=l. Code tree for generation of variable length orthogonal nality between different rates and SFs based on a modicodes (SFspreadingfactor). A method to obtain variable-length orthogonal codes that preserve orthogoH Figure 8 . Hence. we can easily find that if Cs(1) is assigned to a user. is the row vector of N elements and N = 2". one class of x IlEEE Communications Magazine September 1998 53 . even C1241). it is plication of a long pseudorandom sequence. the long PN sequences scrambling codes. It can be with a limited cross-correlation can be generated. 8. a code can be used in a channals from all base stations use the same pseudorandom binary nel if and only if no other code on the path from the specific sequence. therefore. The pilot sigagainst C32(3). Since the chip code of the other. no extensive code planning by a short spread sequence which is orthogonal to that of is needed. are not in the same order of HN. although the rows of C. a large number of long Gold spreading codes length of 2k chips are generated at the kth layer. In intercell asynchronous generated recursively using a tree structure as shown in Fig. As mentioned. and rate is 1. The North Amerisible to provide waveform orthogonality among all users of can standard uses synchronous systems.. each transmission channel code is distinguished by the combination of a channelization code and a scrambling code. Each cell is allocated a suitable subset of these every other user of the same cell. The standardization of WCDMA is underway. Generally. which is cell-spegenerated from cN/2 as cific but common to all users of that cell in the forward link and user-specific in the reverse link. From this observain increments of 64 chips. This spread signal is followed by multiwhere cn () . Since the cells are assigned to different scrambling codes. any two codes of different layers are also orthogIS-95-based systems. This is rendered possible by the reverse link the mobile-station-unique scrambling code the wide bandwidth of a spread spectrum DS-CDMA system is allocated from the set of very large Kasami codes which that provides considerable waveform flexibility. Cl&). The channelization code can be implemented using variable-length orthogonal sequences. a code length of 2n-k is needed for bit rate 2kRmin.Depending on the maximum and minimum supported bit rates in the system and the spreading bandwidth. As mentioned hfultiple spreading or two-layered spreading code allocation before. 12 that generated codes of the same In intercell synchronous operation different cell base stahyer constitute a set of Walsh functions and they are orthogotions (different mobile users) use different time shifts of the nal. These offsets are specific code is used in the same channel. The short orthogonal codes are called channelization codes.

L.Scrambling code Different offsets of an Different offset of an m-sequence with a period m-sequence with a period of 32. vol. "Pseudo-Randomness Properties of Binary Shift Register Sequences. in electrical engineering. [IO] R. 1967. Theory. Paris. 977-80. IT-4. Gold. 33. pp. "Primitive Binary Polynomials. pp. R. 1. no. "Optimal Binary Sequences for Spread Spectrum Multiplexing. 1970.K. IT-20. He i s currently pursuing his Ph.technique. 154-56. vol. Commun.D.. ~ i REFERENCES [ I ] A. degrees from Sharif University of Technology. pp. Dixon. Since the asynchronous technique does not need timing synchronization between base stations. Finally. Golomb." /€E€ Trans. He also received the M. Spreading codes in CDMA and WCDMA cellular networks. vol.S. We discuss the main characteristics of m-sequences and their generation by means of the LFSR structure.767 (2l5-I) chips (a of 32. Apr. "An Analysis of the Pseudo-Randomness Properties o f Subsequences o f Long m Sequences. Viterbi. July 1968. He is editor for Wireless Multiple Access for the /€E€ Transactions on Communications and is on the editorial board of Proceedings o f the /€E€ and a few other journals. France. Spread Spectrum systems with Commercial Applications. BIJAN JABBARI (bjabbari@gmu. vol. C. we explain how the use of orthogonal codes and multiple spreading techniques provides flexible code allocation to the base station and mobile user. degree at the School of Information Technology and Engineering of George Mason University. pp. 569-76. He has served as guest editor of the IEEE publications on wireless communication networks. degree from Stanford University. Theory. Welch. COM-18. 606-1 2. Univ. Lindholm. Oct. "Lower Bounds on the Maximum CrossCorrelation of Signals. a second scrambling code using Gold codes of length 241 may be used for the reverse link. W.A Tutorial. [31 S. 27. Fredricsson. . His area of active research is on access methods and performance modeling of wireless communication networks.1 Chip Gold sequence __ ~. degree from Ecole Nationale Superieure d'lnformatique et de Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble (ENSIMAG) in France. Comp. "Tree-Structured Generation of Orthogonal Spreading Codes with Different Length for Forward Link of DS-CDMA Mobile Radio. [13] T. A technique to select m-sequences with good cross-correlation properties (preferred pairs) is presented which leads to the generation of Gold codes." Coordinated Science Lab. in 1993 and 1995 respectively. 5. pp. COM-30. 1994. Info. 171 J. They are truncated to form a cycle of 216 bits (10 ms frame) and are selected based on computer simulation such that cross-correlation is minimum. 1966." / € E € Trans. Milstein. I a) 10 ms of a 2'8-1 chip Gold sequence. Virginia. "Weight Distribution Formula for Some Class of Cyclic Codes. Oct." Math. i n 1997 i n computer science. Theory. Tech." Elect Lett." /€E€ Trans. vol. "Theory of Spread-Spectrum Communications . Schilling. In 1988. "Maximal Recursive Sequences with 3-Valued Recursive Cross-Correlation Functions.and M/A-COM Telecommunications. BIOGRAPHIES ESMAEL H. 1975. pp. He i s also a professeur associe at Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications. Shift Register Sequences. Okawa. Urbana. it makes system deployment from outdoors to indoors very flexible.D. Pickholtz. 1997. Stahnke.. vol.767 (2l5-I) chips common PN for all users (a distinct offset for of a cell) each user) I Table 2. [14] F... Jan. vol. The spreading codes in CDMA are designed to have random behavior and very low cross-correlation. Sequence Design for Communication Applications. Theory. "Subsequences of PseudoRandom Sequences. 397-99. Iran. May 1982. [91 S. Fan and M. vol. Rep. Kasami. codes to be used by an active mobile station within the cell. in electrical engineering. Kasami sequence sets are also important because of the large number of codes they supply and their low cross-correlation.S. California. vol. 855-84. Aegean Park Press. IT-14. 619-21. D. Theory. in 1981.. Fairfax. Jan. however. pp. [61 L. Wiley. [81 S.:R esearch Studies Press. 1992. no. Oct. Info. Satellite BusinessSystems. 1995. IL.. and K. Addison-Wesley. Wolf. Info. 1973. Darnell. Common. H. hejoined George Mason University as an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering. R-285. Adachi." /€€€ Trans. [2] R. and L. (a common PN for all users of a cell) Very large set of Kasami sequences Optional: 10 ms of a P . CONCLUs IONs This article reviews the important aspects of spreading codes used in the DS-CDMA. it makes cell search and code synchronization more complex. Tehran. Info. Sawahashi. He is on the board of several international telecommunications advisory committees and serves as a consultant t o government and industry. pp. Tech. U.'' /€E€ Trans. [51 W. 115-20. pp. He has held positions w i t h Hewlett Packard.K. M.edu) received a Ph. [ I I ] R. and M. L. 1996. Info.S. Jan. IT-21. Stanford." /€E€ Trans. CDMA Principles o f SpreadSpectrum Communication. 27-28. J. IT-B. 1968. [ I 21 R. May 1974. DINANreceived B." /€€€ Trans. Gold. Wainberg and J. Also. [4] P. 54 IEEE Communications Magazine September 1998 . B. Southern Illinois University.

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