You are on page 1of 82

1 2 rpE´m

rpE´m
yef;yGifhca&

yef;yGifhca&
ESifh tjcm;0w¬Krsm;
yxrtBudr?f 2006 ckEpS f arv? tkyaf & 1000

tzHk;yef;csD rkwfokef

rsuEf mS zH;k cGijhf yKcsut


f rSwf 5005670605 ESihf pmrlciG jhf yKcsut
f rSwf
5004430604 wdYk t& OD;ausmfO;D (03990) yg&rDpmay? trSwf 230?
29 vrf;? yef;bJwef;NrdKUe,f? &efukefu xkwfa0í rsufESmzHk;ESifh
twGif;pmom;udk OD;atmifxuf(08003) atmifyg&rD yHkESdyfwdkuf?
trSwf 127? tcef; 3? 52 vrf;? ykZGefawmifNrdKYe,f? &efukefu
yHEk ydS o
f nf/

wefzdk; 900 usyf

yg&rDpmay
230? 29 vrf;? yef;bJwef;NrdKUe,f? &efukef(zkef; 253246)
2^4? urÇmat;apwDawmfrck Of ;D apmif;wef;? &efuek f
295? aps;ta½SYvrf;? xm;0,f
E-mail paramibk@myanmar.com.mm
rpE´m

rmwdum

1/ yef;yGichf a& 3

2/ zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 103

3/ opfyifpu
kd o
f rl sm; 133

4/ tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 145


3 4 rpE´m
xbD0wfxm;onfukd wpfcgrQrawGY&? usL½Siq f &muawmf qifxm;
aom tusyÐ aG ,mif;a,mif;ESihf 'l;avmufx½d n S af om oMueF f abmif;
yef;yGifhca& bD um;um;wdYkaMumifh Munf&h onfrmS tcsKd ;rajyvSay/ olwYkt d rd uf
bk&m;yef;td;k vJaom&ufEiS hf êuHvQif opömyef;? *E¨rmyef;? arûrdUyef;
ponfrsm;udk rEdik rf eif;yefvmwwfao;onf/ wpfcgwpf&v H nf;
olY qHyif wdpk pd ud kd ESpzf ufcjJG y;D yg;wGif yg;uGuf uGux f m;wwfjyef&m
oli,fawmf½yk Ef iS w hf al ewwfjyefavonf/ yHpk u H tcsKd ;rajy½Ho
k mru
pum;ajymawmhvnf; tqifajyonf r[kw/f tHwn D Kd rêuduv f Qif
vnf; rêudupf &myifjzpfonf/ olqikd u f akd &mufvmjyD; yxrOD;qH;k
tacgufwiG yf if pkE, G uf akd r;vdu k yf u
kH ]]aeygOD; tpfru? 'Dqikd u f
olaX;vm; tvkyo f rm;vm; [if}}...wJ/h
]]ud,k t hf vkyu f rdwLå ul;ay;zdYkyaJ emf? pum;a&mif; pum;0,f pyfpyf pkE,G u f olYukd wtHw h MovSr;f Munf&h if; ]]b,fvrkd sm; ar;
pkpak wGukd vufczH Ykv d nf; r[kwb f ;l ? jyefajymaezdYkvnf; r[kwf bl;}} vdu
k wf mygvdr[ hf ,f}}[k pOf;pm;írqH;k ao;cif ]]Munf&h wm olaX;eJY
qdik yf ikd ½f iS t
f efwnD Kd u toHjywfjywfEiS hf ajymonf/ pkpEk , G f awmh rwlygbl;? uRerf vdt k vkyo f rm;yJjzpfrmS yg/ wpfv b,favmuf
onf rdwLå ul;pufMum;xJwiG f vdyjf y;D n§yo f mG ;aompuúLudk cyfacsmh &vJ[if . .tpfr}}[k qufajymonf/ olYpum;udk puwnf;u
acsmah v; jyefqx JG w k af e&if; bmrSjyefrajymbJ tomNird af evdu k of nf/ Mum;aeaom tefwn D Kd u ]]pkpEk ,G ?f reufu tyfomG ;wmawG ul;jy;D jyD
tHwn D Kd u ]]ESi;f qDarT;}}tm; &nf½, G jf yD;ajymaerSe;f oloo d nf/ vm;/ cPae vm,lawmhr,faemf...'Dpmtkyt f xlMuD;uvnf; tp
]]ESi;f qDarT;}} tqH;k ul;&OD;rSmr[kwv f m;/ oGuo f u G af v;vkyaf vuG,}f } [k0ifajym
awmfawmfvo S nfeh mrnfav;jzpfonf/ xdek mrnfvv S aS v; onf/ rsuEf mS udv k nf; rodrom wif;xm;onf/
udk ydik qf ikd of o l nf vrf;xdyu f sL½Siq f &mtdrrf S tdraf zmfaumifrav; 'Dvq kd jkd yefawmhvnf; ESi;f qDarT;qdo k nfh xdak umifrav;u
jzpfavonf/ usL½Siq f &mtdrw f iG f tdraf zmfaumifrav;rsm; rMumcP olYukd rêudurf eS ;f odwwfom;yif/ bmrSqufrajymawmhbJ jidrjf idrf
vJwwfaomfvnf; oluawmh ajcmufvavmufMumaejyD jzpfonf/ ukwu f w
k f uav; jzpfomG ;onf/ tefwn D Kd twGi;f cef;odYk vSn0hf if
toufu q,fah jcmufEpS af usmaf ejy[ D ak jymaomfvnf; rde;f uav;yDyD oGm;aomtcgusawmhrS tomav;apmif;Munf&h if; ]]tpfr&JUolaX;u
5 6 rpE´m
pdwf ykww f ,faemf}} [kajymjzpfatmif ajymvdu k af vonft h wGuf pkE, G f ajyonf/ tb,fah Mumifq h akd omf olYpum;a&,mOfwiG f arsmaeaom
wpfO;D wnf;usw d jf yD; ûyH;cJ&h onf/ tcdu k t f wHüh tar\rsuv f ;kH wdru f kd cG&J rnfu h pd u ö kd vnf;aumif;?
]]emrnfar;vdu k af wmh ]]ESi;f qDarT;}}wJ?h ay;rSay;wwfyav q,fwef;ausmif;om; armifav;twGuf usL½Siv f c ay;&awmhrnf
awmf/ olrYv kd Yt
kd em;a&mufvm&if MuufoeG jf zLeHYa&m MuufoeG ef eD YaH &m udk vnf;aumif;? tdr½f iS Of ;D av;Mu;D u tdrcf ef;c wd;k jy;D awmif;aeonf
ig;ydeYaH &m pHak ewmyJ/ tajymtqd?k trlt,musawmhvnf; cyf½ikd ;f ½dik ;f udk vnf;aumif; arharhaysmufaysmufjzpfomG ;wwfavonf/ rdr\ d
uav;? tvdu k u f ef;qd;k uvnf; rod}} vuf½b dS 0rS acwåcPa½Smifajy;cGi&hf í ESi;f qDarT; rvmvQiyf if rod
tefwn D Kdu qufvufjy;D axmremûyaeonf/ usL½Siq f &m rom arQmrf w d wfavonf/
Mu;D onf tefwn D Kd \azmufonfjzpfonf/ olYtrd u f ar;cGe;f pm½Guf ]]a[m...ajym&if;qd&k if; vmygjyDawmf}}
awG? rSwpf k pm½Guaf wGukd ESp&f ufwpfcg oH;k &ufwpfcg? wpfcgw&H pm½Guw f pfxyfMuD; udik jf yD; vrf;ul;vmaom ESi;f qDarT;udk
vnf; wpf&ufwnf; ESpcf g? wyHw k yifMuD; ul;cdik ;f wwfavonf/ awGYawmh tefwn D Kd u rMunfrvifEiS hf ajymonf/ olYajcaxmuf\
ESi;f qDarT;\ ]]raeYnu uRerf &JUolaX;eJYoal X;uawmf &efjzpfMuw,f ESpqf avmuf½adS om cHzk ed yfMuD;udk pD;xm;onft h wGuf olqikd x f J 0if
odvm;? olaX;&JU tust Ð w d x f rJ mS vufuikd yf 0k gvSvaS v; awGUvdYak v/ vmawmh ]]*avmuf? *vyf? uavmuf *vyf}} [laom wl&, d moH
olaX;uawmfu jywif;aygufuae vTiyhf pfvu kd wf m/ uRerf wdwf av;yg wGv J Quf ygvmonf/
wdwu f av; aumuf,x l m;w,f-t[d? vufuikd yf 0k gav;u arT;tD ]]a&mh. . . tpfr ajcmufppkH aD emf}}
aewmyJ}} [laomtajymrsKd ;udk pdw0f ifpm;vSygvsuEf iS hf rMum;csif ]]ppfawmif;eJYyv J m;}}
[efaqmifaewwfonf/ awmfMumae olrsm;pum; ud, k phf um;jzpfjy;D ]]r[kwb f ;l 'Dwpfcg Edik if jH cm;puúLeJY aumif;aumif;av;ul;
azmufonfysurf mS pd;k &draf omaMumifh jzpfavonf/ ay;ygvdYk rSmvdu k w f ,f/ olaX;u rsuEf mS vdu k w f ,f tpfr&JU? 'gu
pkpEk , G u f awmh *s*D sjD rnfaeaompufMu;D udk zGiv hf ukd f pm½Guf olYrw d af qGawGukd ay;zdYkw}hJ }
awG jzefYxnfv h u kd f jyefyw d v f ukd ?f cvkwaf wGEydS v f u kd ?f pm½Guaf wG pD ]]tefwn D Kd rêuduw f m tJ't D ajymrsKd ;awGaygh}}[k pkE, G u f
xyfvu kd ?f n§jd y;D jzwfvu kd f csKypf ufEiS cfh sKyv
f ukd pf onf...ponfrsm;udk awG;rdonf/ Edik if jH cm;puúLeJYu;l ay;yg[kqv kd Qif jy;D aomfvnf; olu
puf½yk w f pf½yk v f kd vkyu f ikd v f nfywf&if; ji;D aiGYae&oljzpfonf/ t&nf olEiS hf rqdik af om aemufqufwrJG w S cf suaf wG xifjrifcsuaf wGukd tjrJ
r& tzwfr&? pum;zsi;f ? pum;wif;rsm;[k owfrw S &f rnf jzpfaomf ajymwwfonf/
vnf; pkE, G t f wGuaf wmh tysi;f ajyvSonf/ xdYkjyif tarmvnf; ]]a[mawmh . . . 0ufe½H ;kd }}
7 8 rpE´m
tefwn D Kd rsuaf pmif;cJawmhrnf[k pkE, G x f ifrad omfvnf; ]]tpfruajymw,f ajrMuD;u qufaewmyJw/hJ 'Davmuf
tefwn D Kd u rsuaf pmif;cJ&efowdr&Edik ?f ESmacgif;udk ½IUH yG½UHI yGvyk &f if; awmif vrf;opfMu;D awGjzL;aeajzmifah ewm/ b,fae&mrSra0;bl;wJ}h }
tvefYwMum; xatmfonf/ ESi;f qDarT;u olYtpfr\pum;udk tvGwu f sux f m;ovdk
]]tusKd ;enf; . . . ukerf sm;ukejf yDvm;rodb;l }} waoGrwdr;f jyefajymonf/
aemufaz;cef;odYk uaomuarsm vSr;f 0ifomG ;aom tefwn D Kd ]][du k s&if eifbmvkyrf mS vJ}}
\ ausmjyifukd vSr;f Munf&h if; ESi;f qDarT;u cpfueJ&,fonf/ ]]uRerf ]]xrif;qdik rf mS ul&rSmaygh/ tpfru txnfqikd v f nf; xGuf
udk wpfcsed v f ;kH rsuaf pmif;Mu;D cJ cJaewmav ... tckawmh olY[if;td;k Mu;D OD;r,fajymw,f tultnDawG trsm;MuD;vdw k ,fw}hJ }
wl;oGm;jyD ...[D ...[d}} [k 0rf;omtm;&ajymonf/ ]]eifwYkd b,favmuf&rSmrdYkv}J }
]]ol rsuaf pmif;cJwmom ajymae .. eifuvnf; t&rf;pum; ]]aep&dwf pm;p&dwrf ygbl; wpfv av;aomif;wJ}h }
rsm;wm/ ud, k [ hf mud, k v
f nf; owd&OD;}} ]][,f ... wu,f}}
]][dpk um;ajym 'Dpum;ajymeJYqakd wmh yifyef;wm oufom ]]aewm pm;wm tpfrwdYkeYJ twlae twlpm; wJ/h uRerf u
w,f tpfr&JU}} awmh tukepf x k m;rSm}}
tefwn D Kd u ol\[if;td;k udk tzH;k qGzJ iG v
hf ukd yf &kH onf/ wl; pkE, G f awGawGai;ai;jzpfomG ;onf/ ,ckrw d Lå qdik rf mS vkyf
wl; cg;cg; teHYu axmif;xvmonf/ onfu wpfvvQif wpfaomif;ESiEhf pS af xmif&onf/ odYyk gaomfvnf;
]]tpfr em;jiD;vnf; tckvuket f xdygyJaemf... vuke&f if ud,k *hf sKdiahf v; ud, k qf v
JG m&jy;D vrf;p&dwu f vnf; toGm;tjyef wpf&m
uRerf xGuaf wmhrmS }} ukeo f nf/ wGuMf unfv h u
kd v
f Qif bmrQuseo f nfr[kw/f plygrwfuuf
]][,f .. t[kw}f } awGrmS ta&mif;pma&;r vkyw f murS ydjk y;D &OD;rnf xifonf/ odYak omf
pkE,G f pdwrf aumif;jzpfomG ;onf/ 'Dav;ig;ajcmufvtwGi;f vnf; tjyef rd;k csKyaf wmh taru rBudKujf yefay/ 'Dqikd rf mS u nae
cPcPawGYae&awmhvnf; oHa,mZOfjzpfaeonf/ av;em&Dcv JG Qif jyefí &jyjD zpfonf/ nydik ;f vmonfrsm;udk tefwn D Kd \
]]uRerf &JUtpfr0rf;uGw J pfa,mufu e,fpyfrmS xrif;qdik f om;ESpaf ,mufu wpfa,mufwpfvn S phf w D m0ef,Ml uonf/
zGiwhf mav/ tm;MuD;a&mif;aumif;w,fw/hJ tJ'g uRerf udk vSr;f ac: ]]aemufjy;D êu;d pm;&ifêu;d pm;ovdk vcvnf; wd;k ay;OD;rSmwJ}h }
aew,f}} ]]'gayr,fh a0;vdu k wf m[,f}}
]]ta0;MuD;aygh[,f}} ]]tpfr&,f uRerf u usKd ux f u kd qdak wmh ydjk yD;awmhawmif
9 10 rpE´m
a0;ao;/ 'gayr,fh ydu k q f v H ckd si&f ifawmh pGeYfpm;&rSmaygh tpfr&JU/ tdrtf rd;k vnf; rd;k csi?f Murf;cif;aygufvnf; zmcsi?f tdro f mwGi;f vnf;
tJ'D uRerf &JUtpfr0rf;uGq J &kd ifvnf; t&ifwek ;f u ½d;k ½d;k tt&,f/ wl;csi?f a&wGi;f ysuv f nf; q,fcsi?f zdeyfopfvnf; vdck si}f }
uRerf vdyk J &efuek rf mS tvkyv f yk &f if; tdraf xmifusjy;D tJ'rD mS oGm;vkyf ]]awmfygawmh [,f}}
wm/ tckawmh t&iftrd af xmifeYJujJG yD; aemuftrd af xmifawmif us ESi;f qDarT;u rsuv f ;kH av; pif;arS;um qufvufjy;D pdwu f ;l
aejyD/ a½TvufaumufawG wcRicf Rief YJ? qGêJ ud;wkww f w k Mf uD; qGv J Ykd ,Ofonf/ aemufjyD;awmh 'Dvt kd usaÐ bmif;bDMuD;awGukd tukev f ;kH
t&rf; MuD;yGm;aejyD}} vTijhf ypfvu kd jf yD;rS puyfvv S ?S tusv Ð v S ?S 0rf;qufuav;awG0wf?
pkE, G u f tarhem;rS ykveJ m;uyfuav;udk jrifa,mifonf/ oeyfcg; arT;arT; êudiêf udiaf v; vdr;f tJ'v D kd tJ'v D kd ...}}
xdk ykveJ m;uyfuav;onf taz0,fay;cJjh cif;jzpfí tar\ tjrwf ]]0ufe½H ;kd ig;q,fom;awmhuek yf gjy[ D ,f? a&tawmfrsm;rsm;
Ed;k qH;k ypön;f jzpfovdk olwYkt d rd rf mS ½Sad om wpfcw k nf;aom a½Txnf xnfch w hJ myJ[m b,ftcsed u f cef;jy;D wl;jcpfomG ;vJ rodawmhygbl;/
ypön;f jzpfavonf/ pkE, G \ f em;wGiyf efxm;aomem;uyfuav;u igqdw k hJ iguvnf; a½SUa&muf&ifaemufarhy}J }
a½T&nfprd f jzpfonf/ qGêJ u;d wdYk vufaumufwYu kd akd wmh uk, d Ef iS hf rqdik f tefwn D Kd u pdwyf suv f ufysuEf iS hf xdik if ckd siaf ygufaeyH&k
aom ypön;f rsm;[k pkE, G \ f pdwx f w J iG f tvdv k o kd wfrw S jf y;D jzpfonf/ onf/ pkE, G u f rf;ay;aompm½Gurf sm;udyk if cgwdik ;f vdv k rS ;f r,lawmhbJ
odYkaomf a½Tvufaumuf wcRicf RiEf iS hf qGêJ ud;wkww f wk Mf uD;[k Mum; ]]eif[
h meif wGujf yD; awmif;vdu k pf rf;yg[,f}} [kajymonf/
vdu k &f awmh avmbwnf; [laom avajyavnif;u pkE, G \f &if tefwn D Kd tjyifcef;a&mufvmawmh ESi;f qDarT;\ yg;pyf ydwf
xJoYkd wd;k 0ifwu kd cf wfvmonf/ oGm;onf/ pm½Gurf sm;udk a&wGujf y;D pkE, G af wmif;aomydu k q f u
H kd jird jf ird f
]]uRerf rSm jzpfaewJah &m*gu tawmfMuD;aejyD tpfr&JU}} oufouf xkwaf y;onf/
]][if ... bma&m*gvJ}} ]]pkE, G &f ,f [db k ufvrf;av;ul;jy;D bJOig;vH;k avmuf 0,f
rsuv f ;kH rsuq f efjyL;oGm;aompkE, G u f Mkdunf&h if; ESi;f qDarT;u ay;ygvm;[,f/ zd;k cGm;wdYkjyefvm&if y[yfx;kd vmMuwm/ bJOtcsOf
&,fjyefonf/ [if;av; csux f m;OD;rS? ½H;k ywDo;D av;ig;ajcmufawmifeh YJ ûiwfo;D pdr;f ?
]]ydu
k q f v H ckd siwf ahJ &m*gav}} rqvmyg 0,fcahJ emf}}
]]t,f...}} tefwn D Kd u nD;nD;ajymajymESihf pkE, G u f kd ig;&mwefwpf½u G f
]][kww f ,f ydu k q f aH wGrS trsm;MuD;udk vdck siw f m tazwdYk ay;jyD; aps;vTwo f nf/ 'Dawmhvnf; pkE, G Ef iS Ehf iS ;f qDarT; pum;awG
tarwdYkuv kd nf; ay;csi/f armifErS awGuv kd nf; ay;csi?f aemufjyD; qufajymjzpfMuonf/
11 12 rpE´m
]]tpfra&m vdu k rf vm;[if}} [k jyefajzrdonf/ tdy&f mu Ed;k vmawmh ode;f oH;k &mr*FvmpHw k qJG u k kd
]]b,fuv kd }J } rawmif;rdbJ rdwLå ul;pufuykd if wywf&pfuav;rS awmif;rdaom
]]uRerf eJYtwlwl xrif; oGm;a&mif;Mu&atmifav}} ud, k u hf ,kd uf kd pdwq f ;kd pdwyf surf o d nf/ wu,fr&aomqkuykd if ESajrm
]]a0;vGe;f w,f [}} jcif; MuD;pGmESihf ESajrmaerdao;avonf/
]]tpfruvJ? jrefrmjynfeUJ a&a&m ajra&m qufaewm/ ]][drk mS vkyv f Ykd yduk qf aH jyvnf&if tdru f kd oH;k av;v wpfcg
bma0;vdYkv?J uRerf awmh oH;k av;ESpaf vmuf êud;êud;pm;pm; vkyjf yD; avmuf jyefvY&kd wmyJ/ vufaqmifawG wayGYwydu k 0f ,fjy;D awmhav}}
t&if; tES;D av; pkr,f/ t&if;tES;D &&if xrif;qdik af v; zGichf siw f ,f ]]at;[,f...tJ'v D okd m wu,fq&kd if aysmpf &mMuD;}}
tpfr&JU/ um;*dwef m;rSm qd&k if a&mif;vdYkawmif ravmufb;l / uRerf [kwo f nf? vufaqmifawGyu kd jf y;D tdrjf yefvmum vdo k rQ
vnf; tukecf suw f wfw,f/ b,favmufyifyef;yifyef;? yifyef;prf; aiGukd jznfq h nf;ay;Edik af omb0/ xdb k 0onf rnfrQcsKd jred jf y;D MunfE;l
ygap/ uRerf vH;k 0raMumufb;l / ud, k yf ikd q
f ikd af v;qd&k if vkyv
f Y&kd orQ zG,f aumif;vdu k rf nfenf;/ awG;Munf½h EkH iS yhf if aysmv f monf/
ud,k zhf Ykcd sn;f yJ}} ]aemf...oGm;Mu&atmifaemf...tpfr}}
vrf;udk twljzwfu;l vmpOf ESi;f qDarT;u ol\0goem ]]ta0;MuD;MuD;oGm;&rSm igaMumufw,f[}hJ }
twdik ;f u&m;a&vTwf ajymjyefonf/ olu xrif;qdik f oefYoefYjyefYjyefY ]]t[D; uRerf vnf; enf;enf; aMumufwmyJ? 'gaMumifh
av;udk tdyrf uf pdwu f ;l xJwiG f jrifa,mifae[ef½adS vonf/ pkE, G f ESpaf ,muf twlomG ;&atmifvYkd}}
vnf; rdwLå ul;pufuav;wpfv;kH avmufukd awG;xifjrifa,mifae ]]Munfah o;wmaygh[,f}}
rdonfrmS MumvSjyD jzpfavonf/ ta[mif;uav; wywf&pfuav; pkE,G u f awGawGa0a0 jzpfaeonf/ olYtoufu ESpq f ,f
yif jzpfapOD;awmh tvkyu f awmh jzpfonfyif/ tdraf ½SUwGif csxm;vQif ausmjf yD jzpfonf/ q,fwef;awmh ratmifao;/ 'DEpS af jzvQif av;cg
tefwn D Kd vykd if csu&f if; ûywf&if; avQm&f if;zGw&f if;ESihf rD;zdak csmif p&dwf ½Sjd yD jzpfonf/ armifav;ESiyhf if twef;wlaejy/D 'DEpS u f ek vf Qif armifav;
uav; umrdEikd o f nf/ xufyif twef; i,fomG ;awmhrnf xifonf/ armifav;u awmf
ol rdwLå ul;pufukd pGv J ef;vduk yf u kH pdwyf supf &myif aumif; onf/ pmvnf; êud;pm;onf/ armifav;udak wmh ynmtjynft h 0
vSonf/ wpfcgwke;f u tdyrf ufxw J iG f 0wfjzLpifMu,fEiS hf bd;k awmf ay;csio f nf/
wpfyg;udk awGYonf/ bd;k awmfu olYukd ]]bmvdck siv f }J } [k ar;awmh aps;xdyaf &mufawmh olwYv kd rf;cGvJ u kd Mf uonf/ ESi;f qDarT;u
]]wywf&pf rdwLå ul;pufuav; wpfv;kH avmuf vdck siyf gw,f tbd;k }} awmh *avmuf*vyfEiS t hf oHjrnfaeaom cHzk ed yfMuD;udpk ;D &if; quf
13 14 rpE´m
xGuo f mG ;onf/ oGm;cgeD;rSm ]]oGm;Mu&atmifyg tpfr&m}} [k xyfajym ]]at;rGe}f }
oGm;ao;onf/ ta':0wkw\ f toHu tcsuaf y;aomtoH jzpfonf/
pkE, G o
f nf aps;xJoYkd cyfpu kd pf ukd 0f ifvm&if; tarhukd jrif csuq f v
kd Qif em;cGuu f rD;awmufjy;D jzpfaom at;rGeu f vnf; ]][kwf
a,mifaeonf/ tarhrsupf w d rd u
f kd cG&J cgeD;jyD jzpfonf/ 'gu rdwLå uJ}h }[k ajymvdu k af omtoHurS aemufusao;onf/ vluawmh
ul;pufxuf ydjk y;D ta&;Mu;D onf/ taruawmh ]]'Davmufta0;Mu;D qdik af emufzufwiG f csxm;aom pnfyikd ;f jywfqo D Ykd a&mufomG ;jyD jzpf
roGm;ygeJYvm; orD;&,f}} [k ajymrnfjzpfonf/ ]]tarpdwrf csygbl;}} onf/
[k wm;rnfvnf; jzpfonf/ 'Dawmhvnf; olu ESi;f qDarT;\tpfr pnfyikd ;f jywfxw J iG f wd;k a0SYaeaom ig;clrsm;u rnf;rnf;
ajymovdk ]]'Davmufawmif vrf;Mu;D awG ajzmifah ejzL;aewm? a&a&m vIyaf eonf/ at;rGeu f vHck snw f wkd kd jyif0wfum pnfyikd ;f ab;wGif
ajra&m qufaewmyg tar&JU/ wpfwikd ;f wnf; wpfjynfwnf;[mudk arSmufxm;aom qefcgcH;k udk vSr;f jyD; qG, J v l u
kd o f nf/
b,fae&mrS ra0;ygbl;}}[k jyefajym&vdrrhf nfxifonf/ ]]uJ...raumif;olxyd f aumif;olxyd f a[h}}
]]bJOb,favmufvJ [if}} bm&,fawmhr[kw?f ig;awGukd owf&wdik ;f at;rGeu f xdok Ykd
]]ckepfq,f}} a&½Gwaf vh½o dS nf/ tm;vH;k aoMu&rSmqdak yr,fv h nf; qefcgxJ t&if
]][if...wpfv;kH udk ckepfq,fawmifjzpfomG ;jyv D m; ta':Mu;D ygvmaom taumifu t&ifao&rnfuawmh used ;f aoonf
&,f? aps;wufvu kd w
f maemf}} r[kwyf gvm;/
]]at;...ig,l&wJjh cuH ukd aps;wufa&mif;aewm? igwufwm ]]t½d;k ygqlwhJ yJc;l ig;clMu;D awGav/ tcsOq f jD yefcsurf vm;?
r[kwyf gbl; ighwrl &,f? ydv k nf; rjrwfygbl;}} aMumfEyS u f av;pm;rvm;/ pif;aumuav;vkyrf vm;/ ESpaf xmifh ½Spf
pkE, G u
f bJOa½G;&if; ol\wpfvwmvkyt f m;cESihf bJO &mwnf;/ ykpeG af wG aps;aygvdYk 'DaeYwpf&ufwnf; aps;csay;wmaemf/
b,fEpS v f ;kH 0,fí &Edik rf nfenf;[k pdww f u G Ef iS hf wGucf suaf erdav ESpaf xmif½h pS &f mwnf;? 0,fjyD; odr;f xm; wefw,f}}
onf/ ta':0wkwu f wjAjJ AaJ tmf&if; acsmif;qd;k aeonf/ olYtoH
Ä MuD;uvnf; armif;uGMJ uD;vdk tufoyH gaeonf/
olwYakd wGao&awmhrnfukd odrsm;odavovm;rod/ qefcg
ig;q,fom;pD oH;k OD;avmuf qGo J mG ;MujyDqakd wmh aps;ckaH y:wGif xJrS ig;clrsm;onf aMumuftm;vefYtm;ESiw hf zswzf swcf ek af eMuonf/
vIyv
f yI ½f ½G G jzpfaeaom ig;vnf; tawmftwef enf;oGm;onf/ at;rGeu f opfom;wkwu f v kd rS ;f qGu
J m OD;acgif;rsm;udck sed ½f , G jf y;D wcGyf
15 16 rpE´m
cGyf ½du k v f u kd o f nf/ pkûyHv;kH axG;aeawmh tcsKd Ytaumifrsm;u csuf uGaJ v;rsm;udk cg;wpfciG f xde;f ausmif;&if; ig;wef;xJwiG yf if w0J0J
aumif; rxd/ 'gvnf; wenf;aumif;onf/ tm;vH;k pif;pif;aoae vnfae&oljzpfonf/ ig;n§aD wmwGif Mu;D jyif;&olrYkd ig;n§eD YrH &vQiyf if
vQif 0,fou l êuu d of nf r[kw/f olrsm;owfaevQio f m [ifueJ xrif;rjred cf siaf wmhay/
[,fueJ rsuEf mS vTcJ siaf omfvnf; olwY0kd ,fawmh owfjy;D cgp taMum OD;av;u ol\om;t&if;ESpaf ,mufukd ausmif; pjyD;xm;
qGaJ eaomtaumifurkd S vufnKd§ ;xd;k wwfMuavonf/ awmh at;rGeu f kd tm;emoem;[ef½o dS nf/ ]]ighwrl udv k nf; OD;av;
aps;ckeaf y:odYk qefcgudk oGecf svu kd af wmh aoG;&J&o
J &H &J J ig;cl pmwwfatmif oifay;ygOD;r,fumG }} [kajym½Smonf/ olcsyD ;kd jy;D xde;f
rnf;rnf;rsm;u uRr;f xd;k arSmufcek u f somG ;onf/ vH;k 0rxdao;aom ausmif;vm&aom armifav;ESpaf ,mufu ausmif;aejy;D pmzwfwwf
taumifrsm;udak wmh vufqaumif;aumif;ESihf wpfaumifcsi;f vSr;f vmawmh at;rGev f nf; pmwwfcsio f nfrmS wydik ;f aoaeonf/ oif
½du
k v f u kd &f onf/ cGyu f eJ cGyuf eJMum;ae&aom OD;acgif;uGaJ MuoH ay;rnf[v k nf;ajymonf/ odYak omf oifay;onfph cef;udak wmh a&muf
onf at;rGef vlreS ;f odumpuwnf;u xm0pOfMum;aecJ&h aom rvmcJo h nfrmS OD;aESmuf aoG;aMumjywfum ½kww f &uf qH;k yg;oGm;
toH jzpfavonf/ onftxdyif/
at;rGeo f nf i,fi,fuwnf;u ig;pdr;f wef;wGif aysmcf &hJ ol ]]eifOh ;D av; r½Sad yr,fh tm;ri,fygeJY[,f igwdYkom;trd
jzpfonf/ ol\tazESit hf aronf b,fwek ;f u bma&m*gESihf b,fvkd wpfawG 'Dvykd J vkyu f ikd pf m;Muwmaygh}}
qH;k yg;oGm;Muonfuykd if olrod/ oli,fpOfuwnf;u ta':ESihf ta':u tm;ay;½Smonf/ at;rGeu f vnf; q,fo h ;kH ESpjf ynfh
aecJ&h onfuo kd m rSwrf o d nf/ ta':[k qdak omfvnf; OD;av;ESirhf S jy;D jyrD Ykd avmufavmufvm;vm; tultnD&aejyjD zpfonf/ ta':ESihf
pyfjyD;awmf&aom ta':jzpfonf/ ta':u EIwv f QmMurf;jyD; tqJ ol ig;twla&mif;um xrif;av;eyfreS af eygvsuEf iS hf jird jf ird rf aeEdik f
oefaomfvnf; pdwo f abmxm;rqd;k vS/ at;rGet f ay:wGiv f nf; onfuawmh ta':jzpfonf/ [kwo f nf/ at;rGef xdo k Ykyd if ajymcsif
wGeYfweG Yfww kd rkd ½Sad y/ onf/ OD;av; qH;k jyD; oH;k ESpyf if rjynfw h wfao;/ ta': aemuf
OD;av;u olaX;tdrw f iG u
f m;armif;jy;D ta':uawmh aps;xJ a,musmf ; ,lonf/
wGif ig;a&mif;onf/ 'Dawmhvnf; olu ta':haemufrS waumufaumuf ]]olu qdu k uf m;eif;w,fqakd yr,fh ud, k qhf u kd u f m; ud, k f
vduk &f onf/ ta':u ig;a&mif;vQif olu ig;½du k ?f ta':u awmif; eif;wm/ tHek maMu; ay;p&mrvdak wmh ud, k v f yk o
f rQ ud, k zhf YkdyaJ v/
Mu;D ½Guv f Qif olu awmif;tao;av;½Guu f m ta':\vufpaJG usmf t&if tdraf xmifeYv J nf; om;orD;ruseaf wmh vlvw G yf aJ ygh/ aemufjy;D
jzpfc&hJ onf/ ta':u uav;awG arG;vmawmhvnf; ol\armif0rf; awmh ajym½Smygw,f/ eifo h m;orD;[m ighom;orD;yJayghw?hJ igwdYkrmS
17 18 rpE´m
taxmuftul tm;ud;k &mrSr½Sw d m}} ]]bmjzpfvYkv d }J }
ta':u olYa,musmf ;Mu;D udk MuzH efjy;D trTe;f wif½mS onf/ *syefru ar;onf/ at;rGeaf jzorQukd taotcsmrSwo f m;
at;rGeu f awmh idak eaomarmifav;ESpaf ,mufuzkd ufjy;D olyga&mjy;D um tydt k rdak v;awGvnf; tenf;i,fxyfaqmif;jyD; wpfaps;vH;k
rsu&f nfus&avonf/ wpf&yfuu G v f ;kH odYk jyefYatmifjzefYa0ay;rnfjzpfonf/ 'guawmh ol\
rnfoYkdyifqakd p ta':\ a,musmf ;topfonf olwYkd\ 0goemrdYk wm;ír&? at;rGeu f vnf; rwm;csiyf g/ ajymcsiw f mrS
tdrOf ;D cef;odYk tûrduo f m; a&mufvmcJah vonf/ tapmydik ;f uawmh t&rf;udk ajymcsiaf eoljzpfonf/
ta':hukd aiGawGbmawGtyfjy;D [kwrf vdv k ykd if? armifav;ESpaf ,muf ]]xH;k pHtwdik ;f yJaygh *syefr&,f nus𝔦l wmaygh/ rl;jy;D awmh
yif tust Ð opf vG,t f wd tf opfuav;rsm;&í aysm½f iT w f uf<uvm vnf; &rf;wmaygh/ tckawmh yg;pyfwifruyJ vufygvmw,f/
Muonf/ jy;D cJah omESpu f awmh ta':hcrsm avjzwfjy;D ud, k wf pfjcrf; raeYwek ;f u ausmaf usmu hf kd t&uf0,fcikd ;f w,f/ aemufjy;D MumvdYq k jkdy;D
aooGm;onf/ zdzpd ;D pD;ukvQif 'Dxufaumif;csiv f Qif aumif;vmEdik f qlvu kd f qJvu kd w f m/ uRerf udv k nf; 0uftal csmif;aMumfcikd ;f w,f/
rnf jzpfaomfvnf; at;rGew f Ykd rukEikd cf ahJ cs/ pum;ajymEdik af omfvnf; rD;aoG;rD;zdk jyefarT;ae&wm r*syefr&JU/ b,frmS csucf si;f &yghrvJ/ tJ'g
ajcwpfzuf vufwpfzuf aumif;pGm rvIyEf ikd af wmhacs/ xdt k csed u
f pí Mum&aumif;vm;qdjk y;D qJjyefa&m ]]tpdr;f ,lchJ 'Dtwdik ;f pm;r,f? 0uf
at;rGew f Ykv d nf; uHq;kd rd;k arSmifusc&hJ avonf/ tlacsmif;vnf; pm;r,f? vlom;vnf; pm;r,f}} wJ.h ../ tdy, f mxJu
]]at;rGe}f } ta':u olYem;udk zif'½Gwq f o
JG mG ;jy;D trJajcmufuav; oGm;ay;awmh
wpfzufqikd rf S *syefru ig;z,fjcpf jcpfae&if;rS vSr;f ac: vnf; wGe;f ypfvu kd w f m ta':udk yufvufvefvaJ &m...}}
onf/ ]]tJawmh...eifwYkd 0dik ;f rcsMubl;vm;}}
]]raeYwek ;f u eifwYkt d rd rf mS qlnyH u G af ewmyJ &efjzpfMuwm *syefru ajr§mufay;onf/
vm;}} ]]cs csiw f mayghawmf}}
]][kww f ,f}} at;rGeu f EIwcf rf;udu k xf m;onf/ olYuv kd nf; t&ufc;kd a0
at;rGeu f vufxrJ S opfom;wkwu f kd aps;cHak y: tomcs aom rsuv f ;kH Mu;D rsm;ESihf odr;f êu;H Munfah ewwfonfrmS Mumjy/D t0if
vduk o f nf/ wkw\ f xdyyf ikd ;f wGif aoG;p aoG;eawG ayusaH eonf/ txGuf wnfw h nfw h ;kd vQiv f nf; a½Smifí vGwyf gvsuEf iS hf ra½SmifbJ
'Dww k Ef iS hf [dvk Ml u;D \OD;acgif;udk vufqaumif;aumif;ESihf ½du k cf v
JG u
kd f tom;csi;f yGww f u kd v f u kd f vufarmif;vSr;f udik v f u kd Ef iS hf rxdwxd
&vQi[ f k awG;jyD; oufjyif;csro d nf/ vnf; vkyw f wfao;onf/ 'gawGukd ol b,foYltm; ajymjy&rnf
19 20 rpE´m
enf;/ rsm;u aps;xJwiG f xrf;yd;k aeMuaom aps;ulvu D av;rsm;om jzpf
*syefru ig;z,faumifjzLjzLudk taumifvu kd af &aq;jyD; onf/ olwYkdukd oGm;,lvYkduawmh qif;&JwiG ;f xJrS wd;k rxGuEf ikd b f J
pOf;wDw;kH ay: wifvu kd o f nf/ ig;udk b,fvufEiS zhf u d m nmzufvuf epfonfxufom epfomG ;rnfukd at;rGef odonf/
ESihf udik x f m;aom "m;OD;cReyf g;yg;av;udk Adu k o f m;xJoYkd ½Syu f eJ xd;k oGi;f ]]at;rGe}f }
um ab;wdu k cf cJG svu kd o f nf/ wpfaeYwek ;f u olYyg;udk rxdwxd ta':0wkwu f csed cf iG x f rJ S ig;rsm;udk yvyfpwpfqefcgxJ
vSr;f ykwu f m ]]aumifrav;? igu eift h om;pm;csiv f Ykd [dak rsmuftrkd oGex f nfv h u kd o f nf/ aoonfh ig;u ao? wGeYfonfh ig;u wGeYf?
Mu;D udk ,lxm;wmaemf}}[k ajymvdu k o f nfukd jyefawG;rdawmh at;rGe\ f ckeof nfh ig;u ckeEf iS hf wvIyv f yI jf zpfaeMuonf/
acgif;xJwiG f qla0vmonf/ xd"k m;OD;cRejf ym;jym;av;ESihf [dv k Ml u;D \ ]]acgif;cGcH mG jyD; Aduk af zmufay;ygwJ}h }
Adu
k u f kd ab;wdu k ½f yS xf ;kd jy;D ig;z,fco JG vdck cJG svu kd &f vQi.f .. awG;Munf½h kH ]][kw}f }
ESiyhf if t&om½Sv d o S nf/ at;rGeu f pOf;wDw;kH ESihf "m;udk vSr;f qGo J nf/ ckeaf eonfh
]]olYtar vJomG ;awmh tMu;D aumifausmaf usmu f rcHEikd b f ;l / taumifukd OD;pGmaumuf,jl yD; "m;aESmifEh iS x hf v k u kd o f nf/
cifAsm;Mu;D uReaf wmft h arudk rxdeYJ 0ifatmfw,f/ 'Dawmh rif;tarudk tckawmh olYcrsm aps;uRejf zpfae&jyDjzpfonf/ [kq d ikd uf
vnf; xdr,f? rif;udv k nf; ½du k rf ,fqjkd y;D em;&if;tkyx f nfv h ukd w f m tul vdv k Qif vSr;f ac:vdu k ?f 'Dqikd u f tulvv kd Qiv
f nf; vSr;f ac:vdu k ?f
acGueJygyJ r*syefr&,f}} ESp&f mrsKd ; oH;k &mrsKd ;ay;vdu k Mf uESiq hf akd wmh wpfaeYwpfaeY ajcmuf&m
]]aMomf...'gaMumif.h ..'Davmufqn l aH ewmud;k }} ckepf&mavmufawmh &wwfonf/ aps;uGcJ geD;vQiaf wmh &wwforQ
*syefru ajymp&mowif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk tjynft h pHk av;awG 0,fí wufow k ½f ukd jf yefum tdru f srS csu&f onf/ olwYu kd
rSwo f m;aeonf/ odYak omf rjynfph EkH ikd af Mumif; at;rGeo f o d nf/ ta': jzpfovdk jcpfcsuf pm;vQif &aomfvnf; ta':ha,musmf ;aMumifh cufvS
\ a,musmf ;Mu;D u ]]rif;tpfrudv k nf; ,lr,f}} [kqufí ajymao; onf/ olu [if;aumif;rS pm;csio f l jzpfonf/ ydu k qf aH y;onf[k
onfukd csex f m;aomaMumifjh zpfonf? xdrk Qtxd ajymjy&rnfuakd wmh qdak omfvnf; wu,fh wu,f olay;aomaiGonf [if;zd;k yif
ol½u S of nf/ ravmufcsi/f
]]wifah wmifw h ifw h ,f &nf;pm;av;wpfa,mufavmuf½&dS if ]][J.h ..eift
h a':a&m aeaumif;&JUvm;}}
vnf; ,lvu kd &f &if aumif;yg&JU}} aps;0,fol twefi,fyg;oGm;awmh ta':0wkwu f trSwf
at;rGeu f awmifah wmifw h wawG;rdonf/ olEiS ehf ;D pyfonf w& ar;onf/ ta':ESihf a':0wkwu f wnfMh uonf r[kw/f ta':
21 22 rpE´m
aps;xGuw f ek ;f u olwYkEd pS Of ;D cPcP &efjzpfMuonf/ apmif;Mu csw d f aysmo f mG ;onf/ / *syefrvnf; ig;z,f½;kd awG ay;vdu k o
f nf/ ig;z,f½;kd
Mu? qJMu? qdMk uonf/ tckawmh at;rGeu f kd yifwikd o
f ;kH jy;D aiGtrsm;qH;k ESihf ig;clacgif;udk tcsKd &nfxu G af tmifûywfjyD; rkeYf[if;cg;[if;&nf
ay;aeolrmS a':0wkwjf zpfaeonf/ av; csuaf y;vQif ausmaf usmw f Ynkd tD pfuo kd mru ta':vnf; êuu d f
]]ajcwpfzuf vufwpfzufrS rvIyEf ikd w f m/ b,faumif;Edik f onfrYkd at;rGeu f tdruf kd cyfow k of wk jf yefvmcJoh nf/
yghrvJ ta':&,f}} ]]bm 0,fvmvJ}}
]]tJ'u D usew f ihJ g;clEpS af umif,o l mG ;av...eift h a':udk aMumf oMuFeaf bmif;bDEiS ahf umifrav;u olYuv kd rS ;f ar;onf/
ay;vdu k .f ..}} b,ftrd rf mS aerSe;f rodaomfvnf; aps;xJrmS cPcPawGYaeusrYkd
]]ta':u pm;rSm r[kwb f ;l / olUa,musmf ;MuD; rsKd zYkd qdYkzYkd rsurf eS ;f wef;rdjyD;jzpfavonf/
csex f m;rSm}} ]]r0,f&ygbl;? 'Dvykd 0J ikd ;f ay;vdu k Mf uwm? ta':t&ifu 'D
at;rGeu f cyfaqmifah qmifh ajymonf/ ta':om xdk aps;xJrmS t&ifuwnf;u ig;a&mif;wmav/ tckraS eraumif;vdYk
a,musmf ;MuD;udk r,lcv hJ Qi?f ,lcrhJ v d Qivf nf; ,ckumG ypfvu kd v f Qif ra&mif;Edik af wmhwm}}
rnfrQaumif;avrnfenf;/ at;rGeu f ½Sn½f n S af 0;a0; ½Si;f jyvdu k o
f nf/
]]ta':...ig;clr½Sad wmhb;l vm;}} ]]ightarvnf; 'Dvykd ?J tom;awG0gjy;D cPcPzsm;w,f/
]]tJ'D ESpaf umifyJ 'gawmif a&mif;jy;D om; eifu b,favmuf tazuawmh awmifay:rSm 0g;ckww f ,f}}
rsm;rsm;vdck siv f Ykv
d }J } ]]eifrh mS taza&mtara&m½Sw d ,faygh}}
]]awmfygjy?D ig;clr½S&d ifvnf; ig;Muif;0,fcw hJ /hJ r½Sad wmhb;l ]]tif;...}}
vdYkyJ ajymvdu k rf ,f? [db k ufqikd rf mS ig;Muif;½Sw d ,f}} ]][D aumif;wmaygh[m}}
oMueF af bmif;bDum;um;ESiahf umifrav;u wpfzufqikd o f Ykd ]]'gayr,fh twlrS rae&wmyJ? igu i,fi,fuwnf;u
ul;oGm;jyD; ig;Muif;0,faeonf/ olrsm; tdraf wGrmS tvkyv f yk &f wm/ tckvnf; ta0;MuD;rSm oGm;jyD;
]]0,fov l nf; yg;aeygjy/D eifapmapmjyefcsi&f ifjyefvu kd af v tvkyv f yk rf vdYk}}
...eif...aps;jyefrcS su&f rSmr[kwv f m;}} ]]bm tvkyv f }J }
pdwv f v kd uf&ESihf oabmaumif;aeaom a':0wkwu f ig;cl ]]aps;awmha&mif;&rSmyJ txnfvm; xrif;vm;awmh rodb;l }}
ESpaf umiftjyif ig;&mwefwpf½u G yf g xyfay;onft h wGuf at;rGef aps;xdyaf &mufawmh at;rGeEf iS ahf umifrav; vrf;cGv J u
kd Mf u
23 24 rpE´m
onf/ at;rGet f rd jf yefa&mufawmh ta':uxrif;Murf;cJudk ig;yd&nf tdyaf ysmo f mG ;wke;f ta':ha,musmf ;a&mufvmonf/ at;rGeu f tdrf
qrf;jy;D pm;ESiahf ejyD jzpfonf/ at;rGeu f ig;clav;udk uref;uwef; aemufaz;wGif yef;uef aq;aepOf cRwef if;jy;D 0ifa&mufvmjcif; jzpf
aMumfay;rnfvyk af wmh xifxm;onft h wdik ;f ]]xm;vdu k yf gawmh[,f onf/ xdak emuf at;rGeu f kd aemufzufrS aejyD; odr;f ízufonf/
... naeusrS olYuakd uR;vdu k }f }[kajymavonf/ ]]a[m'DrmS ta':a&...bMu;D xGe;f ZHa&...Mu;D a':oef;a& vkyf
]]ta':uom apwemydak e? tJ'v D Ml uD;u aumif;wm MuygOD;}}
r[kwb f ;l aemf? uRerf udv k nf; xduyg;&duyg;eJY}} at;rGeu f tvefYwMum; atmfonf/ olu at;rGe\ f yg;pyf
at;rGeu f aoG;wd;k prf;umajymMunfah wmh ta':hrsuEf mS xm; udk twif;ydwo f nf/ at;rGeu f ½ke;f &if;uef&if; ,ufuef,ufuefEiS hf
u wnfjyD; wif;oGm;onf/ at;rGeu f kd cyfprd ;f pdr;f Munfu h m ]]nD;u vufwpfzufu rD;zdak b;rS iHjym&nfyv k if;udk vSr;f jy;D prf;vdu k rf od nf/
vnf; tdajE&´ &aerSayghath}} [kajymavonf/ at;rGef bmudrk Q quf 'Dawmhvnf; iHjym&nfyv k if;udk wif;wif;qkyu f ikd jf y;D vufjyef ½du k cf s
rajymcsif awmh/ vdu k of nf/ olu vufEiS q hf ;D cHvu
kd íf acgif;udrk xdaomfvnf; ykvif;
ta':\a,musmf ;Mu;D uvnf; raeYwek ;f u qJvm;qdv k m;? uGu J m olYvufwiG f ½SomG ;onf/ iHjym&nfawGvnf; zdwpf Ofum ½TpJ kd
wGe;f vm;xd;k vm; vkyx f m;rdaomaMumifv h m;awmh rod/ av;ig;&uf oGm;onf/
avmuf tdrjf yefrvmay/ oltrd jf yefrvmonfukd at;rGew f Yakd rmifEpS rf at;rGeu f ykvif;zifjywfuu kd ikd u
f m olYukd csucf si;f vSnjhf y;D
oH;k a,mufu usw d jf yD; 0rf;omaeMuaomfvnf; ta':hcrsmrSmawmh &ifqikd v f ukd o f nf/ olYrsuEf mS wnfw h nfu h kd ykvif;jywfEiS hf aqmifx h ;kd &ef
rsuEf mS raumif;½Sm/ olYa,musmf ; trl;orm;? tzd;k rwef trsKd;rrSeMf u;D êud;pm;&if; jzwfueJawGYvu kd af om i½kwu f snaf yGYuykd g b,fbuf
udk warQmw f nf; arQmaf evdu k of nfrmS vnfyif;yif twefi,f ½Snf vufu vSr;f jyD;qG, J v l u kd o f nf/ usm;rav;vdk rmefzjD yD; twif;
xGuv f monf[k xifro d nf/ acgif;&if;tdrrf S bMuD;xGe;f ZHuawmh a½SUwd;k vmaomat;rGeu f kd olu aMumufvefYwMum;Munf&h if; trl;ajy
tajctaerSeu f kd em;vnfonf/ ]]'Dtaumif bmMuaH evJrS rodwm/ oGm;yH&k onf/ aemufqw k f aemufqw k Ef iS ahf emufjyefqw k &f if; ]]rat;
wpfcck ak wmhMuaH erSmyJ? vmawmhvmOD;rSm? eifwYkad rmifEpS rf awGvnf; jrifah &...eifw h rl ighuo kd wfaejyD}} [k atmfonf/
owdrvGwaf peJY}} [kajymonf/ olwYt kd rd u
f vnf; rD;zdjk y;D vQif tdraf ½SUcef;rdYk aemufqw k pf &m
bMu;D xGe;f ZHajymonfrmS rSev f aS Mumif; wpfywfavmufae ae&mu bmrQr½S/d tdraf ½SUcef;usO;f usO;f av;jy;D vQif avSum;xpfom
awmh vufawGYo&d onf/ ausmaf usmw f Yknd tD pfuv kd nf; ausmif;oGm; ½Sad wmhonfrYkd at;rGeu f kd ausmrcdik ;f &Jaom ta':ha,musmf ;u avSum;
wke;f ta':uvnf; aeYvnfxrif;pm;jyD; wa&;warm jyefvnf rS aemufjyefusomG ;onf/ a'gopdwaf wG rTex f al eaom at;rGeu f yg
25 26 rpE´m
olYaemuf xyfcsyv f u kd jf yD; tdraf y:rS 0ke;f ueJ ckecf sonf/ MuD;ay:odYk wtm;vTaJ ygufvu kd o f nf/ xdak emuf csmueJ vSnu hf m
]]tr,fav; vmMuygOD; u,fMuygOD; t&yfuwdYka&... xGuv f mcJo h nf/ cg;onf;emusiaf MuuGrJ u I ol\oHa,mZOfMu;D udk
u,fMuygOD;? uRerf a,musmf ;udk at;rGeo f wfaeygjyD}} awmufueJaeatmif jzwfcsvu kd o f nf/ ausmaf usmEf iS ahf ZmfaZmfukd jrif
i,foyH gatmif atmfvu kd af omta':\ toHukd Mum;& a,mifrad wmh &ifxrJ mS rcs?d ausmif;jyefvmvQif ]]tpfra&m}}[k ½SmMu
onf/ ta': atmfvu kd o f nfrmS olYa,musmf ;MuD;twGuo f mru awmhrnf/ odYkaomf bmwwfEikd rf nfenf;/ olwYko d nf tart&if;ESihf
at;rGeyf g uHaumif;zdYk jzpfomG ;avonf/ ta':\toHukd rMum;rdvYkd om;t&if;rsm; jzpfMuonf/
uawmh xdv k Ml uD;\acgif;udk i½kwu f snaf yGUESiyhf ,fy,fe,fe,f xk ]]ae&pfcMhJ uawmh armifav;wdYka&}} at;rGepf w d x f rJ aS jym&if;
axmif;xkjyD; vlowfrI usL;vGerf ad wmhrnfjzpfonf/ a0usvmaomrsu&f nfrsm;udk vufEpS zf ufEiS yhf w G o
f w k v f ukd o f nf/
at;rGev f n S Mhfunfv h u
kd af wmh tdy, f mxJrS '½Gwq f jJGy;D xvm aeylusu J swJ iG f ajcOD;wnf&h mavQmufomG ;ae&if; at;rGeo f nf
aom ta':u tdr0f a&mufaejyjD zpfonf/ at;rGeu f kd vufnKd§; aiguf ]]ig bmvky&f rvJ}} [k olYu, kd o f l txyfxyfjyefar;aerdonf/ odYk
aigufx;kd um a'gowMuD;ESiahf tmf[pfaeonf/ aomfvnf; tajzr½Sad cs/ aemufawmh rEÅav;rS ta':0rf;uGu J kd owd
]][J.h ..aumifr xGuo f mG ;/ ightrd af y:u tckqif;oGm;}} &onf/ aumuf½;kd rQiu f av;yif jzpfapawmh? xdak umuf½;kd rQiu f av;
at;rGeo f nf olYuEkd iS cf saeaomta':tm; awGawGa0a0 udyk if qG&J awmhrnf/ ta':hqo D Ykd oGm;csiof nf/ odYkaomf b,fvkd
Munf&h if; &ifxw J iG f cg;cg;oD;oD; emusiv f monf/ at;rGeaf cwå oGm;&rnfenf;/
rQ idik o
f mG ;pOf ta':ha,musmf ;Mu;D u ajray:rS vl;vJxum aemufqw k f olYwpfu, kd v f ;kH vnf; pkwjf ywfnpfywfaeonf/ qHyifawG
aemufqw k Ef iS hf qkwo f mG ;jy;D vGwaf vmufaomae&ma&mufawmh wcsKd ; zGm&&m usu J m iHjym&nfapmfvnf; eHapmfaeonf/ aemufq;kH awmh
wnf; vSnahf jy;oGm;onf/ ta':0wkwu f kd owd&onf/
]]udrk if;Ekid .f ..td.k ..udrk if;Edik f b,fomG ;rvdYkv}J } ]]eif...bmvkyrf vJ}}
ta':u olYa,musmf ;udk wausmaf usmaf tmfac:onf/ [du k ta':0wkwu f ar;onf/
vSnrhf Munfah wmh at;rGeb f ufvn S u hf m ]]eifb,fvv kd yk vf u kd wf mvJ ]]rEÅav;rSm OD;av;&JUtpfr0rf;uGw J pfa,muf½w dS ,f/ uRerf
rat;at;rGe&f UJ ? aus;Zl;½Sirf &JU}} [katmfonf/ eJYqkd Mu;D a':wpf0rf;uGaJ wmfwmaygh/ tysKd Mu;D yJ...uRerf i,fi,fwek ;f
]]awmuf...}} u &efuek f vmzl;w,f/ oleYJvmaezdYkvnf; ac:zl;w,f/ olYqD vdu k f
at;rGeu f olUvufxrJ S ykvif;jywfEiS ihf ½kwu f snaf yGYukd ajr oGm;r,f}}
27 28 rpE´m
]]rEÅav;ûrUd u tus,Mf u;D [J.h ..eifu olYub
kd ,fvv
kd yk jf y;D rGeo
f nf rsupf o d il ,fjzpfaeonf/ xdak emufawmh pdwx f wJ iG f wwf
½SmrSmvJ}} orQ bk&m;pmawG ½Gw&f if; rsupf u d rkd w dS x f m;vdu k of nf/
]]olu aq;½HMk uD;rSm vlemapmifv h yk w f mav/ a':jrvdYk ar; ]][,f...eifb,fomG ;rvdYkv}J }
vduk &f if vlwikd ;f odw,fw}hJ } olYyck ;kH udk wpfpw kH pfO;D uykwí f EIwq f ufonf/ rsupf u d kd zGihf
]]uJ...tJ'aD &mufawmh eifbmvkyrf vJ}} Munfv h ukd af wmh aumifrav;wpfa,mufu olYu&kd ,fjyaeonfukd
ta':0wkwu f pd;k &draf e½Smonf/ at;rGeu f ,
kd wf ikd vf nf; awGY&onf/ acwåpOf;pm;jyD;rS aps;xJoYkdvmwdik ;f oMuFeaf bmif;bD
ajymr,fo h majymae&aomfvnf; rEÅav;a&mufjy;D rS a':jrudk ½SmrawGY um;um;MuD; 0wfvmwwfaom pkww f w k jf ywfwwf aumifrav;
vQif bmqufvyk &f rnfenf;/ pOf;yif rpOf;pm;&J/ ta':0wkwu f rsm; jzpfonfukd rSwrf v d u kd f onf/ tckawmh tusyÐ ef;a&mif? xbDyef;a&mif
]]igeJY vmaevSnahf v}}[k ajymrvm;[k arQmv f ifah erdaomfvnf; olY tyGiphf w
d pf w d af v;ESihf acgif;wGiv f nf; yef;a&mifuvpfav; n§yu f m
tdru f sO;f usO;f rSm olYro d m;pktjynfrh Ykd ajymcsiv f Qiaf wmif ajymEdik t f m; vSwywav; jzpfaeonf/
r½Sod nfuakd wmh odjyD;om;yif/ ]]ig rEÅav;oGm;rvdYk}}
]]tJ'aD &mufawmhvnf; olYvykd J vlemapmif&h ifapmifh rapmif&h ]][if...wpfa,mufxv J m;}}
&ifvnf; wHrsupf nf;vSn;f trIu d o f rd ;f ? wpfcck ak wmh vky&f rSmaygh ]]at;...wpfa,mufxyJ .J ..eifa&m b,fv}J }
ta': 0wkw&f ,f? uRerf &JUw0rf;wcg;awmh uRerf ½Smpm;vdYk&rSmyg}} at;rGeu f aqGrsKd ;t&if;tcsmawGY&ovdk 0rf;omtm;& jzpf
at;rGeu f tm;wif;jyD; ajymonf/ oGm;onf/ tm;awGwufomG ;onf/
]]eift h a':ud½k mS rawGY&if b,fvv kd yk rf vJ}} ]]wpfa,mufwnf; bmoGm;vkyrf vdYkv[ J if? 'DrmS Munfh 'D
]]td.k ..aq;½HMk u;D a&muf&if vlwikd ;f odygw,fqrkd S awGYrmS yg/ tpfrudak &m eifow d ,fr[kwv f m;? rdwLå ul;qdik u f av? olu igeJY
r*syefr uvJ}} twl vdu k v f mwm? [drk mS tvkyv f yk Mf urvdYkav/ 'gu igh&UJ tpfr
odYkEiS yhf if at;rGeof nf &efuek b f w l mMu;D odYka&mufc&hJ onf/ 0rf;uG?J tpfru igwdYu k kd vmac:wm/ [ku d sawmh txnfa&mif;wJo h l
a':0wkwEf iS w hf uG ig;onfrsm;u olYtwGuv f rf;p&dwu f kd pkjyD;ay; u a&mif;? xrif;a&mif;wJo h u l a&mif;? vkyMf u&rSmwJ/h eifa&m...
vduk Mf uonf/ rEÅav;rSm bmvkyrf vdYkv?J igwdYkeYJ twlvu kd cf rhJ vm;[if/ e,fpyfrmS
teDa&mif&xm;MuD; wGx J ;kd vmawmh &xm;ay:udk aMumuf aps;a&mif;Mu&atmifav/ tckawmh olrsm;qDrmS vky?f t&if;tES;D av;
aMumufEiS w hf ufc&hJ onf/ olYae&mwGio f l ukwcf scd sad v; xdik &f if; at; &wmawmhvnf; [D..[D ud, k yf ikd tf vkyv f yk &f rSmaygh? eifa&m [drk mS
29 30 rpE´m
bmvkyrf mS vJ... igwdYkeYJ twlvu kd cf rhJ vm;...[if}} at;rGeEf iS Ehf iS ;f qDarT;u wpfa,mufuw kd pfa,mufru DS m tdyf
aumifrav;u ol\xH;k pHtwdik ;f pum;udk a&yufr0if aysmf aeMuonf/ pkpEk , G u f awmh &dyu f eJ&yd u
f eJusecf ahJ om xif;½I;yif
atmif ajymaeonf/ rdwLå ul;qdik rf t S pfrav;udv k nf; at;rGejf rifz;l rsm;udk ai;armMunf&h if; tarhukd owd&aeonf/ taru olxu G v f m
aeom;yif/ aumifrav;\ tpfr0rf;uGu J awmh csr;f omyH&k onf/ onfukd vH;k 0oabmrwlay/ ]]aiGb,favmuf&w,fajymajym? tarh
acwfvnf; qefonf/ &,f'rD w d t f usÐ yGyt G td ad ysmah ysmah v;udk 0wf &JU rsupf u d , G &f m? em;uG,&f mudk a&mufomG ;rSm taroabmrwlb;l
xm;&m Munfí h aumif;vSonf/ qHyifukd tndKa&mifq;kd jy;D aumuf orD;}} [laom pum;udk twGiaf jymcJo h nf/ orD; 'Dwpfacgufawmh
xm;aomfvnf; jzefYrcsbJ aemufzufwiG f cyf½½G aG v;pkum pnf;xm; vdu k of mG ;Munfrh ,f tar&,f? oH;k av;vaevdYkrS tqifrajy&if jyef
onf/ tppfvm; twkvm;awmh at;rGerf od? olYem;wGiyf efxm;aom vmrSmaygh? orD; ud, k u hf ,kd u f kd apmifah ½SmufEikd yf gw,f/ tarpdwcf syg}}
ausmufprd ;f em;uyfEiS hf avmuufo;D ? vufpyG w f YkdrmS qifwjl zpfav [k a&;cJah om olYpmuav;udak wmh naeapmif;jyD; oljyefrvmaom
onf/ aemufjyD; a½TvufaumufawG qif0h wfxm;&m olYvuf vIyf tcgrS tarzwfrrd nfjzpfonf/ ]]orD;udk cGiv hf w T yf gtar&,f...'Dvrkd S
vdu k w f ikd ;f a½TEiS ahf ½Tcsi;f xdcwfou H cRiu f eJcRiu f eJjrnfomG ;onf/ xGi;f azmufjy;D rxGu&f if rêu;d pm;&if 'H&k if;b0uae wufEikd rf mS r[kwf
at;rGe\ f em;xJwiG af wmh xdck Ricf Rio f aH v;u om,mvSonf/ olu vdYk pGeYfpm;&wmyg...}} pkE, G pf w
d x f rJ S ajymaerdonf/
at;rGeu f kd tuJcwfovdk vSr;f Munfu h m azmfa½GpmG ûyH;jyonf/ olY ]]nDrav;u tdrv f rG ;f aejyDvm;}}
vufxw J iG f udik x
f m;aom tmvl;aMumfxyk u f kd ]]a&mh...nDrav; pm; tpfrMuD;u um;a½SYcef;rS iJMh unfjh yD; ar;onf/
OD;}}[k qdu k m vSr;f ay;onf/ ]]vGr;f wmaygh tpfrMu;D &,f...uRerf u tdref Yw J pfcgrS cGzJ ;l wm
&xm;Mu;D u jird u hf eJ ,dr;f um pwifjy;D xGucf mG vmonf/ r[kwb f ;l ...}}
*sed ;f *sed ;f *sKw*f sKwjf rnfoEH iS thf wl at;rGe\ f &ifcek o f o
H nfvnf; pnf; ]]b0qdw k m 'Dvykd aJ ygh [,f}}
csuf ususEiS hf wjznf;jznf;jrefvmonf/ tpfrMu;D u yifprd ;f oD;wpfxyk v f rS ;f ay;onf/ yg;yg;vS;D jy;D
b0pmrsuEf mS topfonf olYuakd pmifí h êudaejyD.../ aq;oMum;? i½kwo f ;D rIeYfrsm;ESiehf ,fxm;aom yifprd ;f oD;xkwrf sm;udk
Ä pkE, G f êuu d o f nf/ csKd csKd csOcf sOf zefzef pyfpyft&omonf tdyif u kd af jy
jyD; rsuv f ;kH us,o f mG ;apwwfonf/
awmifawG acsmufawGuv kd nf; ausmcf jhJ y?D jrpfawGacsmif;awGuv
kd nf; ]]rd;k csKycf geD;rS a&mufrmS yJ}}
jzwfcjhJ yD/ um;uav;uawmh w&dy&f yd af jy;aeqJyifjzpfonf/ ]]a0;w,faemf}}
31 32 rpE´m
&moDOwku ajrjyefYwek ;f uESihf rwlawmhbJ pdrjhf yD;at;vm r,fh wpfaeYwek ;f u rD;avmifwm qdik w f pfjcrf;ygoGm;vdYkw}hJ }
onf/ pkpEk , G uf taEG;tusaÐ v;wpfxnfygaomfvnf; ESi;f qDarT;ESihf ]]a[m...awmf}}
at;rGeu f ygrvmMu/ tpfrMuD;\rsuEf mS u cyfnKd§ ;n§Kd ;jzpfomG ;onf/
]]t&ifwek ;f u 'Dvrf;awGrmS tckvkd at;at;csr;f csr;f vGwf ]]vrf;rSm em;Ny;D nDrav;wdYk xrif;pm;aewke;f u tpfrMu;D
vGwf vyfvyfomG ;vdYk&wmr[kwb f ;l / e,fajruvnf; Murf;? vrf; a,musmf ;qDukd w,fvzD ek ;f qufw,fav tJ'w D ek ;f urS od&wm}}
awGuvnf; Murf;w,fav? tckawmh e,fajru at;csr;f vmjyD; [kwo f nf? t&omtajymif;tvJav;rdYk olwYkdwpfawG
vrf;awGuvnf; ajzmifah e jzL;aejyq D akd wmh oGm;&vm&? a&mif;&0,f& acgif; razmfEikd af tmif pm;aumif;aecdu k f tpfrMu;D w,fvzD ek ;f quf
wm odyaf umif;vmw,f}} onf/ olwYkd xrif;pm;aeaomae&mESihf tpfrMu;D w,fvzD ek ;f qufae
tpfrMuD;u ½Si;f jyonf/ aom ae&m ra0;vSojzifh pum;ajymoHukd tukev f ;kH Mum;&onf/
]]nDrav;wdYkvkd tvkyv f mvkyw f ohJ al wG ukeaf &mif;uke0f ,f odYkaomf wpfv;kH rQ em;rvnf/ tpfrMu;D ajymaeonfrmS jrefrmpum;
vkyw f o
hJ al wGvnf; trsm;MuD;yJ}} r[kwaf omaMumifh jzpfonf/ ESi;f qDarT;uawmh ]]tpfrMu;D u 'Dbuf
]]uRerf wdYk xrif;a&mif;&rSmvm; tpfrMuD;}} a&mufaewm q,fEpS af usmaf ejyq D akd wmh 'Dbufu pum;awG tukef
pkE,G u
f ar;awmh tpfrMu;D u acwåjird o f mG ;avonf/ tck wwfw,f[}} [kajymonf/
Ed;k vmaom ESi;f qDarT;u ]]uRerf tukecf suw f wfw,f? jrefrmxrif; ]]nDrav;wdYko&d if tvum;ae&if; pdwrf aumif;jzpfaeMu
[if;awGaygh? ,d;k ',m;pmawG w½kwpf mawGuakd wmh tpfrMu;D oifay; rSm pd;k vdYrk ajymwm/ tpfrMu;D qdik u f csucf si;f jyefziG Ehf ikd Of ;D rSm r[kwb f ;l }}
aemf}} [k 0ifajymonf/ ]][if...'gqd.k ..uRerf wdYk}}
]]tJ'gudk ajymrvdYkaygh}} olwYkod ;kH OD;vH;k pdwaf wGyo l mG ;Muonf/
tpfrMuD;u cyfw;kd wd;k ajymonf/ tpfrMu;D u qdik rf zGiEhf ikd af wmhb;l qdak wmh olwYkad wG bmvkyf
]]tpfrvnf; xrif;a&mif;wm tûydit f qdik af wG t&rf;rsm; Mu&rnfenf;/ aemufjyD; pkE, G \f pdwx f wJ iG f wpfcsuf xifu h eJ jzpf
vmawmh t&ifwek ;f uavmuf a&mif;vdYrk aumif;awmhb;l / ESi;f qDav; oGm;onf/ tpfrMu;D u olYa,musmf ;ESiphf um;ajymwm jrefrmvdk rajym
u pdwt f m;xufoefaevGe;f vdYkom ac:vm&wm}} bl;vm;? olY a,musmf ;onf jrefrmvdk rwwfonfo h v l m;? qdik Mf uD;
]][if...tpfrajymawmh t&rf;a&mif;aumif;w,fq}kd } wpfjcrf;vH;k rD;avmifomG ;wmudk tpfrMu;D u tdajEr´ ysuaf eEdik o f vm;/
]][kww f ,f? a&mif;aumif;wmawmh aumif;ygw,f? 'gay ]]ypön;f ocFg& vlocFg&yJav? tpfr 'Da&mufwek ;f u vuf
33 34 rpE´m
csn;f yJ a&mufvmwm/ ypön;f qdw k m qH;k ½I;H wwfwmyJ[m/ êu;d pm;jy;D Muawmhonf/ olwYakd wGvnf; c&D;yef;um EH;k aejyjD zpfonf/ tpfrMu;D
½Sm&ifvnf; ud, k q hf jD yefa&mufvmwmyJ? tpfruawmh odyjf yD; wG,f u olwYku d kd a&qdyu f w kd ef;ac:vmjyD; pufavSp;D um jrpfu;l Mu&jyef
wm pHrk uf raeygbl;}} onf/
olYuv kd rS ;f Munfah eaom pkE, G u
f kd tpfrMu;D u cyfat;at; ]]'Dacsmif;uav;u ul;vdu k &f if [db
k ufEikd if H a&mufomG ;wm
vSr;f ajymonf/ pkE, G \ f oHo,onfvnf; twefi,fajyaysmufomG ; yJ/ [db k ufu vlawGvnf; 'DbufrmS trsm;MuD;? 'Dbufu vlawG
onf/ vnf; [db k ufrmS trsm;Mu;D ? 'Dvykd J ul;vl;vkyu f ikd af eMu&wm/ tpfr
]]'DrmS tvkyaf wGu aygygw,f nDrav;wdYk [db k ufurf; Mu;D vnf; 'Duakd &mufpwke;f u [db k ufeY'J b D ufu;l ae&wmyJ/ vky&f if;
ul;jy;D tvkyv f yk &f ifvnf; &wmyJ/ tJ'rD mS u ydjk y;D awmhawmif &ao; udik &f if; êud;pm;&if;eJY tqifajyvm&wm}}
w,f/ tpfrMuD; qufo, G af y;rSmyg...bmrSpw d rf ylygeJY}} tpfrMuD;u tajymaumif;onf/
]][db k ufurf;qdw k m bmvJ[if tpfrMuD;}} ]]nDrav;wdYkawGYwt hJ wdik ;f 'DbufrmS u pwd;k qdik af wG pm;
at;rGeu f ar;onf/ olu &efuek \ f [db k ufqv kd Qif arSmf aomufqikd af wG? [dw k ,fawG trsm;Mu;D &,f/ tvkyt f udik af wGvnf;
bD? wdu k Mf u;D avmufuykd if a&mufz;l olr[kw/f rEÅav;udk Mum;zl;aomf aygw,f/ nDrav;wdYkukd eufjzefus&if tvky½f iS af wGqrD mS tyfay;
vnf; vm;½I;d ? rlq,f? erf;crf;? usKid ;f wH?k wmcsv D w
d ?f rJaqmuf vdrrhf ,f}}
qdw k mawGukd tckrMS um;zl;jcif;jzpfonf/ ]]bm tvky½f iS af wGv.J ..[if}}
]][db k ufEikd if aH v...}} ]]trsm;tm;jzifah wmh tpm;taomufqikd af wG? tvSuek q f ikd f
]]aMomf...}} awG? tusq Ð ikd af wG txnfqikd af wGaygh}}
acgif;av;wjidrjhf idrEhf iS hf ]]aMomf}} [kom ajymvdu k Mf uaomf ]]'Dvq kd kd uRerf wdYk twlwrl vky&f bl;vm; [if}}
vnf; [db k ufEikd if ?H 'DbufEikd if [ H al omtawG;awG olwYk\ d acgif;xJ at;rGeu f pd;k &drw f Mu;D ar;onf/ olu ig;awGuo kd m owf&J
wGif r½Sad y/ tvkyv f yk wf myJ[m b,frmS vkyv f yk f twlwal ygh[al om jzwf&jJ cif;jzpfonf/ olYu, kd o
f l pmrwwfb;l [laom tiHYpk w d u
f ½Sad e
tawG;udo k m olwYkdawG;wwfMuonf/ tu,fí wpfzufEikd if \ H awmh vlawmudak wmh &J&rJ wd;k &J? vlawGukd olaMumufonf/
ydik ef ufxo J Ykd a&mufomG ;vQif trdEikd if \ H t&dyt f m0goatmufrS uif; ]]'guawmh tvky½f iS u f oH;k a,muf&ifvnf; oH;k a,muf
vGwo f mG ;jyq D o kd nfuv kd nf; olwYrkd pOf;pm;wwf/ rpd;k &drw f wfMuay/ ac:&if ac:rSmyg/ olwYv kd m&if vSvyS y? ûy;H ûy;H csKd csKd av;ae? rsuEf mS av;
tpfrMu;D ajymonft h wdik ;f yifjzpfonf/ arSmif&yD sK;d rSyif a&muf awGukd ½Ti½f iT cf sKd csKd xm; [kwv f m;}}
35 36 rpE´m
tpfrMuD;u oifonf/ pkE, G f acgif;jidrohf nf/ rnfonfh a&mufaeMuwmav}}
tvky½f iS of nf r½Tirf jy n§Kd ;vsaeaomtvkyo f rm;udk vkcd siyf grnf olajymonfh Edik if jH cm;udk w&m;0ifa&muf½adS ejcif;r[kwb f J
enf;/ 'gudak wmh olwYkdem;vnfygonf/ pufavSEiS hf cd;k 0ifc&hJ jcif;jzpfonfukd ESi;f qDarT; em;rvnfay/ olrsm;
]]tpfrMuD;&JUtodtrd u f usO;f w,f/ vGwv f w G v f yfvyf wdik ;f jynf olrsm;Edik if ?H olrsm;\Oya'atmufoYkd w&m;r0ifc;kd 0Sujf y;D
r½Sb
d ;l / nDrav;wdYk aumif;aumif;tdy&f atmif wnf;cdck ef;rSm aecJh a&muf½adS e&jcif;onf rnfrQrsuEf mS i,fjy;D rnfrQtEÅ&m,fMu;D aMumif;
Mu/ tpfrMuD; reufusawmh apmapmvmcJrh ,f}} udv
k nf; olroday/ eufjzefreufusvQif tpfrMu;D a&mufvmrnf/
tpfrMu;D u olwYo kd ;kH a,mufukd wnf;cdck ef;wpfco k Ykd vduk yf Ykd ukew f u kd Mf u;D awG yef;jcMH u;D awGqo D Ykd vSvyS y ausmah usmah rmharmhav;
onf/ acgufqaJG Mumfo;kH xkyv f nf; 0,fay;cJo h nf/ avQmufjyD; vnf& ywf&OD;rnf[v k nf; arQmv f ifah eonf/
olwYkdtyd cf ef;xJa&mufawmh q,fem&Dausmaf eayjyD/ ESpf ]]iguawmh enf;enf;aMumufaew,f}}
a,muftyd f ckwifwpfv;kH wnf;om½Sad omfvnf; olwYo kd ;kH a,muf twl ]]bmudv k }J }
tdyvf Ykd&onf/ ckwifab;wGif rSew f ifc½kH o
dS nf/ ]]jrefrmpum;ajymwJv h vl nf; wpfa,mufrrS awGYb;l }}
]]rSeMf uD;u tMuD;MuD;yJawmh}} ]]½Srd mS yg rêuHao;vdYkjzpfrmS aygh}}
at;rGeu f ud,
k v f ;kH ay:rSeaf ½SYwiG f olYu, dk o f l a½SYMunfv h ukd f at;rGeEf iS hf ESi;f qDarT;u cyfayghaygh0ifajzonf/ ]]uRerf wdYk
aemufMunfv h u kd ?f b,fvn S Mhfunfv h ukd f nmvSnMhfunfv h u kd Ef iS hf tljrL; oH;k a,mufxrJ mS tpfru touftMuD;qH;k ? aemufjyD;awmhvnf;
aeonf/ taMumufwwfq;kH [k ajymum waomaom&,faeMuonf/
ESi;f qDarT;uawmh arGY&mtxlMu;D ay:wGif vl;vSrd &hf if; ]]yg&m ]]vlqw kd m toufMuD;vmav aMumufwwfavyJqw kd m
&m ...&m; &mbH?k yg&m&m&m; &mbH}k } [katmfaeonf/ arGU,maMumfjimxJ eifwYkd rMum;zl;bl;vm;}}
rS tdjEm´ ausmZf iftrlt,mrsKd ; vkyaf ejcif;jzpfavonf/ rsuEf mS vH;k vH;k c&D;a0;Mu;D udk wyifwyef;vmcJ&h ojzifh wke;f ueJ tdyaf ysmf
EIwcf rf;jynfjh ynf?h rsuv f ;kH 0dik ;f 0dik ;f av;ESiahf jymifpyfpyfvyk jf yaeaom ESi;f oGm;rnfxifaomfvnf; pkpEk , G f tdyrf aysmaf cs/ olwYkod ;kH a,mufxrJ mS
qDarT;onf uav;av;wpfa,mufvkd csppf &maumif;aeonf/ olu touftMu;D qH;k rdYk wu,fyif taMumufwwfq;kH jzpfjy;D awmif
]]ESi;f qDarT;&,f...eifuawmh aysmaf ewmyJ}} awG; ajrmufawG; awG;aerdavovm;/
pkpEk , G u f ajymonf/ &moDOwkat;ojzifh *Gr;f apmifxMl u;D udk twljzefYûcu H m yl;yl;
]][if...tpfra&m raysmb f ;l vm;/ tck uRerf wdYk Edik if jH cm; uyfuyf tdyaf e&onfrmS aEG;vSonf/ odYak omf tvnfwiG t f yd af om
37 38 rpE´m
ESi;f qDarT;u touf½o ª jH yif;vSonf/ [dw k pfzufrS at;rGeu f vnf; ]]aeawmha&m? eif olYvyd pf m odvm;}}
rjidrv f ?S tHomG ;udv k nf; wusu D sD uswd af eao;onf/ ]][m b,ford mS vJ}}
]]tpfrMuD; emrnfu b,foyl gvdr}hf } ESi;f qDarT;u 0ke;f ueJ jyefypfvv JS u
kd o
f nf/
tdyaf ysmv f q k qJ w J iG f pkpEk ,
G u
f jzwfueJawG;vdu k rf od nf/ ]]eifeh YJtpfrt&if;vm;....}}
ESi;f qDarT;\tpfrrdYk ESi;f qDarT;ac:ovdk tpfrMuD;[líom vdu k jf yD; ]]b,f...[kw&f rSmvJ}}
ac:cJMh ujcif; jzpfonf/ olYtrnfu b,fvakd c:oenf;/ olaewmu ]]b,fEpS 0f rf;uGo J vJ [if}}
b,fae&mrSmenf;/ ]]q,f0rf;avmufurJG mS aygh...wpf½mG xJaezl;vdYk 0rf;uGtJ pfr
]]ESi;f qD arT;}} vdYk ajymwm}}
pkE,G u f wd;k wd;k ac:onf/ ESi;f qDarT;u wkww f w
k yf if rvIy/f ESi;f qDarT; jyeftyd af ysmo
f mG ;onf/
]][J.h ..ESi;f qD arT;...ESi;f qD arT; vdYkq}kd } pkpEk ,G u f awmh awmfawmfEiS hf tdyrf aysmaf wmhacs/ aemuf
]]tif...}} wpfaeY tpfrMu;D a&mufrvmvQif olwYb kd mvky&f rnfenf;/ tpfrMu;D
]][J.h ..eifE;kd jyDvm;}} ud,k pf m; ½ky½f iS xf uJ vdk vlMuD;awGa&mufvmjyD;...bk&m;...bk&m; /
]]bmvJ...rd;k vif;jyDvm;}}
]]eif.h ..tpfrMuD;emrnfu b,fvakd c:vJ}} Ä
]]emrnfvm;...}}
ESi;f qDarT;u 0g;ueJ oef;um tdycf sirf ;l wl;ESiahf i;aeonf/ aemufwpfaeYreufapmapm tpfrMuD;a&mufvmawmh olwYkd Ed;k yif
]]tif;...olYemrnfu b,fvakd c:vJvYkdq}kd } rEd;k ao;acs/ wHcg;acgufawmhrS Ed;k vmjy;D vl;vJxMu&onf/ ESi;f qD
]]t&ifwek ;f uawmh rvSusiyf }J } arT;ESihf at;rGeu
f tdyaf &;0um vef;qef;wuf<uaeaomfvnf; pkpk
]]tcka&m...}} EG,f uawmh EH;k aeonf/ raeYnu tpd;k &draf wGyu kd m tdyí
f raysmEf ikd f
]]tckawmh emrnfajymif;xm;w,f vSvyS y acwfqefqef atmif jzpfaeonfuv kd nf; tpfrMuD;jyefood mG ;rSm tm;emaeonf/
jzpfrmS aygh}} ]][,f...tdyv f u
kd Mf uwm renf;udk Ed;I ,l&w,f}}
]]bmwJv h .J ..}} tpfrMuD;u &,f&,farmarmajymonf/ raeYwek ;f uvdk
]]wpfcgajymwmodvu kd wf myJ...'gayr,fh rSwrf xm;rdygbl;}} xbDEiS hf r[kwaf wmhbJ puyfaemufu0JG wfxm;onf/ ndKajyajy
39 40 rpE´m
qHyifaumufaumufrsm;onf olYycH;k ay:wGif 0Jaeonf/ ]]eifwYkdawG 'DavmufvrS eS ;f tckrS ydo
k v
d mw,f}}
]]tpfra,musmf ;ygvmw,f/ tusv Ð jJ yD; qif;cJMh uaygh/ ]]vSw,f...vSw,f}}
tpfruawmh atmufu {nfch ef;uyJ apmifah eawmhr,f}} tpfrMuD;\a,musmf ;uvnf; acgif;wndrn hf rd Ehf iS hf ûyH;csKd
tpfrMuD;u olwYkdtwGuf tusEÐ pS pf pkH aD y;onf/ ]]olwYkdqD aeonf/
a&mufawmhvnf; olwYkv d 0kd wfrS tqifajyrSmaygh[,f}}[k ajymoGm; ]]tck tpfrMu;D &JU todtrd u f o kd mG ;r,f/ tJ'rD mS nDrav;wdY&k UJ
onf/ puyf ab;uGw J pfxnfpED iS *hf g0efwpfxnfpjD zpfonf/ *g0efrsm; tvkyt f wGuu f , kd pf m;vS,af wGuakd wGY&rSmaygh...}}
rSm avab;xnfrsm;ESihf wlaomfvnf; tqiftaoG;av;rsm; vS ukew f u kd af wG? yef;jcaH wG? upm;uGi;f awGukd oGm;rsm; oGm;&
onf/ cg;ae&mwGif cg;pnf;êu;d av;rsm;ygojzifh tusO;f tus,u f kd avrvm;[k arQmv f ifrh ad omfvnf; b,fuek w f u kd u
f rkd S ra&mufcahJ y/
pdww f ikd ;f us csed í f &onf/ wdu k cf ef;usO;f usO;f wpfco k Ykdom a&mufvmjyD; tdr½f iS v f ifr,m;ESihf
oMueF af bmif;bDyyG MG u;D ESiohf mjrifawGY&avh½adS om ESi;f qDarT; tpfrMuD;wdYk vifr,m; pum;awG tjyeftvSeaf &yufr0ifatmif
onf tjyma&miftpuftajymufav;rsm; ygaom *g0efum;um;av; ajymvdu k Mf u &,fvu kd Mf uESihf pkE,
G w f Yvkd nf; wpfv;kH rQ em;rvnfacs/
ESihf waoG;warG; jzpfaeonf/ at;rGeu f tndKa&mifpuyfab;uGJ xdak emuf vlwpfa,muf a&mufvmonf/ vufarmif;ESpzf ufv;kH wGif
0wfum pkpEk , G u f awmh teufa&mifabmif;bDMuyfwpfxnfuk d aumuf w½kwf e*g;yHk aq;rifaMumif xd;k xm;jy;D EIwcf rf;arT;ppESijhf zpfonf/
0wfvu kd o f nf/ abmif;bDom;u qGo J m;jzpfí ud, k v
f ;kH tvS ay:vGif cyfuw k uf w k xf ikd af eaom pkE, G w f Yu
kd kd vSnMhfunfjh y;D aeaumif;vm;}}[k
vGe;f aeojzifh tay:zufrS wifyg;zH;k aomtusu Ð dk 0wfvu kd af omtcg toHcyf00J EJ iS Ehf w I q f ufonf/
rS pdwv f o kH mG ;onf/ cPaeawmh tpfrMuD;u ajymonf/
]]igwdYktm;vH;k vSw,fawmh}} ]]'Du olaX;tdraf wGu tdraf zmfawGawmhvckd siaf ew,fw.hJ .'g
ESi;f qDarT;u 0rf;omtm;&a&½Gwaf eonf/ cg;ao;jy;D &ifcsD ayr,fh ighnrD awGu tdraf zmfvyk rf ,fo h al wGrrS [kww f maemf}}
aom tysKd piftvSu odoad y:vGiaf eonf/ pkE, G w f iG f ygvmaom tpfrMuD;u acgif;av;cgum ajymawmh olwYkdwpfO;D ESihf
awmifMuD;armufr,foeyfcg;ESihf u&ifywf(z)bl;udk tm;vH;k twl wpfO;D wdik yf ifovdk vSr;f Munfrh Md uonf/ xdt k vkyaf wmh rvkycf si/f
vdr;f Muonf/ EIwcf rf;eDq;kd Muonf/ ]]ESi;f qDav;awmifrS 'Dxufaumif;wmvkycf siv f Ykd pGeYfpeG Yf
olwYkad tmufqif;vmawmh tpfrMuD;u vSr;f Munf&h if; ûyH; pm;pm; vdu k vf mwmr[kwv f m; tpfrMuD;odwmayghu, G }f }
MunfomG ;onf/ tpfrMu;D u aq;rifaMumifEiS hf olwYked m;rvnfaom pum;
41 42 rpE´m
awGukd tjyeftvSeaf jymjyefonf/ tpfrMuD;a,musmf ;a&m tdr½f iS f ]]a0;awmh a0;wmaygh nDr&,f? 'gayr,fh wpfEpS af evdYk
vifr,m;a&m? wpfa,mufwpfaygufEiS hf 0ifjyD;ajymMu? jiif;MuESihf wpfoed ;f ESpo f ed ;f pkrrd ,fth pm; av;ig;ajcmufoed ;f pkrad wmh ydrk aumif;
qlnaH eonf/ rsuEf mS i,fav;awGEiS hf pdwn f pfaeMuaom olwYkd oH;k OD; bl;vm;? tpfrMuD;u aumif;apcsiv f Ykdajymwmyg/ ydu k q f v
H ckd siv
f Ykd
udk tpfrMu;D u ]]pdwrf npfeY?J wpfcrk [kww f pfcak wmh tqifajyrSmyg/ vmvkyMf uwmyJ[m enf;enf;a0;wmeJY rsm;rsm;a0;wmyJ uGmwm/
tpfrMuD; vkyaf y;yghr,f}} [k rsuEf mS csKd csKd av;ESihf vSní hf ? vSní hf ud,k t hf rd ef YJa0;wmawmh a0;aejyyD J r[kwv f m;/ yduk q f yH &kd wJah e&mrSm
tm;ay;wwfonf/ em&D0ufavmufMum ajymqdjk yD;awmh - vkyaf wmh yd&k wmaygh/ ydjk yD;awmhvnf; pkrw d maygh...}}
]]enf;enf;a0;wJh NrdKUu txnfqikd rf mS &r,fvYkad wmh ajym ydu k qf o H MH um;awmh pkE, G vf nf;idik o f mG ;onf/ at;rGeEf iS hf
w,f nDrav;a&}} [k ajymavonf/ ESi;f qDarT;uvnf; tomvufuw k af eMuonf/
]]a0;w,f? [kwv f m;}} ]]wcsKd UawGrsm; tJ'rD mS tdraf xmifawGbmawGusjy;D uav;
]]'Duaeum;pD;oGm;&r,f/ tJ'rD mS awmh wpfEpS af vmuf vkyf awG bmawG&vdYk Mu;D yGm;aeMuwm/ jrefrmjynfawmif rjyefcsiMf uawmh
&ifukd tom;wifav;ig;ode;f avmufprk w d ,f nDrav;&JU? enf;enf; bl;}}
a0;wJh ae&mqdak wmh ydu k qf yH &kd wmaygh/ olwYku d jrefrmtvkyo f rm; tpfrMuD;\ a,musmf ;u w[m;[m; &,fum ]]'Du
qd&k if odyf êuu d w
f mwJ/h ajymvdYkqv kd Ykv
d nf; emcHw,f/ vSvnf; vS a,musmf ; aumif;w,faemf/ tm;MuD;opöm½Sw d ,f}}[k 0ifajymonf/
w,fr[kwv f m;/ aemufjy;D tpfrMu;D wdYkjrefrmawGu tvkyêf u;d pm; aq;rifaMumifEiS hf vluvnf; &,faeonf/
w,fav}} ]]tpfr&,f uRerf wdYk ta0;MuD;vmcJMh ujyDy[ J m aemufxyf
tpfrMu;D \rsuEf mS u csKdaeonf/ tdr½f iS v f ifr,m;uvnf; enf;enf; xyfa0;awmha&m bmjzpfao;vJ? uRerf uawmh ESpEf pS ?f
ûy;H aeonf/ oH;k ESpaf vmuf usw d rf w
dS vf yk jf yD; t&if;tES;D &rSjyefr,f}}
]]'Davmufta0;MuD;udak wmh xyfjyD;roGm;csiaf wmhygbl;/ ESi;f qDarT;u wD;wd;k ajymaeonf/ at;rGeu f awmh ]]uRerf wdYk
aemufjy;D olrsm;Edik if MH u;D rSm}} twlwo l mG ;&rSm r[kwv f m;[if}} [líom pd;k &drw f MuD;ESihf xyfcg
pkpEk ,G uf acgif;,rf;onf/ at;rGeEf iS Ehf iS ;f qDarT;uawmh xyfcg ar;aeavonf/
rsuEf mS i,fav;awGEiS jhf zpfaeMuonf/ olwYku d awmh 'Davmufta0; ]]eifwYkdut kd wlwal c:oGm;rSmyg}}
MuD; vmcJjh yD;rS vSnrhf jyefcsi/f aq;rifaMumifu ajymonf/
]]tpfrMuD;ajymawmh 'DbufrmS tvkyaf ygw,fq}kd } ]][du k sawmha&m twlwal e&rSmvm;...[if}}
43 44 rpE´m
olwYku d pd;k &drwf Mu;D jzpfaeMuavonf/ 'Do;kH a,muf ruGJ ]]'gMuD;awG0wf&atmif ajrmuf0if½;kd pGe;f udk oGm;&rSmrdYkvm;
csi?f wpfa,mufuw kd pfa,muf tjyeftvSet f m;ud;k aeMuonf/ rodb;l }} [k pkE, G uf awG;&if;ûy;H vduk rf ad o;onf/ olwYku d kd ]]vdrv f rd f
]]tvkyv f yk af wmha&m twlwv l yk &f rSmvm;}} rmrm aeMuaemf}}[k ajymjy;D um;Mu;D qDoYkv d u
kd yf Yku
d m vufjyíusecf hJ
]]'guawmh nDrav;&,f ud, k uf b,foal X;eJYtqifajyjy;D onf/
bmtvkyv f yk jf zpfr,fqw kd m [du k sroS &d rSmr[kwv f m; twlwal e&&if ]]Edik if jH cm;qdw k m 'Dvt kd pfr&}}
vnf; ae&r,f? wjcm;pDae&&ifvnf; ae&r,f/ uHaouHrawmh ESpx f yfbwf(pf)um;MuD;u tdypf ifEiS q hf akd wmh oufaomifh
ajymvdYk r&bl;aygh/ 'gayr,fh bmyJajymajym tJ'rD mS jrefrm rde;f uav; oufom ½Sv d o S nf/ ESi;f qDarT;u tdypf ifay:rSmtdy&f if; yef;oD;udu k cf g
awG trsm;MuD;½Syd gw,f/ nDrav;wdYkxuf t&ifa&mufaewJo h al wG auseyf aeonf/
tdraf xmifawG twnfwuseYJ om;orD;awG bmawG&aewJo h al wG at;rGeu f awmh yef;oD;arT;arT;udk tom½Iu d ef rf;&if; ausmf
awmif ½Sad eMuwmyJ}} ausmEf iS ahf ZmfaZmfukd owd&onf/ armifav;awGu yef;oD; pm;zl;csif
tpfrMu;D u ½Si;f jyonf/ olwYku d tdru f kd pma&;csio f nf[k vduk w
f m tpfr&m}} [kajymzl;onf/ oltrd jf yefvQif yef;oD;awG0,fomG ;
qdak wmh tpfrMuD;u taMumif;pHu k kd at;at;aq;aq; a&;Mu? ol OD;rnf/ armifav; ESpaf ,mufukd t0auR;rnf/ ta':0wkww f Ykd
ud,k w f ikd f pmwdu k of mG ;í rSwyf w kH ifjy;D xnfah y;vdu k rf nf[k ajymonf/ *syefrwdYkuv kd nf; auR;rnf/ ta':huakd &m...tif;...ta':huv kd nf;
pkE,G u f tarESiahf rmifav;qD? ESi;f qDarT;u ½Gmu rdom;pkq?D at; auR;yg rnfav/
rGeu f vnf; ta':0wkwEf iS hf *syefrqD(pkE, G u f awmh at;rGef ajym pkE, G u f awmh jrefrmjynfbufu&kd nfreS ;f um vuftyk cf sD uef
onfukd vdu k af &;ay;onf)odYk toD;oD;a&;Mujy;D pmtdww f iG f vdypf m awmhonf/ tppt&m&mtqifajyEdik yf gap[k qkawmif;onf/
taotcsm a&;um tpfrMuD;vufxJ tyfvu kd Mf uonf/ odYkaomf olwYkrd odwmawG trsm;Mu;D ½Sad eonfukd olwYkrd od
]]uJ...olu jrefrmpum; awmfawmfav;ajymEdik yf gw,f/ nDr Muay/
av;wdYu k kd taotcsm vdu k yf Yjkd y;D tvky&f wJt h xdun l vD rd rhf ,f/ pdwcf s aq;rifaMumifu tpfrMu;D wdYv k ifr,m;udk aiGawG trsm;Mu;D
vufcsvu kd o f mG ;}} ay;vdu k o f nfukd olwYkdrod/
tpfrMuD;u olwYkdukd yef;oD;ig;vH;k pD0,fay;vdu k o f nf/ tpfrMu;D wdYv k ifr,m;u olwYt kd m; tcsKd owft,Ho k iG ;f um
w½kwyf rJ ek Yw f pfxyk pf v D nf; ay;vdu k o f nf/ *Gr;f uyftusEÐ iS hf abmif;bD a&mif;pm;vdu k jf yD[q k o kd nfuv
kd nf; olwYkrd od/
wpfppkH vD nf; 0,fay;vdu k of nf/ ½ky&f nfacsmarmaom tysKd pifav;rsm;jzpfí aps;aumif;
45 46 rpE´m
aumif; &vduk o f nfuv kd nf; olwYkdrod/ ac:&m aemufoYkd waumufaumufvu kd cf MhJu&onfrt S y bmrSrvkyf
tpfrMu;D \vufxo J Ykad y;cJah ompmrsm; trdu
I yf ;kH xJ a&muf wwf/
oGm;jyDqo
kd nfuv kd nf; olwYkrd odMuay/ ]]tpfrMu;D ajymovdk ydjk y;D a0;awmh ydjk y;D yduk q f &H r,f xifyg
&JU[m}}
Ä olwYkw d pfa,mufEiS whf pfa,muf tjyeftvSef tm;ay;ae&
aomfvnf; pdw"f mwfuawmh wjznf;jznf; usvmonf/ at;rGeu f
ESi;f rIaH wG wzGm;zGm;usjy;D tHYq k ikd ;f n§Kd YridI ;f aeaom aeYwpfaeYwiG f olwYu kd kd awmh tpfrMuD;ud&k nfreS ;f um ]]Adik ;f wmrMuD;}} [k a&½Gwu f m rMum
o,faqmifvmaom aemufyiG u hf m;MuD;onf olwYkt d vkyv f yk &f rnfh cP arwåmydYkaewwfavonf/ ]]'Davmufawmifa0;wm 'Davmuf
½GmxJoYkd wtdt0d ifa&mufvmonf/ ½d;k wHusu J s½J n
S ½f n
S uf ikd ;f udik ;f awmif at;wmudk od&ufom;eJY igwdYkukd bmvdYknmvTww f mvJ}} [k
tyifMu;D rsm;ay:wGif ESi;f rsm;cJjy;D azG;azG;vIyaf eonf/ tcsKd U tudik ;f raMureyfajymaeonf/ pkpEk , G uf awmh ]]a0;vGe;f vdYk tvkyo f rm;
rsm;ay:wGif ESi;f zwf ESi;f cJrsm; wG&J ½Gu J sae&m 0g*Gr;f awG uyfxm;wm ½Sm;yg;wJah e&mjzpfrmS yg}} [k tm;wif;xm;onf/ tpfrMu;D ajymovdk
ESihf wlaeonf/ jrefrmtvkyo f rm;rsm;onf êud;pm;onf emcHv, G o f nf r[kwyf g
tpfrMuD;u odyrf a0;ygbl;[k ajymvdu k af omfvnf; olwYkd vm;/
vmcJ&h onfrmS av;nESio hf ;kH &uf½jdS yjD zpfonf/ um;pD;vdu k ?f &xm;pD; ]]a&mufawmhr,f}}
vduk Ef iS hf tqifq h ifah jymif;umpD;cJ&h jy;D &moDOwkuvnf; wjznf;jznf; aq;rifaMumifu ajymawmh olwYkd acgif;axmifMunfMh u
at;onfxuf at;vmonf/ tpfrMu;D ay;vdu k af om *Gr;f uyftusÐ onf/ tkwef cD EJ iS ahf qmufxm;aomfvnf; oufu,fvv kd kd jrufyif
MuD;awG 0wfxm;ygvsuEf iS hf csr;f jyD;wkeaf eonf/ a&mufE;kd a&mufE;kd ½Snrf sm; rd;k xm;aom ajrpdu k tf rd yf yk ak v;rsm;onf wzGm;zGm; usae
ESihf b,fuo kd mG ;í b,fawmha&mufrnfukd rod&aom c&D;½SnMf u;D udk aom ESi;f rIerf sm;atmufwiG f jidro f ufpmG 0yfpif;aeMuonf/ tcsKd U
oGm;ae&í vla&m pdwyf g yifyef;jyD; EGr;f e,faeMuonf/ tdref &H rH sm;onf bdvyfajr udik x f m;aomfvnf; tcsKd Utdref &H rH sm;udk
aq;rifaMumifuvnf; ar;orQ ajzonf r[kwaf cs/ ajz um; ½TYHEiS rhf xH m;onf/
csiaf omtcgrS ajzjyD; olrajzcsiv f Qif rMum;ovdk vkyaf ewwfav ]]bk&m;a&...uRerf wdYktvkyv f yk &f r,fh Edik if jH cm;qdw k m 'gyJ
onf/ vlrsKd ; rwl bmompum;jcm;em;aomvlrsm;Mum;xJwiG f ydu k q
f H vm; [if...}}
vnf; wpfjym; wpfcsyrf S r½Sad omolwYo kd nf aq;rifaMumif OD;aqmif ESi;f qDarT;u wtHw h Mo a&½Gwo f nf/ ol\tdyrf ufurÇm
47 48 rpE´m
xJrS Edik if jH cm;[lonfrmS taqmufttHt k jrifMh u;D rsm; jzpfonf/ vSy ]]uRerf wdYku aps;a&mif;ay;zdYkvmwmav/ aps;a&mif;&r,f
arT;ysUH jyD; acwfrq D ef;opfonf/ "mwfavSum;awG qif;vdu k f wuf qd.k ..}}
vdu k f pufavSum;awG jrifv h u kd ef rd v hf ukd Ef iS ?hf oefYjyefYarT;êuid af eaom ]]'DrmS aps;qdik rf ½Sbd ;l }}
vlrsm;onfvnf; ysm;yef;cwfvyI ½f mS ;aeonf/ tckawmh..../ aq;rifaMumifu cyfjywfjywf ajymonf/ cPaeawmh
eH&u H kd ½TUH ESio hf ½d;k udik x f m;aom tdrw f pftrd af ½SUwGif um;udk um;ay:wufum jyefxu G o f mG ;avonf/
xd;k í &yfvu kd jf y;D aq;rifaMumifu qif;oGm;onf/ tdrx f rJ S xGuv f m ]]awmif,m awmif,m qdw k m bmvky&f rSmvJ}}
ol tbd;k Mu;D wpfa,mufEiS hf zufvw JS uif; EIwq f ufum us,u f s,f pkE, G uf tajy;tvTm; pOf;pm;onf/ awmif,mqdak wmh
avmifavmif pum;ajymaeonf/ tbd;k Mu;D u um;em;a&mufvmjy;D *sKH awG ajymif;awG ajryJawGpu kd &f rSmvm;/ aumufpu kd &f rSmvm;? pyg;
olwYku d kd uke;f í Munfo h nf/ aq;rifaMumifu w[m;[m;&,f&if; EIw&f rSmvm;? jrufyifawG ½Si;f &rSmvm;? toD;tESaH wGc;l &rSmvm;/
]][J.h .qif;Muav}}[k cyfaigufaigufajymavonf/ [dt k rd u
f 'Dtrd u f ]]tpfr...}}
enf;enf;csi;f xGuv f maom vlrsm;onf um;em;odYk 0dik ;f tHv k monf/ ESi;f qDarT;\toHu ido k yH gaeonf/
rsupf d rsuEf mS ysuaf eaom pkE, G wf Yko d ;kH OD;udk txufqefatmufjyef ]]uRerf wdYk bmvkyMf urvJ xGuaf jy;Murvm;}}
taotcsmMunf&h if; pum;awG uRwu f Rwn f aH tmif ajymaeMuonf/ pkE,G rf ajzwwf/ at;rGeu f vkd rS ;f Munfv h u
kd af wmh rsu&f nf
]]uRerf wdYku 'DrmS bmtvkyv f yk &f rSmvJ}} okwf aeonfuakd wGY&onf/
pkE, G u f aq;rifaMumifuMkdunfu h m cyfrmrmar;vdu k o
f nf/ ]]'Dtcsed u
f sraS wmh eifwYkb d mrSvyk v f Ykrd &awmhb;l }}
odYkaomf olYtoHu wke, f ifacsmufuyfaeaMumif; oloo d nf/ jrefrmpum; yDyo D oMum;vdu k &f í olwYkad cgif;awG csmueJ
]]awmif,m}} vnfomG ;onf/ pkE, G xf uf tenf;i,fMuD;[ef½adS om rde;f uav;
]][if}} wpfa,mufukd awGY&onf/ 0wfpm;xm;yHt k & [dzk ufEikd if uH [dzk uf
]]olwYkdawGu eifwYkd&UJ tvky½f iS af wGy}J } vlrsKd ;[kyif xif&onf/ odYkaomf taotcsmMunfah wmh tom;
rsuaf ygufusO;f usO;f ESihf a,musmf ;oH;k OD;udk nTejf yonf/ tenf;i,f ndKaeonf/
*Gr;f uyftusÐ cyfErG ;f EGr;f awG 0wfxm;aomolwYkdukd Munf&h onfrmS ]]ighemrnfu vif;vif;...ajrmufOuúvmrSm aewm/ eifwYkd
tvky½f iS o f al X;ESiv hf ;kH 0rwl tvkyMf urf;orm;rsm;ESio hf m wlonf/ vdyk J a&mufvmwm oH;k ESp½f adS ejyD? tckawmh olwYkdpum;vnf; ajym
]]eifwYkd olwYkdtrd rf mS ae&r,f awmif,mulvyk &f r,f}} wwfaejyD}}
yef;yGichf a& 49 50 rpE´m
vif;vif;u olwYkdukd tm;ay;ovdk ûyH;&,fjyonf/ onf/
]]'Dtxda&mufvmjy;D rS eifwYkx d uG af jy;vdYkvnf; rvG,b f ;l / ]]olwYk.d ..tJ...olwYkad wGu eifwYku d kd olwYk&d UJ rde;f rvkyzf Ykd 0,f
jrefrmjynfeYJvnf; a0;vSjyD/ igvnf; xGuaf jy;rvdYk pOf;pm;wmyJ/ vdu k w
f mav? igajymwm...tJ...igajymwmem;vnfw,fr[kwv f m;/
'gayr,fh ckxd rajy;Edik af o;bl;}} eifwYkd... tJ...eifwYkdawGu olwYkd&UJ rde;f rawGjzpf...}}
vif;vif;udk olwY\ kd tvky½f iS q f akd omolrsm;u wpfpw kH pfck ]]bm...}}
vSr;f ajymMuonf/ vif;vif;u oufjyif;csonf/ ESi;f qDarT;u wtm;atmfonf/ olYvufxw J iG f qGx J m;aom
]]olwYu kd ajymaew,f/ eifwYu kd kd olwY0kd ,fxm;vdu k jf yqD w kd m a>ra&cGt H w d u f av;udv k w T cf svu kd jf yD; w½Sed x f ;kd xGuaf jy;onf/
eifwYko d &d UJ vm;...wJ}h } ]]ol...tJ'v D vkd yk &f if t½du k cf &H vdrrhf ,f}}
]]bmajymw,f? igwkYu d kd b,fou l a&mif;vdYk olwYu kd 0,f& vif;vif;u pkE, G u f kd vSr;f ajymonf/
wmvJ}} ]]igvnf; olwYx kd u J wpfa,mufa,mufu, kd &l w,f? olwYkd
]]eifwYrkd bd awGuakd y;zdYk ydu k qf aH wG olwYakd y;vdu k jf y;D om;wJ/h u uav; vdck siw f ,f/ uav;arG;ay;jyD;&if jyefyYkday;r,fvYkdawmh
'DrmS igajymr,f? eifwYkdukd e,fpyftxdb,foal c:vmvJ/ tJ'D ac: ajymwmyJ/ igu ckxu d av;r&vdYk? igha,mu©rMu;D vnf; pdwq f ;kd ae
vmwJo h ul tJ'yD u kd qf uH ,kd o l mG ;rSmyJ/ tJ'o D ul eifwYku d kd a&mif;vdu k f jyD/ igvnf; tcGio hf m&if ud, k w hf ikd ;f jynfukd ud, k jf yefcsiw f myJ...'gyJ
wmyJ}} igeJY eifeYJ pum; MumMum ajymae&if olwYkdêudurf mS r[kwb f ;l }}
]]jydwmå rMuD;...o&JrMuD;...Adik ;f wmrMuD;}} vif;vif;u a½Smifxu G o f mG ;onf/
at;rGeu f jypfjypfEpS Ef pS q f oJ nf/ xdak emuf [D;csí ido k nf/ pkE, G \ f acgif;xJrmS csmcsmvnfaeovdk rsuv f ;kH awGvnf;
pkE, G u f awmh acgif;xJwiG f csmcsmvnfomG ;onf/ bk&m;...bk&m; jyma0aeonf/ taruajymcJo h nf? ]]tarh rsupf u d , G &f m em;uG,&f m
olwYu kd kd a&mif;pm;vdu k of nfw/hJ MuufawG? iSuaf wG? 0ufawG wd&pämef rSm tar pdwrf csygbl; orD;&,f}}wJ/h olu ]]orD;ud, k o f rD; apmifh
awGukd a&mif;ovdk vlawGukd vlpifppfawGukd a&mif;pm;vdu k w f ?hJ ud, k hf a½SmufEikd yf gw,f tar&JU}}[k txifMu;D wpfco JG m;ESijhf yefajymcJo h nf/
jrefrm trsKd;om;csi;f vkyv f nf; vky&f ufveG ;f onf? vdrv f nf; vdr&f uf tck 'kua© &mufawmh rnf/ olYu, kd o f l b,fvakd pmifah ½Smuf&rnfenf;/
vGe;f onf/ tar...tarorD;udk ru,fEikd b f ;l vm;/
]]ig...ig...wdYk...bmvky&f rvJ}} olYycH;k udk wjzwfjzwfyw k v f ukd af wmh pkE, G w f ek o f mG ;onf/
vif;vif;u ajym&rSm tm;emae[efEiS hf olwYu kd kd ai;Munfah e rsuEf mS 0dik ;f 0dik ;f ESiv
hf Ml u;D u olYukd cyfûy;H ûy;H Munfah eonf/ ]]oGm;MupdYk}}
51 52 rpE´m
[laom oabmESihf vufjyonf/ ighvykd J aerSmyJ}}
tar&,f...orD;udk ru,fEikd af wmhb;l vm;...../ olwYkd 'Duakd &mufvmonfrmS wpf&ufwnf;om ½Sad o;
aMumif; awG;&if; at;rGeo f nf wdww f w d u f av;usw d jf y;D ½Iu d af eonf/
Ä reufwek ;f u a&mufa&mufcsi;f aoG;½l;aoG;wef;ESihf xGuaf jy;aom
ESi;f qDarT;udk owd&onf/ wkww f w
k cf ikd cf ikd v
f Ml u;D ESpOf ;D u twif;jyefjy;D
olYu, kd of l owdarhomG ;wmvm;/ tdyaf ysmo f mG ;wmvm;udyk if tao qGaJ c:vmonf/ ESi;f qDarT;u olwYkv d ufuu kd ek ;f udu k af wmh b,fjyef
tcsm rod/ cdu k cf u kd wf ek af tmifcsr;f at;aeaomtodEiS t hf wl at;rGef nmjyef yg;csc&H jyD; acGueJ vJomG ;onf/ xdak emuf Murf;wrf;pGm qGJ
vefYE;kd vmonf/ olYwpfu, kd vf ;kH vnf; emusiu f ukd cf u J m rl;a0ae ac:oGm;onf/
onf/ bmudrk v S nf; rjrif&? ol\todÓPfawG xHx k ikd ;f um odpw d f ESi;f qDarT;\tjzpfukd jrifvu dk &f awmh tpfrpkE, G af &m? at;rGef
awG aysmufaeovdk jzpfaeonf/ olYu, kd of l b,fae&ma&mufjyD; yg xGuaf jy;í vGwEf ikd af cs r½So d nfukd csucf si;f oabmaygufomG ;
bmjzpfaeoenf; taotcsm pOf;pm;ír&ay/ onf/ uvef uqefvyk v f Qiv
f nf; wpfa,mufEiS t hf rsm;rdYk tom;em
tarSmifxu k kd todrphJ mG pl;pdu k Mf unfah e&if; olYtem;wGif ½Ho
k m½Srd nf[k qdo k nfukd em;vnfomG ;jy;D OD;acgif;idu k pf u kd uf somG ;Mu
uyfvsuf Mum;ae&aom touf½o ª jH yif;jyif;Mu;D wpfcu k kd owdxm;rd onf/
onf/ xdak emuf ol\&ifywfay:wGif uefYvefYjzwfvsuf wifxm; at;rGef vdu k v f m&aom tdrw f iG f tbd;k MuD; tbGm;MuD;
aom vufMuD;wpfzufukd prf;rdonf/ at;rGeu f xdv k ufMuD;udk ESpaf ,mufukd OD;pGmawGY&onf/ rsuEf mS xm;qd;k aomfvnf; ½du k af rmif;
aMumufvefYwMum;ESihf wGe;f csvu kd jf y;D wpfzufukd vSrd x hf u G v f ukd o
f nf/ ykwaf rmif; vkyrf nfh [efawmhr½S/d olwYkd\om;u toufo;kH q,f
]]bk&m;...bk&m;...ig...ig}} ausmcf efY½jdS yD; tenf;i,f oGm;acgavonf/ at;rGeo f nf jidrjf idrf
at;rGeu f eH&aH xmifw h iG f uyf&if; tvH;k pHu k kd csucf si;f owd& ukwu f w k af v; xdik &f if; ighukd b,fou l ,lrmS vJ/ tbd;k MuD;vm;?
oGm;onf/ rsuv f ;kH tdrw f iG f rsu&f nfawG csucf si;f jynfu h m ûzid ûf zid pf ;D olYom;vm; [k aMumufaMumuf vefYvefYEiS hf pOf;pm;um rsu&f nfus
usvmonf/ ta':ha,musmf ;Mu;D udk ykvif;zifjywfEiS hf i½kwu f snaf yGU aeonf/ tbGm;Mu;D u at;rGe\ f a½SUwGif vmxdik u f m pum;awGajym
udik u
f m ckcEH ikd cf ahJ omolonf tckawmh vlrsKd ;jcm;udk t½I;H ay;cJ&h jyD onf/ tbd;k Mu;D udv k nf; jyonf/ olYom;udv k nf; jyonf/ at;rGeu f kd
jzpfonf/ vufnKd§;xd;k um ydu k qf wH pf½uG f xkwjf y;D ykwjf yonf/ at;rGef wpfv;kH
]]tpfrpkE, G ef YEJ iS ;f qDarT;a&m b,fvjkdzpfuek Mf urvJrodb;l / rQ em;rvnfacs/ aemufq;kH awmh tbGm;MuD;u at;rGeu f kd pum;
53 54 rpE´m
ajym&ef rêud;pm;awmhbJ t0wfwpfxyk f csay;um avQmcf ikd ;f onf/ aeESiOhf ;D aygh/ eifwYkdawG xrif;00pm;xm;[J.h ..}}
pnfyikd ;f jywfxu J a&rsm;onf rcJao;aomfvnf; tay:,H at;rGeu f pdwx f rJ MS urd ;f &if; armif;&if; t0wfawGukd emem
tvTm wif;um pdrphf rd ahf t;aeonf/ at;rGeo f nf xHu k siaf t;pufae yGwo f nf/ olavQmzf w G af eonfukd apmifMh unft h uJcwfaeaom
aom vufacsmif;rsm;ESihf t0wfxyk u f kd jznfonf/ a,musmf ;tusrÐ sm; tbGm;Mu;D u ab;bufuaejy;D trsKd ;rsKd ;ajymaeonf/ ]]a&xnfv h ukd f
ESihf rde;f r abmif;bDyyG MG u;D rsm;yg a&mxnfx h m;onfukd awGY&onf/ OD;}} ]]emem yGwaf vQm}f } ]]qyfjympifatmif ESp}f } ]]a&awGvnf; odyrf oH;k eJY
ud,k jhfynf ud, k ½hf mG rSmum; a,musmf ;tuso Ð wfowf? rde;f rxbD owf OD;}} ]]'Da&uke&f if eifyJ cwf&rSm}}ponf ponfrsm; jzpfvrd rhf nfuakd wmh
owf avQmaf eusrYkd at;rGeu f rde;f rabmif;bDMu;D ESpx f nfukd cG,
J jl y;D awG;Munfí h &onf/ at;rGeu f vnf; pdwx f rJ aS ejyD; ]][J.h ..[mrMuD;?
ab;wGif yHv k u kd o f nf/ tbGm;Mu;D u uGu d udG uG EG iS hf atmf[pf&if; ol odyq f rJ aeeJY? igtjrJ 'Dvkd cHaer,frxifeYJ wpfaeYaeYus&if eifu h kd
ay;xm;aom ZvHx k wJ iG f tukef aygif;xnf&h ef vuf[efajc[efEiS hf ig;cl ig;&HUawGxo k vdk jyefxyk pfvu kd rf mS odvm;}} [kjyefajymaeonf/
jyonf/ olajymonft h wdik ;f tukef a&mxnfv h ukd af wmhrS tay:buf t0wfavQmjf y;D awmh xifonft h wdik ;f a&cwf&onf/ tdr½f iS f
rS qyfjymrIeYf jzL;ay;onf/ xdak emuf vuftm;udo k ;kH jy;D ememyGwaf vQmf om;tzESpaf ,mufuawmh 0ifvu kd xf u G v f u kd Ef iS hf us,af vmifpmG
&ef trlt,mESijhf yonf/ pum;ajymaeonf/ rsuv f mT csxm;aomfvnf; rsuEf mS xm;wif;ae
at;rGe\ f wpfoufEiS w hf pfu, kd f 'DavmufwpfcgrQ rcsr;f zl; aom at;rGeu f kd tuJcwfaeonf/ rnfrQyif [efaqmifum wif;rm
ojzifh a&udik jf yD; t0wfavQmaf e&awmh vufawG usOu f m wHv k m xm;onf jzpfap at;rGeo f nf tcsed u f kd qGrJ xm;Edik cf ahJ y/ wa½GUa½GU
onf/ odYkaomf wpfaeYv;kH wpfnvH;k raerem; t0wfawGcsn;f yJ ukev f eG of mG ;aeaomtcsed o f nf aeYtcsed u f kd wjznf;jznf;ausmjf zwfjy;D
avQmaf e&vQif aumif;rnf[k jyif;xefpmG awmifw h aerdonf/ at;rGef at;rGef aMumufaeaom ntcsed u f kd a&mufvmavawmhonf/
aMumufaeonf/ na&mufvmrnfukd aMumufaeonf/ ]]Munfyh gOD; ta':0wkw&f ,f...r*syefr&,f uRerf wdYkav..
]]wcsKd UawGrsm; tJ'rD mS tdraf xmifusjy;D uav;awG bmawG [d;k ...ta0;Mu;D uae wyifwyef;eJY cufcufccJ v J mcJ&h wmav/ a&muf
&vdYk Mu;D yGm;aeMuwm jrefrmjynfawmif rjyefcsiMf uawmhb;l }}[k ûy;H ûy;H vnf; a&mufa&m olwYkdr,m;awGjzpfa&m}}
av; ajymvdu k af om tpfrMu;D \toHcsKd csKd ukd owd&onf/ xdpk Ofu at;rGeo f nf pdwv f w G vf yfvw G Ef iS hf wtdt½d u dI if v
kd u kd o
f nf/
tpfrMu;D wdYkvifr,m;a&m tdr½f iS v f ifr,m;a&m aq;rifaMumifa&m? tckawmh olonf ]]udo k acg}}\r,m; jzpfomG ;acsjyD/ ]]tar&,f?
w0g;0g; &,faeMuonf/ uRerf tjzpfukd ru,fawmhb;l vm;}}[k wpfoufv;kH wpfcgrQ rwzl;
]]olwYakd wGaygif;jy;D vdrMf uwm pm;MuwmaerSmyJ/ aeESiOhf ;D .. aom wrvGerf S tarudk w&if; toHxu G af tmif idck svu kd o f nf/
55 56 rpE´m
ol\ido k aH Mumifh Ed;k oGm;[ef½adS om ol\ topfpufpuf ESi;f qDarT;u tcif;xJwiG f ikww f w k x f ikd &f if; xdt k rdwrf sm;udk t&if;em;
a,musmf ;Bu;D u arGU,mudk jzef;ueJ ½du k uf m a'gowMu;D aigufief; rSuyfcg vS;D jzwf&onf/ xdt k rdwrf sm;rSxu G af omteHYu MuufoeG ef YH
aeonf/ olYpum;udk at;rGef wpfv;kH rQ em;rvnfaomfvnf; ESihf qifum teHYjyif;onf/ wcsed v f ;kH uyfjy;D ½ªae&awmh acgif;xJwiG f
]]tvum; idrk aeeJY? em;nnf;w,f}}[k ajymaeaMumif;udu k m; oabm rl;vmonf/
aygufonf/ xdYkaMumifh eH&b H ufoYkd ydí
k wd;k uyfjy;D toHrxGuaf p&ef ]]eif ydu
k q f aH wG vdck siv f u kd w
f mav...xrif;qdik af v; zGihf
yg;pyfukd vuf0g;ESit hf yk x f m;onf/ olYtem;odYk wd;k uyfvmavOD; csiv f ukd wf mav... t&if;tES;D av; vdck siv f ukd w f mav...olrsm;Edik if H
rvm;[k pd;k aMumufpw d Ef iS hf &ifawG wqwfqwfcek af eaomfvnf; udk txifMu;D vdu k w f mav...pGeYpf eG Ypf m;pm;oGm;jy;D tvkyv f yk &f if odyjf y;D
tpm0um tdycf sipf w d u f aJ eaom olaumif;om;Bu;D u wcl;cl;a[muf yifyifyef;yef; rvky&f bJeYJ pkrad qmif;rdjzpfrmS vdYk xifvu kd &f wmav...
um jyef vnf tdyaf ysmo f mG ;onf/ [if...ESi;f qDarT; tckawmh eifawGYjyDr[kwv f m;/ rd;k vif;uaerd;k csKy?f
]]'Dvekd YJyJ ighb0qH;k &awmhrmS vm;}} toufrxGu½f kH wr,f vkyaf e&wmav...[wf...[wf...[m;...eifrh mS
at;rGeu f EIwcf rf;udak ygufvrk wwfuu kd u
f m tarSmifxu k kd &vdu k w f yhJ u
kd q
f .H .. &vdu k w f hJ t&if;tES;D ....xG.D ..}}
pdu
k Mf unfah eonf/ wjcm;vlrsm;ESiphf um;rajym&awmh ESi;f qDarT;onf ,mcif;
]]'Dvekd YJawmh tqH;k rcHEikd b f ;l }} xJwiG f xdik u f m olYu, kd of jl yefjy;D wwGww f w G Ef iS ahf jymaeonf/ wpfcg
olYu, kd o f l wd;k wd;k av;jyefajym&if; tm;wif;vdu k o f nf/ w&Hvnf; ud, k [ hf mud, k jf yefajzvdu k Ef iS xhf ifwikd ;f usaJ ewwfonf/
tarSmifru kd q f ;kH tcsed wf Yo kd nf tvGeMf umwwfygonf/ odYak omf tvGef bmyJajymajym ud, k t hf oHu, kd jf yefMum;ae&vQif twefi,ftm;½So d nf/
Mumaom tcsed rf sm;onfvnf; ukeq f ;kH &rnfyifjzpfonf/ xdt k csed u
f kd tenf;i,fawmh pdwo f ufomonf/
olapmif&h rnf/ ]]tckawmh...eif...wdik ;f wyg;om;? axmhusKd ;r,m;jzpfjyD}}
ol\a,musmf ;u toufav;q,fcefY½jdS yD; ajcaxmuf
Ä wpfzuf tenf;i,f odraf eonf/ vrf;avQmufvQif twefi,f
axmheif; jzpfcsio f nf/ ajcroefívm;awmh rod/ vufuawmh
ESi;f cJawGukd ½Si;f xm;ojzifh wpfcif;vH;k pdr;f aeonf/ pyvifvnf; tifrwef jrefonf/ xpfueJqv kd Qif vufu ygjy;D om;rdYk ESi;f qDarT;crsm
r[kw/f MuufoeG rf w d v
f nf;r[kw/f odYkaomfvnf; xdt k rdwrf sm;ESihf vnf; tawmfukd emjyD;jyD jzpfonf/ oluvnf; olyifjzpfonf/
qifqifwo l nfh trdwrf sm;u wpfawmifavmuf½n S af vrvm;rod/ vlreS ;f od uwnf;u olrsm;tdrw f iG f aecJ&h aomfvnf; tvdu k f uef;qd;k
57 58 rpE´m
u odyo f o d nf r[kw/f tckawmh &ifxJ tonf;xJu emusn;f cHjyif; arT;udak wmh ,mxJqif;cdik ;f onf/ reufig;em&Dx;kd vQif ,morm;awG
vGe;f awmh ydjk yD;ayuyfuyf? cHwefwefjzpfaeonf/ tiftm;csi;f rsm; tm;vH;k ,mcif;xJa&mufaeMujyDqakd wmh av;em&DcaJG vmuf xum
wlvQif olao ud, k af o zufjyD; owfypfcsipf w d yf if aygufaeol qefûywf wpfyef;uefaomufjy;D tajy;tvTm;vm&onf/ 'Da&mufjyD
jzpfonf/ qdvk Qiaf wmh eHeufpmpm;csed rf a&mufrcsi;f rem;raevkyaf ya&mhyif.../
olYa,musmf ;jzpfvmolu ajcaxmufoyd rf oefawmh ,m ]]ESi;f qDarT;}}
cif;xJ rqif;ay/ olwYt kd rd af ½SUwGif qHyifny§ af om ukvm;xdik w f pfv;kH ]][,f...}}
½So
d nf/ qHv k nfu vSnv hf ukd v
f Qif wuRu D RjD rnfaeojzifh qHyifny§ o f l ESi;f qDarT;u 0rf;omtm;&vSnMhfunfv h ukd af wmh tpfrpkE, G f
a&mufaevm;? a&mufraebl;vm;qdw k mudk tdraf ½SUcef;udyk if xGuf udk awGY&onf/ pkE, G uf q,f&ufavmuftwGi;f wGiyf if odod om
Munf&h ef rvdak cs/ wpf½mG vH;k ½S½d o dS rQ uav; vlMu;D rSeo f rQ olYquD kd om ydeu f s oGm;onf/ tat;'Pfuv kd nf; ESi;f qDarT;wdYkavmufyif
om a&mufvmwwfí qHv k nfvn S o hf H wuRu D RED iS hf pufuyfaMu;oH cHEikd [f ef r½S/d yg;jyif ESpzf ufv;kH tom;awGywfum eD&MJ urf;½Saeonf/
wcsycf syu f kd wpfcsed v f ;kH Mum;ae&wwfonf/ xdYkaMumifh olY0ifaiGu EIwcf rf;ESpv f mT vnf; acsmufaoGYjy;D tufuu JG m temawG jzpfaeav
enf;rnfr[kw[ f k cefYreS ;f Edik of nf/ onf/
]]tif;av...'gaMumifv h nf; olu ighu0kd ,fEikd w f maygh/ 'gay ]]eiftqifajy&JUvm;}}
r,fh ighwefz;kd uvnf; wpfyaJ jcmufjym;rsm; jzpfaeovm; rod}} ]]b,fvakd jymvdu k w f mvJ tpfr&,f? b,fvv kd yk jf y;D tqif
ESi;f qDarT;u oufjyif;csonf/ ajyrSmvJ}}
]]ighukd a&mif;vdYk &wJh ydu k q f eH YJ [dAk ikd ;f wmrMuD;u a½Tvuf ]]tvdu k of ifyh J aevdu k yf gawmh[,f...awmfMumae t&rf;
aumufawG xyf0,fO;D rSmaygh...jyw d må rMu;D aocsi;f qd;k eJYaojy;D i&Jjynf t½du k cf H ae&rSmpd;k vdYkyg/ tckcsucf si;f vnf; vGwv f rf;rSr½Sw d m...}}
wef; a&mufr,fh aumifrMuD;...}} ]]tckcsucf si;f r½S&d if...aemufawmha&m}}
ESi;f qDarT;u pdw½f v dS uf½dS qJ&if; trdwaf wGukd t&if;rS ESi;f qDarT;u pkE, G u f kd tm;ud;k wMuD;Munfah eonf/ pkE, G f
uyfrvS;D jzpfbJ tyifvu kd f qGí J qGí J EIwaf erdonf/ av; ig; ajcmuf u ]]igwdYkawG b,fvv kd yk &f if b,fvv kd w
G o f mG ;rSmaygh}} [k ajymvdrhf
yif Ekwjf y;D cgrS owd&um ajrMu;D xJoYkd uref;uwef; jyefx;kd xnf&h rnf[v k nf; arQmv f ifah eonf/ odYkaomf vGwv f rf;udk arQmrf eS ;f í
onf/ rjrifao;aom pkE, G u f oufjyif;udk rodromcs&if; ]]eif odyyf ifyef;
olYa,musmf ;u olu, kd w f ikd f ,mxJ rqif;aomfvnf; ESi;f qD vm;}} [k rqDrqdik f ar;onf/
59 60 rpE´m
]]yifyef;wmuawmh xm;vdu k yf gawmhtpfr&,f? 'gayr,fh Munfjh yefawmh awmfao;onf[k qd&k rnf/ uRerf ,m; ajymajym bm
uRerf ...uRerf ...tJ'v D Ml uD;udk r,lcsib f ;l }} ajymajym wpfO;D wpfa,mufwnf;udk owfowfrw S rf w
S f aygif;oif;&
ESi;f qDarT;u csucf si;f idck svu kd o f nf/ AD'G , D tkd iSm;qdik u f jcif;onf olwYo kd nf cE¨mud, k u f kd &if;ES;D pm;&aomb0odYk a&mufomG ;
atmifoef;0if;u ol e,fpyfrmS tvkyo f mG ;vkyrf nfqakd wmh ]]bmvdYk onfxuf trsm;Bu;D uHaumif;ao;onf/ xdu k o
hJ Ykd vkypf m;cdik ;f rnfo h l
oGm; rSmvJ[m? 'DrmS yJaeygvm;? igvkyaf uR;rSmaygh}} [k povdk aemuf vufxJ a&mufroGm;jcif;u awmfayao;onf/
ovdk ajymonf/ odYkaomfvnf; twnfajymaeaMumif; olYrsuv f ;kH ]]tpfr...}}
rsm;udk Munfv h Qiof od nf/ ESi;f qDarT;u rsuaf pmif;cJjyD; ]]qefûywfyJ ESi;f qDarT;u aemufzufrS cyfw;kd wd;k vSr;f ac:onf/
aomufae&rSmqd&k ifawmh raomufEikd b f ;l a[h}}[k ajymcJah o;onf/ ]]tpfr...olwYkdu bmjzpfvYkd uRerf wdYkukd ta0;MuD;uae
atmifoef;0if;ud, k rl v
d Qif qefûywfaomuf&onf qdak pOD;? qm; vSr;f ac:jy;D r,m;vkyw f mvJ/ olwYked YJ trsKd ;wl rde;f rawG r½Sv d Ykvd m;}}
uav; ysm;uav;ESihf av;av; yifyifawmh ½Srd nf xifonf/ tck xdt k awG;udk pkE, G v f nf; awG;cJzh ;l onf/ vif;vif;ESio hf u
l
ESi;f qDarT; aeYpOfaomufae&aom qefûywfEiS hf tom;rygaom aygufpD tdrcf si;f eD;onf/ xdYak Mumifh oGm;&if;vm&if; vky&f if;udik &f if; rMumcP
ao;ao;av;rsm;u aygh½w T ½f w
T Ef iS rhf Ykd olYyg;pyfxw J iG f bmt&omrS awGY onf/
r½S/d ]]vif;vif;u ajymw,f/ olwYakd wGu om;a,musmf ;av;udk
]]igwdYk uRerf ,m;awG jzpfaejyDav}} ydNk yD; wefz;kd xm;w,fw?hJ 'Dawmhvnf; tdraf xmifwikd ;f u a,musmf ;
]]uRef r,m;}} av;udyk J OD;pm;ay;Ny;D arG;Muawmh rde;f ru enf;aew,fw/hJ trsKd ;wl
]][kww f ,f...aeYcif;usawmh uRew f pfa,mufvkd tvkyaf wG rde;f ru ½Sm;awmh ,lr,f qd&k if ydu k q
f t H rsm;MuD;ukerf mS wJ/h igwdYku
rem;raevky?f nusawmh olwYekd Yt J wltyd .f ..uJ...'gyJ[m igoGm;r,f}} awmh aps;rMu;D bl;av/ aygaygavmavmeJY 0,fvY&kd w,f... aemufjy;D
pkE,G uf idrk suEf mS av;ESihf &,fjyum vSnx hf uG o f mG ;onf/ ... cdik ;f csiwf ikd ;f vnf; cdik ;f vdYk &w,f r[kwv f m;}}
ol\ ausmay:wGif tdwMf u;D wpftw d u f kd vG,x f m;onf/ ajrMoZm ]]aMomf...tJ'v D w kd v hJ m;}}
tdwMf u;D jzpfvrd rhf nfxifonf/ wu,fw h u,fu ,Hv k , G cf MhJuaom ]]at;...tJ'v D ykd }J }
olwYkd\ trSm;om jzpfonf/ aiGeYHay;í aiGEiS hf rQm;ac:awmh olwYkd pkE, G u f aemufuv kd nS rhf Munfah wmhbJ wpdu k pf u
kd Ef iS x hf u G f
onf tpmaemufukd waumufaumufvu kd &f if; axmifacsmufxyJ w d rf d oGm;onf/ ESi;f qDarT;uawmh wpfa,mufxJ raMureyfEiS hf qJ&if;
aom <uufuav;rsm;ESihf wlaeonf/ 'gayr,fh wpfzufrS pOf;pm; qd&k if; tyifawGukd qGEJ w k rf jd yefonf/ xdak emuf xdt k yifrsm;udk vufxJ
61 62 rpE´m
wGif pkuikd uf m tpfrMu;D wdYv
k ifr,m;[k oabmxm;&if; ajrMu;D ay:odYk udv k nf;aumif;? csOaf ygifaMumfuv kd nf;aumif;? ,kwpf t G qH;k tusKd ;
vTu
J mvTu J mESihf wtm;½du
k yf pfvu
kd o
f nf/ taMupyg;vH;k awGrsm;aom qefMurf;xrif;rmrmudk vnf;aumif;
ol tukev f rG ;f onf/
Ä ]]olwYkd½yk ½f iS af wGxrJ mS Munfzh ;l wmuawmh [if;cGuaf wGrS
pHv k Yk?d pm;csipf &mawGcsn;f yJ/ tck'½D mG uvlawGuawmh *sKH qefûywfeYJ
ajray:wGiw f ifaeaom ESi;f cJrsm;u qyfjymjrK§ yaf zG;azG;awGukd oGecf s ½d;k ½d;k qefûywf? tom;rygwJah ygufp?D 'guvGv J Ykd 'Djh yif[mudk rpm;wwf
xm;onfEiS w hf ol nf/ tcsKd UESi;f cJrsm;u t&nfenf;enf;aysmv f mawmh Mubl;vm;/ 'Dvkd qm;ryg ysm;ryg ayghaygh½w T ½f w T Mf u;D awGuykd J êuu d f
atmufcH ajrMuD;ESihf a&mum ½TUH jzpfvmonf/ aeMuwmyJvm;/ igwdY&k UJ vQmuawmh arG;uwnf;u iHjym&nfwYkd ig;yd
opfuikd ;f ajcmufawGukd pkjyD;pnf;xm;aomwHrsupf nf;MuD; wdYkukd pGaJ ewm}}
u tke;f wHrsupf nf;vdk nDnn D mnmvSvyS y r½Sad cs/ jrefrmjynfwiG f pkE, G w f Yukd o kd mcdik ;f jy;D olwYu kd rvkyb f J aejcif;awmh r[kw/f
aygcsiw f ikd ;f aygaom tke;f wHrsupf nf;rsm;onf rnfrQvu JS si;f í aumif; olwYu kd , kd wf ikd vf nf; tvkyEf iS hf vufEiS hf rjywfMuay/ tpm; taomuf
onfukd tckraS wG;jyD; vGr;f rdonf/ wGiv f nf; pkE, G w f Yukd o kd m qefûywfauR;jy;D olwYu kd 'Dxuf aumif;wm
]]tke;f oD;qefav;eJYxef;vsuaf v;eJY pm;csiv f u kd wf m[,f}} pm;aewmvnf; r[kwaf cs/ olwYu kd , kd w
f ikd f xdq k efûywfEiS hf xdak ygufpD
pkE, G u f aysmu
f mp ESi;f cJrsm;udk opfuikd ;f ajcmuf wHrsupf nf; udk r½d;k wrf;pm;aeawmh pkE, G v f nf; bmrS rwwfEikd /f odYkaomf ud, k hf
ESihf w½S½J v JS o JS nf/ tke;f wHrsupf nf;ESiq hf ufE, G jf y;D tke;f oD;udk owd yg;pyfxrJ mS vnf; t&omr½Sv d eG ;f awmh idck siv f monf/ ckaecsed cf grSm
&oGm;ojzifh tke;f oD;qefav;rsm;udk pm;csipf w d af y:vmonf/ ,cifu qefMurf;xrif;udk i½kwo f ;D rIeYfjzL;jy;D ig;yd&nfqrf;umpm;&vQiyf if
wefz;kd xm;&aumif;rSe;f rodbJ cyfayghayghpm;cJah vorQ jyefowd&jy;D oH;k yef;uefavmufawmh tomuav;ukeaf tmif pm;Edik v f rd rhf nfvm;
awmifah wmifw h wpm;csiaf erdonfum; tcsed jf ynfyh if jzpfonf/ tar rod/
csuw f wfaom c&rf;csOo f ;D ig;ydcsuEf iS hf rHv k mcsOzf wf? wnif;oD; ]]igwdYkawG t&ifb0wke;f u b,fvrkd aumif;rIawGurkd sm;
qm;pdrw f Yu kd v kd nf;aumif;? vufow k pf ckH sOcf sOpf yfpyfEiS hf bl;oD;[if;cg; vkycf rhJ o d vJrodb;l / uRejf zpfwmawmif taetpm;? bmompum;
csKd csKd av;udv k nf;aumif;? pyvifav;xkxnfjh y;D qDusef a&usecf suf rwlwq hJ rD mS vmjyD; uRejf zpf&w,f/ wpfoufv;kH pm;vmwJx h rif;udk
wwfaom ig;&HU[if;udv k nf;aumif;? MuufoeG ef OD awG? iSuaf ysmtl awmif rjrif&awmhb;l }}
awG aygavmarsmaeaom rkeYf[if;cg;udv k nf;aumif;? oD;pHk csO&f nf &ifxw J iG [ f mum qmavmifaeaomfvnf; toD;t½Guaf wG
63 64 rpE´m
êuv H Qiêf uo H vdk vS;D xnfx h m;wwfaom qefûywfjypfjypfMu;D udk vSní hf ]]eifah ,musmf ;od&if ½du k v f rd rhf ,f}}
yif rMunfch si/f ]]olrodygbl;}}
raysmw hf aysmEf iS ;f cJawGukd ajrmif;xJoYkv d cJS svu
kd jf y;D aomtcg *si;f pdr;f onf ylveG ;f pyfveG ;f ojzifh ud, k 0f efrwnfapEdik f
ajrjyifay:wGif ½TUH awG wifuse&f pfonf/ pkE, G o f nf twefi,f arm [laom a½S;pum;udMk um;zl;í pkE, G uf êud;pm;jyD; usw d cf grSw d cf g
[duk v f mojzifh 0if;x&Hurkd u DS m cPem;aeonf/ tdwx f wJ iG f 0Sujf y;D rsKd csaejcif;jzpfonf/ pkE, G w f Yikd ,fi,fwek ;f u vpOf"r®wmaoG;xdeaf e
xnfx h m;aom *si;f pdr;f wpfwufukd vufEiS phf rf;rdawmh tomxkw, f l vQif taru *si;f ESix hf ef;vsuu f kd êudjyD;wduk af vh½o
dS nf/ tckawmh
um udu k zf jhJ yD; 0g;pm;vdu k o f nf/ pyf½mS ;½Sm;ESihf t&omqd;k vSaomf xef;vsuv f nf; r½S?d êuv d nf;rêuEd ikd /f 'Dawmhvnf; ½Spd rk phJ *k si;f udyk if
vnf; rsupf u d kd pHrk wdS uf m twif;jzpfnp§ 0f g;jyD; ZGwrf w dS íf rsKd csvu kd f tpdr;f vdu k f udu k zf jhJ yD; pm;ae&jcif;jzpfonf/ olYukd om;azmufaom
onf/ pyfveG ;f ojzifh rsu&f nfrsm;yif xGuv f monf/ pufvkd oabmxm;onfuakd wmh enf;enf;rS onf;rcHEikd /f
]]pkE, G .f ..eifbmawGpm;aewmvJ}} ]]eif...uav;rvdck sib f ;l vm;}}
vif;vif;u olUab;a&mufvmonf/ uspq f jH r;D ESpzf ufukd ]]vH;k 0 rvdck sib f ;l }}
uspu f m zJêu;d eDEiS phf nf;xm;jy;D twefi,fopfaomt0wftpm;rsm; pkE, G u f cg;oD;pGmajymonf/ rufref;oD;wpfv;kH udk wpf0uf
udk 0wfxm;onf/ olYvufxw J iG f oDwEH iS ohf x D m;aomrufref;oD; avmufygatmifuu kd jf y;D cyfjrefjref0g;vdu k o
f nf/ tenf;i,fzefaomf
qm;pdrrf sm;udak wGY&onf/ wcgw&H xdZk ;D oD;? rufref;oD;ponfrsm; vnf; yg;pyfxw J iG f ylavmifpyfcg;aejcif;u twefi,foufomoGm;
udk oDwEH iS x hf ;kd jyD;a&mif;aomol wpfO;D p ESpOf ;D p tdraf ½SYrS jzwfomG ; onf/
wwfonf/ pkE, G v f nf; pm;csipf w d jf zpfro
d nf/ odYkaomf vufxw J iG f ]]ig tck[b kd uf½mG ujyefvmwm r*Fvmaqmif½v dS Ykd}}
ydu
k qf H wpfjym;rSr½Sí d ai;½Ho k mai;aecJ&h onf/ vif;vif;u *si;f taMumif; qufírajymbJ pum;topf
]]a&mh...eifzh Ykd}} ponf/ olu 'DbufEikd if \ H pum;vnf;wwf? taevnf; MumvmjyD
vif;vif;u oDww H pfacsmif; vSr;f ay;onf/ pkE, G u f aus; qdak wmh olYtrd u f vnf; odyjf y;D csKycf s,af wmh[efrwl/ aiGpaMu;pav;
Zl;wifpmG vSr;f ,lonf/ olYvufxrJ *S si;f wufukd tust Ð w d x f oJ Ykd w½dk rsm;vnf; udik cf iG ahf y;yH&k onf/ oGm;um vmum oH;k um pGu J m ûyvkyf
wao *½kwpdu k jf yefxnfo h nf/ Edik of nf/
]]eif...*si;f pdr;f awG pm;aewmvm;...}} ]]owdYkorD;u igwdYkqu D yJ? ½Sr;f rav; vSvnf; vSw,f?
]]tif;...}} emrnfu eef;axG;wJ}h }
65 66 rpE´m
]]igwdYkvkd tvkyv f mvkyw
f mvm;}} 0ifco hJ nf/ olu taetxdik v f rd m® awmh ESi;f qDarT;vdk t½du k rf cH&
]]igwdYkxuf qd;k w,f? olYta':0rf;uGu J olYtareJYrwnfh aomfvnf; rsuEf mS omawmh &onf r[kw/f
bl;av/ pD;yGm;ûydijf zpfrmS aygh/ tJ'g arhaq;eJYtyk zf rf;jyD; 'DbufyYkdjyD; ]]ql; e,f...}}
a&mif;pm;vdu k w f m}} olYrmS a,mu©rrde;f r r½Sad wmh a,mu©ra,musmf ;MuD;om
]][,f...wu,fvm; [,f? tJ'v D wkd u,fyv J yk &f ufowJh ½So
d nf/ olu vif;vif;ESiphf um;MumMum&yfajymaeonfukd êuu d yf kH
vm;}} r&? wzspaf wmufawmufajymaeonf/ tvkyu f kd tvkyEf iS whf al tmif
pkE, G u f wtHw h Moar;onf vkyf &ef? tydpk um;awGrajym&ef tcsed yf ûkd zef;jyD; pyfpyfppk k rvky&f ef
]]ol owd&vmawmh 'Dbufa&mufaejyDw}hJ } ajymqdak ejcif;rsm; jzpfvrd rhf nfukd twGi;f pdwu f odaeaomfvnf; pkE, G f
]]oem;ygw,f[,f igwkYduawmhxm;ygawmh/ ud, k Mhf ur®m u rodovdk bmrSem;rvnfovdak evdu k o f nf/
ud,k if ifjyD;vmrdwm/ tJ'aD umifrav; b,fol olYemrnfu...}} opfuikd ;f ajcmufwrH supf nf;udk aemufaz;eH&w H iG f rSu D m
]]eef;axG;wJh olujrefrmpum;awmif odyrf wwfb;l ? ½Sr;f axmifxm;vdu k jf y;D tdraf b;odYv k n S íhf xGucf u hJ m vSr;f xm;aomt0wf
pum;yJ wwfwm/ 'Du pum;vnf; tawmfav;ajymEdik w f ,f/ olY rsm;udk ½kwo f nf/ t0wfawGu½kd w k &f if; tarhukd jyif;xefpmG owd&
tar pdwyf al erSmqdjk yD; idak e½Smw,f}} wrf;waerdonf/ olxnfv h ukd af ompmud&k vQif tarpdwq f ;kd vdrrhf nf
jrefrmjynfxrJ mS tpfrMuD;vdk vlpm;rsKd ;awG tom;xJu xifonf/ ]]olrsm;Edik if H olrsm;wdik ;f jynfxu J kd w&m;0ifr[kwb f J cd;k 0if
avmufawG b,fEpS Of ;D rsm;½Sad ernfenf;[k pOf;pm;rdawmh vufwYjkH yef jy;D tvkyv f yk &f avmufatmifawmh tarwdYkrqif;&Jao;ygbl; orD;
csipf w
d Ef iS hf pkE, G \ f aoG;rsm; qlvmonf/ &,f...}} [kajymum idv k rd rhf nfxifonf/
]]ql; e,f...}} ]]tar&,f...orD;wdYu k wdww f wd cf ;kd 0ifvmjy;D 'DrmS vm uRecf H
]]a[m...}} aeMu&wmav/ uRejf zpfwmawmif ûrYdMu;D jyMu;D olaX;tdrrf mS r[kwf
tdrx f rJ aS c:oHMum;&onf/ pkE, G [f al omtrnfonf olwYkd ygbl;? awmûrUd awm½Gmu v,form;? ,morm;&JU ajrpdu k tf rd u f av;
yg;pyfxaJ &mufawmh ql;e,fjzpfomG ;&onfrmS MumayjyD/ rSm qif;qif;&J&aJ ejy;D uRerf ,m;jzpfae&wmav tar&JU... Edik if jH cm;rSm
]]eifah ,mu©rMuD; ac:aejyD igoGm;awmhr,f}} qd&k if ydu
k q f aH wGtrsm;Mu;D &rSmvdYkavmbaZmwdu k cf w
hJ m... tckawmh
vif;vif;u ajymajymqdq k Ekd iS hf cyfou G of u G xf uG o f mG ;av trsm;Mu;D &zdYk aeaeomom wpfjym;awmif rjrif&ygbl;...tar&,f}}
onf/ pkE, G u f opfuikd ;f ajcmufwrH supf nf;udv k rS ;f qGu
J m jcx H v J rS ;f t0wfawGukd ayGYyu kd &f if; pkE, G of nf tarhukd zufxm;&av
67 68 rpE´m
ovm;[k rsupf rd w dS jf y;D pdwu
f ;l aerdonf/ tcgwdik ;f tarhuzkd ufxm; w,f}}
vQif awmifwMH u;D oeyfcg;eHYav; arT;wwfonf/ xdt k eHYav;udk pdwf om;i,f ûz;d a0u wzspaf wmufawmufEiS hf tm;rvdt k m;r&
ul;ESi½hf ½ª u
dI &f if; pkE,G o f nf &ifxrJ mS ½Iu
d if akd erdonf/ ajymaewwfonf/ a':aroufuawmh orD;udt k jypfrwif&uf? orD;
]]tarhpum;udk em;raxmifbJ Mur®miifjy;D vmcJw h hJ trdu
k rf ? onf rdom;pkukd tifrwefw, G w f maomoufnm§ aomorD;jzpfonf/
'kuv© v S MS uD;a&mufaejyDtar...tara&m armifav;a&m pkE, G u f kd tom;vGwMf u;D awmh tquftoG,jf zwfxm;vdrrhf nfr[kw/f 'gudk
ru,fEikd Mf uawmhb;l vm;...}} ol,MkH unfonf/ orD;wGif tqifrajyaomtaMumif; wpfpw kH pfck
Ä ½Sad evdrrhf nfrmS aocsmonf/
]]uReaf wmfwYkdawG rcsr;f omayr,fh t&rf;MuD;vnf; qif;
rdcifwYkd ESv;kH om;onf rjrif&aomêud;jr§iaf v;rsm;ESihf om;orD;rsm; awmifh qif;&Jr[kwyf gbl; tar&m/ tpfru bmjzpfvYrkd sm; 'Davmuf
qDoYkd qufE, G of , G w f ef;xm;onfukd a':arouf ,HMk unfonf/ csr;f omcsiaf e&wmvJ}}
,ckvnf; ol\ESv;kH om;wpfae&mrSm tvdv k o
kd ad eonf/ ol\ ]]'Dvv
kd nf; r[kwyf gbl; om;&,f/ om;&JUtpfru ol0wfzYkd
orD;av; pkE, G f idak eonf/ olpm;zdYk olo;kH zdYk olûzef;zdYkvckd siaf ewmrS r[kwb f /J tareJYom;udk
[kwo f nf? ol\orD;av;pkE, G f pdwEf v
S ;kH n§Kd ;csKH ;aeonf/ rawmifrh w raMumifrh us xm;csiw f mav;wpfcx k yJ g...}}
'gudk rdcifwYkd\odjcif;jzifh olYtvdv k o
kd ad eonf/ taruawmh pkE, G u f kd tjrJem;vnfco hJ nf/
]]orD; orD;pkE, G ?f orD;b,fa&mufaeovJ? bmjzpfae tu,fí olYorD;av;pkE, G uf kd avmbMu;D onf[k ajym&
ovJ}} vQif xdak vmbonf vlYavmuvlY½mG wGif vlwef;aph½u kH av;aecsif
orD;onf pmav;wpfapmifukd acgif;tH;k atmufwiG f xm;cJh aom avmbomvQif jzpfygonf/ bk&m;pifrS ZDZ0gyef;eHYu oif;ysUH
um xGuo f mG ;vduk o f nfrmS ESpv
f ausmí f oH;k vxJoYkyd ifa&mufaejyD vmonf/ orD;pkE, G f pdu
k x f m;aom ZDZ0gyifryS iG ahf omyef;rsm; jzpf
jzpf onf/ pmxJwiG f ]]orD; tvkyt f udik f tqifajywmeJY qufo, G yf gh onf/ raeYwek ;f u azG;qGwaf eaomyef;av;rsm;onf tckawmh t0g
r,f tar}}[k a&;oGm;aomfvnf; ,cktcsed t f xdawmh pmvnf;rvm? a&mifoef;um EGr;f aysmah ysmjh zpfaeonf/ EGr;f &dyEf rG ;f a,mifoef;aeaomf
owif;vnf;rMum;? vlvnf;jyefa&mufrvmacs/ vnf; oif;ysUH ysUH &eHYav;uawmh avxJwiG f 0Jaewke;f jzpfavonf/
]]tpfruawmh vGeyf gw,ftar&m? tusKd ;taMumif;tqd;k 0gEGr;f EGr;f yef;yGiahf v;xJwiG f orD;av;pkE, G \ f rsuEf mS udk
taumif;awmh pmav;wpfapmifwpfavavmufa&;vdu k zf Yakd umif;yg jrifa,mifaeonf/ ]]orD;ud, k o f rD; apmifah ½SmufEikd yf gw,f}}[k &J&0J 0hH hH
69 70 rpE´m
ajymoGm;aomorD; wu,fapmifah ½SmufEikd yf gapvdYk tarqkawmif; ]]uReaf wmfwpfa,mufxJ oGm;&ifa&m...}}
aew,f orD;&,f}} [k &ifxrJ t S cgcgajymaerdonf/ a':aroufu acgif;cgonf/
]]tarawmh pdwyf w l ,f om;&,f}} ]]om;&JUtpfr aysmufaew,fom;? tarwdYkro d m;pkEpS af e&m
ûzd;a0u olYtarudt k wefMumatmifai;Munfah e&if; rsuf uGaJ ew,f/ om;wpfa,mufxJ vdu k o f mG ;&if oH;k ae&muGo J mG ;vdrhf
&nfawG 0dik ;f vmonf/ r,f}}
]]uReaf wmfvnf; ylwmyJ tar&? tart&rf;ylvmrSmpd;k vdYk om;wpfa,mufxJ vdu k o f mG ;jy;D aysmufomG ;jyefvQif ol½;l &
om xkwrf ajymwm...}} vdrrhf nf? ûz;d a0u olYrcd if\vufuw kd if;wif;qkyv f u
kd of nf/ [kwf
ûz;d a0\toHu ido k yH gaeawmh a':arouf ½SKd uMf u;D wiif onf? olwYEkd pS af ,mufvufcsi;f jrjJ rw J jJGy;D vdu k Mf u&rnf/ rjrif&aom
idrk v
d u
kd af wmhonf/ ûzd;a0vnf; rsu&f nfusonf/ tpfrjzpfou l kd êu;d jri§ af v;rsm;\qGaJ c:&modYkvu kd Mf urnf/
pm ra&;&aumif;vm;? rqufo, G &f aumif;vm;ESihf rSe;f oef;jy;D tjypf ]]tarwdYk om;trdEpS af ,mufomG ;Mur,f? aemufjyD; oH;k
wifaerdaomfvnf; ol\twGi;f pdwrf aS ejy;D odaeonf/ tpfr tqif a,muftwljyefvmMur,faemf...om;}}
ajyvdYu k awmh rqufo, G b f aJ ernfr[kw[ f q
k okd nfukd odaeonf/ ]][kwu f t
hJ ar? uReaf wmfwYo kd ;kH a,muftwljyefvmMur,f}}
a':aroufu ol\em;rS ykveJ m;uyfuav;udk vufEiS hf ûz;d a0u olYu,kd o
f l uwday;ovdk cyfw;kd wd;k ajymavonf/
tomprf;í cRw, f v l u kd o f nf/ yg;ESit hf omuyfxm;awmh ykvv J ;kH
av;\ at;jraomtawGYu ta&jym;udak zmufjy;D &ifxt J xd 0ifomG ; Ä
ovdk cHpm;&onf/ ]]cGiv hf w T yf gawmh tpfu?kd 'Dem;uyfav;udk uRerf
a&mif;&awmhr,f}} [k pdwx f rJ S wD;wd;k awmif;yefaerdonf/ *sKH yift½d;k rsm;udk rEdik rf eif;ydu
k uf m acgufwYakH cgufjyefo,fae&ojzifh
]]om; tareJYvu kd rf ,f r[kwv f m;}} eef;axG; arm[du k v f monf/ yg;pyfu[ kd um? [umESit hf oufukd
]]b,fuv kd }J } renf;vkjyD;½ªae&onfrmS uke;f ay:odYkypfwifvu kd af omig;ESiw
hf al e
]]e,fpyfuakd v}} vdrrhf nf[k olYu, kd of jl yefawG;rdonf/
]]tpfrudk oGm;½SmrvdYkvm;}} ESi;f cJawGt&nfaysmaf ejyDjzpfaomfvnf; &moDOwkuawmh
a':aroufu acgif;ndrjhf yonf/ om;u olYukd tuJcwf at;jraeqJyif/ odYkaomfvnf; eef;axG;\ezl;jyifwiG f acR;rsm;pdYkae
ovdk Munfah eonf/ wwfEikd v f Qiaf wmh tarhukd tyifyef;rcHapcsi?f onf/ ao;EGUJ aom cE¨mud, k af v;rSmvnf; ,dik af eonf/ rnfrQyif
71 72 rpE´m
,dik af eygap 'D*sKH ½;kd awGuek rf yS J em;awmhr,f}} [kpOf;pm;jy;D useaf eorQ tonf;aygufrwwfcspo f nf/ t&rf;vnf; tvdv k u kd o
f nf/ tar
udk ZGcJ wfjy;D &atmif o,fvu kd of nf/ vSn;f ay:rSmukeo f mG ;jyq
D akd wmh wdYk tazwdYk tvdv k u kd vf eG ;f í olu twef;pmudk aumif;aumif;rwwf
rS vlu ydí k yef;[du k jf yD; aysmuh somG ;onf/ cJjh cif; jzpfavonf/ eef;axG; ausmif;rwufbJ AG'D , D akd cGawG xdik Mf unfh
eef;axG;onf yd;k pmyifMuD;atmufwiG f ajcypfvufypf xdik f aevQiv f nf; &,faewwfonf/ pmar;yGu J sawmhvnf; wpfceG ;f rQ
csvu kd &f if; toufujkd yif;jyif;½Iu d í
f ½ªaeonf/ tarmu awmfawmf tjypf rwif/ aemufq;kH olY[mol ausmif;xGuv f mawmhvnf; bmrS
ESirhf ajy/ rsupf u d pkd rkH w
dS x f m;vdu k af wmh tarhujkd rifa,mifvmonf/ rajymacs/ orD;jzpfo\ l rsuEf mS av;Munfah evQif ûyH;aeaysmaf evQif
]]eef;xD;G }} olwYkd aMueyfaeMuonfomjzpfonf/
tzGm;vk\toHjzpfonf/ tazESit hf arwGif taru ydjk y;D xufjrufum vky&f nfuikd f
]]eifarmaevm;}} &nf ½So d nf/ tarvkyaf om acgykw?f yJyw k jf ym;rsm;ESihf rken f if;csOf
eef;axG;u acgif;ndrjhf yonf/ onf jynfrodYkyif ydYkjy;D a&mif;&onf/ e,fpyfvrf;yGiv hf mawmhvnf;
]]aemufusawmhvnf; tusi&hf oGm;rSmyg}} txnfrsm;udk acgufjyefo,fum ûrdUrSmjyefa&mif;onf/ eef;axG;wdYk
eef;axG;u bmrSjyefrajymbJ rsupf u d kd jyefrw dS xf m;vdu k f \ ûrdYwiG f tar\txnfqikd o f nf tMuD;qH;k jzpfavonf/
onf/ rsuv f ;kH tdrrf S vQjH y;D pD;usomG ;aomrsu&f nfrsm;udak wmh rwm; eef;axG;q,fih g;ESpaf vmuf½jdSy;D t½G,af v;a&mufvmawmh
Edik cf ahJ y/ tvSyef; yGiv hf monf/ taru txnfqikd zf iG x hf m;í tqef;ay:orQ
]]tar}} udk 0wfEikd pf m;Edik o f nft h jyif EIwcf rf;eDeD yg;tdYkeeD ED iS hf rsuEf mS csKd csKd aysmh
eef;axG;&ifxrJ aS ejy;D aMuuGw J rf;wpGmac:rdonf/ avmu"H aysmah v;aMumihf vlcspv f cl ifrsm;vmonf/ eef;axG; acgykwq f ikd x f ikd f
w&m;\tvSnt hf ajymif;tedrt hf jrifo h nf olYtwGuf MuD;rm;vSacs vQif acgykwq f ikd wf iG v f rl sm;jy;D txnfqikd x f ikd vf Qif txnfqikd w f iG f
onf/ vlrsm;onf/ taruawmh eef;axG;udk t&dyw f MunfMh unfEh iS hf Munfí h
]]tar uRerf bmjzpfaevJ tarod&UJ vm;/ wpfcgrS rawGUzl; r0/ ]]ighorD; tvSrav;}} [laompum;udv k nf; twGiaf jymwwf
wJh vlMu;D udk ,l&w,f/ wpfcgrSrvkyzf ;l wJt h vkyaf wGukd vky&f w,f/ onf/
aemufjyD; wpfoufv;kH wpfcgrSt½du k rf cH&zl;bJ tckawmh cPcP jyóemu xdt k vSryS ifpcJah vovm;awmhrod&ay/ tar
t½du k cf aH e&w,ftar&,f...}} ESihf aqGrsKd ;&dyrf uif;ol 0rf;uGn J rD wpfa,mufu tarhvykd if txnf
olu wpfO;D wnf;aomorD;jzpfjyD; tazESit hf aru olYukd qdik u f kd pifûydiv f u kd zf iG o hf nf/ taru bmrSrajym? ]]'Dtvkyu f kd ig
73 74 rpE´m
wpfa,mufxJ vkyrf ,fvYkd uefx½du k qf x JG m;wmrS r[kww f myJ/ b,f aumif; em;vnfum jyefvnfajymwwfawmh ½Gma&mufvQif a,musmf ;
olrqdk vkyv f Y&kd w,f}} [k cyfat;at;yifajymonf/ eef;axG;uawmh aumif;aumif; ay;pm;rnft h aMumif;udk wpfvrf;vH;k acsmah csmah rmharmh
vli,fpw d Ef iS rhf Ykd rcHcsi/f xdYak Mumifv h nf; ta':horD;awGEiS hf pum;rsm; ESihf em;oGi;f ajzmif;zsvmMuonf/ aemufjy;D tpmxJwiG f bmaq;awG
&onf/ pum;rsm;awmhvnf; vli,fwYx kd ;kH pHtwdik ;f tEdik vf u k m Muuf xnfah uR;vnf;awmh rod/ eef;axG;crsm wpfvrf;vH;k tdyif u kd af e
acgif;qdwrf cHajymMuonf/ wpfûrdUvH;k rSm ½S½d o dS rQumvom;awGu um wpfcgw&H xdik v f Quyf if tdyaf ysmof mG ;wwfonf/
eef;axG;zdYkqv kd Qif pdw0f ifwpm;½SMd uonfukd e*dx k u J rMunfrvif ]]eifah ,musmf ;u aumif;ygw,f? olaumif;aumif;ajym&if
jzpfaeaom tpfr0rf;uGrJ sm;udk ]]eifwYdkawG tukev f ;kH udk ightaru eifuvnf; aumif;aumif;jyefajymaygh}}
ay;vmwm auR;vmwm}} qdw k mrsKd ; ajymrdonf/ [kww f mrSew f m tbGm;vku acsmah rmhovdk ajymonf/
awGayr,fv h nf; ajymoifah ompum; rajymoifah ompum;rsm; ½So d nf ]]bmaumif;wmvJ uRerf udk aeYwikd ;f ½du k af ewmvm;}}
udk eef;axG;u rcsichf sed Ef ikd cf ahJ y/ xdpk um;rsm;aMumifv h nf; e*dx k uJ ]]igwdYkqrD mS acR;rqdw k m tvkyt f m;vH;k udk vky&f w,f/
rvd&k if;pGJ ½Sad om tpfrrsm;u temMuD; emcJMh uavonfukd vnf; a,mu©rudûk ypk&w,f/ a,musmf ;udk aumif;aumif;ajym&w,f/ ud, k hf
aumif; pdwx f w J iG f taw;trSwf MuD;pGm xm;cJMh uavonfukd a,mu©r ud, k ahf ,musmf ;udk jyefveS rf ajym&bl;/ olwYakd jymwJph um;udk
vnf;aumif; eef;axG; rodcahJ y/ cPwûzwfom pdwq f ;kd cJMh ujyD; aumif;aumif;em;axmif&w,f? ½dak o&w,f}}
aemufyikd ;f tac:rysuf tajym rysuf qdak wmhvnf; pdwcf svufcsyif tbGm;vkuawmh eef;axG;udk vdrm® ,Ofaus;aomacR;rav;
aecJrh o d nf/ jzpfapcsiyf &kH onf/ eef;axG;u tarhuo kd wd&onf/ ol\tarom
wpfaeYawmh xdt k a':wdYk tdraf ½SYrS jzwftoGm; jynfru qdvk Qiaf wmh ]]orD; raysm&f ifjyefvmcJ?h tarauR;xm;Edik w f ,f}} [laom
AD'G ,
D akd cGawG ygvmonf/ Munfch siv f Qiv f m,l[k vSr;f ajymí eef;axG; pum;udo k majymrnf xifonf/
u r&nf½, G b f J 0ifvmcJo h nf/ cgwdik ;f vdyk if twGi;f cef;txd 0ifí eef;axG;\a,mu©rMu;D u cE¨mud, k w
f pfjcrf; avjzwfxm;
AD'G ,D akd cGrsm;udak ½G;aepOf taemufbufrS arhaq;ESihf tkycf sonfukd í tdy, f mxJ vJaeoljzpfonf/ aeraumif;onfo h ql akd wmhvnf;
cHc&hJ onf/ ol rnfrQMumatmif owdarhomG ;avonfrod/ owd& xH;k pH twdik ;f pdww f o kd nf/ wzspaf wmufawmufajymum bmudrk Q
aomtcsed w f iG f wpfzufEikd if o H Ykad &mufaejy;D jzpfonf/ olYukd 'D½mG txd pdww f ikd ;f rus? eef;axG;u v,fxrJ qif;&aomfvnf; tdrrf u I pd ö vkyf
ac:aqmifvmolrmS vufwiG f e*g;yHak q;rifaMumifx;kd xm;aomolEiS hf um tbGm;MuD;udk ûypk&onf/ tjrJwrf; qJqakd ewwfaom xdk ydef
ol\rde;f rwdYk jzpfonf/ eef;axG;u olwYkdbmompum;udk aumif; acsmufacsmuf rde;f rMu;D udk eef;axG; Munfí h r&? wpfcgw&H ol bmajym
75 76 rpE´m
aeae rMum;csi[ f efaqmifaeonf/ ]]ighrmS za,mif;csu½f w dS ,f/ cPae&if,al y;r,f}}
'gwifruao;yg/ eef;axG;rSm tjcm;tjypfrsm; ½Syd gao; tbGm;vku pdwrf aumif;ovdk ajymonf/ tbGm;vkEiS hf
onf/ olwYkcd ikd ;f orQrvkyjf cif;? auR;orQrpm;jcif;? xdYkjyif a,musmf ; ta':&efwYko d nf eef;axG;\ tdref ;D em;csi;f rsm; jzpfonf/ tbGm;vk
jzpfoEl iS hf twltyd &f ef jiif;qefjcif; ponfrsm; jzpfonf/ ol\ \ om;u aoqH;k oGm;onfrmS MumjyD jzpfonf/ acR;rjzpfol ta':&ef
a,musmf ; jzpfou l pOD;ydik ;f wGif toHcsKd csKd EiS hf ajymaomfvnf; cPae ESihf ajr;ruav;yg tbGm;vkEiS t hf wl aexdik cf &hJ mrS ajr;ruav;rSm
vQif a'goawG axmif;axmif;xum a&iifaomum;wm,mêu;d udk q,fih g;ESpf t½G,u f srS qH;k yg;oGm;cJjh yefonf/ tckawmh a,mu©rESihf
vSr;f qGwJ wfonf/ acR;rwdYkonf wpfO;D udw k pfO;D rScD u kd m twlaexdik v f suf ½SMd uonf/
olYu, kd o f vl nf; xdrk Qacgif;rmonfukd eef;axG;u t&ifu tbGm;vku tdrrf I udpv ö yk jf y;D ta':&efu v,fx, J mxJ qif;wwf
rodcahJ y/ olu xkavrmavawavrmvmav ig;z,fvkd vlpm;rsKd ; onf/ nusvQiaf wmh tjzLtrnf;wDAu DG av;\a½SYwiG f ESpaf ,muf
jzpfonfukd tckrS olYu, kd o
f ol &d awmhonf/ ud, k [f efav;EGUJ EGUJ ? rsuf twlxikd u f m ½kyjf rif Zmwfvrf;Munf&h if; tyef;ajzwwfMuonf/
ESmav; csKd aysmah ysmEh iS hf tay:,Hu El;nHah ysmah ysmif;[ef½adS omfvnf; ]]tbGm;vk&,f...uRerf jyefcsiw f ,f}}
twGi;f pdwu f raysmah cs/ t½du k cf rH nfreS ;f odvsuEf iS hf axmfavmfuefY eef;axG;u wd;k wd;k ajymonf/
vefYawG jyefvyk af ejrjJ zpfonf/ tm;csi;f rrQveG ;f íom ZGwrf w dS v f u kd f ]]uRerf tarawmh pdwyf v l Ykd aorvm; rodb;l / pm;Edik rf mS
&aomfvnf; qefYusií f &orQawmh tjrJqefYusiaf ejrJjzpfonf/ vnf; r[kwb f ;l / tdyEf ikd rf mS vnf; r[kwb f ;l / taru uRerf udk
eef;axG;onf olwYkd vdck sio f vdk arQmv f ifo
h vdk emcH½u kd sKd ; odycf spw f m odyf tvdv k u kd w f m tckvkd a&yH;k êud;MuD;eJY ½du k zf Ykd aeae
aom acR;r r[kwb f J ayuyfuyf *spu f efuefacR;r jzpfae[ef ½Sad v omom wpfoufv;kH vufzsm;eJYawmifxzd ;l wmr[kwb f ;l }}
onf/ awmf½kH wef½kH rde;f rrsm;vdk OD;usKd ;roGm;onft h wGuv f nf; tbGm;vku olYupkd w d rf aumif;ovdMk unfah eonf/
a,mu©ra&m a,musmf ;uyg a'gojzpfaeMu&avonf/ ]]eifb,fvjkd yefrmS vJ? eifwYkw d ikd ;f jynfeYJa0;vSjyD}}
]]orD; 'Da&mufuwnf;u tqdrk qJrcH&wJah eY r½Sb d ;l tar/ ]]vrf;avQmufjyefr,f}}
t½duk cf &H wmvnf; cP? cPyJ...}} eef;axG;u acgif;rmpGmajymawmh tbGm;vku oabmus
eef;axG;u ol\vufarmif;rSt½SKd ;&mrsm;udk tomt,m ovdk wd;k wd;k av; &,favonf/
vufEiS yhf w G af eonf/ zl;xaeaomt½SKd ;&mrsm;onf acR;ESiahf wGUawmh ]]eifu ighajr;rav;vdyk J acgif;odyrf mw,f}}
pyfypl yfavmifjzpfavonf/ ]]tbGm;&JUajr;u uHaumif;ygw,f/ aooGm;ayr,fh aowJh
77 78 rpE´m
tcsed tf xd tbGm;wdYkeUJ twlwal eoGm;&wm}} tawmifyaH v; aygufvm&if b,favmuf aumif;vdu k rf vJ[k
eef;axG;u pum;emxd;k &if; ae&mrSx&yfonf/ a,mu©r jyif;jyif;xefxef awmifw h aerdonf/ xdak emuf tazESit hf arudk
Mu;D em;odYk oGm;&OD;rnf/ olcikd ;f wmawGukd vkyaf y;&OD;rnf/ aemufaz; wrf;wum xH;k pH twdik ;f w½Iu d ½f u dI if rkd ad vonf/
acsmifwiG v f nf; ½Si;f vif;odr;f qnf;jyD; aq;&aMum&OD;rnf/ xdt k csed w f iG f ta':&efu olYab;odYk wdww f wd qf w d qf wd f
]]a&mufwt hJ &yfrmS aysmaf tmifaewwf&w,f/ igwdYkred ;f r a&mufvmcJah vonf/
qdwk m aep&mae&mudk a½G;cGirhf ½Sb d ;l / ud,
k &hf UJ uHMur®mu csay;wJah e&m ]]eef;xG;D }}
rSm tqifajyatmifae&w,f}} ta':&efuolYab;wGi0f ifxikd o f nf/
tbGm;vku olajymaeusq;kH rpum;rsm;udyk if xyfcgxyfcg ]]eef;xG;D ...eifoyd pf w d n f pfaevm;}}
ajymwwfavonf/ eef;axG;u acgif;ndro hf nf/
tbGm;vk\acR;r ta':&efuawmh pum;enf;vSonf/ ]]eif...odyjf yefcsiaf evm;}}
bmpum;udrk Q a0a0qmqm&,f&,farmarmajymavh½o dS rl [kwaf cs/ eef;axG;u xyfjy;D acgif;ndro hf nf/ rsu&f nfawG pGe;f xif;
vkypf &mtvkyrf sm;udk wdww f wd q f w d q
f w d v f yk jf y;D olrsm;ajymorQukd aeaom eef;f axG;\rsuEf mS i,fEEk ak v;udpk u kd Mf unf&h if; ta':&ef\
om jird jf ird of ufoufem;axmifaeavh½o dS jl zpfonf/ ]][m...'gawmh rsuEf mS onf twefi,fE;l nHv h monf/ uefa&jyifvkd at;pufjird o f uf
aumif;wmaygh}} ]][if- 'Dvjkd zifrh aumif;ygbl;uG,}f } [laom a0zef aewwfaomrsuv f ;kH rsm;wGif aEG;axG;aomarwåm\ t&dyt f a,mif
csurf sm;udv k nf; wpfcgrQ ay;avhr½Sad y/ wpfcgwpf&H eef;axG;u u ysysav; vif;vmonf/
tarhtaMumif;awG ajymum rsu&f nfusvQiaf wmh yifo h ufukd rod ]]eifuh akd wGYwikd ;f ...orD;udo k wd&w,f}}
rom ½Iu d w f wf onf/ xdak emuf eef;axG;udk rMunfb h J rsuEf mS vTu J m ]]uRerf vnf; ta':huakd wGYwikd ;f tarhut kd &rf;owd&w,f}}
ai;aewwfavonf/ eef;axG;u ido k aH v;ESihf ajymonf/ olwYkEd pS Of ;D onf wpfO;D
wpfaeYnuawmh xH;k pHtwdik ;f eef;axG; t½du k cf &H onf/ udk wpfO;D jidro f ufpmG ai;Munfah erdMuonf/ xdak emuf ta':&efu
'Dawmhvnf; aemufwpfaeY aeYvnfcif; acwåtm;aomtcsed w f iG f wpfpkH wpfcu k kd qH;k jzwfvu kd of vdk acgif;udk qwfueJarmhvu kd o f nf/
eef;axG;onf tdraf b;yd;k pmyifMu;D atmufoYkd xH;k pHtwdik ;f a&mufvm ]]igajymwmudak wmh b,forl rS odapeJY? tbGm;vkawmifrod
onf/ yd;k pmyifMuD;\yifpnfukd ausmrSí D xdik &f if; us,jf yefYvaS om apeJY}}
aumif;uifjymMu;D udk armfMunfo h nf/ vdyjf ymuav;vd?k iSuu f av;vdk eef;axG;u olYuakd rQmv f ifw h Mu;D Munf&h if; acgif;ndrjhfyonf/
79 80 rpE´m
]]eifwYu kd kd 'Dac:vmwm[m raumif;wJv h el nf;enf;av;u ]]a&mh...um;c ,lomG ;}}
ac:vmwmyg...igwdYktm;vH;k [m tJ'v D rkd sKd ;vlawGcsn;f yJ r[kwb f ;l }} eef;axG; wpfu, kd v f ;kH wkeu f m rsu&f nfvnfvmonf/ ydu k f
ta':&ef\toHrmaeonf/ qHav;udk vSr;f ,l&if; ta':&efuv kd uftyk cf sv
D ukd o
f nf/ ]]aus;Zl;rarh
]]'DrmS eef;xG;D ...eif...igwdYpk um;udak umif;aumif;wwfaewm ygbl; ta':&,f}} [k &ifxrJ x S yfcgxyfcgajymrdonf/
yJ}} eef;axG;u tdrb f ufut kd omiJMh unfo h nf/ olYa,mu©rMu;D
]][kwu f }hJ } tdyaf ysmaf eonf/ ol\a,musmf ;u v,fxrJ mS jzpfavonf/
]]'Dawmh eif&XJ meudo k mG ;? eif[m jrefrmvlrsKd ;ygqdw k m? a&mif; ]]uRerf oGm;r,f...}}
pm;cH&jy;D 'Dtxda&mufvm&wmygqdw k m taotcsm½Si;f jyjy;D tul ]]at;...oGm;awmh}}
tnD awmif;? tJ'g[m eifvw G zf Ydkvrf;yJ}} ta':&ef\rsuEf mS wGif tûy;H av;wpfcsuv f pS u
f eJay:vm
eef;axG;\acgif;xJwiG f vif;ueJjzpfjy;D &ifawG w'dw'f w d f jyD; jyefvnfí at;pufrmcJomG ;onf/ xdak emuf csmueJvn S uhf m
ckev f monf/ ol'v D v kd yk &f aumif;rSe;f rodc?hJ vH;k 0vnf; rpOf;pm;rdchJ jyefxu G of mG ;onf/ vSní hf yifrMunfah cs/
ay/ ]]aus;Zl;wifygw,f...vlrsKd ;jcm; tar&,f}}
]]&JXmeu b,frmS vJ}} eef;axG;u tdrx f o J Yykd if jyefr0ifawmh? aiGwpfq,fukd wif;
]]ûrdYrmS ? eif½mG xdyaf &muf&if um;pD;oGm;? cPae&ifa&muf wif;av;qkyu f ikd u
f m tdrx f rJ o S w k o f w
k yf gatmif tajy;wpfyikd ;f ESihf
a&m...}} xGuv f mcJo h nf/
eef;axG;u ae&mrS qwfueJ xonf/ olYwpfu, kd vf ;kH vGwaf jrmuf&m vrf;qDoYkd.../
wkeaf eonf/ &Jrsm;onf olYpum;udk ta&;vkyyf ghrvm;? ,Hak um,Hyk gh
rvm;/ Ä
]]uRerf aMumufw,f}}
]]eifaMumufr,fq&kd if rjyefcsief YJawmh}} wdu
k q
f ikd rf rI sm;onf uHw&m;aMumif[h ak jym&vQif ûz;d a0wdYkro
d m;pk\
ta':&efu t½Si;f qH;k pum;udak jymonf/ xdak emuf tdwx f J uHZmwmonf [d;k atmufq;kH rSjyefwufvmjy[ D k ajym&avrvm;rod
rS yduk q
f aH v;wpf½u G u f qkd xJG wk o f nf/ olwYEkd ikd if o
H ;kH aiGwpfq,fwef ay/
jzpfonf/ e,fpyfNrdKUodYktvm tiSm;plyg½kzuf m;av;udk twlwl pD;rd
81 82 rpE´m
onfh ZeD;armifEEHS pS Of ;D ESihf qHak wGU&jcif;onf olwYku d aH umif;zdYkjzpfvm emrfpm;udo k moH;k í ajymcJo h nfukd olowd&onf/
onf/ ]]emrnfawmhrodb;l ? 'gayr,fh wpfcgawmhjrifz;l w,f cifAs}}
vrf;wGif tarESihf pum;pyfí ajymMuqdMk u&if; e,fpyfwiG f wpfcgu ausmif;u q&m ul;cdik ;f vdu k af omrSwpf pk m½Gurf sm;
tvkyv f yk &f efxu G o f mG ;onfo h rD;\aemufoYv kd ukd v f mjcif;jzpfonf[k udk rdwLå ul;&efvrf;êuo H jzifh tpfrpkE, G q f o D Yk0d ifczhJ ;l onf/ {nfo h nf
odomG ;onf/ vmojzifh vufzuf&nfqikd f cPvdu k o f mG ;onf[k tefwn D Kd u qD;
]]orD;qDu bmowif;rSvnf; r&? pmvnf; rvmqdak wmh í ajymonf/ ]]b,furde;f rvJ rodb;l ? ½kyu f awmh tawmifyeH YJ}}[k
&ifxrJ mS rD;ûrdux f m;ovdk ylw,f nDra&? 'gaMumifh ighorD;av; rodromrJ&h if; qufajymao;onf/ ]]tawmifyeH YJ}} [laompum;\
wpfcck jk zpfaejyv D m;qdjk y;D ½So d rQav;a&mif;csjy;D vdu k v f mcJw h myguG,}f } qdvk &kd if;rSm ysaH ewmyJ [lí jzpfaMumif; ûzd;a0 em;vnfvu kd o
f nf/
]]ol'u D v kd mawmh b,foyl gvmao;vJ}} rodromrJv h u kd o f nfth wGuv f nf; xdt k rsKd ;orD;udk tefwn D Kd ESpv
f kd
]]'Djh yifred ;f uav;wpfa,mufvnf; ygw,fav... aemufjy;D jcif; r½Sd [k qdo k nfuykd g qufíoabmaygufvu kd &f onf/ vufzuf
tJ'D rde;f uav;&JUtpfruawmh 'Da'ocHaygh? xrif;qdik zf iG w hf ,f ajym &nfqikd o f Ykd ûzd;a0vduk o f mG ;awmh tpfrESit hf wlxikd af eaom xdt k rsKd ;
wmyJ/ olu xrif;qdik rf mS ? 'grSr[kwf txnfqidk rf mS ul&rSmyJw/hJ orD;udk jrifczhJ ;l onf/ tpfrpkE, G u
f ]]'g ESi;f qDarT;&JU tpfrav}} [k
aewm pm;wmtvGwf wpfvESpaf omif;&r,fajymw,f/ oGm;vkycf sif ajymcJo h nf/
w,f ajymawmh uRerf vnf; wm;ygw,f/ rsupf u d , G &f m em;uG,&f m ]]toufuawmh oH;k q,feYJav;q,fMum;avmuf ½Srd ,f
udk roGm;ygeJYvY?kd 'gayr,fh ZGwx f u
G o
f mG ;wmav...[dak &mufvYkd tqif xifwmyJ? uReaf wmf odyrf rSe;f wwfb;l / enf;enf;0w,f? acwf
ajy&if qufo, G yf ghr,fw.hJ ..tcko;kH v½Sjd yD? bmowif;rSr&bl;}} qefw,f? azmfa½Gw,f? qHyifuv kd nf; tndKa&mif qd;k xm;w,f/
taru ZwfpckH if;um &ifziG o hf nf/ &moDOwku ajrjyefYEiS hf aemufjyD; a½TvufaumufawG qifjh yD; 0wfxm;w,f}}
rwl? wjznf;jznf;at;vmaomfvnf; tarh&ifxu J tylurl ydí k ydík trsKd ;orD;ESihf trsKd ;om;wdYk wpfO;D udk wpfO;D qwfueJ vSr;f
Mu;D vm[ef½o dS nf/ Munfv h ukd Mf uonfukd ûz;d a0owdxm;vdu k rf o d nf/ bmjzpfvYykd gvdr/hf
]]tJ'aD 'ocHtrsKd ;orD;&JUemrnfuo kd v d m;}} ]]a½TvufaumufawG awmfawmfrsm;w,fav}}
trsKd ;om;Mu;D u ar;onf/ ûz;d a0onf olwY\ kd earmferJEh ikd rf I ]][kww f ,f olvufvyI v f ukd &f if cRiu f eJ cRiu f eJ jrnfae
twGuf ½Surf sm;yif ½Surf o d nf/ ol rajymESihf ol\tpfrpkpEk , G yf ifvQif wm? em;axmifvYkdawmh taumif;om;}}
xdtk rsKd ;orD;\trnfuo kd &d UJ vm;rod/ ESi;f qDarT;&JUtpfrMu;D [laom ]]olYa,musmf ;a&m ygao;vm;}}
83 84 rpE´m
]]rawGYb;l cifAs? uReaf wmfawGYwek ;f uawmh olwpfa,muf ]][m...tpfrBu;D ? uReaf wmhurkd rSwrf b d ;l vm;/ tpfreJYtwl
wnf;yJ/ oleYJtwl tpfrajymwJEh iS ;f qDarT;qdw k ahJ umifrav;awmh yg vduk o f mG ;wJh pkpEk ,
G &f UJ armifav;... uReaf wmfwYkd vjynf0h ef; vufzuf
w,f}} &nfqikd rf mS qHzk ;l w,fav ...[d.k ..ESi;f qDarT;qdw k hJ aumifrav;vnf;
trsKd ;om;Mu;D u pdw0f ifwpm; ar;jy;D acgif;wndrn hf rd hf vkyf ygw,f xifw,f...}}
aeonf/ trsKd ;orD;\rsuv f ;kH wGif pd;k &dr&f yd af wG ay:aeaomfvnf; olu tuJcwfaeolqakd wmh tpfrMu;D \rsuEf mS uGuu f eJ
bmrSawmhrajymay/ ysuo f mG ;onfukd csucf si;f odvu kd of nf/
]]pd;k &drpf &mrsm;½Sad evdYkvm; nDr&,f}} ]]tpfrqDu pmrvm owif;rMum;vdYk pdwyf jl y;D vdu k v f mwm
taru rsupf yd suyf suf rsuEf mS ysuyf suf jzpfvmonf/ tqH;k tpfrMuD;&JU ajymygOD;? uReaf wmhtpfru tpfrMuD;&JUxrif;qdik rf mS yJ
pGetf xd avQmufawG;um idck siaf ejyDjzpfonf/ vkyaf ewmr[kwv f m;? ol bmvdYkpmra&;wmvJ}}
uHMur®m\wdu k qf ikd rf u
I kd 'kw, d tMudrt f MhH o&jyefonfu tpfrMu;D ESihf wpf0ikd ;f wnf;xdik af eaom rde;f uav;ESpaf ,muf
vrf;wGif acwå&yfem;Muwke;f jzpfonf/ vufzuf&nfqikd w f iG f olwYkd u ]]tpfrMu;D &JUxrif;qdik rf mS b,fEpS af ,mufawmif ac:xm;vJ? uRerf
awG vufzuf&nfqif;aomufawmh xdak ½TvufaumufawGEiS hf trsKd ; wdYktwGuaf &m ae&museaf o;&JUvm;[if}}[k t½d;k cHEiS hf &,f&,farm
orD;udk awGYvu kd jf cif; jzpfonf/ arm vSr;f ar;Muonf/ tpfrMuD;uvnf; o½kyaf qmif aumif;yg
pOD;pGm awGYou l ûzd;a0r[kw/f trsKd ;om;MuD; jzpfonf/ onf/ acwåcPysuo f mG ;aomrsuEf mS udk csucf si;f yif jyefjyD;zH;k uG,f
olu ûzd;a0\ykc;kH udk rodromvSr;f ykwu f m... vdu k o f nf/ ûyH;csKd azmfa½GaomrsuEf mS zH;k udk csucf si;f pGyv f ukd Ef ikd of nf/
]]'DrmS nDav; csucf si;f vSr;f rMunfeh YaJ emf...cPaerS rodrom ]]aMomf...rSwrf jd y?D rSwrf jd y/D rxifwahJ e&mrSmawGYvYkd ½kww f &uf
Munf?h [db k uf0ikd ;f u trsKd ;orD;u ighnaD jymwJh trsKd ;orD;vm;}} [k rrSwrf w d m? pdwrf qd;k eJYaemf armifav;? pkpEk , G u
f xrif;qdik rf mS rvkyf
cyfw;kd wd;k ajymonf/ ûzd;a0u vSr;f Munfjh yD; acgif;ndwjf yawmh]]oGm; csib f ;l wJ?h ola&m ESi;f qDarT;a&m [db k ufurf;udk ul;jy;D tvky½f mS Mu
EIwq f ufygvm;uGm? olbmjyefajymvJ od&atmif}}[k av;eufaom w,fav...}}
toHEiS hf ajymonf/ tpfrMuD;\toHu csKd EUJG aeonf/ oluom apwemawG
ûzd;a0uvnf; trlt,m aumif;ygonf/ trSww f rJ[ h ef xm;ae&aomfvnf; pkpEk , G uf awmh ol\apwemudk todtrSwf
ESihf olwYkd0ikd ;f em;u jzwfavQmufonf/ twefi,f ausmo f mG ;jyD;rS rûyygbl; qdak omyHpk EH iS hf rsuEf mS udk tvSrysu½f akH v; rodrom rJx h m;
jyefvn S Mhfunfu h m ]][m...tpfrMu;D }} [k 0rf;omtm;& EIwq f ufonf/ onf/
85 86 rpE´m
]]'Duakd &mufvmjy;D &if 'Dvykd J armifav;&JU? [db k ufurf;udyk J wpfzuf0ikd ;f rS trsKd ;om;Mu;D u acsmif;[efYonf? tpfrBu;D
oGm;csiMf uawmhwmu xH;k pHvjkd zpfaejy?D [db k ufut kd xifMu;D Muwm u ]]ighukd bmrQ vmrpGypf eJG YJ? eifrh mS bmoufao½Sv d Ykdv}J } [laom
av}} rsuEf mS xm;rsKd ; jzpfvmonft h wGuf pdwv f ukd rf mefyg rajymqd&k ef rod
]]'Dvq kd kd uReaf wmft h pfr}} rom rsu&f yd jf yum wm;qD;onf/
'Dwpfcg rsuEf mS ysu&f olu ûzd;a0 jzpfonf/ ûz;d a0\ESv;kH om;udk a'goESiahf omuwdYu k wpfvn S phf D zdnp§ f
]]jyD;cJwh v hJ uawmif awGYrad o;w,f/ tJ'u D tvSjyifqikd f aeí touf½&ª yif Muyfvmonf/ odYkaomfvnf; trsKd ;om;MuD;\
rSm 0ifvyk af ew,f ajymwmyJ/ vcvnf; aumif;w,fw/hJ armifav; tvdu k kd olvu kd af vsmcJyh gonf/ w[if;[if;&,faeaom&,fou H kd
wdYk a&muf&if awGYygvdrrhf ,f/ pkE, G u
f qHyifawGbmawGaumufjyD; Oayu©mûyum vSnx hf u
G Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf/ pdwxf rJ mS awmh aocsmaeonf/
t&rf;vSaewm}} 'Dred ;f rMuD;onf tpfrpkE, G w f Ykdtay:a&m olYtay:rSma&m ½d;k om;rI
]]tpfrvdypf modvm;/ uReaf wmfuv kd u
kd yf YkEd ikd rf vm;}} r½Scd [ hJ k qdo k nfuawmh aocsmaeonf/
ûzd;a0u tpfrMuD;\ rsuEf mS udk wnfw h nfph u kd Mf unfu h m ]]uReaf wmfuawmh jynfoY&l w J yfzYuJG &Jtyk af usmyf ikd yf g/ uRef
ar;onf/ r[kww f muawmh r[kwrf eS ;f odomaeayjy/D olYtpfrpkE, G f awmfh ZeD;uawmh ûrdYe,ftrsKd ;orD;a&;&mtzGUJ 0ifyg}}
onf b,fawmhrS qHyifaumufrnf r[kw/f ]]igu qHyif qd&k if um;ay:jyefa&mufaomtcgrS trsKd ;om;Mu;D u olYu, kd of l
ajzmifah jzmifph if;pif;av;yJ êuduw f m? ighrmS om ydu k q f aH yg&if ½S&d if;pGJ rdwq f ufpum;ajymonf/
qHyifukd ajzmifo h nfxufyJ ajzmifah tmifvyk rf ,f? b,fawmhrS raumuf ]]tJ't D rsKd ;orD;rSm bmxrif;qdik rf rS ½Syd gbl;? olYa,musmf ;
bl;}}[k cPcPajymcJo h jl zpfavonf/ uawmh 'De,fom;yJ/ olwYkdvifr,m;&JUt"du tvkyu f vlarSmifckd
]]tJ'gawmh twdtusb,foyd ghrvJu, G /f ud, k qhf rD mS rvkyf ukeu f ;l wmyJqw kd m uReaf wmfwYkd owif;&xm;jyD;ygjyD...}}
csiv f Ykd xGuo f mG ;wJo h u
l kd cPwûzwfav;awGYwek ;f tao;pdwaf wG ]]trav;...tarhorD;}}
awmh b,far;rdyghrvJ/ wcsKd Uusawmhvnf; tdru f kd aiGawG bmawG taru qdYkwufomG ;onf/ taromru e*dx k uJ pdwx f J
vSr;f rydYkcsiv f Ykd ajc&mazsmufMuwmawGvnf; ½Sw d ,fav}} wGif xifjy;D om;jzpfaeaom ûz;d a0yif taotcsmodvu kd &f awmh &ifxJ
ûz;d a0\rsuEf mS wGif rouFmaomt&dyt f a,mifawG ,Suf qdYkMuyfomG ;onfrmS ½kww f &uf touf½í ª yifr&/
oef;vmawmh tpfrMuD;\ azmfa½GcsKd omrIawGrmS csucf si;f avsmu h s ]]olYukd uReaf wmfwYkd apmifMh unfah eygw,f/ tckvnf;
oGm;onf/ atmifvb H ufu rde;f uav; ESpaf ,mufukd ac:vmw,f qdw k m
87 88 rpE´m
owif; &jyD;om;yg/ olYaemufuv kd ukd vf m&if; 'Du tpfrwdYkeYJ awGU tar 'Dbufurf;u apmifah er,f orD;&,f/ tarh&ifciG x f J jrefjref
jzpfwmyg}} jyefvmcJyh gawmh[k &ifxrJ t S xyfxyfajym&if; rsu&f nfow k of nf/
olwYkdEiS t hf wl um;wpfp;D wnf; pD;rdaom Mur®mudk ûzd;a0 ]]olu 'Denf;eJY csr;f omaewm tpfr&JU/ olu rde;f uav;
aus;Zl;wifro d nf/ tqd;k taumif;? tusKd ;taMumif;udk jywfjywf wpfa,mufa&mif;jy;D &if a½TvufaumufwpfuiG ;f 0,fwm jzpf&r,f/
om;om; odciG &hf jcif;? b,fuae b,fvpkd í pHpk rf;&rnf rodbJ olYvufxu J a½Tvufaumuf ta&twGuu f kd MunfNh yD; olyYkcd whJ hJ
prf;w0g;0g; jzpfrae&jcif;wdYt k wGuv f nf; olwYZkd eD;armifEu HS kd aus;Zl; rde;f uav; b,fEpS af ,muf½jdS yv D q J w kd m odEikd rf ,fvYkad wmif &,fp&m
txyfxyfwifrjd yefonf/ ajymaeMu&w,f}}
]]oleYJygvmwJh rde;f uav;ESpaf ,mufuv kd nf; ol 'DaeYnyJ olwYu kd pdwo f ufomatmif &,fp&majymjcif;jzpfaomfvnf;
[db k ufurf;ydYkrmS used ;f aow,f/ 'gaMumifh [db k ufu &JwyfzYJGeYJyg ûzd;a0 r&,fEikd ?f vufo;D udk uspu f spyf gatmif qkyx f m;rdonf/
yl;aygif;jyD; olwYkv d ifr,m;udk vufy;l vufMuyfzrf;zdYk tpDtpOfawG ]]tckawmh oleYJwu,fwefwv hJ ufaumufukd olwu,f
qGxJ m;jyD;om;yg}} 0wf&atmif tpfuw kd Ykd tpfrwdYk wm0ef,al y;ygAsm}}
tpfrpkE, G w f Ykd roGm;cifursm; zrf;rdr,fq&kd if b,favmuf &Jtyk Of ;D ausmyf ikd u f ûzd;a0udv k rS ;f Munfu h mûyH;onf/ ûzd;a0
aumif;vdu k rf vJ[pk Of;pm;&if; ûzd;a0 rsu&f nfusro d nf/ tckawmh bmudk qdv k okd enf; oloo d nf/
tpfrpkpEk , G f b,fa&mufaernfenf;/ bmjzpfaernfenf;/ bmvkyaf e ]]pdwcf snaD v;...tpfuw kd Yk&d UJ wyfzYJrG mS olwYkt d wGuf oHvuf
rnfenf;/ ûzd;a0 awG;íyif rMunf&h uf/ aumufawG trsm;MuD;}}
]]ta&;MuD;wmu olwYkdvifr,m;udk rdzYkdyg? tJ't D om;xJ ûzd;a0u tarhyck ;kH udk wif;wif;zufvu kd of nf/ olwYkd ESpf
u avmufukd ydik yf ikd Ef ikd Ef ikd rf jd yDq&kd if b,foal wG b,fa&mufomG ;vJ a,muf twlvu kd vf mcJMh uonf/ xdak emuf oH;k a,muftwlwl jyefMu
tukef odvm&rSmyg/ wpfzufEikd if t H pd;k &&JUtultnDuykd g,ljy;D tm;vH;k rnf/ tpfrpkE, G u f kd ud, k ½hf mG ud,
k ahf jr? ud, k t hf rd x
f u J kd jyefac:vmMu
udk jyefu,fxw k Ef ikd rf ,fvYk, d ql ygw,f}} rnf/
]]tvif;a&mifav; ay:aeygjyD tpfr&,f...oef;aumiftcsed f ]]tiftm;awGukd pkjy;D wif;jy;D ta&mufjyefcyhJ g tpfr...uRef
udk vGecf yhJ gjy/D tpfrwdYkom;trdvnf; 'DuyJ apmifMh uaygh? wnf;p&m awmfwYkd apmifêh udaew,f...}}
tcuftcJ ½Sv d nf; uRerf wdYktrd f vdu k cf ahJ v}}
rsu&f nfûzid ûf zid u f saeaomtaruawmh bmrSyifrajymEdik ?f Ä
89 90 rpE´m
a&mufpwke;f uat;oavmuf tckawmhvnf; tat;awG avsmo h mG ; yJ/ ighrmS om...}}
vdu k of nfrmS twefi,fyif tdu k cf sio f nf/ ,cifu rcRww f rf; oluakd wmh aysmufíyif aysmufaerSe;f b,forl S odrnf
0wfae&aom *Gr;f uyftusaÐ bmif;bDawGukd jyefvn S í hf yif rMunfh r[kw/f *½kpu kd rf nfvnf; r[kwaf y/ &efuek rf mS ta':0wkww f Ykd
csiaf wmh/ at;rGeu f jrefrmjynfryS gvmaom xbDrsm;udk 0wfawmh r*syefrwdYk rEÅav;u ta':qD a&mufaeonf[k xifMurnf jzpfjy;D
a,mu©rMu;D u rêuu d af y/ olwYv kd rl sKd ;\aeYpOft0wftpm;ESirhf wlbJ rEÅav;rS ta':uvnf; at;rGeu f kd &efuek if g;aps;xJrmS ig;a&mif;
xl;jcm;uGjJ ym; aernfukd vdv k m;[efr½S/d at;rGet f wGuf tusyÐ yG EG iS hf aeonf[yk if xifaernf jzpfavonf/ jrefrmjynfrS a0;vHacgifzsm;vS
abmif;bDyyG G wpfxnf 0,fvmay;onf/ olYabmif;bDu aygifwiG f aomae&mwGif tckvakd &mufaevdrrhf nf[k rnfow l pfO;D wpfa,muf
yGaeaomfvnf; *GMum;u Muyfaeonf/ xdYkaMumifh 0wfjy;D rMumrDrmS urQ xifvrd rhf nf r[kwaf cs/
yif abmif;bD*MG um;u jyx J uG af vonf/ 'Dawmhvnf; xbDa[mif; ]]'Da&mufrS ig;qdw k t hJ aumifukd jrifawmifrjrifz;l awmhb;l ?
wpfxnfukd n§yjf yD; abmif;bD*MG um;ae&mwGix f yfy;kd um vufcsKyf t½kyaf &;Munf&h awmhrvdk jzpfaejyD/ ig aps;a&mif;cJ&h wJah e&mav;?
csKyx f m;&avonf/ Munf&h onfrmS rvSry jzpfaeaomfvnf; vHv k kH aps;wef;av;udk vGr;f vdu k w f m/ ig;rsKd ;awGrS pHv k Ykd? ig;cl ig;usn;f ?
ûcHûcHawmh jzpfomG ;onf/ ig; Muif;? ig;jrif;? ig;ywf? ig;ovJx;kd ? ig;Zif½ikd ;f ? ig;&HU? ig;z,f
a&mufcgpu at;vGev f eG ;f í t0wfavQm&f rnfukd aMumuf ...[m... ig;rsKd ;pHok vdk t&omvnf; pHv k Y.kd ..ig;wpfrsKd ;eJYwpfrsKd ; t&om
aeaomfvnf; tckawmh t0wfavQm&f onfukd êuu d af eonf/ &moD u wlwmrS r[kww f m...csKd yckH si;f vnf; wlrrS wlwm... tif;...ig;clukd
Owku ylaEG;vmawmh a&pdraf e&onfrmS tyef;ajyonf/ t0wf qDjyefav;csujf yD; &J,½kd u G Ef Ek ak v;rsm;tkyjf yD; pm;vdu k &f &if...}}
a[mif;awGukd pdraf jyeajyyGwaf vQmaf epOf pdwt f awG;awGuvnf; ]]tJ rH}k }
av[kepf ;D jyD; vGichf si&f mvGihf 0JviG ahf ewwfonf/ a,mu©rMu;D \toHuMkdum;&onf/ at;rGe\ f pdwu f ;l xJrS
qyfjymûry§ jf zLjzLrsm;xJwiG f OD;av;ESit hf a':udv k nf;aumif;? ig;clqjD yef[if;av; azsmufueJ aysmufomG ;onf/
armifuav;ESpOf ;D udv k nf;aumif;? ta':0wkww f Yku
d v kd nf;aumif; ]]tJ...rH}k }
ta':\a,musmf ; trl;orm;Mu;D udv k nf;aumif; tukejf rifa,mif a,mu©rMu;D u olt0wfavQmaf e&modYk a&;Mu;D okwjf ymESihf
aerdwwfonf/ a&mufvmonf/ rsuv f ;kH jyL; rsuq f efjyL;ESihf wpfO;D wnf; nHpcD wf
]]tpfrpkE, G w f Ykd ESi;f qDarT;wdYkuawmh tarawG aqGrsKd ;awG atmif ajymaeonf/ at;rGef wpfv;kH rQ em;rvnf.../
½Sad wmh olwYkad ysmufae&if aysmufaerSe;f odw,f/ ½Smvnf; ½SmMurSm at;rGeu f olYukd aMumifawmifawmif jyefMunfah eawmh
91 92 rpE´m
a,mu©rMuD;onf at;rGev f ufukd qGu J ikd u
f m ZGwt f wif; xcdik ;f cPaeawmh olwYkdtrd zf ufrmS pum;ajymoHawG Mum;ae&
onf/ xdak emuf tdraf emufaz;rSywfum wpfzufjcHoYkd ul;onf/ onf/ olMum;aeus ol\a,musmf ;ESihf a,mu©rwdYk\ toHrsm;
wpfzuftrd rf S tbGm;Mu;D ESit hf ajctwifawGajymMuonf/ a,mu©r r[kw/f vlprd ;f wdYktoHrsm;jzpfaeonf/ tbGm;Mu;D uvnf; tawmf
Mu;D u at;rGeu f kd vufnKd§;wxd;k xd;k ESihf wpfcck k ajymonf/ wpfzuftrd f pdw0f ifpm;aeyH&k onf/ olYcE¨mud, k Mf u;D udk uke;f jy;D udik ;f jy;D acsmif;Munfh
rS tbGm;Mu;D u acgif;cgonf/ olwYt kd ajctwifawGjzpfaeMuonfukd aevdu k of nfrmS at;rGeu f ykd if *½krpdu k Ef ikd af wmhay/ 'Dawmhvnf; at;
at;rGeu f pdw½f yI af xG;pGm Munfah eonf/ bmawGjzpfaeoenf;? pOf; rGef crsm raeEdik ?f olYae&mwGif xdik rf aeEdik af wmhbJ tbGm;MuD;\
pm;í r&.../ aemufrS uyfcg vdu k í
f acsmif;Munf&h if; bkrodbrodEiS hf &ifawG
a,mu©rMuD;u at;rGeu f kd twefi,f arSmifaom axmifh wkeaf eonf/
wpfae&mudk qGaJ c:oGm;jyD; pum;rajym&ef? jidrjf idraf v; xdik af e&ef? 'Da&mufuwnf;u oltaMumufq;kH udpw ö pfck ½Sad eonf/
vuf[efajc[efEiS hf ajymonf/ xdak emuf cyfow k of w k f jyefxu G o f mG ; 'guawmh tzd;k wefypön;f wpfcck k odYkr[kwf ydu k q
f aH wG aysmuf½jS yD;
onf/ tdref ;D csi;f tbGm;MuD;uvnf; MunfvifykH r&? ukwaf csmif; ol,o l nf[k tpGypf cJG &H rnfujkd zpfonf/ olonf ol\wpfoufwm
acsmif; xdik af eaom at;rGeu f kd Munfv h ukd ?f wzspaf wmufawmuf vH;k ygPmwdygwmuHawGukd azmazmoDou D sL;vGecf ahJ omfvnf; ol
ajymvduk ?f aemufaz;aygufraS ejy;D tjyifukd Munfv h ukd Ef iS hf wpfpw kH pfck wpfyg; ypön;f udak wmh tyfww kd pfacsmif;yif r,lczhJ ;l acs/ ,lonf[k
twGuf *Pmrjidrf jzpfaeyH&k avonf/ tpGypf cJG &H rnfuv kd nf; awG;jyD;aMumufaewwfavonf/
]]wpfcck ak wmhwpfcck yk ?J bmwpfcck rk eS ;f awmh rodb;l }} ]][m}}
at;rGeu f olYu,kd o f l ajymonf/ tbGm;MuD; acsmif;Munfh cPaeawmh aemufaz;aygufraS ejy;D vlav;OD;cefYxu G v f m
aeovdk oluvnf; olYtrd zf ufvu kd jf y;D acsmif;Munfrh jd yefawmh tbGm; onf/ jcx H wJ iG f [dMk unf'h MD unfEh iS Mhf unfah eonf/ bk&m;...bk&m;...xdk
Mu;D u jyefxikd af e&ef trlt,mjyonf/ ol\rD;zdak csmifxo J Ykd at;rGef olrsm;0wfxm;aom0wfpo kH nf &J0wfprkH sm;xif&onf/
a&mufaeonfukd vdv k m;[ef r½Sad omfvnf; tjyifxu G o f mG ;rnfukd ]]bk&m;...u,fyg...ighurkd sm; &JawGvmzrf;wmvm;/ igbmrS
vnf; pd;k &draf ejyefonf/ rcd;k ygbl;qdw k m b,fvakd jym&rvJ/ olwYkdpum;udv k nf; igrajym
]]bmawGjzpfaewmvJ [}} wwfb;l }}
at;rGeu f twefi,f aMumuf½UHG vmonf/ bmawGjzpfae at;rGeo f nf olY&ifywfuo kd l zdxm;onf/ tu,fí olYukd
oenf;/ olEiS v hf nf; rnfuo hJ Ykd ywfoufaeoenf;/ vmzrf;MuvQif olb,fv&kd ifqikd &f rnfenf;/ b,fvakd jz½Si;f &rnf
93 94 rpE´m
enf;/ ]]at;rGef igwdYkjyef&awmhr,f}}
]]at; rGe.f ..}} vif;vif;u atmfonf/
]][if...}} ]]igwdYkjyef&awmhr,f}}
at;rGev f efYomG ;onf/ at;rGe.f ..wJ/h olYukd wpfpw kH pfO;D u at;rGeu f pdwx f rJ S xyfqifh a&½Gw&f if; rsuv f ;kH tdrw f iG f
atmfac:aeonf/ 'Dvkd yDyo D o ac:olqv kd Qif jrefrmyif jzpf&rnf/ rsu&f nfrsm; csucf si;f jynfv h monf/ xdak emuf a&umwmusKd ;ovdk
'Du vlawG tac:t& olYtrnfonf ]]tJr}kH } jzpfonf/ tefusvmonf/
]]at; rGe.f ..}} ]]vif;...vif;}}
]][if...vif; vif;}} olu tus,Mf uD; atmfvu kd af omfvnf; wd;k wd;k av;om
vif;vif;u aemufaz;u aumuf½;kd yHek m;wGif ywfí ½Sm&if; xGuv f monf/ tarSmifru kd q f ;kH tcsed rf sm;onfvnf; ukeq f ;kH csed f ½Syd g
atmfac:aeonf/ vif;vif;u &Jrsm;ESit hf wl bmvmvkyw f mvJ/ onf/ xdt k csed uf kd olapmifah ecJo h nf/
wpfenf;awmh tm;½So d mG ;onf/ vif;vif;½Sv d Qif olbmypön;f udrk S ]]vif;...vif;...ig..'DrmS }}
rcd;k ygbl;[kqo kd nfukd vif;vif;udk bmomjyefjy;D ajymcdik ;f í&onf/ 'Dwpfcgawmh toHenf;enf; xGuv f monf/ tbGm;MuD;
]]at; rGe.f ..eif½&dS ifxu G cf }hJ } rwm;qD;Edik rf D at;rGeo f nf vufEpS zf ufukd a0SY,rf;um w½Sed x f ;kd
vif;vif;\toHu wuf<uaeonf/ ajy;xGuv f u kd o f nf/
]]eef;axG;u &Juo kd mG ;wdik v f Ykd tck &JMuD;awGvu kd v f mwm/ wpfzuftrd \ f aemufaz;aygufraS jy;xGuv f maom at;rGef
igwdYkukd vmac:w,f jrefrmjynfjyef&r,fw}hJ } udk vif;vif;u 0rf;omtm;&êudqo kd nf/
]]bk&m;a&...tJ'g....wu,fyv J m;}} ]]eef;axG;udk aus;Zl;wif&r,fov d m;/ olomG ;wdik v f Ykd igwdYk
at;rGeo f nf Mum;vdu k &f aompum;udk r,Hrk &JEiS hf ai;aMumif &JUtaMumif;awGukd 'Du &JMuD;awG odomG ;wm? aq;rifaMumifwYkd
aMumif jzpfomG ;onf/ &ifxrJ S ESv;kH om;onf 0ke;f ueJûywfxu G v
f m vifr,m;udv k nf; zrf;xm;jyDw.hJ ..}}
jy;D vnfacsmif;0odYk ajy;wufvmoa,mifcpH m;&onf/ vnfacsmif; idv
k u kd f &,fvu kd jf zpfaeaom olwYkEd pS Of ;D udk Munfu h m &Jom;
MuyfMuyfuav;xJwiG f wpfaeaomESv;kH om;uvnf; jird jf ird af eonf Mu;D awGu &,farmaeMuonf/ xdak emuf olwYkEd iS t hf yg wpfcgwnf;
r[kw/f w'dw'f w d Ef iS hf ckeaf eí vnfacsmif;wpfcv k ;kH qdYkjyD; Muyfae ac:aqmifomG ;onf/ rsupf rd suEf mS ysuaf eaom a,mu©rMu;D udk vSr;f
onf/ bmtoHrS xGurf vmEdik /f Munf&h if; at;rGeu f pdwx f rJ S wD;wd;k ajymvdu k rf o
d nf/
95 96 rpE´m
]]tJ'.D ..t0wfZvHMk u;D awmh ud,
k [
hf mud, k yf J qufavQmv
f u
kd f &ifywfwiG v f nf; EdYk&nfrsm; pGe;f xif;aeonf/
awmhaemf tarMuD;...uRerf awmh 0#fuRwo f mG ;jyD...}} ]]olYom;av;u ESpv f om;yJ ½Sad o;wm/ xm;cJ&h w,fw}hJ }
jrefrmtcsi;f csi;f pum;rajym&wmMumjyjD zpfaom ESi;f qDarT;
Ä u pum;awG wazmifazmifajymum vlwikd ;f taMumif;udv k ukd jf y;D pyfpk
aeonf/ xdak emuf oloo d rQukd pkE, G t f m; csucf si;f owif;ydYkav
eef;axG;[laom aumifrav;u ao;ao;oG,o f ,
G f jzLjzLEGYJEYJaG v; onf/
jzpfonf/ rsuEf mS csKd csKd aysmah ysmEh iS hf csppf zG,af umif;vSonf/ ]]oluawmh igwdYkxuf ydq k ;kd wmaygh}}
]]ighvykd J tm;vH;k vGwaf tmifvYkd}} pkE,G u f awG;onf? olwYu kd olwY\ kd tquftEG,t f wGuf
olYukd 0dik ;f jy;D aus;Zl;wifaeMuaom rde;f uav;rsm;udk olu om;azmufpuftjzpf toH;k ûycJjh cif;omjzpfaomfvnf; xdo k m;azmuf
xdpk um;udck sn;f xyfcgwvJvJ jyefajymaeonf/ olYcrsm Armpum; pufu puf½yk w f pfcrk [kwb f J ESv;kH om;½Sad om vlom;wpfO;D jzpfae
udk oGuo f u G vf ufvuf rajymwwfacs/ onf/ om;orD;[laom oHa,mZOfêu;d \wif;wif;MuyfMuyf&pfywf
]]olu &JXmerSm ½Si;f jyjy;D awmh &Jom;awGukd aq;rifaMumif csnaf ESmifjcif;cH&aomrdcifwYk\ d ESv;kH om;onf rnfrQxcd u kd ef musif
wdYktrd uf kd jyay;wm/ tJ'rD mS vnf; a[m[du k ESpaf ,mufa&mufaejy/D jyD; aMuuG&J rnfukd pkE, G u f , kd cf si;f pmEdik yf gonf/
olwYkd uHaumif;wmu igwdYv k kd a,musmf ;r,l&ao;wmyJ/ eef;axG;u tqd;k xJrt S aumif;[kyif ajym&avrvm; rod&ay/ olwYkd
Arm pum; aumif;aumif;rwwfawmh ighqu D kd wpfcgvmw,f/ ol oH;k a,mufv;kH wGif ud, k 0f efygrvmjcif;u tawmfukd uHaumif;jcif;
u tm;vH;k udk vGwaf pcsiw f ,f/ 'gayr,fh b,foal wG b,frmS ½Sad evJ jzpfavonf/ odYyk gaomfvnf; oH;k vausmaf usmf av;veD;yg;rufc&hJ
olrodb;l r[kwv f m;/ iguawmh Mumjyq D akd wmh 'DutaMumif;awG aom tdyrf ufq;kd Mu;D uawmh olwYu kd kd b,ftcsed t f xdajcmufveS Yaf eOD;
tawmfox d m;w,f/ 'geJY igodorQ jrefrmawGukd vdu k af c:ay;wm/ rnfenf;? rajymEdik af o;acs/
pkE,G ef YJ ESi;f qDarT;udak wmh ,mcif;rSm oGm;ac:vmwm}}[k vif;vif;u ]]'Davmufawmif olrsm;wdik ;f jynfxrJ mS a0;a0;vHvH acgif
½Si;f jyonf/ acgifzsm;zsm;xJrmS 'Dvb kd 0a&mufjyD;rS jyefvw G v f mEdik wf ,fqw kd m
&JXmea&mufryS if olwYkdvkd b0wlawG ta,mufEpS q f ,f tawmfukd cJ,Of;wJu h pd yö ?J uHw&m;udk aus;Zl;wif&r,f? eef;axG;udk
avmuf ½Sad eonfukd od&awmhonf/ ESpaf ,mufu ud, k 0f efEiS hf jzpf vnf; aus;Zl;wif&r,f}}
onf/ rde;f uav;wpfa,mufuawmh rsuEf mS av;n§Kd ;aeonf/ tusÐ pkE, G u f wpdrphf rd ahf wG;rdonf/
97 98 rpE´m

]]jrefrmjynfbufu yGpJ m;udv k nf; jrefrmtpd;k &u rdxm;jyw D hJ ]]b,favmufyEJ rG ;f EGr;f ? êuq d ykd gw,forD;wdY&k ,f? trdajr&JU &ifciG [ f m
...'gaMumifh 'Duv kd rS ;f jyD;qufo, G af ew,f/ igwdYkukd ½Smay;zdYkvnf; omwJv h ef;wJh om;orD;awGtwGuo f mr[kwb f ;l / emwJh EGr;f wJh
tultnDawmif;aew,fvYkd olwYkd&t J csi;f csi;f ajymaewm igMum; om;orD;awGtwGuv f nf; ae&mawG ½Syd gw,f}}
w,f}} jrefrmjynfbufrS êudqakd eol trsKd ;orD;tzGUJ 0if wpfO;D \
vif;vif;u owif;ay;onf/ tm;ay;pum;udk pkE, G w f Ykd 'Dwpfouf arhEikd v f rd rhf nfr[kwaf cs/
]]'Dvq kd &kd if [dAk ikd ;f wmrMuD;udk rdxm;jyDaygh}} ]]'gwdYkajy? 'gwdYkajr? wdYkyikd w f ahJ jr}} [laompum;\t"dymÜ ,f
ESi;f qDarT;ESihf at;rGeu f oHûydiaf jymonf/ olwYkEd pS af ,muf udk tckryS if olwYkw d pfawG aumif;pGm oabmaygufc&hJ onf/ rdryd ikd f
u jrefrmjynfukd tckcsucf si;f yJ jyefa&mufomG ;&awmhrvdk tlawGjrL;ae ajray:wGif rwfrwf&yf&if; OD;acgif;udak rmfxm;&aomt&omudk olwYkd
onf/ ,cifu tav;xm;&aumif;rSe;f rodcahJ y/
]]igwdYkjyefa&muf&if tJ'[ D mrMu;D vifr,m;awmh axmifxJ olwpfyg;wdik ;f jynfwiG f av;vausmaf usmf ud, k af &mpdwyf g
a&mufaeavmufjyDxifw,f/ 'gayr,fh raMuao;bl;/ axmifxJ n§Kd ;EGr;f pGmaecJ&h ojzifh ud, k ahf jrud, k jhf ynfujkd yefa&mufawmh t&m&m
vdu k o f mG ;jyD; yg;ESpcf supf aD vmuf csvu kd cf siaf o;w,f}} [lívnf; onf vSyaeonf/ avonfyifvQif ydjk yD;½ªvYkdaumif;aeavonf/
ajymaeao;onf/ pkE,G vf nf; tarESit hf wl jyefjy;D tdycf iG &hf cJjh yD jzpfavonf/
olwYkdEiS phf mvQif e*dw k nf;u ydjk idraf om pkE, G u f tckawmh awmifwMH uD;eHY ysUH ysUH oif;aom tarh&ifciG x f o J Ykd wd;k 0ifvu kd jf yD;vQif
jidro f nfxufyif ydjk yD;jidraf eonf/ rufc&hJ aomtdyrf ufq;kd udk arhypfEikd af tmifêud;pm;&onf/
]]igwdYkwpfawG tvkyaf wGvyk Mf ur,f ydu k qf aH wG pkMur,f ]]tarwdYrk ed ;f rawG&UJ b0[m yef;yGiahf v;awGeYw J wl ,f orD;}}
qdjk y;D wufwuf<u<ueJY xGuv f mvdu k Mf uwm ûy;H vdYak ysmv
f Yykd /J tJ'w
D ek ;f taru ajymonf/
uawmh tyifay:rSm vef;aewJh yef;yGiahf v;awGeYJwrl ,f xifyg&JU... ]]wcsKd Uyef;av;awGu vSw,f/ rarT;bl;? wcsKd Uusawmh
tckawmh...tckawmh...}} arT;w,f rvSb;l ? uHaumif;wJyh ef;av;awGusawmh arT;vnf;arT;jy;D
pkE, G f rsu&f nfow k o f nf/ vSvnf; vSw,f/ rde;f rawG&UJ b0[m tJ'v D ykd .J ..}}
]]orD;wdYkb0? EGr;f cJ&h jyD tar}} tarhtoHat;at;u pkE, G \ f ESv;kH om;udk yGww f ukd jf zwf
ausmu f m [d;k ta0;Mu;D qDoYkd ysUH vGiyhf w hJ ifxyfomG ;onf[k xifrw S rf d
Ä onf/
99 100 rpE´m
]]wcsKd Uyef;av;awGusawmh tyifay:rSm yGi&hf ayr,fh yGihf ]]arT;vduk w f yhJ ef;eHYav;uG,?f &ifxx J ad tmifukd pD;jy;D 0ifomG ;
w,fvnf; qdak &m? a<ua&mqdw k hJ ca&yef;av;awGav}} ovdyk ?J 'DteHYav;[m a<uayr,fv h nf; rys,b f ;l ? EGr;f ayr,fv h nf;
taru pkE, G \f qHE, G pf av;rsm;udk ,k,pGm yGwo f yfay; rys,b f ;l / aemufq;kH wpfaeY ajcmufomG ;&ifawmif raysmufb;l }}
aeonf/ tarh&ifciG x f oJ Ykd ,ckvkd jyefvnfw;kd 0ifciG &hf jcif;onf pkE, G f pkE, G uf tarhukd ai;Munf&h if; acgif;jidro hf nf/
\ b0twGuf Mu;D pGmaomqkvmbf jzpfavonf/ xdak emuf at;rGef ]]yef;av;wpfyiG &hf UJ wm0efrmS vSyzdYk vef;qef;zdYk qdw k mawG
ESihf ESi;f qDarT;wdYu k dk owd&onf/ ESi;f qDarT;\tjzpftysuu f kd ol\rdb vdyk J arT;ysUH zdYk qdw
k muvnf; ta&;Mu;D w,fqw kd m orD; oabmayguf
rsm;u odyifrodvu kd /f tpfrMuD;uvnf; pmrsm;udk azsmufzsuyf pf w,f r[kwv f m;}}
vduk af wmh &efuek u f tdrrf mS yif qufí vkyaf eonf[k xifaeonf/ pkE, G uf xyfí acgif;jidro hf nf/
at;rGecf rsmrSmawmh aep&mtdryf if r½S½d mS ? tckawmh olwYkdonf xdak emuf ud, k pf w
d Ef vS ;kH jird ;f csr;f pGm tdyaf ysmo f mG ;cJah vonf/
toufarG;rIoifwef;ausmif;wGif tcsKyt f vkyo f if&if; ae&pfcMhJ u tjyifzufwiG f woif;oif;arT;ysUH aeaom ca&yef;&eHYrmS tdyrf ufxJ
onf/ pkE, G Ef iS hf taru olwYq kd oD Ykd rkeYaf v;yJav;oGm;ydYv k Qif tm;us txdatmifyif vdu k jf yD; arT;ysUH êudio f if;aeavonf/
aom rsuv f ;kH av;rsm;ESiahf i;Munfu h m rsu&f nf0w J wfonf/
]]'gayr,fh ca&yGiahf v;awG[m ta<urdYk tEGr;f rdYk qdjk yD; Ä
wefz;kd avQmrh oGm;bl; orD;? bmvdYv k q J akd wmh olu odyjf y;D arT;wmud;k }}
taru arT;wmud;k [k ajymumrS pl;pl;epfepfarT;aom yef;&eHY tckawmh at;rGeaf &m? ESi;f qDarT;yg pkE, G w f Ykdtrd o
f Ykd a&mufaeMujyD
udk ½ª½u dI v f u kd &f onf/ olwYko d m;trdab;odYka&mufvmaom ûz;d a0u jzpfonf/ taru olwYkEd pS Of ;D udk aEG;axG;pGm êuq d v kd ufccH ahJ vonf/
]]a[h-tarhukd bmawG uyfcRaJ ewmvJ}} [kajym&if; ca&yef;oH;k uH;k udk tar tysKd b0uwnf;u csKycf ahJ om pif;um;ajceif;puf
ajrm§ ufjyonf/ wpf&mzd;k oH;k uH;k qdv k Y0kd ,fvmwm/ arT;w,faemf tar}} a[mif;a[mif;uav;rSm wcsycf syEf iS hf eif;wdik ;f ajy;aejyD jzpfavonf/
[k qufíajymonf/ olwYk\
d tyfcsKyq f ikd af v;wGif tusnÐ y§ o
f nl y§ ?f aumfuyfou l yf? tyf
ES;D êud;ESirhf oDbJ tyfcsnêf ud;ESihf oDxm;ojzifh ca&yef;uH;k apmif;vdu
k of v l u kd Ef iS hf wufnv
D ufnD ½Sv d o S nf/ poH? aemufo?H
av;rsm;rSm aysmah ysmt h td ad v; jzpfaeonf/ taru vufEpS zf ufEiS hf &,farmoHav;rsm;ESihf pnfpnfum;um;jzpfaewwfonf/
cH,v l u kd af wmh tarhvufxw J iG f yef;awGEiS hf jynfv h QoH mG ;onf/ taru olwYkq d ikd uf kd tm;ay;oltawmfrsm;vmawmh pkE, G u f olwYkd
vufcyk Ef pS zf ufuakd jr§mufum tomt,m½Iu d ef rf;vdu k o f nf/ \ tyfcsKyqf ikd af v;udk trnfay; qdik ;f bkww f ifxm;onf/ atmufcH
101 102 rpE´m

tjymay:wGif pmvH;k jzLjzLav;ESihf a&;xm;aom qdik t f rnfav;u


xif;xif; uGi;f uGi;f ½So
d nf/ tdraf ½SUrSjzwfjy;D ausmif;oGm;aom uav;
rsm;uvnf; atmfjyD; zwfomG ;avh½o dS nf/
]]yef; yGihf c a& }} wJ.h .../
xdtk rnfav;udk Mum;wdik ;f olwYkd oH;k OD;u tarhukd vSr;f
Munfrh Md uonf/ xdak emuf tm;rmeftjynfEh iS ûhf yH;rdMuavonf/
]]yef; c a&...a<uayr,f.h ...a0qJyg tar....}}

(trsK;d orD;rsm;\b0yH&k yd 0f w¬Krsm;-2 rS)


103 104 rpE´m
aeatmif pmawmfwo hJ jl zpfcsiv f u kd wf m}} [líawmh wpfcgrQ rawG;cJh
zefcGufxJu a&wpf0uf zl;acs/ tb,faMumifq h akd omf udûk zd;onf ud, k w f ikd f pmodyrf awmf
aomfvnf; olYxuf pmawmforl sm;udk r½Iprd hf rjzpfz;l ovdk tm;vnf;
rusaomaMumifjh zpfonf/ olYtwGuaf wmh pmawmfcsiv f Qif tvG,f
uav;yif jzpfonf/ pmawmfcsiv f Qif OD;pGmyxr pmusu&f rnf jzpf
onf/ pmusu&f aomtvkyo f nf udûk z;d tysi;f qH;k tvkyx f w
J iG f wpfck
tygt0if jzpfonf/ ÓPfaumif;olrYkd pm&vG,o f nf/ olYu, kd o f l
pm&vG,rf eS ;f odaomaMumifv h nf; ydí k ysi;f jcif; jzpfavrvm; rod?
usupf &m½Sad om pmrsm;udk aemufq;kH tcsed u f yfjyD;rS &½Hak vmufom
0wå&m;aus usuaf vh½adS omoljzpfonf/ ysi;f awmhvnf; ysi;f &djcif;\
&v'fukd olcpH m;&onf/ b,fwek ;f urS tawmfpm&if;r0ifczhJ ;l acs/
]]wwfrsm; wwfEikd &f ifav...}} rawmfawmhvnf; odyrf nHah wmh twef;wifpmar;yGrJ sm;udk yGwu f m
xdt k awG;av;rsm;udk udûk zd; tjrJawG;cJzh ;l onf/ i,fi,f oDum uyfí atmif&if; q,fwef;txd acsmacsmarmarm a&muf
wke;f uawmh vmonf/
]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd &f ifav-csKd csOaf wG udwrf ek YfawGeYJ tdrf ]]q,fwef;[m odyt f a&;Mu;D w,faemf? rif;&JUb0&JUa½SUa&;
aqmufrmS }} udk q,fwef;u qH;k jzwfrmS yJ}}
]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd &f ifav-t&rf;t½du k Mf urf;wJh wDcs,f a': azazu wzGzaG jymonf? tazu Edik if jH cm;oabFm oH;k ESpcf efY
pDpaD xG;udk ausmif;ajymif;ypfvu kd rf mS }} vduk zf ;l í um;wpfp;D tzwfwifco hJ nf/ xdu k m;av;udk tazud, k w f ikd f
]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd &f ifav? tazeJYtarudk olaX;vdx k m;rSm}} tiSm;armif;&if; wpfro d m;pkv;kH \pm;0wfaea&;udk ajz½Si;f ay;aeonf
ponfponfjzifh awG;avh½o dS nf/ ud;k wef;ESpwf ek ;f uawmh jzpfonf/ olu, kd w
f ikd f bGYrJ &zl;avawmh om;orD;oH;k OD;vH;k udk arQmv f ifh
]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd &f if atmf*ifwpfv;kH csucf si;f 0,fypfvu kd f csuf MuD;MuD;xm;onf/ txl;ojzifh om;MuD;jzpfaom udûk zd;udk ydjk yD;
rSm}} [k rMumcP awG;cJrh o d nf/ arQmvf ifo h nf/ q,fwef;atmifvQif ppfwuúov kd f Advk af vmif; oif
]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd &f ifav - twef;xJrmS tjrw J rf; yxr& wef; wufapcsiaf erSe;f udûk z;d odonf/ xdYak Mumifh trSwaf umif;aumif;
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 105 106 rpE´m
av;ESihf atmifap&ef wpfcsed v f ;kH wGe;f tm;ay;aejcif; jzpfavonf/ onf/
cufonfu tazu wGe;f av? olu ysi;f avjzpfaejcif;yif? ]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd &f ifav - tJ'aD umifrav;&JUtcspOf ;D [m
q,fwef;ta&;MuD;ygonfqrkd S olu pmxJwiG f cgwdik ;f avmufyif igjzpfcsiv f ukd w f m...}}
pdw0f ifpm;ír&/ t½G,t f ajymif;? aoG;tajymif;? pdwt f ajymif;rdYk pdwf udûk z;d yxrqH;k êuu d rf o d nfu t*Fvyd pf musL½Sirf S aumifr
0ifpm;rIuvnf; ajymif;onf/ toHuvnf; jymwmwm tufwuf av;jzpfonf/ tusyÐ ef;a&mifav;rsm;udk tvJv0J wfwwfjyD; yef;
wufEiS hf jzpfvmonft h wGuf cgwdik ;f vdk oDcsi;f atmfqv kd Qiyf if ud, k hf a&mif zJpnf;êu;d trsKd ;rsKd ;pnf;wwfaomaMumifh olYukd ud, k [ hf mud, k f
toHukd em;0ifrcsKd csiaf wmh? nDrav;rpd;k u olpum;ajymvQif wpfcpf ]]yifu}D }[k trnfay;xm;onf/ yifuu D awmh olYukd zkwaf vonfh
cpf&,f&if; udûk z;d Mu;D toHu Moawmawm? tufwufwufeYJ b,fvkd ig;yd ½Sad vonfyif rxif? aemufawmh q,fvv l mzke;f av; cg;wGif
MuD; jzpfaewmvJ}} [kajymwwfonf/ tazuawmh tJ'g a[mfrek ;f cswd x f m;aom aumifav;wpfa,mufu usL½Sif vmí êudonfukd
ajymif;wm[k ajymonf/ awGY&avonf/ xdak umifav;udk vSr;f jrifvu kd w
f ikd ;f awmufawmuf
a[mfrek ;f ajymif;wmvm;? pdwaf jymif;wmvm;? rsupf t d jrif yyav; jzpfomG ;aom yifu\ D rsuv f ;kH av;rsm;udk ai;Munf&h if; udûk z;d
ajymif;wmvm;? bmajymif;wmrSe;f awmhrod olYrsupf x d w J iG f jrifjrif \ tonf;vnf; vlrodorl od [ufwufucJG &hJ avonf/ tonf;
orQ aumifrav;rsm;onf vSaeMuonf/ pdwu f ;l ,Ofp&mvnf; uGjJ yDqakd wmhvnf; ydjk yD;vGr;f vdYk aumif;oGm;avonf/
aumif;aeMuonf/ 'kw, d tMurd f êuu d rf jd yefonfuawmh vrf;xdyrf S aumifr
]]'Dt½G,[ f m opf½u G vf yI w
f mawmif &,fwwfwhJ t½G,}f } av; jzpfonf/ tom;ndKprd phf rd Ehf iS hf pHy,fwifrYJaS v;½So d nf/ aumifr
[k taruajymonf/ udûk z;d uawmh r&,fcsiyf g? r&,fcsio f nfh tjyif av; tdref m;wGif rkeYf[if;cg;qdik ½f í dS olu reufwikd ;f rkeYf[if;cg;
vGr;f aeonf/ opf½u G v f yI v
f nf; vGr;f onf/ avwdu k v f nf; vGr;f oGm;pm;&onf/ xdt k csed w
f iG f aumifrav;u pmatmfusuaf ewwf
onf/ rnfoYluv kd rG ;f &rSe;f rod? vGr;f p&mvnf;r½Syd gbJEiS hf vGr;f vGr;f onf/
aqG;aqG;av; jzpfaeonf/ ]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd &f if tdrcf si;f uyfjyD; aecsiv f u kd w f m}} [k
ocsmF wGu&f ? pmusu&f onfxuf tcsp0f w¬K tcspu f Asm olu awmifah wmifw h w awG;rdjyefonf/ aumifrav;ESio hf m tdrf
av;rsm; zwf&onfukd ydjk y;D aysmaf rGYvmonf/ wpfa,mufwnf; jird f csi;f uyfvsuaf e&vQif toHus,Mf u;D ESihf wjyjJ yJ atmfusuo f rQ pmawG
jidraf v; ai;&if; uAsmwdk pmwdak v;rsm;a&;&if; r½Sad o;aomcspo f ?l udk udûk z;d wpfa,muf rusub f EJ iS hf tvGw&f avmufaomaMumifh jzpf
ruG&J ao;aomcspo f u l kd êudjyD;uGu J m vGr;f ae&onfrmS t&om½Sv d S onf/ 'Daumifrav;udak wmh olu ]]pHy,fwif}}[k trnfay;xm;
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 107 108 rpE´m
onf/ ESihf ajymonf/
]]pmusuv f nf;vm? tdyv f nf;vm? ae&mwdik ;f rSm olYrsuEf mS }} ]]ESv;kH om;½Sv d Ykd csprf w
d mudk taru rdu k w f ,fvYkd ajymwm
[k olu pmwdak v;pyfxm;awmh oli,fcsi;f ausmpf ;kd ydik u f ]]rdu
k w
f ,f vm; tar? 'Dvq kd &kd if uReaf wmfx h uf t&if rdu k cf MhJ uwmu urÇmOD;
uG}} [k cs;D usL;&if; ul;a&;oGm;onf/ olvnf; tawmf tm;wuf tpu tm'HeYJ{0yg}} [k udûk zd;u pdwx f rJ jS yefajym&if; rsu&f nfpYkdpYkd
oGm;onf/ 0Jcsiaf eonf/
]]csppf yH ,fwif armif&h ifciG f tjref0ifygawmh...}} [k a&;jyD; ol trSew f u,fajymcsio f nfu wpfrsK;d jzpfaomfvnf;
um&efrqufwwfaomaMumifh qufra&;&ao;aom ol\uAsmudk tazESihf tarudk tmcHonf jzpfrnf pd;k aomaMumifh tm'HEiS {hf 0udk
rl ol\nDawmfarmif ½Spw f ef;ausmif;om; udw k ;kd u - qGx J nfv h u kd jf cif;jzpfonf/
]]csppf yH ,fwif? armif&h ifciG ?f tjref0ifygawmh- ta[mh- odYkaomf qGx J nfjh yD;umrS ydí k uAsmqefum *E¦0ifajrmuf
ta[mh- aAsm}h } [k qufa&;xm;aomaMumifh tMu;D tus,f &efjzpf& oGm;onf[k ,lqjyD; ud, k phf um;udk ud, k af wmfawmfoabmusomG ;
onf/ olu xd;k rnfMuw d rf nfvyk af eawmh tazvnf;odomG ;onf/ onf/
]]igu ynmwwfbUJG &r[kwcf b hJ ;l ? 'gayr,fh ighom;orD; ]]ighom;u tMuD;qH;k ? om;&JUatmufrmS nDav;eJYnrD av;
awGuakd wmh tenf;qH;k bGUJ wpfcpk aD wmh &ap&r,fvYkd igqH;k jzwfxm; ½Sad o;w,f? ighom;u a½SUuae ajzmifah jzmifo h mG ;ygrS olwYakd wG ajzmifh
w,f/ rif;wdYt k wGuf iguke;f ½ke;f jy;D ½Smaew,f/ ightwGuf iguGr;f ,m ajzmifv h ukd rf mS aygh om;&,f}} taru tcsKd caH v;ESihf qH;k ronf? ajym
av; wpf,m0g;zdYkawmif igacRwmw,f? at; - 'gayr,fh ay;aewJh r,fo h m ajymaeaomfvnf; ti,fEpS af ,mufu olYxuf ydjk y;D vdrm®
tcsed rf mS r,l&ifawmh rif;wm0efeYJ rif;yJ? tazu yifyef;MuD;pGmeJY aeaMumif;udk tarpdwx f u J odaernf[k awG;rdawmh udûk z;d \pdwx f J
wuúpaD rmif;aewJt h csed rf mS rif;u pmudk êud;êud;pm;pm; roifbJ wGiv f nf; tDvnfvnf cHpm;&onf/
csppf yH ,fwif armif&h ifciG f tjref0ifapcsiaf e&ifawmh urf;em;rSm ulvD tazESiw hf w l mvm;? tarESiw hf w l mvm;awmhrod udw k ;kd a&m?
oGm;xrf;ayawmh? rif;twGuf ig½Smay;aewJah iG[m ynmoifzY?kd r,m; rpd;k a&m olYvykd if ÓPfaumif;Muonf/ olYvkd ÓPfaumif;jy;D olYvkd
w½l;zdYk r[kwb f ;l }} pmusurf ysi;f awmh ESpaf ,mufv;kH pmawmfMuonf/ udw k ;kd u ½Spw f ef;
tazu cyfMurf;Murf;yif ajymonf? taruawmh udûk zd; ausmif;om;yifjzpfaomfvnf; olYvkd ½Spw f ef;ausmif;om;tcsi;f csi;f
\ qHyifuav;rsm;udk oyfwifum ]]'Dt½G,[ f m csp&f êuu
d &f rdu
k &f udk pmjyefoifay;Edik o f nf/ q,fwef;atmifvQif (Study Guide) vkyf
r,fh t½G,rf [kwaf o;bl;? vdrm® prf;ygom;&,f}} [k avaysmah v; rnf/ tazhuu kd jl y;D 0ifaiG½mS ay;rnf[ak jymvGe;f í udûk z;d u em;ji;D ae
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 109 110 rpE´m
onf? yem,lveG ;f onf[í l vnf; ,lqjyD; tjrifuwfaerdonf/ rSerf eS pf m;&if; pmar;yGMJ uD; ajz&rnft h csed af &mufvmonf/ xifxm;
nDrav;rpd;k uawmh twef;ydik q f &mrrsm;\ tcspaf wmf onft h wdik ;f rajzEdik cf ahJ y/
jzpfonf/ tdrrf mS vnf; tarhtonf;jzpfonf/ xrif;csu?f t0wf ]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd &f ifav? q,fwef;atmifpm&if;awG b,f
avQm?f yef;uefaq; tarvkyo f rQ oluv l yk o f nf/ tara&csKd ;aevQif awmhrS rxGuaf tmif wm;xm;csiv f ukd w f m}}
oeyfcg; ajy;aoG;wwfonf/ tdycf geD;vQif tazhuakd &m tarhuykd g jyD;cJah om aEGwpfaEGv;kH udûk zd;\acgif;xJwiG f xdt k awG;u
eif;ay;? ESyd af y;? taMumajzaq;awG vdr;f ay;aeus jzpfonf/ xdo k Ykd om pd;k rd;k aeonf/ rkeYf[if;cg;pm;&wm twefi,fjiD;aiGUvmawmh
tvdu k o f v d eG ;f í tazu pHy,fwifuav;tay:udv k nf; ,cifuavmuf rpGv J rf;csiaf wmh
]]acwfynmwwfuav;}}[k uspD ,fjy;D ac:wwfonf/ odYk acs/ tdraf ½SUu wdu k t f ay:xyf nmbufcef;u av;wef; ausmif;
aomf xdyk nmwwfuav;u tarhqrD rS ek Yfz;kd udv k nf; cREJ UJG jy;D awmif; om;av;qDoYkd usL½Siv f mjyonfq h &mrav;udk oabmusaerdjyef
wwfjyef&m udûk zd;u Munfrh &bJ tjrifuwfjyefonf/ onf/ q&mrav;u ydeyf ed o f , G of , G f cg;ao;ao;av; jzpfonf/
]]csppf yH ,fwif? armif&h ifciG }f }vkyjf y;D uwnf;u tazu olY cg;v,ftxd ½Snaf om yd;k om;vdk qHyifaysmah ysmah v;rsm;udk zJjym;
udk rsuEf mS xm;wif;wif;ESiMhf unfw h wfonf[k udûk zd; cHpm;&onf/ tndKa&mifav;ESihf pkjy;D pnf;xm;wwfonfrt S y tjc,ftor½Sv d /S
ol\ rSwpf pk mtkyrf sm;udv k nf; rMumcPvSeaf vSmjyD; ppfaq;wwf xdak EGwpfaEGv;kH olYpw d af wG avaeonf/ rkeYf[if;cg;oGm;
onf/ 'Dawmhvnf; uAsmwd?k pmwdak v;rsm;udyk if vGwv f w G f vyfvyf pm;vdu k ?f pHy,fwifav;udk arQmMf unfv h u kd ?f tdrrf mS ae&if; oDcsi;f qdk
a&;cGihf r½Sad omb0udk pdwef m&jyefonf/ olYukd cyfwif;wif; Munfh vduk ?f q&mrav;udk ai;Munfv h u kd ?f atmifpm&if;xGurf mS aMumuf
wwfaom taz\ rsuv f ;kH rsm;u ti,faumif udw k ;kd ESiuhf sawmh vdu k Ef iS hf tcsed af wG wa½GUa½GUukev f monf/
csKd jyD; aysmo h mG ;wmudk owdxm;rdjyefawmh vH;k 0 rauseyf/ ty,fcH 'DaeYawmh Mum;&jyD/
vdv k ?kd txD;usef vdv k kd owfrw S jf yD; ud,
k u hf , kd u f kd jyefoem;aerdjyef ]]q,fwef; atmifpm&if;awGxu G jf yD}} wJ/h
onf/ 'Dawmhvnf; ydjk yD; vGr;f vGr;f aqG;aqG; jzpfvmonf/ b,foYl ]]rsupf v d nfvrf;rSm;jy;D atmifrsm;atmifomG ;rvm;rodb;l }}
udk vGr;f rSe;f rod vGr;f jy;D ? bmaMumifh ylaqG;rSe;f rod ylaqG;ae&onf [k r&Jw&J arQmv f ifch sux f m;rdaom ESpq f ,f&mcdik Ef eI ;f avmufonf
rdYk pmudk aumif;aumif; rusuEf ikd ?f usuo f rQpmvnf; acgif;xJr0if? ajrMuD;ay:odYk bke;f ceJbek ;f ceJ ûywfusomG ;onf/
0iforQpmvnf; cPav;ESijhf yefjyD;aysmufu, G af eonf/ 'DvEkd iS yhf if ]]oGm;ygjyDumG }}
pHy,fwifav;udv k nf; zGirhf ajymombJ rkeYf[if;cg; wpfaeY wpfcu G f wpfoufEiS w hf pfu, kd f wpfcgrQpmar;yGrJ usz;l aomaMumifh
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 111 112 rpE´m
us½;HI &jcif;onf rnfrQyal vmifcg;oufoenf; tckrv S ufawGYo&d wwfrsm;wwfEikd v f Qif xdak usmif;om;udk ao'Pfay;ypf
onf/ urÇmavmuMuD;wpfcv k ;kH tndKa&mifwrd w f u kd af wG vTr;f jyD; vduk cf sio
f nf/
tHYrk idI ;f ndKqikd ;f vmonf[k xifae&onf/ olrauseyf? bmudk rauseyf ]]a[m}}
rSe;f ? b,foYlukd rauseyfreS ;f awmh rod/ odYkaomf rauseyfrEI iS hf tm; olEiS hf rsuEf mS csi;f qdik f avQmufvmaom pHy,fwifukd awGU&
i,fpw d ?f 0rf;enf;pdwaf wGomru a'gopdwaf wGyg qla0vmonf/ onf/ rsuEf mS av;n§Kd ;jyD; rsu&f nf&pf0aJ eonf/ udûk zd;\ &ifawG
olarmfMunfah eaom atmifpm&if;pm½GuMf u;D udk jzef;ceJ qGJ wqwfqwfcek o f mG ;onf/
jy;D qkwaf csypfvu kd cf siof nf/ yg;pyfrv S nf; ½dik ;f ½dik ;f pdik ;f pdik ;f ? EIwx
f u G f ]]'gqd&k if - olvJ - olv}J }
Murf;Murf;ESihf qJqakd tmf[pfypfvu kd cf siof nf/ [k awG;&if; oltem; cyfow k o f w
k f avQmufomG ;rdpOf
]]rif;aMumifh iguswmuG}} [k wpfpw kH pfO;D udk vufnKd§; aiguf ]]orD;u 'Dav;ck rSe;f xm;wm arar&JU? tckawmh ESpcf yk J yg
aigufx;kd um a'goacsmif;acsmif;vnf; xGuyf pfvu kd cf sio f nf/ odYk w,f}} [k 0rf;enf;yef;enf;ajymaomtoHuMkd um;&onf? olYab;rS
aomf vufawGUwGirf l olYcekH yH gwfukd ausmv f mT ;aom atmifpm&if;udk ygvmaom olYtarMuD;u
armfMunf&h if; rvIyrf ½Suf &yfaerdonf/ ]]ridyk geJYorD;&,f? *kPx f ;l ESpcf v
k nf; renf;ygbl;}} [k acsmh
]]a[; - oH;k vH;k uG}} aeonf/
olYab;odYk wd;k a0SY0ifa&mufvmaom ausmif;om;wpfO;D u ]]aovdu k yf gvm;}}
0rf;omtm;& ckeo f nf/ cke&f mrS jyeftus ol\ajcaxmufukd zdMuw d f udûk z;d u ol\cspv f pS mG aom pHy,fwifukd aumif;cs;D ay;&if;
jyD; wufeif;onf/ csmceJ vSnv hf u kd o f nf/ pGvJ rf;jidw, G af eaom oHa,mZOfaESmifêud;
]]rif;uGm...aomuf&rf;csn;f yJ}} uav;vnf; axmufceJjywfxu G o f mG ;onf/ atmifjrifygvsuEf iS hf
olu aqmifjh y;D wGe;f ypfvu kd af wmh xdak usmif;om; ,dik o f mG ; trlyakd eolawGukd rke;f onf/
onf/ odYkaomf pdwq f ;kd zdYk owd&[efrwl? ol\vufarmif;udk vSr;f ]]udûk zd;MuD;}}
udik &f if; 0rf;omtm;&&,faeonf/ xdYkaemuf tvdu k u f rf;qd;k rod- udw k ;kd u ajy;vmonf/
]]rif;a&m- 'Db,fEpS v f ;kH vJ}}[k ar;vdu k af csao;onf/ olu ]]atmifw,fr[kwv f m;}}
wpfcsuq f v J u kd jf yD; ol\vufukd aqmif½h ek ;f vdu k o f nf/ xdYkaemuf ]]usw,f}}
EIwcf rf;zduu kd u f m url;½SL;xd;k vSnx hf u
G cf o hJ nf/ udw k ;kd \rsuEf mS av;u n§Kd ;usomG ;onf? olYukd ai;Munfh
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 113 114 rpE´m
&if; nnf;nLovdk ajymonf/ xGe;f xGe;f rif;vnf; uswmyJ? olYtaru olYom;av;pdwn f pfrmS pd;k
]]tazeJYtarawmh oem;ygw,f pdwn f pfMu&awmhr,f}} vdYk ydu
k q f t H xyfvu kd af y;jyD; um&mtdak u oGm;qdck ikd ;f w,fw?hJ 'DEpS f
olu wpfcsuq f rJ jd yefonf/ ratmifayr,fh aemufEpS af tmifrmS ayghom;&,fw?hJ [Ge;f uGmygh uGmygh
]]igu uswahJ umifu?G igu ydjk yD; pdwn f pfwmaygh}} ighb0eJY rsm;awmh uGmygh}} [k awG;&if; udûk z;d u olYu, kd o f o l em;um
olu atmfawmh udw k ;kd uvnf; jyefatmfonf/ rsu&f nfusonf/
]]pdwrf npfcsi&f if e*du k wnf;u êud;pm;ygvm;}} wJ/h aps;bufoYkd a,mifayayESihf xGuv f mpOf ausmpf ;kd ydik Ef iS hf awGU
½IUH aeaom udw k ;kd \rsuEf mS udk Munf&h if; udûk zd;u ydjk yD; pdwf onf/ olvnf; usonf[k ajymonf/ rsuEf mS raumif;aomfvnf;
npfum xlxx l ikd ;f xdik ;f rIid ;f rIid ;f a0a0jzpfomG ;onf/ udw k ;kd u olYtay: &,fusu J svJ yk af eonf/ olwYEkd pS af ,mufaygif;rdawmh ajcOD;u t&uf
wGif enf;enf;rS u½kPmoufyrkH &? ol\rsuEf mS xm;u qdik b
f ufoYkd vSnchf sicf sijf zpfvmonf/
]]rif; tvum;aumif? rdbudak wmifroem;wJah umif? rn§m ]]pdwn f pfvYkd t&ufuakd omufw,f? t&ufaomufawmh
wJah umif tcsed af wGûzef;cJw h t hJ aumif}} pdwyf n kd pfw,f}}
[k toHww d af jymae[ef½o dS nf[k awG;&if; udûk z;d \ &ifxJ ajc&if;tdru f OD;av;OD;pd;k atmif t&ufr;l wdik ;f qdak eus
wGif csOpf wk pf w k f wl;wl;cg;cg;jzpfvmonf/ oDcsi;f u acgif;xJ tvdv k akd &mufvmonf/
]]wwfrsm;wwfEikd v f Qif olYukd bkuefuefMunfah eaom udw k ;kd ]][if; bmwJh taMumif;½Smawmh acgif;rSmcsmcsmvnfwhJ
udk t0wfzyG o f vdu k ikd jf yD; zGyyf pfvu kd cf sio
f nf/ [uf [uf}}
]]tazwdYk tarwdYk oem;zdYkaumif;w,fu}G } xdak eYnu tawmfMuD;udk rd;k csKycf grS oltrd o f Ykd jyefvmjzpf
]]at; oem;&if olwYkdtem;rSmxdik jf yD; wpfaeukeaf csmah e onf/ vluvnf; ,dik x f ;kd ,dik x
f ;kd ESihf ajcvSr;f rrSecf si?f tazu tdrf
[kwyf vm;}} wHcg;0wGif &yf&if; olYuakd rQmMf unfah eonf/
udûk zd;u abmufqwfqwfajym&if; vSnx hf uG v f monf/ udûk zd;onf tazhukd wpfoufv;kH aMumufc&hJ ol jzpfonf?
tdru f v
kd nf; rjyefcsiaf wmh? taztarESiv hf nf; &ifrqdik cf siaf wmh? wpfcgwpf&rH v S nf; jyefveS jf yD; cGe;f wHYkajymzl;ol r[kwaf cs/ odYkaomf
oli,fcsi;f rsm;ESiv hf nf; rawGUcsiaf wmh/ vnf; olYacgif;xJwiG af 0aeaom t&ufc;kd rsm;u olYut kd awmfMu;D udk
]]wpfcgwav pmar;yGu J swm tjypfvm;uG? iguswo hJ l ydk ajymif;vGaJ pcJah vonf/ tcgwdik ;f aMumufaeus tazudyk if odyf
awmifrS pdwn f pf&ao;? rESpw f ek ;f u &efrsKd ;atmifvnf; uswmyJ? raMumufawmhacs/ udw k ;kd tay:wGif csKd í aysmjh yD; olYtay:usawmh
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 115 116 rpE´m
rmjyD; wif;onf[k ,lqxm;aom emMunf;pdwu f acgif;jyLvmjyD; aemufwpfaeYeeH uf udûk z;d tdy&f mrSE;kd awmh ½Spef m&Dx;kd aejyD jzpfonf/
xduyg; &duyg; ajymcsiaf eonf/ acgif;awGvnf; wpftm;udu k af eonf/ tdy&f mab;rS pm;yGw J ifem&D
xdYkaMumifh vufEpS zf ufukd &ifwiG , f u S jf yD; av;udk vSr;f Munf&h if;
]]crnf;awmf rif;bk&m;u om;awmfarmif tdraf ½SUrif;om; ]]tif; 'Dtcsed q f &kd if taz xGuo f mG ;avmufygjyD}}
pmar;yGu J sawmfrv l Ykd pdwn f pfawmfryl govm; bk&m;}} [k awG;rdonf/ tdrrf mS taz ½Srd ae[laom tawG;u olY
[k Zmwf[efygygESihf iHYkumajym&if; tdrx f o J Ykd odik ;f uGuef if; udk twefi,f pdwo f ufom&m&aponf/
um vSr;f 0ifvu kd o f nf/ tazuvnf; Zmwf[efygygjzifh ol\ wwfrsm;wwfEikd v f Qif tazESihf b,fawmhrS rsuEf mS csi;f
em;&if;udk qD;jyD;tkyx f nfv h u kd of nft h wGuf olYcrsm zdeyfcRww f iG f rqdik af wmhbJ ta0;odYk xGuaf jy;vdu k cf sio f nf/
acGueJ acgufceJ xd;k vJomG ;&onfuawmh Zmwf[efrygvSacs/ cPaeawmh tar\ajcoHuMkdum;&onf? taru tcef;0
taru ]]tazMuD;? rvkyef YJ? rvkyef YJ}} rS uJMunf&h if;
[k atmf[pfwm;qD;aeaomfvnf; tazuawmh acGvaJ e ]]Ed;k jyv
D m;}}
aom olYukd ajcaxmufEiS v hf rdS u
hf efaeao;onf/ [k ar;onf/ olu tarhukd tm;ud;k pGm vSr;f Munf&h if;
udûk zd;u ]]½du k yf g taz&JU? uefyg taz&JU? uReaf wmfu nHh ]]acgif;udu k wf ,f tar}}
wJh taumifu;kd ? a½Smw f t hJ aumifu;kd ? udw k ;kd vdk om;vdrm® av;rS r[kwf [k toHaysmah ysmEh iS ahf jymum rsu&f nf0v J monf/
wm? vlawmfav;rS r[kww f m [dak umifrav; rpd;k vdv k nf; uyfyg; taru rsuaf rSmifuw k &f if; ]]udu
k af &maygh[,f}} [k ajymjy;D
&yfyg;rS rvkyw f wfwm}} [k jyefajym&if; ½Iu d Mf uD;wiif ido k nf/ xdk oufjyif;csonf/
aemuf tefonf/ ]]rif;taz t&rf;pdwrf aumif;jzpfaew,f}}
oliakd wmh tarvnf; ido k nf/ rpd;k vnf; ido k nf/ tazu ]]uReaf wmfpmar;yGu J svYkvd m;}}
eH&uH kd vufo;D jzifh xd;k onf/ udw k ;kd uawmh ol\ tefzwfrsm;udk ]]uswmxuf ydq k ;kd wmu 'Dt½G,ef YJ t&ufawG aomufvm
usKH ;&if; rsuEf mS MuD;ykyo f ;kd aeonf/ wm}}
csr;f ajro h m,mpGmaecJ&h aom udûk z;d wdYkro d m;pkonf xdt k csed f ]]tara&m pdwq f ;kd vm;}}
u pí w½Sed ;f ½Sed ;f ylaom tylr;D rsm;[yfc&hJ avonf/ ]]qd;k wmaygh}}
Ä taru cyfjywfjywfajymonf/ jywif;aygufrS wd;k 0ifvm
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 117 118 rpE´m
aom aea&mifjcnfu tarhrsuEf mS ay:wnfw h nfuh saeonf/ tck ]]pmrêud;pm;bJ avavayayaecJv h Ykd pmar;yGu J swmbmrS
wavm tar yifyef;onf xifonf/ em;xif em;&if;awG usum rqef;bl;? rêu;d pm;wke;f u rêu;d pm;bJ usrpS w d n f pfaewm a,musmf ;
rsuu f iG ;f ESpzf ufuvnf; odoo d momndKaeonf/ tvkyrf [kwb f ;l ighom;&JU? ud, k t fh jypfu, kd o f v d Ykd êud;pm;csipf w d ½f dS
]]pdwnf pfveG ;f vdYkyg tar&m}} vmr,fq&kd if jyefêud;pm;? 'gyJ nDawG nDrawGuv kd nf; vSnjhf yD; &ef
]]tJ'gudk pdwq f ;kd wmaygh}} vkypf &mrvdb k ;l }}
tarhtoHu rmaeonf/ taru tcsuu f susajymonf? tarhpum;awG rSerf eS ;f od
]]vlYavmuxJa&mufjyD; vl&,fvYkd b0udk prdjyDq&kd if pdwf aomfvnf; udûk z;d csucf si;f acgif;ndwjf y;D 0efrcHcsi?f ol\xH;k pHtwdik ;f
npfp&mqdw k mawGu tenf;ESit hf rsm; ½Sv d mMurSmyJ? tqifrajywm ]]ighurkd cspv f Ykd? ighuEkd rdS cf siv f Ykd}}
awG tcuftcJawGvnf; awGYvmrSmyJ? tJ'v D kd tqifrajywdik ;f pdwf [k vS;D vTjJ y;D awG;csiaf eao;onf/ odYak omfvnf; olb,fvkd
npf&wdik ;f t½I;H ESiahf wGYwikd ;f t&ufqikd af jy;jyD; t&ufaomufae&if awG;awG; taru olYuckd spcf ifMuifemaMumif;? b,fawmhrv S nf; rESrd hf
wpfurÇmvH;k ½S½d o dS rQval wG tukev f ;kH t&uform;csn;f yJ jzpfuek rf mS cscahJ Mumif;udv k nf; twGi;f pdwu f trSet f wdik ;f odaejyefonf/
aygh? pdwn f pfvYkdt&ufaomufw,fqw kd hJ taMumif;jycsuu f kd tar udûk z;d u ai;Munfah epOf taru pm;yGpJ eG ;f udk vufwpfzuf
trke;f qH;k yJ}} ESiahf xmufum Adu k uf kd usev f ufwpfzufEiS rhf odromtkyu f ikd &f if;
olYukd csKdcsKdaysmah ysmo h m qufqaH vh½adS om taru wif;wif; wuRwu f RwEf iS phf wk o f yfonf/
rmrm jzpfaeawmh udûk z;d u wtHw h MojzpfomG ;onf/ taru pum;udk ]]tar aeraumif;bl;vm;}}
½Sn½f n S af jymavh½o dS l r[kw?f pdwq f ;kd avh½o dS vl nf; r[kw?f tckawmh ]]tif; raumif;bl;}}
ol\taronf olYaMumifh pdwq f ;kd um pum;½Sn½f n S af jymaejyD jzpf ]]Adu
k ef mvdYkvm; tar}}
onf/ udûk zd;onf tar\aomursuEf mS a'gorsuv f ;kH rsm;udk ai; ]]tif; 'Dem;u atmifo h vdv k ?kd emovdv k ekd YjJ zpfaewmMumjy}D }
Munf&h if; pdwaf wG n§Kd ;csKH ;oGm;onf/ ]]q&m0ef rjybl;vm;}}
]]tar ighupkd w d yf suo f mG ;jyDvm; rodb;l }} ]]rjyygbl;uG,}f }
½kwcf sn;f ay:vmaomtawG;u ol\ESv;kH om;udk pnf;csuf taru oufjyif;csonf/ tarhrsuEf mS u vlrrmESiw hf al e
rSerf eS f xkaeonf/ olYukd tar pdwyf suo f mG ;rSmudak wmh ol t&rf; aMumif; tckrS udûk zd;owdxm;rdonf/ taronf wpftrd v f ;kH \
aMumufonf? tarrSpw d yf sujf yDqv kd Qif olYwiG f tm;ud;k &mr½S/d use;f rma&;udk aMumifah MumifMh uMuESihf *½kwpdu k ½f v dS aS omfvnf;
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 119 120 rpE´m
olYu, kd o
f u l awmh *½krpdu k cf ahJ y/ aeonf/ udûk zd;u tarhukd armfMunf&h if; olbmvky&f rnfenf;[k
]]om; tazvnf; eH&u H vkd ufo;D eJYx;kd xm;wm vufMu;D udk pOf;pm;onf/ raeYwek ;f u olt&ufr;l vm½Hrk Qru tazhukd xduyg;
a,mifuikd ;f aewmyJ}} &duyg;ESihf rav;rcefYvyk cf o hJ nf/ olbmvdYk 'Davmufawmif vky&f J
udûk z;d u tarhtMunfu h v kd uJT m rsuv f mT csxm;vdu k o f nf/ ajym&JomG ;oenf; ud, k uhf , kd u f ykd if tHMh oaerdonf/
taru olYAu kd rf mS emaeonfxuf tazhvufa,mifaeonfukd ydjk y;D ]]tazudk taotcsmuefawmhjyD; jyefawmif;yefvu kd }f }
ylyifae[ef½o dS nf/ ]][kwu f }hJ }
]]taru 'DaeYawmh um;xGurf armif;apcsib f ;l ? 'gayrJh udûk z;d u &pf0v J maomrsu&f nfrsm;udk rsuaf wmifwzsyzf syf
olu wpfaeYrarmif;&if wpfaeY0ifaiGavsmrh mS ayghw/hJ aemufjy;D 'DaeY cwfum xde;f &if; acgif;ndwo f nf/ [kwo f nf tazhukd oluefawmh
tdrrf mS igikww f w k ½f adS e&if ighom;MuD; taecufaeygOD;r,fw}hJ } jyD; awmif;yefrnf/
tarhpum;aMumifh udûk z;d \rsuEf mS wpfjyifv;kH yl½edS ;f oGm;aomf ]]om;u tMuD;qH;k ighom; ajzmifah jzmifo h mG ;rS ti,f ESpf
vnf; &ifxw J iG f aEG;oGm;onf/ tazu oltaecufrnfukd pd;k &dro f nfh a,mufvnf; ajzmifah jzmifv h u kd rf mS aygh}}
twGuf auseyfovdv k ?kd tm;emovdv k ?dk MunfE;l ovdv k Ekd iS hf olYpw d af wG taru ol\qHyifrsm;udk oyfwifum ajymaeuspum;udk
aysmuh somG ;onf/ ajymonf? udûk zd;u 'Dwpfcg pdwyf gvufyg acgif;ndwo f nf/
]]rdom;pkqw kd m wpfa,muf&UJ *kPu f wpfa,mufukd [yf ]]om; 'DEpS Ef pS rf mS wu,fu h kd êud;pm;awmhr,f taz}} [k
w,fu?G tazwdYt k arwdYt k wGuf ighom;orD;awG b,fawmhrS rsuEf mS uwd ay;vdu k v f Qif taz\&ifxw J iG f at;oGm;vdrrhf nfxifonf/
ri,fap&bl;? tJ'v D ykd ?J om;wdYo k rD;wdYt k wGuv f nf; taz*kP, f cl sif udûk z;d tazhukd aMumufaMumufEiS ahf rQmaf erdaomfvnf; taz
w,f}} [k rMumcPajymcJah om taz\pum;udk csucf si;f Mum;a,mif u xrif;pm;jyefrvmcJah y/ tcgwdik ;f vnf; tdrEf iS t hf vSr;f a0;aom
vmonf/ tckawmh tazonf ol\taygif;toif;rsm;Mum;xJwiG f ae&ma&mufaeygu eHeufpmudk êuo H vdpk m;wwfí taru ylyyl ifyif
]]udûk zd;vm; ratmifygbl;Asm}} r½Sv d aS cs? odYkaomf
[k ajymae&½SmjyDxifonf/ ]]raeYwek ;f u pdwrf aumif;jzpfjy;D 'DaeYvnf; odyaf eraumif;
]]taz xrif;pm;jyefvm&if bmvky&f rvJom;? ud, k uhf , kd u
f kd vdYkvm;rodb;l ? pdwx f rJ mS r½Tib f ;l av;av;vHvMH u;D }} [k cyfnKd§ ;n§Kd ;
odw,fr[kwv f m;}} ajymonf/
tar\toHu rcsKd om raysmah ysmif;ao;aomfvnf; El;nHh eHeuf xrif;pm;jyefrvmonfukd rylaomfvnf; tcgwdik ;f
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 121 122 rpE´m
jyefvmaeus ajcmufem&Dausmo f nftxd jyefrvmawmh taru onf/ tazonf vH;k 0owdjyefvnfrvmawmhbJ aemufwpfaeY
]]om;wdYktaz aemufusvu kd wf muG,}f } eHeuf apmapmwGif olwYkdtm;vH;k udk cGcJ mG oGm;cJah vonf/
[k ajymonf/ udw k ;kd ESirhf pd;k u tdraf ½SUxGujf yD; arQmaf eMu ]]om;? pmêud;pm;awmhr,f taz}}
aomfvnf; olu tdraf ½SUcef;axmifw h iG f cyfuyk u f yk xf ikd &f if; [laompum;udk tazhem;ESiq hf wfqwfMum;&atmif rajym
]]taz igeJY rsuEf mS csi;f rqdik cf siv f Ykd jyefrvmao;wmrsm; Edik cf o
hJ jzifh udûk zd;\ wpfoufwmvH;k ,lusKH ;r& jzpf&awmhrnf jzpf
vm;}} [k awG;&if; 0rf;enf;aeonf? olu onf/
]]om; aemifw&ygjyD taz}} Ä
[k ajymvQif tazu
]]aemufrS aESmif;rSwwwfvYkd aemifwvdYkac:wm ighom;&JU? aumif;uifrS wdrw f ukd jf zLjzLrsm;u tif;vsm;a&xJwiG f t&dyf xifae
ukeo f mG ;wJt h csed u f kd om;jyefr&awmhb;l ? 'gayr,fh ud, k u hf , kd uf kd jyif onf/ cJv;kH av;udk ypfaygufvu kd af wmh jird af eaomwdr&f yd rf sm;onf
zdYk tcsed af wG trsm;Mu;D ½Syd gao;w,f}} [k ajymavrvm; tm;ay;av y&rf;ywmESihf vIy½f mS ;oGm;onf/ a&jyifatmufrS a&arSmyf if pdr;f n§Kd U
rvm;[k ra&r&mawG;aerdpOf olwYkdtrd af ½SYoYkd &J0wfpEkH iS hf vlEpS Of ;D n§Kd Ursm;u wdrq f yk w
f rd cf rJ sm;udk vufw½H n S Ef iS hf vSr;f jy;D qkyu f ikd af wmh
a&mufvmonf/ rvdk ,dr;f cgaeonf/ a&xJwiG f a&arSmyf ifEiS w hf rd &f yd rf sm;u a&maxG;
]]'Dtrd uf OD;ausmaf t; tdryf gvm;cifAsm;}} EG,, f uS af eonf/
[k ar;oHuMkd um;&onf/ ]]a[m ...}}
xdYkaemuf. . . xdYkaemuf/ udûk zd; a&xJoYkd pdu k Mf unfo h nf/ vIy½f mS ;aeaom wdr&f yd f
xdYkaemufwiG af wmh taz um;csi;f wdu k íf aq;½Hak &mufae rsm;Mum;wGif taz\t&dyu f kd awGY&onf/ taz\rsuEf mS u n§Kd ;ae
aMumif; odvu kd &f onf/ onf/ olYuv kd nf; tm;rvdt k m;r&ESihf Munfah eonf/
]]'Pf&mu jyif;awmh tdro f m;awG tjrefvu kd cf ahJ pcsiyf g ]]udûk z;d rif;'DrmS bmvmvkyaf ewmvJ? rif;tarem;rSm oGm;
w,f cifAsm}} aeav}} [k ajymaeonf/ udûk z;d u tazhukd awmif;yefovdk Munf&h if;u
[laom toHu a0;oGm;vdu k f eD;oGm;vdu k jf zifEh iS hf ol\ acgif;cgonf/
em;xJwiG f yJw h ifxyfaeonf/ ]]tarhukd uReaf wmfrMunf&h ufb;l taz? tar a0'emcHae&
olwYkv d u kd of mG ;awmh owduif;rJah eaomtazudo k m awGY& wmudk uReaf wmfrMunf&h ufb;l }}
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 123 124 rpE´m
aq;½Hck w k ifay:wGif yufvufuav;vJavsmif;&if; a0'em awG vufaumufawG a&mif;jyD; ½Sm&awmhr,f}}
cHpm;ae&aom tarhukd udûk zd; rMunf&h uf? pkwo f yfnnf;nLaom udûk z;d u pdwx f rJ S ajymjyaerdonf/ ckewke;f u jzLazG; awmuf
toHuv kd nf; rMum;&uf/ yaeaom wdrq f yk w
f rd cf MJ u;D rsm;onf avwdu k &f mbufoYkd wvGiv hf iG hf
tazqH;k jy;D wpfvavmufaeawmh taraq;½Hw k if&onf/ ESihf vGiyhf g;oGm;onf/ rd;k &dyrf ;kd om;rsm;u w&dy&f yd Ef iS ahf jy;0ifvmjyD;
om;tdraf b;wGif tvH;k wpfv;kH uyfaeonfqí kd cGpJ w d uf &k onf/ aumif;uifjyifonf ½kww f &uf csucf si;f ndKridI ;f oGm;onf/
"mwfcMJG unfah wmh uifqm[kajymonf/ Adu k xf w J iG v f nf; ]]tJ'h g igwdYk&UJ b0vdyk ?J Munfvifawmufyae&muaejyD;
xdu k ifqmqJvrf sm; ysUH ESYHaeonf[k ajymonf/ tqkyq f o D Ykdvnf; tHYkridI ;f oGm;wmav}}
OD;wnfomG ;aeao;onf[k od&onf/ udûk zd;u aumif;uifus,u f kd armhMunf&h if; &Da0tm;i,f
*,ufvidI ;f uav;rsm; uso J mG ;aomtcg a&jyifonf wjird hf vmonf/ wdrrf nf;wdrn f Kd rsm;onf olYtay:udk ûyjd y;D qif;vmawmh
jidrhf jzpfaeonf/ ,dr;f aeaomwdrrf sm;u wjznf;jznf; jyefjidrv f m ra,mif wtdted rd u hf svmonf/ xdYkaemuf rd;k pufr;kd aygufrsm;onf
aomtcg wdr&f yd Mf um;wGijf zpfae&aomtaz\rsuEf mS onf rIejf yD; wazsmufazsmufEiS hf ckeq f if;vmMuavonf/ a&pufa&aygufrsm;
aysmufu, G o f mG ;onf/ us&mae&mwGif a&yGuaf v;rsm; xvmonf/ xdak &yGuu f av;rsm;
]]taruawmh cGpJ w d uf o k jyD;jyDrYkd olYa&m*gudk aysmufawmh us&J mrS pdwv f mawmh rd;k onf;onf;½GmaejyD jzpfonf/
r,fvYkd xifaew,f taz? uRr;f aejyDqw kd mudk rodb;l }} a&xJwiG f a&pufaMumifjh zpfaom *,uf0ikd ;f av;rsm; csmcsm
udûk z;d u cJav;wpfv;kH xyfjy;D ypfcsvu kd jf yefonf/ vIid ;f x vnfum qufaeonf/ a&xJrt S az\rsuEf mS onfvnf; ay:ayguf
vmaom *,ufxw J iG f tazhujkd yefjy;D awGY&jyefonf? tazu olYukd vmvdu k f a0;0g;jy;D aysmufomG ;vdu k Ef iS rhf Ykd renf;tm;pdu
k jf y;D Munfah e
]]pmêu;d pm;&JUvm;}} &onf/
[k ar;onf/ udûk zd;u acgif;cgonf/ ]]rd;k ½GmjyqD akd wmhvnf; ½So d rQval wG jyefajy;ukeMf uawmhwm
]]uReaf wmf pmusuv f Ykv
d nf; r&bl;taz? tdrrf mS pD;yGm;a&; yJ? tckryS J vl½iS ;f awmhw,f}}
vnf; rajyvnfb;l ? tazhum;av;udv k nf; jyefjy;D rjyifEikd v f Ykd t½I;H ppf*smuif ta[mif;MuD; wpfxnf0wfxm;aom vlMuD;
cHjyD; a&mif;vdu k &f w,f/ taruvnf; aeraumif;? toH;k ruswhJ wpfO;D u udûk zd;\ab;wGif 0ifxikd o f nf/
uReaf wmfuvnf; aiGr½SmEdik af o;? 0ifaiGuvnf; r½S?d ½So d rQaiGav; ]]ighwv l nf; OD;av;vdyk ?J rd;k a&êuduw f ,fxifw,faemf}}
awGvnf; wwdwed YJuek w f myJ? tarhtwGuf aq;zd;k udk tarhqêJG ud; udûk zd;u tomapmif;Munfrh ad omfvnf; bmrSjyefrajymbJ
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 125 126 rpE´m
jird af evdu k o f nf/ cktcsed rf mS awmh olu tawG;udk tazmfûyum wpfO;D eD vufpyG Ef pS u f iG ;f ? a½TvufpyG w f pfuiG ;f ? ywåjrm;em;uyfwpf&efEiS hf
wnf;om aevdo k nf/ rnfoEl iS rhf Qvnf; pum;rajymcsiaf y/ ykvJ em;uyfwpf&efomrdYk tarhtwGuf oH;k ae&aomaq;zd;k ESihf ,SOv f Qif
]]OD;av;wdYk i,fi,fwek ;f uawmh rd;k a&xJxu G &f if taru bmrS odyrf jzpfavmufay/ rpd;k uawmh ol\qGêJ u;d ESiv hf ufaumuf
w,fjyD;qlwmud;k ? 'gaMumifh a½SUwef;a&mufawmh rd;k ½Gmwdik ;f owd& ½Syd gao;onf[k ajym½Smonf/
w,f? wpfcgwav ppfcs&D if; pcef;cs&if; rd;k a&xJrmS rd;k umûcjH y;D ikwf ]]ckae aumfzyD yl al v;wpfcu G af vmufaomufvu kd &f &if odyf
wkwx f ikd jf yD; tdy&f wJt h cgvnf; tdy&f wmyJav}} aumif;rSmyJaemf}}
udûk zd;u pum;rajymcsiaf omfvnf; pum;ajymcsiaf e[ef vlMu;D u pum; pjyefonf/ tJ'h aD wmhrS udûk z;d vnf; olY[mol
½Sad om vlMuD;u rqDrqdik Ef iS o hf YltaMumif;awGukd ajymjyaeonf/ csr;f aeaMumif; owdxm;rdonf/
]]wpfcgwav rd;k wpftm;onf;vdYk oufomrvm;vdYk opf ]]aumfzyD yl al v;awmh r½Sb d ;l ? uHaumif;axmufrvdYk aumfzD
yifatmuf cdrk jd yef&ifvnf; yk½u G qf w d af wG cgcsOaf wGusvmjyefa&m? oMum;vH;k awmh ½Sw d ,f armif? a&mh rif;wpfv;kH igwpfv;kH }}
wpfcgwke;f uawmh cgcsOt f kH txkyv f u kd af wmif ûywfusvu kd af o; vlMuD;u oMum;vH;k av;wpfck vSr;f ay;onf/ udûk zd;u
ta[; a[;}} rjiif;rqefvrS ;f ,ljy;D tcGaH v;cGmum yg;pyfxx J nfv
h u kd o f nf/ csKd jr
ol[mol ajymjyD; olY[mol &,faeaomfvnf; pdwn f pfae jr cg;qdrq hf rd ahf umfzt D &omu vQmxJwiG f ysUH jyD; ESmacgif;xJtxd
aom udûk zd;rSm vdu k íf ûyH;vdpk w d yf if r½Sad cs/ arT;vmonf/ vlMuD;u olajymcsi&f mawGukd olY[mol qufajymae
]]aMomf olppfwu kd zf ;l wmud;k }} jyefonf/
[kom cyfayghayghawG;&if; tomxoGm;&vQif aumif;rvm; ]]awmeufxu J uRwaf wGu ûrdYay:½Gmay:u uRwaf wGvkd
[k pOf;pm;vdu k rf o d nf/ 'Dae&mu xvQif tarhqo D mG ;&awmhrnf ajrMuD;ay:rSm wifaewm r[kwb f ;l ? opfyifay:wufjyD; vlay:udk
[k awG;rdawmh rxbJ qufxikd af erdjyefonf/ ckecf ek cf swwfwm? wpfcw k ek ;f u OD;av;&JU oli,fcsi;f wpfa,muf
tarhem;wGif aeYa&mnyg apmifah eaom rpd;k vnf; ausmif; iSuzf sm;eJYowdvpfomG ;vdYk xrf;pifeYJjyefjy;D o,fvmwm uRwaf wGu
ysuv f jS yD jzpfonf/ wûzwfûzwfeYJ ckecf svu kd wf m ud, k ahf y:rSma&m olYay:rSma&m uRwaf wG
]]udwk ;kd uawmh tarha½TawG ukeo f mG ;&if uReaf wmfwYkd bm csn;f yJ? vufrtm;awmh olYuRwv f nf; rûzwfEikd ?f ud, k u hf Rwvf nf;
qufvyk Mf urvJ[if}} [k pd;k &dryf yl efpmG ar;onf/ tarha½TawG[k rûzwfEikd ?f pcef;a&mufawmhrS ûzwfMu&w,f? olYu, dk af y:rSm uRwf
om ajymae&aomfvnf; qGêJ u;d ESpu f ;kH ESihf vufaumufwpf&ef? ausmuf aygif; wpf&mausmw f ,f? xrf;pifwpfcv k ;kH vnf; aoG;awGeYJ ½TeJ pf
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 127 128 rpE´m
vdYk pcef;u &JabmfawGu 'Pf&mMuD;MuD;&vmw,fvYkd xifomG ;Mu ]]tazqH;k uwnf;u uReaf wmfwYkd pD;yGm;ysuw f myJ? um;
wmwJ}h } av;udk t½I;H cHjy;D a&mif;jy;D tJ'yD u kd q f eH YJtarhukd aq;ukw,f/ 'DMum;
aoG;awGeYJ ½TeJ pfvY[ kd al ompum;udk Mum;&awmh udûk z;d &ifxJ xJvnf; tJ'yD u kd qf eH YJyJ pm;&wmaygh? tJ'g ukecf geD;jy?D uke&f if tarh
wqwfqwfwek o f mG ;onf/ aoG;oH&&J EJ iS o hf wdarhaeaom tazhukd qGêJ u;d awG vufaumufawG a&mif;&r,f? tJ'guke&f if bmqufvyk f
owd&onf/ &rvJ? uReaf wmfuvnf; rESpu f q,fwef;usao;w,f? nDav;u
]]uReaf wmft h azvnf; aoG;awGeYJ &JaewmyJ}} ud;k wef; nDrav;u ckepfwef;? rESpw f ek ;f uom uReaf wmfph w d af wG
olYukd pum;ajym&ef r&nf½, G yf gbJ udûk z;d u tvdv k akd jymrd ravbJ pmêud;pm;cJ&h if q,fwef;atmifjyD;jyD? tckawmh}}
onf/ ]]awmfygawmhumG ...}}
]]bmjzpfwmvJ}} vlMuD;u udûk zd;\ycH;k udyk w k u f m ESpof rd o hf nf/
]]um;wdu k w f myg um;csi;f qdik w f u kd rf w
d m}} ]]tJ'gaMumifrh YkdvYkd ud, k u hf , kd u f kd uHq;kd vSjyDvYkd xifae&if
]]bmjzpfomG ;vJ}} r[kwaf o;bl; ighw?l OD;av; rif;udk Munfah ewmMumjyD? t&rf;udk
]]aowmaygh aooGm;wmaygh}} pdwyf suf n§Kd ;EGr;f aeyHak ygufaevdYkvmjyD; pum;ajymwmyg}}
]]aMomf}} oJorJ rJ J ½Gmaeaomrd;k u wjznf;jznf; pJomG ;onf/ zGzJ JG
vlMu;D u jird o f mG ;onf/ olwYEkd pS Of ;D vH;k tif;vsm;uefa&jyif usaeao;aomfvnf; jyefjyD; Munfvifvmonf/ rd;k a&awG ½TeJ pfae
odYk ai;Munfah eMuonf/ udûk z;d u tazhujkd yefvnfjrifa,mifum xdk aom olwYkd ESpaf ,mufuawmh tif;vsm;a&jyifukd qufvufjy;D ai;
vlMu;D u olwu kd cf ahJ omwdu k yf rJG sm;udk jyefvnfjrifa,mifaevdrrhf nf Munfah eMuonf/
xifonf/ ]]rif;wdYkrmS tazaooGm;ayr,fh tar½Sw d ,f? aeraumif;
]]tck tarvnf; aq;½Hrk mS }} wJh tarudk ukp&mydu k q f v
H nf; ½Sad o;w,f? a&mif;p&m a½Twakd ½Tp
]]bmjzpfwmvJ}} awGvnf; ½Sad o;w,f? aep&mtdrv f nf; ½Sad o;w,fav? taumif;
]]uifqmwJ}h } zufu jrifwwfMunfw h wf&if aumif;wmawGvnf; ½Syd gao;w,f
]]rif;wdYkvnf; aorif;eJYppfwu kd af eMu&wmaygh}} uGm}}
]]'gayr,fh ½I;H rSm aocsmaewJph pfyMJG uD;av}} vlMuD;\toHu at;aq;wnfjidrv f o S nf/ olYpum;udk
udûk zd;u 0rf;enf;yrf;enf;ajym&if; rsu&f nfow k o
f nf/ em;axmif&if; udûk z;d tHMh ooGm;onf/ olwpfcgrQ 'Dvkd rawG;cJzh ;l acs/
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 129 130 rpE´m
]]tazr½Sad wmhb;l ? 'kuy© gyJumG vdYk awG;rdwt hJ csed rf mS awmf p&m vufEpS zf ufu, kd pf ½D wdS ,f? 'Dajray:rSm rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfEikd w f hJ
ao;wmayghumG tar½Sad o;w,fvYkd qdjk y;D awG;&ifvnf; &ao;w,f ajcESpzf ufvnf; ud, k pf D ½SMd uw,fav}}
r[kwv f m;? a&wpf0ufy½J adS ewJh zefcu G u f kd Munf&h if wpfa,mufu udûk z;d \rsuv f ;kH tpHo k nf rsu&f nfawG &pf0aJ e&mrS wjznf;
a&wpf0ufy½J adS wmhw,fvYkd pdwyf sun f nf;nLayr,fh wpfjcm; wpf jznf; ta&mifawmufyvmonf/ &ifxw J iG f aEG;jyD; tcsr;f vnf;ajy
a,mufuawmh [m a&wpf0ufawmif useaf eao;w,fvYkd awG;jy;D oGm;onf/
0rf;omEdik w f myJ r[kwv f m;}} ]]rif;taru aorif;eJY ppfcif;aewJt h csed rf mS rif;u 'DrmS
udûk z;d u tif;vsm;a&jyifuakd i;Munf&h if; rSio f ufro d vdk jzpf xdik jf yD; bmvdYkai;aeovJ ighw&l ,f? rif;u olYtem;rSmyJ ½Sad eoifh
aeonf/ a[m a&jyifwiG f tazht&dyu f kd jrifa,mifrjd yefonf/ taz w,f r[kwv f m;/ rEdik rf ,fph pf ½I;H r,fph pfayr,fv h nf; tarhukd uljy;D
u ûyH;aeonf? ]][kww f maygh om;&,f}} [kajymaeonf/ wduk af y;&r,f? &wwforQtcsed af v;rSm tarhukd pdwcf sr;f omatmif
]]'DrmS Munfph rf; ighw&l }} a0'em oufomatmifvnf; vkyaf y;Edik w f ,f? ukov kd af wGvnf;
vlMu;D u ol\abmif;bDpESpzf ufukd qGrJ í jyonf/ ESpzf uf trsm;Mu;D qufay;Edik w f ,f? tar taoajzmifo h mG ;atmif uwdawG
vH;k ajctwkawG jzpfaeí udûk zd;\&ifxw J iG f vIu d cf eJjzpfomG ;onf/ vnf; ay;vdu k Ef ikd wf ,fav? rif;&JUtartwGuf rif;vkyaf y;Edik w f m
olYrmS ajcESpzf ufv;kH r½Syd gvm;/ awG trsm;MuD; ½Syd gw,f}}
]]OD;av;udk roem;eJY ighw?l OD;av;rSm ajcESpzf ufr½Sad yr,fh ]]aus;Zl;wifygw,f OD;av;}}
vufEpS zf uf½adS o;w,f? 'DvufEpS zf uf[m tvkyaf wG trsm;Mu;D vkyf udûk z;d u ae&mrS qwfceJxvdu k of nf? olu tarhukd bmrS
Edik w
f ,fav}} rulnED ikd b f J vufyu kd Mf unfah e&onf[k ,lqxm;cJo h nf/ xdv k Ml u;D
MuHch ikd o
f efprG ;f aom ol\ vufacsmif;rsm;onf rd;k ½GmjyD;p uawmh olwwfEikd w f mawG trsm;Mu;D wJ?h [kwo f nf olwwfEikd w f m
aea&mifjcnfwiG f ta&mifwvufvuf awmufyaeonf[yk if udûk z;d awG trsm;MuD; ½So d nf? ½Su d ½kd odS nf/
xifvu kd rf o d nf/ xdv k ufacsmif;rsm;jzifh ol\ ycH;k udk n§pu f ikd vf u kd f ]]uReaf wmfomG ;awmhr,f}}
awmh rjrif&aomtiftm;rsm;u udûk z;d \cE¨mud, k xf J pD;0ifomG ;onf/ ]]b,fuv kd }J }
]]aemufq;kH wpfaeY rif;wdYktar r½Sad wmhb;l qd&k ifawmif ]]tarhqu D }kd }
rif;wdYk armifErS oH;k a,muf wpfpnf;wpfv;kH eJY cspcf spcf ifcif usecf MhJ u ]]aumif;w,f}}
r,f/ use;f use;f rmrm½SMd uw,f? vGwv f w G vf yfvyf vIy½f mS ; vkyu f ikd f udûk zd;u ol\vG,t f w d u
f av;udq k , JG u l m cyfou G of u G f
zefcu
G x
f u
J a&wpf0uf 131 132 rpE´m
avQmufvu kd of nf/ taru olYukd arQmaf eavmufjyD jzpfonf/ tarh b,favmuf uHaumif;vJqw kd m pOf;pm;rd&UJ vm;}} [k av;eufaom
udk csucf si;f vGr;f vmonf/ tarhab;udk tckcsucf si;f a&mufomG ;csif toHEiS ahf jymonf/
onf/ t&ifví kd cyfou G o f uG af vQmufumrS zdeyfwpfzufu zwfceJ udûk zd;u MunfMunfvifvif ûyH;&if; zdeyfrygaom ol\
jywfomG ;onf/ ajcaxmufrsm;udk iHYMk unfrh o d nf/ xdYak emuf pwifjy;D vrf;avQmufonf/
]][m 'Dzed yf}} vlMuD;u aemufbufrS vSr;f ajymonf/
udûk zd;u zdeyfukd pdww f wkd Ekd iS hf uefypfvu kd rf nf vkyjf yD;rS ]]zefcu G x
f rJ mS a&wpf0ufawmif½w dS ,faemf}}
]][dwk pfzufjywfayr,fh 'Dwpfzufu taumif;Mu;D yJ[mudk udûk zd;u acgif;ndwo f nf/
[dwk pfzufukd jyefcsKyv f u kd &f if wpf&efv;kH jyefp;D vdYk&ao;w,f}} [kwo f nf? zefcu G x f rJ mS a&wpf0ufawmif ½Sad eonf/
[k awG;rdjy;D uefcRwx f m;aomwpfzufukd jyefaumufonf/
]]a&mh...a&mh 'DrmS OD;av;&JUtdwx f rJ mS *Rw*f Rwt f wd wf pfv;kH (jrefrmEdik if pH pfrx
I rf;a[mif;tzGUJ ESpyf wfvnfr*¾Zif; 2005 ckEpS )f
ygw,f? zdeyfukd tJ'geJYxnf}h }
]]aus;Zl;wifygw,f OD;av;}}
udûk z;d u aus;Zl;wifpmG vSr;f ,l&if; zdeyfEpS zf ufukd <uyf<uyf
tdwx f J xnfo h nf/ aq;½Hu k kd ajcAvmESihf a&awGp½kd v JT suf a&mufvm
aom olYujkd rifvQif taru bmrsm;ajymavrnfrod/
udûk z;d u vlMu;D udEk w I q f ufum ûy;H jyonf? &ifxw J iG f wpdrhf
pdrhf aus;Zl;wifaejy;D olEiS v hf nf; &if;ES;D uRr;f 0ifomG ;ovdk cHpm;&onf/
]]jyefcsKyv f u
kd &f if taumif;yJ OD;av;&JU? tMumMu;D pD;vdYk &OD;
rSm}}
]][kww f mayghumG }}
vlMuD;u tûyH;ESiahf xmufco H nf? xdYkaemuf qufí
]]tJ'v D kd jyefaumif;oGm;r,fh zdeyfwpf&efukd tjynft h pHk pD;jy;D
ajray:rSmrwfrwf&yfEikd w f ahJ jcaxmufEpS zf ufuykd ikd q f ikd xf m;&wma&m?
133 134 rpE´m
½Spq f ,fausmjf yq D ykd ?J om;orD;awGuvnf; ta0;a&mufaeMuw,f
opfyifpdkufolrsm; wJ}h } [k olMum;cJo
'Dt½G,q f w
h rQukd jyefajymzl;onf/ azazuawmh ]]'Dtouf
kd m om;&if; orD;&if;eJYaerS tqifajyrSmaygh}} [k u½kPm
ruif; ajymwwfonf/ [kwaf wmhvnf; [kwo f nf/ aqGrsKd ;eD;pyfxJ
rS tazmfac:xm;aom rde;f uav;wpfa,muf½adS omfvnf; ajcqkyf
vufe,f ûypkzYkd aeaeomom wausmaf usmaf c:aeonfukd Mum;yg
vsuEf iS yhf if rxl;bJaecsiaf ewwfonfukd jrifawGUae&awmh azaz
pdwaf umif;[ef rwlay/
tbGm;MuD;u uHcRe\ f umwGe;f xJu bGm;pGmvdk yHpk rH sKd ;
]]zd;k om;a& rmvumoD; pm;csiw f ,fumG }} jzpfonf/ bGm;pGmvdyk if 00tdtMd uD; jzpfonf/ odYkaomf bGm;pGmvdk
zd;k om;wdYktrd of Ykd tvnfa&mufvmwdik ;f Adak tmif ajymavh½dS oefoef rmrm tbGm;Mu;D r[kwb f J olu ajcwpfzuf enf;enf;qm
aom pum; jzpfonf/ xdYkaemuf wpfzufjcpH nf;½d;k em;odYk oli,fcsi;f aeonf/ xdYak Mumifh tbd;k Mu;D vdk jcx H wJ iG f trIud af umufvu kd ?f wHrsuf
ESpaf ,mufom; ra,mifrvnfEiS hf a&mufvmwwfjrJ jzpfonf/ pnf; vSn;f vdu k f rvkyEf ikd b f J tdraf ½SUo&ufyifatmufu uGyyf spw f iG f
wpfzufjcx H w J iG f oD;aeaom rmvumoD; jzLjzLyGyMG u;D rsm;udk vSr;f ai; om xdik af ewwfavonf/ wpfcgwpf&v H nf; "r®pMum½Gwaf ewwf
&if; ]]cd;k pm;csipf w d af ygufvmjyaD emf}} [kajymum &,farmrdMu&onf/ onf/ odYkaomf olYcrsm ½Gw&f if; ½Gw&f if; arhum a½SUa&mufvu kd ?f
,ckaeaom qdwjf ird &f yfuu G x f o
J Ykd zd;k om;wdYrk o
d m;pk ajymif; aemufa&mufvu kd Ef iS rhf Ykd "r®pMumwpfy'kd rf mS rqH;k Edik b f J csmvnf csmvnf
vmonfrmS rMumvSao;ay/ olwYkd\tdraf b;wGif ajrydek nf;enf; jzpfaewwfavonf/
½Sad omfvnf; o&ufyifEpS yf ifrv S íJG bmyifrrS ½Sad y/ wpfzufjcx H wJ iG f ]]tdwk mrsm; bmrSraumif;bl;? ½kyt f w kd mvnf; raumif;bl;?
um; o&uf? ydE?Jé MoZm? 'efYovGe?f 'nif;paomtyifMu;D rsm;tjyif pdwt f w
kd mvnf; raumif;bl;? toHtw kd mvnf; raumif;bl;}}
rmvumyif oH;k av;yifvnf; ½So d nf/ >ywfcaJ eatmifvnf; oD;wwf tbGm;pGm(zd;k om;u pdwx f rJ aS c:jcif;jzpfonf)rdYv k Ykd "r® pMum
avonf/ ½Gwaf evQif zd;k om;u xdo k Ykdyif awG;rdwwfavonf/ vltw kd Ykd\
jcH½iS jf zpfaom tbd;k MuD;ESit hf bGm;MuD;uawmh tawmfMuD; toHonf tedrt hf jrifh toHvidI ;f rnDbJ wkew f ek cf gcg½Sw
d wfonfrYkd
udk Z&maxmif;aeMujyD jzpfavonf/ araru ]]ESpaf ,mufpvH;k em;axmifí raumif;vSonfuawmh trSeyf if/
opfyifpu
kd o
f rl sm; 135 136 rpE´m
]]½kyt f &kd if ta&cGaH v;awG wGeYfvmr,f? vdyv f mr,f/ toH abmif;bDuMkd unfu h m wcpfcpf&,faomtcgwGiu f m; tawmfyif
td&k if wkev f mr,f? cgvmr,f/ pdwt f &kd ifawmh awGvmr,f ai;vm atmifo h ufoufjzpfc&hJ onf/
r,f/ arharhavsmah vsmjh zpfvmr,f}} tbd;k uawmh ½Sn½f n S uf ikd ;f udik ;f ESihf cg;vnf; tenf;i,f
xdt k bd;k ESihf tbGm;wdYkukd ai;Munf&h if; zd;k om;onf Z&m\ uke;f avonf/ tbGm;vdk arhwwfavsmw h wf owdvufvw G Ef iS hf
oabmudk rMumcP awG;rdwwfonf? qifjcifrw d wfavonf/ xif&m ajymwwfjcif;rsm; vH;k 0r½Sad y/ tpOftjrJ owdEiS , hf OS af eaom
tbGm;pGmu tbd;k xufi,fonf[k qdak omfvnf; olYxw H iG f Z&m\ tbd;k \tMunfrh sm;u pl;½Seuf½idI ;f aeqJjzpfavonf/ vufwpfzuf
t&dyt f a,mifrsm;u ydjk yD; vTr;f rd;k avonf/ tbd;k xufyif ydjk yD; arh roefbJ vdrzf ,fz,fjzpfaeaomfvnf; xdv k ufukd ttm;rxm;bJ
wwf avsmw h wf[efwal vonf/ wpfcgwpfcg tbd;k u ]][J.h ..ra½T aumif;aom vufwpfzufEiS hf ,SOw f u JG m usiv f nfpmG toH;k ûywwf
vmprf;? eift h bGm;u olxrif;pm;jy;D jyv D m;wJh ar;aew,f}} [k pdwf onf/ wpfcgwke;f u zd;k om;ESihf Adak tmifwYkd tbd;k qDrS rmvumoD;
r½Sno f EH iS hf atmfajymoHukd Mum;&wwfavonf/ xrif;pm;jy;D jyv D m;? awmif;zl;onf/ tbd;k u ]]cl;MuavuGm}} [k MunfjzLpGm cGiahf y;aomf
rpm;&ao;bl;vm;yif ar;aeaomtbGm;pGm\taMumif;udk wpfpeG ;f vnf; olwYkcd ;l aeonfukd t"dymÜ ,fazmf&efcufcaJ om rsuv f ;kH rsm;ESihf
wpfp od&if; ûyH;&onf/ ai;Munfah ecJo h nf/ xdYkaemuf ]]ud, k w f ikd t f yifyef;cHrpdu k b f eJ YJ toD;
zd;k om;\tpfruawmh tbGm;pGmudk odyjf y;D rauseyfvaS y/ awG tyGiahf wGukd cl;pm;cGi&hf w,fqw kd m odyu f aH umif;wm uav;wdYk
ol0wfxm;aom puyfaemufuu JG kd rsuEf mS xm;ykyyf yk Ef iS hf Munfjh yD; &JU/ 'gayr,fh ud, k u f aH umif;w,fqw kd mudk odzYkd wefz;kd xm;wwfzYkd
]]atmufzufu trsm;Mu;D cGv J mjy;D rS tay:zufusrS 0wfraeygeJYawmh awmh vdw k ,faemf}} [kajymonf/
at? a[mif;avmif;jzpfomG ;atmif awmufavQmufom cGv J u kd yf gawmh ol bmud&k nf½, G íf ajymrSe;f zd;k om; aumif;pGmem;rvnfay/
vm;}} [k ajymaomaMumifjh zpfavonf/ rru ]]acwfukd em;rvnfwhJ ol\rmvumoD;rsm;u yGvnf;yG csKd vnf;csKd rYkd pm;aumif;vSonf
tbGm;MuD;? tef;wdwMf uD;}} ESihf yGpyd pG d ajymaeaomfvnf; xdpk uyf uawmh wu,fyif/ odYkaomf olu rmvumoD;xufru ydrk í kd
aemufuMJGu;D udk cPcP r0wf&aJ wmhonfuawmh trSeyf if/ ud, k u f &nf½, G af Mumif;udak wmh odovdv k kd ½Sad eonf/ azazESihf pum;pyfí
ti,frYkd rajymomaomaMumifo h m Munfah e&onf/ xdpk uyfMuD;udk ar;Munfrh ad wmhrS azazu acgif;wndrn hf rd Ehf iS hf ûyH;um ]]olajymwm
zd;k om;uvnf; enf;enf;rS rêuduaf omaMumifh bGm;pGmudk pdwx f rJ S vGwv f yfa&; qdw k hJ opfyifukd ajymwm om;&JU? olu awmfveS af &;
usw d jf yD; aus;Zl;txyfxyf wifrad vonf/ &Jabmfa[mif;MuD; wJ}h } [k ajymonf/
odYkaomf zd;k om;0wfxm;aom tdwaf wG trsm;MuD;ygonfh ]]awmfveS af &; &Jabmfa[mif;...}}
opfyifpu
kd o
f rl sm; 137 138 rpE´m
zd;k om;u wtHw h Mo a&½Gwrf o d nf/ zd;k om;\toufu qdak om tbd;k udu k m; txifwMu;D ½Sv d monfrYkd pum;av; bmav;
q,fah jcmufEpS o f m½Sad o;onfrYkd OcGx H rJ aS ygufcgp Muufuav;vdk ajymcsio f nf/
todEek ,fvaS o;onf/ t*Fvyd u f Rebf 0? awmfveS af &;umv? *syef odYkaomf tbd;k u olY[mol cyfreS rf eS af eawmh zd;k om;u
wdYk tkypf ;kd cJah omoH;k ESp?f AH;k 'PfawGu w0ke;f 0ke;f cHc&hJ aom jrefrmjynf ra&m&Jay/ wpfaeYwek ;f uawmh jcHpnf;½d;k wpfzufraS ejyD; zd;k om;udk
ponfponfrsm;udk Mum;zl;½Ho k m½So
d nf/ xdt k jzpftysurf sm;onf ]]a[h uav; cPvmygOD;}}[k vSr;f ac:onf/ olYvufxrJ mS rmvum
olYtwGuaf wmh [d;k ta0;Mu;D udak &mufaeonf/ zufqpf*syefawGu oD; jzLjzLyGyMG uD; ESpv f ;kH udk vSr;f ay;jyD; ]'DaeY bmaeYvJ od&UJ vm;} [k
yg;½duk ?f a&aEG;avmif;? vufonf;cGcH mG cJo h nfrsm;udk ararajymjyawmh ar;onf/ zd;k om;u acgif;cgrnfûyjy;D rS 'DaeYvw G vf yfa&;aeYrYkd ausmif;
wtHw h MoESihf ]]'Davmufawmifq;kd ovm;[if}} [k r,Hrk &Jjzpf&onf/ ydwo f nfukd owd&jyD; ]]vGw.f ..tJ...vGwv f yfa&;aeYyg tbd;k }} [k
azazwdYk ararwdYo k nfvnf; jrefrmjynfvw G vf yfa&;&tjy;D xpfxpfaighaigh ajz&onf/ tbd;k u olYukd cyfp;l pl;Munfu h m ]]rif;
uReb f 0rSvw G af omtcgrS arG;zGm;vmMuolrsm;jzpfonf/ tbd;k \ tazawG tarawGa&m rif;vdk odMu&JUvm;}} [k xyfqifah r;onf/
pum;ESiahf jym&vQif tbd;k wdYo k nf tyifpu kd o f rl sm;jzpfonf/ tazESihf zd;k om;u bmajz&rSe;f rodbJ tMuyf½u kd af epOf . . . .
tarwdYkonfum; toD;pm;olrsm;omjzpfonf/ odYkaomf olwYko d nf ]]tif; . .odcsiv f nf;odrmS yg/ 'gayr,fh ta&;rpdu k ?f wefz;kd
tyifpu kd o f rl sm;ESihf eD;eD;uyfuyf½cdS zhJ ;l onft h wGuf zd;k om;wdYEk iS hf EIid ;f pm rxm;wmawmh trSeyf ?J 'gaMumifrh Ykdvnf; tvHrxlMuwmaygh}}[k
vQiu f m; tyif\wefz;kd udk ydjk yD;odMu[efwal vonf/ ajymonf/
zd;k om;onf tbd;k tbGm;ESihf aezl;olr[kwí f vltv kd rl if; zd;k om;u tbd;k wdYk tdrzf ufvrS ;f Munfv h ukd af wmh 0g;vH;k wdik f
rsm;udk ESpo f ufvo S nfr[kwaf cs/ vltw kd Ykd\*kPo f wif;uvnf; xdyzf sm;wGif wvlvv l iG ahf eaom teDa&miftvHav;udk awGY&onf/
arT;vSonfrYkd cyf½UHG ½GUH jzpfaeonf/ vltw kd Yko d nf olwpfyg;em;axmif ]]uReaf wmf tckxv l ukd rf ,fav tbd;k &JU? &ao;w,f r[kwf
csiaf om em;raxmifcsiaf om bmudrk QtrIrxm;? olwYkad jymcsi&f mudk vm;}}
rqH;k Edik af tmif wAspaf wmufawmufajymwwfMuonf/ em;av;vm ]]at;...tckrS reuf½pS ef m&DyJ ½Sad o;wm? &ygao;w,f/
MupjrrJ Ykd olwYku d o kd rH eS Ef iS ahf jymvQif rMum;wwf? rMum;rSe;f odí atmf nae ajcmufem&Dausm&f ifawmh jyeford ;f aemf}}
ajymvQiv f nf; ]]ighukd em;av;aew,fxifvYkv d m;}} [k pdwq f ;kd wwf azazhb'D u kd kd awmfawmfarTjy;D ½SmaomtcgrS Edik if aH wmf tvH
Muonf[k Mum;zl;xm;awmh pum;ajym&rnfuv kd nf; cyfaMumuf udk awGYonf/ zd;k om;u 0g;vH;k wdik af v;\xdyw f iG f Edik if aH wmftvHukd
aMumuf jzpfaeonf/ odYkaomf xdak wmfveS af &;&Jabmfa[mif;MuD;[k csnu f m tdraf ½SU0&HwmwGif pdu k x f vl u
kd of nf/ a0hum 0Jum wdu k cf wf
opfyifpu
kd o
f rl sm; 139 140 rpE´m
aeaom at;jrjraqmif;avwGif tvHawmfu wzswzf swv f iG jhfrL;ae ]]jrefvukd w f hJ vuf tbd;k &m? olYu, kd v f ;kH 00tdtMd uD;eJY 'D
onf/ jcpH nf;½d;k wpfzufrS vSr;f arQmMf unfah eaomtbd;k u ESpûf cu d pf mG avmuf oGuv f rd rfh ,fvYkd rxifaygif}}
ûy;H aeonf/ Adak tmifu rsuv f ;kH jyL; rsuqf jH yL;ESiahf jymonf/
xdak eYupjyD; tbd;k ESihf zd;k om;wdYk tvGr;f oifch MhJ u&onf/ ]]vufvnf; oGu?f pdwv f nf; oGu?f owåu d vnf; t&rf;
zd;k om; omru Adak tmifyg tbd;k wdYjk cu H rmvumoD;rsm;udk êuu d o f vdk aumif;w,f uav;wdYak &? 'gaMumifrh Yv kd nf; tbd;k touf½iS cf &hJ wm
cl;pm;cGi&hf cJMh uonf/ yJ}}
tbd;k ESihf tvGr;f oifah omfvnf; tbGm;ESiahf wmh odyjf yD; tbd;k \rsuv f ;kH rsm;onf ai;&D&jD zpfomG ;Muonf/ Mumawmh
tqifajyvSonf r[kwaf y/ tbGm;u zd;k om;udak wGYwikd ;f ]]olu vnf; MumvSayjy/D odYyk gaomfvnf; jyefpOf;pm;vdu k w f ikd ;f vwfqwf
b,fov l J udzk ;kd csp}f } &JU[k ar;wwfonf/ tbd;k udk rsuaf pmif;xd;k &if; qJ? aEG;axG;qJ? &ifcek q f yJ ifjzpfonf/
]]vlaygif;wm Munfah ygif;aemf? ud, k v hf v
l m; rod? t*Fvyd v f v l m;
rod? *syefvv l m; rod taygif;rSm;aeOD;r,f}} [lívnf; ajymwwf Ä
onf/ bGm;pGm\pdwaf wGu tarharhtavsmah vsmah wGrYkd [dak &mufvu kd f
'D a&mufvu kd jf zpfaewwfonfukd zd;k om;em;vnfygonf/ wpfcgawmh aemufzufrS xyfcsyv f u
kd vf maom ajcoHrsm;aMumifh olY&ifawG w'dik ;f
Adak tmifu aemufcsiaf jymifcsipf w d Ef iS hf zd;k om;udk vufnKd§;xd;k um ]]olu 'dik ;f ckeaf eonf/ b,fbufvufarmif;wGiv f nf; aoG;awG pdr, hf akd e
*syefuifaywdik af v? udzk ;kd cspu f kd zrf;rvdYk}} [kajymonf/ tbGm;onf onf/ emusijf cif;? armyef;jcif;rsm;ESihf vJûydcsiaf ejyDjzpfonf/
zd;k om;udk axGaxGMu;D Munfah e&mrS tHwpfcsuMf uw d v
f ukd jf y;D olYab;rS ]]igvJvYkd rjzpfb;l ? ighukd rdvYkd rjzpfb;l }} [laom tawG;u
axG;cHMu;D udak umufcg wpftm;vTí J aygufvu kd o
f nf/ zd;k om; ta½Smif rcdik w hf cdik Ef iS hf ,dik vf cJ siaf eaom ajcaxmufrsm;udk oGuo f uG q
f aJG c:
aumif;í uGaJ omacgif; rjzpfc&hJ jcif;jzpfonf/ axG;cHvo JG mG ;awmh aeonf/ olYukd rdomG ;vQif olox d m;aom owif;rsm;twGuf olYukd
tbGm;u rauseyf/ olYab;rS a&aEG;Murf;td;k awG? zefa&waumif;awG r&ru ar;Muawmhrnf/ rajymvQif ajymvmatmif enf;rsKd ;pHk oH;k Mu
udk vSr;f ,laepOf zd;k om;wdYkEpS af ,muf tvsit f jref qkwcf mG cJMh u& awmhrnfvnf; jzpfonf/ ESyd pf ufMuawmhrnfjzpfonf/ zufqpfwYkd
onf/ \ vufxo J Ykd touf½iS v f suf usa&muf&rnfh awmfveS af &;orm;
olwYkd\ tjzpfwYkdukd Mum;awmh tbd;k u oabmuspmG ESihf wpfO;D \ uHMur®monf awG;0Hph &myif r½S/d
w[m;[m;&,faeavonf/ olYrsuv f ;kH awG jyma0vkvw k iG f jcHwpfjcHxJ 0ifajy;cJo
h nf/
opfyifpu
kd o
f rl sm; 141 142 rpE´m
jywif;aygufrw S pfqifh tdrx f cJ ek 0f ifvu kd pf Of vefYí atmfvu kd af om cHaer,f xifovm;...}}
toHrsm;udk Mum;&onf/ olMunfv h u kd af wmh q,fausmo f uf rde;f ]]td.k ..rrwdYk awmfMuygawmh [D;..[D;..tr,fav; u,fyg..
uav; oH;k a,muf/ rsuEf mS av;rsm;u cyfqifqifrYkd nDtpfr wpfpk rrwdYk owfaeMuygjyD}}
jzpfrnf xifvu kd af omfvnf; taotcsm rpOf;pm;tm;/ tjyifzufwiG f 0ke;f 'dik ;f usaJ eaomtoHrsm;udk Mum;ae&onf/
]]uReaf wmfu h kd *syefawGvu kd .f ..vdu k zf rf;}} cPaeawmh w0ke;f 0ke;f wufvmaom ppfzed yforH sm;ESihf *syefvkd qJoH
olu pum;udk qH;k atmif rajymEdik ?f armvSjyrD Ykd vJûyu d sawmh qdo k rH sm;udk Mum;&jyefonf/
rvdk ,dik af eonf/ aumifrav;awG\a½SYwiG f o&ufo;D pdr;f wpfyu kH kd ]]rqGeJ YJ...owfr,f...'if;udk owfr,f ..rqGeJ YJ}}
awGY&onf/ cGv J ufp o&ufo;D jcrf;rsm;udk awGYawmh &ifawG w'dik ;f 'dik ;f ]]vmav ..vmav... vmvdu k pf rf;yg/ taoxd;k wm rao
ckeaf eonfMh um;xJraS ejy;D ]]o&ufo;D ukvm;w,fvyk zf Ykd cGaJ eMuwm vdYk atmfvYkd aumif;aew,f/ [kwv f m;...aocsi&f ifvmcJph rf;yg...td.k ..
xifyg&JU}} [k awG;vdu k rf ad o;onf/ rqGMJ uprf;ygeJY owfprf;yg&ap..}}
]]vm...jref...jref...vm}} ]]u,fMuygOD; tpfuMkd uD;wdYk&,f? rrwdYkukd u,fygOD; ..
olYukd aumifrav;wpfa,mufuqGjJ yD; bD'Mkd uD;wpfv;kH xJ owfaeMuygjy?D u,fygOD; tr,fav; aoG;awG? aoG;awGtrsm;Mu;D }}
aqmifw h eG ;f jyD; xnfv h u kd of nf/ xdt k oHrsm;u a0a00g;0g;ESihf eD;vmovdv k kd a0;oGm;ovdk
]][if...'DrmS aoG;pufawG}} vdk jzpfum bD'x kd w
J iG v
f nf; rGe;f avSmifaeaomaMumifh ol owdvpf
]]olY'Pf&mu uswm...}} oGm;onf/ rnfrQMumatmif owdvpfomG ;onfrod/ olowdjyef&
]]'gqd&k if odawmhrmS yJ}} awmh bD't kd jyif a&mufaejyD jzpfonf/ aumifrav;oH;k a,mufvnf;
]][m...rr...b,fvv kd yk .f ..trav;...bk&m;? bk&m;}} tusaÐ wG wGeYaf Muum qHyifawG zGmaeMuonf/ o&ufo;D cGjJ crf;rsm;
]]ar;raeeJY...a&mh 'D"m;udk jrefjref,.l ..vm...igwdYk&efjzpfr,f.. jyefYusaJ eaom Murf;ay:wGiv f nf; aoG;awG ayyGaeonf/ eH&u H kd
[if...aumifr eifu ighukd "m;eJYx;kd w,f [kwv f m;...[if? eifaus;Zl; rSx
D ikd af eaom aumifrav;wpfa,mufuawmh aygifukd qefYwef;um
uef;vSacsuvm;...[Jh eifqyH ifawG qGzJ v G ukd pf rf;}} vufEiS hf tkyx f m;onf/ ]]aoG;pufawGukd okwv f Ykdvnf; b,fvrkd S
]]tdk .. bmaus;Zl;vJ? bmrS em;rvnfb;l }} rrDEikd v f Ykd MurH Md u&H m Muv H u
kd w
f m tckrS emvdu k wf m}} [k wd;k wd;k azsmah zsmh
]][if .. [if...eifu h kd igowfr,f}} ajymonf/
]]owfav..owfav? owf0o hH wfMunfyh gvm;? 'Dua&m xdYak emuf olYukd MuifempGm ûy;H jy&if; ]pdwrf yleYaJ wmhaemf? *syef
opfyifpu
kd o
f rl sm; 143 144 rpE´m
awG jyefomG ;jyD} [kajymavonf/ rsKd ;? ud,
k w
hf ikd ;f jynfukd toufaoG;eJY&if;jy;D cspcf yhJ gw,f/ olwifru
Ä bl;? olYnrD awGuyg Edik if w H m0efukd ausyeG cf MhJ uygw,fu, G ?f vGwf
vyfa&;qdw k hJ opfyifMuD; ½Sio f efvmzdYk toufaoG;awG trsm;MuD;
]]tJ'aD umifrav;u tem;rSm½Sad ewJh o&ufo;D cGaJ ewJh "m;ajr§mifukd &if;cJ&h w,fqw kd m rif;wdYk tjrJowd&aezdYk vdw k ,f}}
aumufjy;D olYaygifol pdu k cf svu kd wf mwJ/h xlxyl yl el YJ wpftm; pdu k cf srd zd;k om;a&m Adak tmifyg jird af eMuonf/ bk&m;pifrS oajyyef;
vdu k w f ,fxifyg&JU/ aoG;awG 'va[mxGuw f maygh/ tb&JU 'Pf&m ndKnKd av;rsm;udk ai;Munf&h if; Muufo;D av;awGyif ½Sed ;f ½Sed ;f jrjrx
u xGuw f hJ aoG;awGeYJ a&moGm;atmifwahJ v/ tJ'aD wmhrS nDtpfr vmMuonf/
tcsi;f csi;f pum;rsm; &efjzpfjyD; "m;eJYx;kd wmvdYk [efaqmif&if; zuf Ä
owfMuwmav/ tMu;D ESpaf ,mufu owf? ti,frav;u Mum;u
zseaf jz&if; u,fyg,lyg atmfayghav? oP²mefvyk w f m o½kyef YJ tawmf tbGm;pGmuawmh rajymif;vJyg/ aemufwpfaeYwiG f zd;k om;udk jrifawmh
wlw,f xifyg&JU? *syefu nDtpfrcsi;f csi;f cspcf spcf ifcifaezdYkawmif olar;aeustwdik ;f ]]olu b,fov l }J } [k ar;jyefavonf/
w&m;a[moGm;ao;w,fwhJ . .}} zd;k om;onf ol\&ifxrJ pS w d yf suo
f vd?k jiLplovd?k &,fcsif
tbd;k \rsuv f ;kH rsm;u ta&mifawmufyvmonf/ EIwcf rf; ovdk cHpm;rIrsm; vH;k 0 r½Sad wmhonfudk xl;qef;pGm cHpm;&onf/ xdYk
rsm;u ûyH;vmonf/ aemuf av;av;pm;pm; ajzvdu k of nf/
]]tbd;k toufukd olu,fvu kd w f mav/ olYaygifuo kd l "m; ]]tbGm;wdYk 0dik ;f 0ef;jyD; pdu
k x f m;wJt h yifu toD;awGukd
eJY xd;k wJh aumifrav;aygh/ olx;kd vdu k w f mu taMumxdomG ;vm; tqifoifph m;aewJh olav tbGm;&JU/ aemifq&kd if tJ't D yifMuD;udk
rodygbl;? renf; jyefu, k &l w,f/ ppftwGi;f rdYk aq;0g;uvnf; uReaf wmfvnf; a&avmif;ay;r,faemf}}
rpHv k ifawmh ajcaxmufwpfzuf enf;enf;qmoGm;w,f}}
]]tJ'g ... tJ'g}} (b&PDr*¾Zif; 2005 Ed0k ifbm)
]][kww f ,fav? tJ'g rif;wdY&k UJ tbGm;aygh}} tbd;k u *kP, f l
pGm ajymonf/
]]tcktcsed rf mS tdak e emae tarharh tavsmah vsmh jzpfayr,fh
tJ't D bGm;Mu;D [m wpfcsed w f ek ;f u EkysKd chJ wuf<ucJyh gw,f/ ud, k vhf l
145 146 rpE´m
]][kww f ,f . . tJ't D ek ;f oD;awG[m arar&JUarwåma&awGy?J
tkef;oD;xJu t&nfcsKdcsKd orD;vdrm® &if t&nfcsKd csKd av;awG xnfah y;r,f? qd;k &if rdu
t&omr½Sw d hJ t&nfawGuykd J xnfah y;rSmaemf odvm; orD;}}
k &f ifawmh

araru ûy;H ppESihf ajymonf/ rrMu;D u &,farm&if; ]]rrMu;D


uawmh vdrm® vdYk a&csKd csKd awGuykd J tjraJ omuf&w,f odvm; nDrav;}}
[k vSr;f ajymavonf/ rrMuD;onf 0g0g\ 'kw, d rdcif jzpfonf/
0g0gomruyg? wmwmESit hf ygav;wdYktwGuv f nf; rrMuD;onf
'kw, d rdcif jzpfc&hJ onfom/
nDtpfr[kqakd omfvnf; tarwltazuGJ nDtpfrrdYk rrMu;D
u 0g0gxuf 13 ESpef ;D yg;MuD;avonf/ xkYdaMumifv h nf; 0g0g\
0g0gwdYk\tdraf ½SUwGif tke;f yifysKd EpS yf if ½So
d nf/ píoD;onfrmS rMum pdwx f wJ iG f rrMu;D udk arar\orD;[k rxifbJ nDr[kom rSw, f al e
ao;ojzifh tvGeo f ;D tm;aumif;vSonf/ xdt k ek ;f oD;rsm;onf tar rdwwfavonf/ rrMuD;uawmh olYu, kd o
f l tar\tpfr[krsm;
\ rD;zdak csmifp&dwu f kd wpfzufwpfvrf;rS jznfq h nf;ay;cJah vonf/ xifaeovm; rajymwwfay/ ]]arar? o&ufo;D awG odyrf pm;eJYav?
tke;f oD;wpfcgcsvQif taru 0g0gwdYk armifErS wpfawGtm; t&nf tygav; 0rf;ysuaf eOD;r,f}} [lí wpfrsKd ;? ]]arar? acgif;udu k af e&if
aomuf wpfv;kH pD a0yHu k say;um aomufciG ahf y;wwfjzpfojzifh tke;f oD; a0 aps;oGm;ay;r,fav? ararem;aevdu k af wmh}} [lí wpfzkH ajymwwf
csrnf&h ufukd arQmrf w d wfMujrJ jzpfonf/ onfukd rMumcP Mum;&onf/ toufuom 16 ESpaf usmaf usmf
]]tke;f oD;xJu t&nfawGukd b,fov l mjy;D xnfx h m;wmvJ ½Sad o;aomfvnf; olu tar\tpfrae&m0ifum ylyyl ifyif jzpfae
[if}} wwfonf/
0g0g i,fi,fwek ;f u wtHw h Mo ar;cJzh ;l onf/ tcGH txyf araruvnf; ]]wmwm ud, k af wGyal ejyefjyD orD;a&}}? ]]'DaeY
xyftyk u f m xlxv J ûkH cv
H aS omtke;f oD;\twGi;f bufq;kH wGif csKd jrjr awmh cyfv, G v f ,G yf J awGUwJMh uufyJ aumuf0,fvmw,f orD;a&?
t&nfawG tjynf½h adS eonfukd xl;qef;tHMh oaerdonf/ ûywfaMumfav;yJ vkyv f udk Mf u&atmif? c&rf;csOo f ;D ig;ydcsuaf v;eJYqkd
]]orD;twGuf arar xnfah y;xm;wmaygh}} awmfa&mayghaemf}}? ]]a0a0? orD;a&? tdraf ½SUajrmif;awG ydwaf ejyefjyD
]][if . . . wu,f}} uG,?f ajrmif;xd;k wJh OD;bxGe;f Mu;D udk ac:acsO;D rS xifw,faemf}} ponf
tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 147 148 rpE´m
ponfjzifh wdik w f ikd yf ifyif tm;ud;k wMuD; ½Sv d aS vonf/ wpfcg jzpfc&hJ zl;aom taronf ,ckwpfcgwGiaf wmh aemufxyf
araromru azazuyg ]]a0a0? 'DrmS OD;av;pd;k ypön;f uav; oH;k a,mufw;kd um uav; av;a,mufyu kd jf y;D 'kw, d tMurd f
pm&if;awG rudu k v f Ykd ulwu G af y;ygOD;? b,fem; rSm;aevJ rodb;l }}[k rkq;kd r jzpfc&hJ jyefavonf/
ajymwwfonfukd rMumcP Mum;&wwfonf/ azazonf rrMuD; tazhtokb wke;f u 0g0gwdYak rmifErS wpfawGrmS id&k aumif;
\ yaxG;jzpfaomfvnf; 0g0g\pdwx f wJ iG f tpfuMkdu;D [kom xifrw S f rSe;f roday/ tdrw f iG f rD;awG xdex f ed vf if;um vlawG w½kw½f w k f
aerdwwfavonf/ azaz? arar? rrMuD;ESi0hf g0gwdYk ti,fo;kH OD;? jzpfaeí aysmv f Ykdawmif aeao;onf/ {nfo h nfawGtwGuf csxm;
pkpak ygif; rdom;pkajcmufO;D onf odu k of ukd 0f ef;0ef; pnf;pnf;vH;k vH;k ESihf aom csKd csOaf wG EIu d pf m;vdu k ?f uGmaphawG cGmpm;vdu k ?f azsm&f nfawG
aysm½f iT zf ,G af umif;cJo h nfuawmh trSeyf ifjzpfonf/ aumufarmhvu kd Ef iS hf xifwikd ;f MuJaewwfonf/
]]arar aemuftrd af xmifûyr,fqakd wmh rrMu;D ararhukd pdwf tazhtacgif; ajrcsawmh tvJvJ tûydûyd idak <u;aeaom
rqd;k bl;vm;[if}} tarhtm; rrMu;D u ab;rSaeí wif;wif;zufum az;rxm;onfukd
0g0g MuD;jyD; tysKd ayguft½G,af &mufawmh rrMuD;udk ar; 0g0g rSwrf o d nf/ opfom;acgif;ay:odYk ajrMuD;awG zdYkcsvu kd af wmhrS
Munfch zhJ ;l onf/ rrMuD;u at;csr;f pGmûyH;&if; ]]OD;av;pd;k u ararh&UJ tazhukd ajrMu;D xJrmS ûry§ yf pfvu kd jf y[
D ok u d m 0g0gESiw hf mwmu wtm;
tcspOf ;D yJav? rrMuD;&JUtazudk taru cspcf w hJ mrS r[kww f myJ? atmfiMkd uonf/ aoqH;k jcif;[lonfrmS tpOfxm0& uGu J mG jcif; jzpf
aemufjyD; tazu tarhxufvnf; trsm;MuD; toufMuD;w,f? onfukd xdt k csed rf pS í 0g0g em;vnfc&hJ avonf/
tarhukd cspaf yr,fh t&rf;csKyjf c,fw,f? 'gawGukd odxm;awmh rrMu;D tazu pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;awG rsm;aomfvnf; &if;ES;D ûry§ Ef aHS iG
u i,fi,fav;uwnf;u ararhukd odyo f em;wm? tarhukd aysmaf p awG rsm;aomfvnf; ud, k u
f ½d;k tonfa&m? wpfzufom;u vSnyhf wf
csiw f ,f? taraysmrf ,fq&kd if auseyfwphJ w d u f tjynfyh ?J ud, k t hf arudk avmbwufonfa&m xdt k aMumif;ESpcf ak Mumifh aiGaMu;tawmfrsm;rsm;
ESajrmwmawmh ESajrmwmaygh? 'gayrJh aysmaf pcsiw f phJ w
d u
f ydrk sm;w,f}} qH;k ½I;H jy;D aomtcgrS taronf aps;xJwiG t f xnfqikd af v; wpfqikd u f kd
[k ajzcJo h nf/ olYt½G,af v;ESihf rrQatmif tarhukd em;vnfciG v hf w
T f twnfwus xdik jf zpfawmhonf/ rd;k vif;vQif taru txnfqikd o f Ykd
ay;Edik pf rG ;f ½Scd o
hJ jl zpfonf/ oGm;ESijhf yD; touf 19 ESp½f jdS yDjzpfaom rrMuD;u 0g0gwdYk armifErS
rrMuD;u aysmaf pcsiaf omfvnf; taru tdraf xmifa&; oH;k a,muf? tdraf zmfEpS af ,mufwYdEk iS u hf secf o
hJ nf/
uH raumif;acs/ 0g0g ajcmufEpS o f rD;t½G,w f iG f tazu OD;aESmuf ]]0g0ga& xawmh? wmwma& ... ausmif;csed ef ;D jy?D tygav;
aoG;aMumjywfum uG,v f eG cf &hJ onf/ uav;wpfa,mufEiS hf rkq;kd r Ed;k jyDvm;? rrMuD;udck sp&f UJ vm;? tm0g;ay;ygOD; om;&JU? tm0g; ...[m
tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 149 150 rpE´m
... arT;vnf; arT;bl;? ½ª½;ª apmfew H ,f? ½ª½;ª awGaygufwhJ aumifuav; ]]eift h rSwu f aq;ausmif;rDw,f r[kwv f m;}} [k ar;awmh
vm;? rrMuD;cspw f hJ armifuav;vm;? a[m ... EI;d vdu k ?f EI;d vdu k ?f vnf; ]]ig q&m0ef rjzpfcsiaf wmhygbl;[m? tarhab;rSm igr½Sv d Ykd
rr0g tdyyf yk Mf uD;vdYk EI;d vdu k ?f Munfph rf;... rdwmu oluyg uav;eJY rjzpfb;l }} [kom wd;k wd;k av; ajymavonf/
a&mjyD; ao;awG aygufxm;w,f? tdk ...Munfyh gOD;? ½Tv J Ykd}} ]]a0a0 orD;? 'DavmuftrSwaf umif;aewm q&m0ef jzpf
rrMuD;onf 0g0ghuq kd x JG vl u kd ?f wmwmhukd qGx J v l ukd Ef iS hf atmif vky?f 'grSr[kwf tif*sief , D mrMuD; jzpfatmif vky?f tarhukd
wpfa,mufxjl y;D aemufwpfa,mufxal epOf usew f pfa,mufu jyef pdwf ryleYJ? tygav;udv k nf; aemufEpS qf kd rlêuyd Ykv
d Ykd &jy?D 'DrmS u 'Dvkd
tdyv f u kd Ef iS hf vH;k vH;k axG;axG;jzpfae&wwfonf/ yJ vH;k vnf csmvnfeYJ wpf&ufjy;D wpf&uf ukeo f mG ;rSmyJ}} [k taru
]]uJ ... rxbl;vm;? xrSmvm;? ig½du k af wmhrmS aemf? acsmah e ajymonf/ rrMu;D u tarhuakd i;Munfu h m ]]tJ'D vH;k vnfcsmvnfMu;D
vdYk qd;k aewmvm;? rjzL ... ightcef;xJuaywH ay;prf;? pm;yGaJ y:rSm udk pdwrf cswmaygh tar&m}} [k ajymavonf/ odYkaomf tar wdu k f
opfom;aywH½w dS ,f}} wGe;f vGe;f awmh rrMu;D vnf; aq;wuúov kd of Ykd avQmufjzpfavonf/
xdo k Yakd tmf[pfaomtcgrS 0g0gwdYu k tdy&f mrS tvl;tvJx? 0ifciG v hf nf; &avonf/ odYkaomf rrMuD;u xdt k cGit hf a&;udk vuf
oGm;wdu k ?f vJz,fjy;D rrMu;D auR;orQ pm;onf/ olwYkpd m;aecsed w f iG f vTwf qH;k ½I;H cHc½hJ mS avonf/
rrMu;D uvnf; olYu, kd o f l vJz,fjyifqifum nDtpfroH;k OD; ausmif; taMumif;&if;uawmh 0g0gwdYk\b0xJrmS taronf ½kwf
udk wufow k ½f u kd af jy;&onfu aeYpOfyif/ xdt k csed wf iG f tygav;udk w&uf aysmufu, G o f mG ;aomaMumifh jzpfavonf/
tdraf zmfav;ESpOf ;D ESit hf rd wf iG x f m;cJ&h onf/ olwYt kd rd rf x S u G v f Qif tyg a½Tbq kd yd cf b HG ufoYkd txnfaumuf&efomG ;aom taronf
av;u atmfijkd rJrYkd rrMuD;u pdwrf aumif;½Smay/ 0g0gwdYkqo D Ykd jyefa&mufrvmcJah wmhay/ rrMuD;uvnf; ararhqD
]]rrMu;D rSm ydu k q f aH wGtrsm;Mu;D ½S&d if tarhukd qdik rf xdik cf ikd ;f uwdu k u f ½du k f vdu k o f mG ;awmh 0g0gcrsm tm;ri,fpzl; tm;awGi,f
bl;? tygav;em;rSmyJ xm;r,f}} [k rMumcPajymwwfavonf/ um ikcd siaf ecJo h nf/
0g0gwdYu k kd pmoifay;&if;? tygav;ykcufuv kd &JT if;? tdrrf u I pd ö ]]rrjzL . . . rrMuD; b,fomG ;wmvJ}}
awGukd pDpOf&if; pmusu&f aomfvnf; rrMuD;u pmawmfavonf/ ]]0g0gwdYktar aeraumif;vdYk vdu k o f mG ;wm}}
q,fwef;udk *kPx f ;l oH;k ckEiS ahf tmifavonf/ rrMu;D \oli,fcsi;f rsm; ]]araru bmvdYk aeraumif;wmvJ}}
u tdrw f iG pf ak 0;&if; b,fwuúov kd u f kd b,ftrSwef Yq J v kd Qif rDaMumif; ]]um;eJYum;csi;f wdu k af wmh um;xJu vlawG aeraumif;
ajymaeqdak e wdik yf ifaeMuawmh rrMuD;u bmrQ 0ifrajym½Smacs/ jzpfwmaygh}}
tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 151 152 rpE´m
]]b,fawmh jyefaumif;rSmvJ}} ]]ridyk gbl;uG,}f }
]]rodygbl;[,f}} rrMu;D u 0g0gudk wif;wif;zufum ido k aH v;ESihf ajzonf/
]]b,fawmhjyefvmrSmvJ}} ]]arar aojyDvm;[if rrMuD;}}
]]rodygbl;qdrk S [,f? uJ 0g0g? oGm; . . . armifav;eJY 0g0gu wd;k wd;k av;ar;awmh rrMu;D u jird af eonf/ twef
oGm;upm;? 'DrmS 0g0gpum;rsm;vdYk rrjzL rsupf x d J i½kwo
f ;D zwfawmif MumaomtcgrS oufjyif;av;½Iu d jf yD;
0ifaejyD? ½ª; . . . pyfvu kd wf m}} ]]tJ'pD um;udk wmwmwdYka½SYrmS rajymeJYaemf? araru aq;½Hk
rrjzLu eDusiaf eaomrsuv f ;kH udk yGwaf eonf/ 0g0gu wufae&wmyJ[m? aq;½Hw k ufw,fvYkdyaJ jym}} [kajymonf/
xGucf &hJ aomfvnf; pdwx f wJ iG f rausvnfv/S wmwmESiahf rmifav; ]]t[kwv f m;[if rrMuD;}}
uawmh taqmh tupm; rysuv f aS y/ touf ckepfEpS f ausmjf yD ]]t[kwaf ygh? aemuf av;ig;&ufae&if tdrrf mS qGr;f auR;
jzpfaom 0g0guawmh olwYkdb0xJrS tazvnf; aysmufu, G cf zhJ ;l r,f? bke;f Mu;D awGu araraeaumif;zdYk qkawmif;ay;vdrrhf ,f? tdrrf mS
onfrYkd aojcif;w&m;udk pd;k ½GUH aMumuf½UHG aecJo h nf/ vnf; rkeYfawG auR;r,f}}
wpfywfavmufaeawmh rrMuD; jyefvmonf/ 0g0g pd;k &drf ]]'Dvq kd kd arar raobl;aygh}}
aeonft h wdik ;f araruawmh jyefjyD; ygrvmcJah y/ tygav;u ]]rrMu;D wdYktwGuf araru b,fawmhrrS aobl;av? nDr
]]arara&m... arara&m}} ESihf wpmpmar;awmh rrMuD;u av;wdYkvnf; ararhqpD ma&;xm;Mu? rrMu;D txnfaumufomG ;&if
rsu&f nfprd 0hf &J if; aq;½Hu k 0kd ifyYkday;r,fav? tJ'pD mawGukd zwfjyay;r,f}}
]]arar aeraumif;vdYk aq;½Hw k ifxm;&w,f om;i,f&UJ }} ]]araru rzwfEikd v f Ykdvm;}}
[kajzonf/ ]]aeraumif;awmh pmvnf; rzwfEikd b f ;l aygh 0g0g&,f? rr
]]arar aeaumif;ygapvdYq k ak wmif;jy;D tygav;u vdrv f rd f MuD;u zwfjy&rSmaygh}}
rmrm aeaemf}} [k qufajymonf/ rrMuD;u toHwrd w f rd af v;ESihf ajym&if; jidro f mG ;onf/
nusawmh ZmjcifaxmiftMu;D Mu;D udk jzefYaxmifum 0g0gwdYk toufreS rf eS ½f u ª m tdycf si[ f efaqmifaeonf/ rrMu;D wu,f tdyf
armifErS av;a,muf twlwt l yd Mf u&onf/ 0g0g wpfa&;Ed;k vmawmh raysmaf o;rSe;f odaomfvnf; 0g0gvnf; pum; qufrajymjzpfawmh
rrMuD;xHrS ½Iu d of aH v; Mum;&onf/ ay/ arar aooGm;jyv D vkd ?kd wu,fyJ aq;½Hrk mS ½Sad eovdv k dk Za0Z0g
]]rrMuD; ... idak ewmvm;}} jzpfaecJah vonf/
tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 153 154 rpE´m
rrMuD;onf tarh\ ae&mudk csucf si;f tpm;0ifco hJ nf/ rrMu;D jyefvmawmh tarhqu D pmjyefygvmonf/ taru
tarhvykd if txnfaumufxu G ?f tarhvykd if olwYu kd kd owd&aMumif;? aeaumif;vQif csucf si;f jyefvmrnfjzpfaMumif;?
]]pmêud;pm;Muaemf? pmêud;pm;Mu}}[k cPcP a&½Gwaf e pmêud;pm;&rnfh taMumif;? rrMuD;\pum;udk em;axmif&rnfh
wwfavonf/ ab;tdru f tefwED w k Y?kd tefw0D if;wdYu k awmh rrMu;D taMumif;rsm;udk a0a0qmqm pHpk v kH ifvifa&;xm;onf/ olwYt kd wGuf
udk rkeYaf wG? tusaÐ wGvnf; ay;vdu k af o;onf/ aMomf ..araru tke;f oD;
]]uav;oH;k a,mufeYJ tysKd av;}}[k ac:avh½MdS uonf/ xJwiG f t&nfcsKd csKd awG xnfah y;xm;aMumif;? xdt k &nfrsm;udk t&om
tefwpD ef;url ysuf roGm;atmif vdrv f rd rf mrm aeMu&rnfh taMumif;rsm;udv k nf;
]]tysKd av;udêk uud w
f vhJ yl sKd av;awG uawmh wyHw k yifMu;D yJ? xnfah &;xm;ao;onf/
'gayrJh uav;oH;k a,mufuakd wmh rêuu d Mf ubl;[J}h } [kajymum &,f tdraf ½SUtke;f yifrS tke;f oD;csawmh rrMu;D u tarhvykd if olwYkd
armaewwfavonf/ tm; t&nfaomuftek ;f wpfv;kH pDay;onf/
aemufwpfcg rrMu;D txnfaumufomG ;awmh 0g0gu ararh touf½pS Ef pS ef ;D yg;½Sad ejyDrYkd tke;f oD;xJrS tke;f &nfonf olY
qD pma&;ay;vdu k o
f nf/ obm0tavsmuf olY[mol jynfv h mjcif; jzpfonfukd 0g0g odcjhJ yD;
]]arar ... jzpfonf/ odYak omf tke;f oD;xJrS t&nfcsKd csKd ukd tar xnfah y;xm;jcif;
aeraumif;ao;bl;vm; [if? bmjzpfvYkd tMumMuD; ae jzpfonf[v k nf; wpfzufrS ,Hck siaf ejyefonf/ ,Hak erdjyefonf/ arar
raumif; jzpfaewmvJ? orD;wdYk ararhukd t&rf;owd&w,f/ onf olwYkad wG tke;f &nfaomufaeMuonfukd wpfae&m&mrS apmifh
tck orD;wdYak v;a,mufv;kH twlwt l yd Mf uw,f? tygav; Munfah evdrrhf nf[k tcdik t f rm xifaerdygonf/ xdYak Mumifh olYtek ;f &nf
u qd;k w,f arar? rrMuD;acgif;udck jG yD; ½ª½;ª awG yef;w,f? arar u tcsKd rav;bJ t&om ayghysuaf erSmudv k nf; &ifawG ckeu f m
jyefvm&if tygav;udk arareJYyJ jyefac:odyaf emf}} pd;k &draf erdjyefavonf/
wmwmuawmh ]]arar aeaumif;ygap}}[k ½GUJ ½GUJ apmif;apmif; tygav;u tke;f &nfukd ydu k u f av;ESiphf yk u
f maomuf&if;
wpfaMumif;wnf; a&;ay;vdu k o f nf/ tygav;uyifvQif ararhqD ]][m; ... csKd w,f? wm; vdrm® w,f? arh*sum;udk em;axmifw,f}} [k
pma&;ygqdak wmh pm½Gujf zLay:wGif 0vH;k av;ig;vH;k udk rnDrnm a&; 0rf;omtm;& xatmfawmh tm;vH;k &,fcMhJ u&avonf/
ay;vdu
k af vonf/ rrMu;D u olwY\ kd pmav;awGukd pmtdwx f x J nfh rrMuD;uawmh txnfaumufomG ;&if; tarhaq;½Ho k Ykd 0if
um taotcsm,lomG ;onf/ aeqJyif jzpfonf/ 0g0gwdYk\ pmrsm;udk taotcsm ,lomG ;ovdk
tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 155 156 rpE´m
tar jyefay;vdu k af om tarhpmav;udv k nf; jyef,v l mjrJ jzpfav 0g0gvnf; ararhqu D kd pmrSerf eS af &;cJo
h nf/ pma&;ysi;f aom
onf/ wpfO;D wpfa,mufcsi;f udk taotcsm qH;k rxm;aom tar wmwmyif ararhqu
D akd wmh rysi;f r&d pma&;jy;D &ifziG whf wfavonf/
\ pmudk zwfjyjrJ jzpfavonf/ xdYkaMumifv h nf; olwYkd armifErS
oH;k a,muf\ pdwx f w J iG f taronf tdrjf yefrvmaomfvnf; wpfae arar ...
&m&mwGif ½Sad eonf? olwYkw d pfawGuv kd nf; tjrw J rf; apmifMh unfah e 'DaeY ocsmF vywfpmar;yGpJ pfw,farar? orD;udk rqleYaJ emf?
onf[k xifrw S , f MkH unfaecJMh u&avonf/ wGuwf m vQr;f oGm;vdYk yd'k cf w
JG pfy'kd f rSm;oGm;w,f? trSwf 20 awmif
tygav; ½SpEf pS o f m;avmufwek ;f uawmh twefi,fq;kd csif avsmjh yD; 80 yJ&awmhw,f/
onf/ rrMu;D \ydu k q f t H w d xf rJ S q,fwefawG? ig;usyw f efawG EIu d f 80 vnf; rqd;k ygbl; arar&m? tke;f &nfcsKd csKd ay;ygaemf/
um xdpk Ofu acwfpm;aeaom rJuwfjym;awG 0,fwwfonf/ wpfcg
wpf&v H nf; a*:vDv;kH udk avmif;aMu;xyfjyD; ½du k w f wfvmonf/ arar ...
wpfaeYusawmh yifustek ;f oD;rsm;udk rrMuD;u xH;k pHtwdik ;f wpf ausmif;tjyef rd;k rdvYkd orD;zsm;w,f arar? rrMu;D u wpfn
a,muf wpfv;kH pD ay;onf/ xdYak emuf ausmif;tusaÐ wG rD;ylwu kd &f if; vH;k rtdyb f J orD;ab;rSm xdik af pmifw h ,f? ezl;ay:rSm a&cJ0wfwifjy;D
rodrom apmifMh unfah eonf/ tygav;u olYtek ;f &nfuakd omuf&if; bk&m;pmawG ½Gwaf y;w,f? tcsKd q;kH tke;f &nfukd rrMuD;twGuf ay;
rsuEf mS ysuo f mG ;onfukd rodcsi[ f efaqmif&if; vdu k yf gaemf/
]]csKd Mu&JUvm;[if}}
[k [efrysuf ar;onf/ tygav;u bmrQjyefrajymaomf arar ...
vnf; rsuEf mS av; i,faeonf/ rrMu;D u ajymw,f? 'DaeY araraq;½Hw k ufwm ig;ESpjf ynfh
aemufwpfacguf tarhaq;½Ho k mG ;rnfqakd wmh tygav;u wJah eYw?hJ orD;wdYkawG bke;f MuD;ausmif;udk qGr;f csKd iyhf Ykw
d ,f? bk&m;pif
]]om;vdrm® ygjyDarar? tke;f &nfcsKd csKd xnfah y;vdu k yf g}} ½Si;f jy;D bk&m;yef;awGa0aeatmif wifw,f? ararjrefjref aeaumif;
[k a&;ay;vdu k af vonf/ rrMu;D uawmh tyg\qHyifav; ygapvdYk qkawmif;Muw,f/
rsm;udk xd;k zGum auseyfûy;H av; ûy;H aeonf/ xdYkaemufyikd ;f wGif rrMu;D
\ydu k q f t
H w d u f kd pm;yGaJ y:wGif 'Dtwdik ;f wifxm;aomfvnf; tygav; arar ...
u rEIu d af wmhay/ rrMu;D u ajymw,f? orD; t&rf;vSvmw,fw?hJ arareJYwl
tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 157 158 rpE´m
w,fw?hJ ararhvkd i,fi,fav;eJY &nf;pm;rxm;eJYO;D wJ?h orD;tvSjyif jyifO;D vGif ppfwuúov kd rf S ausmif;qif;aomESprf mS yif rl;vdu k wf m[k
ayr,fh &nf;pm;rxm;ygbl; arar&m? pmêud;pm;jyD; q&m0efrMuD; ajym&if; vJusum toufyg ygoGm;cJah vonf/ 0g0gwdYk armifErS
jzpfatmif vkyrf mS yg? arar tke;f &nfcsKd csKd av; xnfah y;aemf/ oH;k OD;vH;k wpfO;D a,mufrQyif rrMuD;\toufukd rrDvu kd Mf uacs/
q&m0efu ESv;kH a&m*gaMumifh aoqH;k &onf[ak jymawmh 0g0ghcrsm
arar ... ,lusKH ;r& jzpfc&hJ onf/ wpfoufywfv;kH tvkyu f kd avmbwMuD;
'DaeY orD; q,fwef;atmifw,f? rrMu;D vdyk J *kPx f ;l oH;k ck vkyu f m olwYkdarmifErS wpfawGtwGuf aiGawG usKH ;½H;k jyD; ½Smaeaom
&w,f? rrMuD;u ajymw,f? orD;udk q&m0efrMuD;jzpfap&r,fw/hJ rrMu;D rSm ESv;kH a&m*g ½Sad erSe;f vnf; rod? ukvnf; rukvu kd &f aom
arar&,f ... orD;av ararhukd t&rf;owd&wmyJ? arar aMumifh jzpfavonf/
jrefjrefaeaumif;ygapvdYv k nf; t&ifwek ;f vdk qkrawmif;csiaf wmhb;l ? rrMu;D \aowåmudk ½Si;f awmh ararhqu D kd olwYkad &;ay;xm;
bmjzpfvYkvd qJ akd wmh araru aeaumif;vmrSmr[kwb f ;l ? jyefvmrSm aom pmrsm;udk wpfxyfMuD;awGY&onf/ pmawGukd a½SUaemufpOfum
vnf; r[kwaf wmhb;l qdw k mudk em;vnfaevdYkyaJ v? orD;wdYk&UJ tar rkeYfaowåmbl;cGEH pS v
f ;kH ESihf taotcsmxnfjh yD; odr;f xm;½Smonfukd
ae&mrSm rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfwnfay;cJw h hJ rrMu;D &JUaus;Zl;awGu odyf awGY&awmh olwYakd rmifErS oH;k OD; rsu&f nfrqnfEikd /f tay:qH;k wGiaf wmh
MuD;w,f arar? rrMuD;udk orD;cspw f ,f? rrMuD;&JUaus;Zl;awGukd ararhqaD &;xm;aom rrMuD;\pmudak wGY&onf/
orD; qyfcsiw f ,f/
arar ...
ararhqrD S jyefpmxJwiG af wmh ]]rrMu;D u aus;Zl;qyfccH siv f Ykd ararjrifapcsiw f hJ q&m0efrMu;D b0udk orD;ra&mufcyhJ gbl;
aus;Zl;ûywmrSr[kww f mbJ orD;&,f ... aus;Zl;pum;ajymjy;D aus;Zl; arar? wdik ;f jynf&UJ wm0efuv kd nf; wpfwyfwpftm; rxrf;aqmifc&hJ yg
qyfp&mrvdyk gbl;}} [ka&;xm;onf/ bl;? 'gayrJh ararxm;&pfc&hJ wJh ararhom;? ararhorD;av;awGukd
0g0gu pmzwfjyaeaom rrMu;D udk pdu k af i;jy;D Munfah eawmh q&m0ef? tif*sief , D meJY ppfAv kd Mf u;D awGjzpfatmif orD;ûypkysKd ;axmif
rrMuD;u El;nHch sKd ompGm ûyH;jyavonf/ ay;Edik cf yhJ gw,f? arar auseyfyg? 0rf;omygaemf ... wJ}h }
0g0gwdYk aus;Zl;qyfrmS udk rvdv k m;aom rrMu;D onf aus;
Zl;qyfciG u
hf vkd nf; ray;cJah cs/ 0g0g q&m0efrMuD; jzpfjyD; tvkyo f if Ä
qif;aomESp?f wmwm tif*sief , D mrMu;D jzpfaomESp?f tygav;vnf;
tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 159 160 rpE´m
tckawmh 0g0gwdYt k m;vH;k tdraf xmifu, kd pf uD sum &mxl;&mcH tarodomG ;jyDqjkd yD; aMumufvu kd &f wm}}
om;orD;awG pHpk n kH n D ED iS hf om,matmifjrifaomvrf;udk avQmufvrS ;f wmwmu olYezl; ol½u kd uf m waomaom &,faeav
aeMu&jyjD zpfonf/ onf/
tdraf ½SUrStek ;f yifEpS yf ifuawmh yiftMkdu;D awG jzpfaejy;D oD;tm; ]]tif;av ... uReaf wmfvnf; enf;enf;qd;k r,f Muv H ukd w f ikd ;f
vnf; raumif;vSawmhay/ olwYkdûrdUu aq;½Hw k iG yf if jyefjyD; wm0ef tke;f &nfawGu rcsKd bJ a&jzpfomG ;wwfawmh vefYwmrS tawmfu h v kd efY
xrf;aqmif&aom ûrYde,fq&m0efrMu;D a'gufwm0g0gu tke;f yiftkd wm}}
Mu;D ESpyf ifukd tjrwfwEd;k ESihf t&dyMf unfah ewwfonfuakd wmh vltrsm; wmwmESit hf ygav;onf wpfa,mufuw kd pfa,muf Munfh
u odyjf yD; em;rvnfvaS cs/ um w[m;[m; &,faeMuonf/
'DaeYawmh &efuek rf S wmwma&m? rEÅav;rS tygav;a&m 0g0guawmh olwYkdukd &Da0pGmai;Munf&h if; rrMuD;udk jyif;
wdu k wf u kd q f ikd q
f ikd f a&mufvmí armifErS oH;k OD; qHo k mG ;onf/ oH;k OD; jyif; jyjy owd&jyD; vGr;f qGwv f mrdonf/ rrMuD;\ rSew f ifct kH q H JG
qHak wmhvnf; xH;k pHtwdik ;f rrMuD;udk owd&rdMuavonf/ wGif tH0u S u f av;wpfck ½Sad Mumif;? xdt k 0H u
S uf av;xJwiG f yvwf
]]a&mh ... tke;f &nfaomufMuOD;? raeYwek ;f uyJ tyifu cs pwpf tdwu f av;ESix hf yk x
f m;aom aq;xd;k >yefMu;D Mu;D wpfcu k kd awGUcJh
xm;wm? tyiftv kd Ykd tvH;k awG ao;oGm;ayr,fh t&nfu csKd wek ;f ygyJ zl;aMumif;udu k m; olwYkdtm; ajymjyraeawmhay/
[,f}} ]]tke;f oD;xJu t&nfawGukd b,fox l nfx h m;wmvJ[if
0g0gu tke;f oD;wpfv;kH pD ay;onf/ tay:,H tcGu H kd ½Syjf y;D ... arar}}
ckwx f m;jy;D jzpfojzifh oHZeG ;f av;ESihf 0du k jf y;D azmufvu kd af wmh twGi;f olwYked m;a&mufvmaom 0g0g\om;i,fav;u ar;awmh
qH;k tvTmjzLjzLav;yg aygufomG ;onf/ tuGi;f vdu k x f u G v
f maom olwYkdtm;vH;k jidro f mG ;Muonf/ ckewke;f u &,faeaom wmwmu
tke;f om; jzLjzLudk ESpo f ufpmG 0g;&if tygav;u ûy;H ppESiahf jymonf/ vnf; olYvufxrJ S tke;f oD;udk w,kw,ydu k u f m ai;oGm;onf/
]]'Dvkd tay:,H½yS jf y;D ckwx f m;wJh tke;f oD;xJu t&nfawGukd ]]tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKd csKd awGuakd v OD;av;ygwdYk&UJ rrMu;D ?
aq;xd;k tyfMu;D Mu;D eJY pky, f v l Ykd &wmyJ aemf? aemufjy;D a&awG jyefx;kd om;wdYk&UJ MuD;MuD;a0 xnfah y;wmaygh}}
xnfv h Ykdvnf; &wmyJ}} ]]arar cPcPajymwJh MuD;MuD;a0vm;? [d"k mwfyx kH u J
]]ig ausmif;rSm &efjzpfjyD; aumifav;awGeYJ zufowfvmcJh Mu;D Mu;D a0vm;}}
wke;f uvnf; tke;f &nfawG ayghysuyf suf jzpfz;l w,f? ighrmS jzifh igqd;k wm om;i,fu eH&aH y:wGif csw d xf m;aom rrMuD;\"mwfyu kH kd
tke;f oD;xJu t&nfcsKcd sKd 161 162 rpE´m
vufnKd§ ;av; xd;k jyonf/ rMumrDu xkwfa0cJhonfh yg&rDpmtkyfrsm;
]][kww f ,f? tJ'g Mu;D Mu;D a0yJ? olu [d;k aumif;uifay:u
284/ OD;tkef;az trsKd;orD;rsm;twGufOya'
aejy;D OD;av;ygwdYk om;wdYu k kd tjraJ pmifMh unfah ewm? aumif;&if vdrm® 285/ omraPausmf oef;acgif,H"r®tvif;rsm;
&if t&nfcsKd csKd awG xnfah y;jyD; qd;k &if rdu k &f ifawmh t&omr½Sw d hJ 286/ a'gufwmrwif0if; udk,f&nfudk,faoG;zGHUNzdK;jcif;
a&awGuykd J xnfah y;vdrrhf ,f}} 287/ a'gufwmrwif0if; udk,fawGUeJYaESm
tygav;u om;i,f\ycH;k udk MuifMuifememzuf&if; cdik rf m ajymcsifwJhtaMumif;uav;awG
av;eufpmG ajymonf/ ol\EIwcf rf;rsm;u ûyH;&,faeaomfvnf; 288/ omraPausmf vli,fwdkYtwGuftvif;wdkif
rsuv f ;kH tdrwf iG af wmh rsu&f nfMunfawG pdr0hf aJ eavonf/ 289/ Khin Myo Chit 13 Carat Diamond
290/ OD;aomfZif 0dok'd̈r*f
]]tke;f &nfcsKd csKd awGukd t&om ysuo f mG ;atmif rvkyrf ad peJY
291/ cifapmwifh b0t"dyÜm,f
aemf}} 292/ omraPausmf Ak'¨a[mMum;owdy|mefw&m;
]][kwu f }hJ } 293/ rm*"D(ompnf) y&dwfBuD;ygVdawmfjrefrmjyef
om;u acgif;ndwo f nf/ "mwfyx kH rJ S rrMu;D uawmh El;nHh 294/ OD;armifarmifav; yd#utESpfcsKyf oH,kwåedum,f('k)
csKd ompGmûyH;&if; olwYku d kd vSr;f Munfah eavonf/ 295/ a'gufwmrwif0if; aejcif; aojcif;ESifh vGwfajrmufjcif;
296/ ausmfeE´atmif 0dyóem½Ienf;rsm;(y)
297/ omraPausmf vSLrQa0í
(trsK;d orD;a&;&mr*¾Zif; 2002 ckEpS f Zlvikd )f
298/ xufacgif oufwHa&mifpOf
299/ yef;'umudkwifjrifh aoG;uajymaompum;rsm;
rpE´m 300/ ausmfeE´atmif 0dyóem½Ienf;rsm;('k)
301/ a'gufwmrwif0if; tawG;rSefuluGufrsm;
302/ xufacgif qyfjymylazmif;uav;rsm;
303/ uxdu&[ef; todÓPfzGifhaqmif;yg;rsm;(2)
304/ t½Sifukrm&(jrawmif) Ak'¨bmomrsuf½I
305/ a'gufwmcifarmif0if; tawG;opfudkzefwD;cJholrsm;
306/ omraPausmf xifay:ausmfMum;Oygoumrsm;
307/ ausmfeE´atmif 0dyóem½Ienf;rsm;(w)