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Directional Drilling II

Training Curriculum

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**Computalog Drilling Services
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Technology Services Group 16178 West Hardy Road, Houston, Texas 77060 Telephone: 281.260.5700 Facsimile: 281.260.5780

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**Directional Drilling II - 5 Days
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Prerequisites: Directional Drilling I Course Content

Survey / Toolface (Offset) Accuracy & Quality Control Well Planning (Wellz) Project Ahead Survey / Toolface (Offset) Accuracy & Quality Control

Students will differentiate between mechanical sensor failures, unstable gravity values, and magnetic interference effects by analyzing survey data and quality control plots.

Magnetic Corrections Earth’s Magnetic Field Magnetic Declination Applying Declination Correction Grid Corrections Magnetic North True North Grid North GEOMAG / MRIP / GEODEC Output to be used by field engineer Job Geomagnetic Sheet GEOMAGENTIC Reference Maps Example Problems Surface Parameters & Processing Survey (Hole Position) Processing Flowchart Surface Survey Parameters Grid Corrections Downhole Survey Parameters Toolface Offset Measurement Positive Pulse toolstring Negative Pulse toolstring EM toolstring Toolface Offset Entry Positive Pulse toolstring Negative Pulse toolstring EM toolstring Paperwork Example

Survey Parameter Analysis Real-Time Report Example “Validating a Survey Probe Response” (Using Excel Spreadsheet) Real-Time Report Parameters Gtotal Gx, Gy, Gz Bx, By, Bz MWD Surface Roll Test Rotational Checkshots Algorithm Uncertainty Downhole Data QC for Field Engineers Surveying methods Survey System Accuracy Comparison Accuracy Limitations (electronic vs. mechanical) Independent Survey Comparisons Benchmark Survey Checkshot Survey Rotational Checkshots Gyro or Singleshot Survey Sensor Response & Quality Hardware Failure “Hard” Failure (saturation, no response) “Soft” Failure (sticking, calibration drift, wrong compass, film, batteries) Gravity Values Unstable Rotational Movement During Survey Axial Movement During Quality Control Check (Goxy vs. Gz vs. Gtotal) Magnetic Values Unstable Natural Occurrences (solar flares, northern lights, local anomalies) Cross-axial Magnetic Interference (“fish”, casing) Axial (Drillstring) Magnetic Interference (improper NMDC spacing) Drilling in Northern Latitudes (high inclination, E-W direction) Quality Control Check (Boxy vs. Bz vs. Btotal) Other Factors Affecting Survey Accuracy Incorrect Inputs into Software (MFS, DIP, Total Correction) BHA Misalignment in Borehole Real-time MWD Transmission Resolution Predicting Uncertainty Errors (Spreadsheet) “Possible Azimuth Error Charts”

WELL PLANNING (WELLZ) Generate Simplified Proposal from given parameters Instructor Demonstrates Students use Example #1 Students use Example #2 Edit Elevation Depth from given Well Plan Instructor Demonstrates Students use Example #1 Students use Example #2 Edit Target Depth from given Well Plan Instructor Demonstrates Students use Example #1 Students use Example #2 Compare Survey Reports, Proposed vs. Actual Well Plan Survey Realtime Report Survey Editing Data Entry & Hole Position Report Instructor Demonstrates Students use Example #1 Students use Example #2 Memory/Realtime Survey Report Determine Possible Uncertainty of Actual Well (excel spreadsheet)

PROJECT AHEAD Bottom Hole Assemblies Principle Configurations Rotary Slide Design Principles Side forces Fulcrum Principle Weight on Bit Well Path vs. Well Plan Interpolate Instructor Demonstrates Students use Example #1 Students use Example #2 Extrapolate Instructor Demonstrates Students use Example #1 Students use Example #2 Build Rate to Top of Target Center of Target Bottom of Target Instructor Demonstrates Students use Example #1 Students use Example #2 Desired Toolface Setting to Intersect Target Instructor Demonstrates Students use Example #1 Students use Example #2

rev A . then why doesn't the north tip of a compass point magnetic south? HOW DO I COMPENSATE FOR DECLINATION AND INCLINATION? Declination adjustment Arithmetic compensation Maps with magnetic meridians Inclination compensation for specific latitude zones WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE DECLINATION? (What is the precision of a compass?) Location Local magnetic anomalies Altitude Secular change Where were/are/will be the magnetic poles? Diurnal change Solar magnetic activity "Bermuda Triangle" type anomalies HOW DO I DETERMINE THE DECLINATION DIAGRAMS ON MAPS? Declination diagrams on maps Grid north and declination diagrams Isogonic charts Declinometer REFERENCES AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.doc 8/29/00 1-1 Doc.Computalog MAGNETIC DECLINATION CONTENTS WHAT IS MAGNETIC DECLINATION? Do compasses point to the north magnetic pole? If unlike poles attract. Magnetic Declination. # TD2003. This material is not to be reprinted.

You will often hear the terms "variation". up-to-date values for Canada may be obtained from the most recent geomagnetic reference field models produced by the Geological Survey of Canada. This material is not to be reprinted. and the angle between magnetic north and the true north direction is called magnetic declination. Complex fluid motion in the outer core of the Earth (the molten metallic region that lies from 2800 to 5000 km below the Earth's surface) causes the magnetic field to change slowly with time. Unfortunately. marine and aeronautical charts need to be updated if they are to be used without large errors. declination values shown on old topographic. the annual change corrections given on most of these maps cannot be applied reliably if the maps are more than a few years old since the secular variation also changes with time in an unpredictable manner. The elements iron.rev A . or "compass variation" used in place of magnetic declination. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. In fact. "magnetic variation". thus they are known as ferromagnetic. Magnetic Declination. An an example. Because of secular variation. This change is known to as secular variation. # TD2003. over most of the Earth it points at some angle east or west of true (geographic) north.Computalog MAGNETIC DECLINATION Many people are surprised to learn that a magnetic compass does not normally point to true north. The direction in which the compass needle points is referred to as magnetic north. and if recent editions of the charts are not available. the accompanying diagram shows how the magnetic declination has changed with time at Halifax.doc 8/29/00 1-2 Doc. If accurate declination values are needed. especially by mariners. nickel and cobalt possess electrons in their outer electron shell but none in the next inner shell. The magnetic declination does not remain constant in time. Their electron "spin" magnetic moments are not canceled.

the magnetic declination. the Earth's magnetic field is perpendicular to the Earth's surface.8° N. the magnetic dip. or inclination (the angle between the horizontal and the direction of the earth's magnetic field). The magnetic poles of this field do not coincide with true north and south poles (the axis of rotation of the Earth). This material is not to be reprinted. In mid 1999. At the magnetic poles. the angle between true geographic north and magnetic north. # TD2003. Therefore. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.rev A . reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. cannot be determined at the magnetic poles. 75 kilometers (45 miles) northwest of Ellef Ringnes Island in the Canadian Arctic. the average position of the modeled magnetic north pole (according to the IGRF-2000 geomagnetic model) is 79. Convection currents of molten rock containing ferromagnetic material flow in the earth’s outer core generating a magnetic field. Consequently.doc 8/29/00 1-3 Doc. and 107. is 90°. Magnetic Declination. This position is 1140 kilometers (700 miles) from the true (geographic) north pole. there is no force in a horizontal direction.Computalog Earth's core has remained molten due to heat from ongoing radioactive decay.0° W. And since the magnetic field is vertical.

rev A . or 0.23 oersteds or gauss) around Sao Paulo. The total intensity is the total magnetic field strength. # TD2003. inclination (dip) and declination. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. vertical intensity. Magnetic Declination. This material is not to be reprinted. horizontal intensity.Computalog The geomagnetic field can be quantified as total intensity. which ranges from about 23 microteslas (equivalent to 23000 nanoteslas or gammas.doc 8/29/00 1-4 Doc. Brazil to 67 microteslas near the south magnetic pole near Antarctica. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.

doc 8/29/00 1-5 Doc. Magnetic Declination. This material is not to be reprinted.rev A . # TD2003. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.Computalog Vertical and Horizontal intensity are components of the total intensity. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.

Computalog Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.doc 8/29/00 1-6 Doc. Magnetic Declination. This material is not to be reprinted. # TD2003.rev A .

Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Magnetic Declination. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.Computalog The angle of the magnetic field relative to the level ground (tangent to the earth) is the inclination. # TD2003. which is 90° at the magnetic north pole and 0° at the magnetic equator. This material is not to be reprinted.rev A .doc 8/29/00 1-7 Doc. or dip.

it describes the celestial coordinates of a star. Along with right ascension. Magnetic Declination. declination is the angle between where a compass needle points and the true North Pole. this offset is designated as west declination.rev A . also called variation in mariners' and aviators' jargon.Computalog Finally. declination has a different meaning. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. In other words. is in reference to the magnetic north (MN) declination. etc.doc 8/29/00 1-8 Doc. In the context of astronomy or celestial navigation. This material is not to be reprinted. the angle of the horizontal intensity with respect to the true north (geographic) pole is the declination. # TD2003. including in the southern hemisphere. The world standard. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. If the compass needle points west of true north.

5W 34. The table below compares examples of actual and incorrect declinations (using IGRF95 model for 1998. Sydney Australia Anchorage USA Buenos Aires Argentina Montreal Canada Los Angeles USA Perth Australia Rio de Janeiro Brazil St.0N 118.5E 61. then why doesn't the north tip of a compass point magnetic south? Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Other factors.0N 030.Computalog Do compasses point to the north magnetic pole? Most people incorrectly believe that a compass needle points to the north magnetic pole. Long.0S 116.5W 32. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.0W 34.0E 23.rev A . In other words. which must be described as several dipoles. the compass actually points to the sum of the effects of these dipoles at your location. Russia Ostrov Bennetta New Siberian Islands 34.5N 150.5E 77. of local and solar origin. But the Earth's magnetic field reacts to the effect of complex convection currents in the magma.0S 043. each with a different intensity and orientation.0S 151. # TD2003.0E If unlike poles attract. further complicate the resulting local magnetic field. it aligns itself with the local magnetic field lines of force.5S 058.5N 073.0. Petersburg.0W 60.0W 45.0N 148. Magnetic Declination. anomalies ignored). This material is not to be reprinted. Actual Declination (degrees) (angle between where a compass needle points and true north pole) 13 E 23 E 06 W 16 W 14 E 02 W 21 W 08 E 11 W Model Declination Error (degrees) (degrees) (angle between north magnetic dip pole and true north pole) 13 E 20 E 09 W 10 W 03 E 09 E 10 W 12 W 33 E 00 03 03 06 11 11 11 20 44 Location Lat. It may be all right to say that a compass needle points "magnetic north" but it only roughly points to the magnetic north pole.doc 8/29/00 1-9 Doc.

models. or should we be referring to the south magnetized needle of the compass as pointing magnetic north? Neither. the data are analyzed to produce a mathematical routine called a magnetic reference field "model". reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. and Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. it is not possible to obtain up-to-date values of declination directly from a database of past observations. This material is not to be reprinted. Magnetic Declination. So we must now make the distinction that the real north pole is the Earth's north magnetic pole. It was produced using denser data over Canada than were used for the IGRF. Global models are produced every one to five years. from which magnetic declination can be calculated. But that was before it was realized that like poles of magnets repel. it was observed to align in a consistent direction.doc 8/29/00 1-10 Doc. A compass needle is a magnet and the north pole of any magnet is defined as the side which points magnetic north when the magnet is freely suspended. # TD2003. the southern magnetic pole of the Earth. and the poles of all magnets that (roughly) point to it are north seeking poles. naturally. When some curious person placed lodestone (magnetite) on wood floating on water. and is valid until 2005.Computalog Should we be calling the north magnetic pole. These constitute the series of International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) models. The cardinal points were defined long before the discovery that freely suspended magnets align to magnetic north. or floated it directly on mercury. its correct title is "north seeking pole. The latest IGRF and WMM model was produced in 2000. roughly pointing north. The World Magnetic Model Epoch 2000 (WMM2000). Instead. the "north pole". The side of the lodestone that pointed magnetic north was called. and since the magnetic field is constantly changing in time." hemisphere as the "North Magnetic Pole". The Canadian Geomagnetic Reference Field (CGRF) is a model of the magnetic field over the Canadian region. Maps label the magnetic pole in the northern HOW DO I COMPENSATE FOR DECLINATION AND INCLINATION? Since magnetic observations are neither uniformly nor densely distributed over the Earth.rev A ." but it has unfortunately been shortened to "north pole.

doc 8/29/00 1-11 Doc. It is generally agreed that the WMM and IGRF achieves an overall accuracy of better than 1° in declination.rev A . For locations within Canada. The accuracy of the CGRF. This material is not to be reprinted. The user inputs the year. Elevation. Output we would normally use are Magnetic Field Strength (Incident Field). is about 0. the accuracy is better than this in densely surveyed areas such as Europe and North America. Magnetic field models are used to calculate magnetic declination by means of computer programs such as the Magnetic Information Retrieval Program (MIRP). and worse in oceanic areas such as the south Pacific. The accuracy of all models decreases in the Arctic near the North Magnetic Pole. Magnetic Dip angle (Dip) and Magnetic Declination (Dec). in southern Canada.Computalog because the analysis was carried out over a smaller region. values are calculated using the IGRF. MIRP is able to compute values for any location on the Earth in the time period 1960 to 2000. Magnetic Declination. Inputs required for this example are Latitude. MIRP computes values using the CGRF. The accompanying declination chart is based on the CGRF. IGRF and CGRF are approximations to observed data. the CGRF can reproduce smaller spatial variations in the magnetic field than can the IGRF. a value of declination computed using either of them is likely to differ somewhat from the "true" value at that location. Outside Canada. a software package developed by the Geomagnetism Program of the Geological Survey of Canada. The latest CGRF was also produced in 2000 and is valid until 2005. Date and Model.5°. Below is an example of a Geomagnetic software package used to calculate many magnetic parameters. # TD2003. Since magnetic field models such as the WMM. latitude and longitude and MIRP calculates the declination. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Longitude.

stuck bottom hole assemblies. the declination can change at over a degree per kilometer (6/10 mile). However. by definition. or surface. Around such a place. they are accurate to within one degree for five years into the future. Ferromagnetic ore deposits. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. If a navigator happens to be traveling along a rather straight line of equal declination. particularly of volcanic origin. Local magnetic anomalies Predictive geomagnetic models such as the World Magnetic Model (WMM) and the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) only predict the values of that portion of the field originating in the deep outer core. at the magnetic dip poles. and mountains. There exist places on Earth. seamounts. or near magnetic anomalies. which included a small inset isogonic map. trenches. the needle on a standard compass will drag so badly on the top or the bottom of the capsule. The Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model describes how the field actually behaved. but there are other locations where extreme anomalies create the same effect. This is the case. This material is not to be reprinted.720 scale Canadian topographic maps published in the 1950's. it will drift slowly and stop on inconsistent bearings. It is illustrated on 1:126. Magnetic Declination. topographical features such as ridges.Computalog WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE DECLINATION? Location Each position on the Earth has a particular declination. distort the WMM or IGRF predictions. after which they need to be updated. In this respect. The change in its value as one travels is a complex function.rev A . While traveling though a severely anomalous region. # TD2003. it is common to observe a four-degree declination change over 10 kilometers (6 miles). crust. where the field is completely vertical. On this series. the needle will swing to various directions. such as faults and lava beds. that it can never be steadied. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Local anomalies originating in the upper mantle. where a compass attempts to point straight up or down. downhole features such as casing. drill string and bottom hole assemblies can induce errors of three to four degrees.doc 8/29/00 1-12 Doc. it can vary very little over thousands of kilometers. geological features. Anomalous declination is the difference between the declination caused by the Earth's outer core and the declination at the surface. called an isogonic line. clearly showing local anomalies. ground that has been hit by lightning. for one crossing isogonic lines at high latitudes.

Malpais lava flows.2 12.) N Seattle. iron deposits.7 87. 16.9 11.7° W.2 24.2 miles). (50 mi. The 47-kilometer (29 mile) difference illustrates the extent of the anomalous influence.) N Duluth.) S Little Rock.5 13.7 13. New Hampshire (one of the 4000-footers.5 E 48. W of Porcupine.) NW Minneapolis.5 E 47. Oregon 10 km. -Kingston Harbor. -Ramapo Mountains. Colorado 120 km. Hale.3° W to 15. compass rendered useless in some areas.7 14. Anomalous (Lat.rev A . -Around Georgian Bay of Lake Huron. The USGS declination chart of the USA (GP-1002-D) shows over a hundred anomalies. -Savoff.) NE Allentown. 106.12.5 118. (50 mi.3 Location 75 km.4 92. (150 mi. In addition to surveyed dip poles and modeled dip poles.7 N.(45 mi.8 E 33.8 W 45.6 E .) W Boulder. 85.9 14. # TD2003.4 82. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.5° E of anomalous declination over two kilometers (1. Washington In Alvord Desert.doc 8/29/00 1-13 Doc.2 75.4 W 40. Arkansas In Lake Huron. This surveyed north magnetic dip pole was at 78.9 92. -Michipicoten Island in Lake Superior (47. iron ore. Pennsylvania 250 km.7 E 48. 90° of anomalous declination. Minnesota 85 km. (6 mi. declination degrees) 46.0 N. a simplification of the field yields geomagnetic dipole poles.2 W 38. Ontario 80 km.2 E 40. Over 60° of anomalous declination. 85.2 E 45. New Mexico north of the Gila Wilderness area. (75 mi. Ontario Escanaba.0 W). magnetite and ilmenite deposits. Minnesota In 1994.4 104. compass rendered useless. -Near Timmins. near the Zealand Falls hut on the Appalachian Trail) . 104. Ontario. 104. Ontario. Colorado 20 km. old AMC Guides to the White Mountains used to warn against it. the DGRF-90 modeled magnetic dip pole for 1994 was at 78.7° N. This material is not to be reprinted. Magnetic Declination.5 13.7 16. The following table lists the most extreme cases.) W Colorado Springs. However.0° W.Computalog A few areas with magnetic anomalies (there are thousands more): -North of Kingston.0 W 46.8 Long.3° N.0 W 42. which are where the poles would be if the field was a simple EarthConfidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.8 W). -Near Grants. northeastern New Jersey. on shore of Lake Michigan In Lake Superior. -Near the summit of Mt.6 122. (12 mi. the average location of the north magnetic dip pole was located in the field by the Geological Survey of Canada. and takes local anomalies into consideration.1 86. Ontario (50. Ontario.3 95.4 13.

This material is not to be reprinted. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. The north magnetic pole has wandered over 1000 kilometers (600 miles) since Sir John Ross first reached it in 1831. # TD2003. Magnetic Declination. According to the IGRF. the field is the sum of several dipoles. Altitude (Negligible to 2 degrees) This factor is normally negligible.000 meter (66. North Magnetic Pole Movement 1945-2000 Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Distortion caused by cultural features is called deviation. In reality. until the inclination (I) is as close as possible to 90°. would result in a two-degree reduction in declination. as shown on this map at SARBC (extend the path to north west of Ellef Ringes Island for 1999).doc 8/29/00 1-14 Doc.rev A . Solar-terrestrial and magnetospheric scientists use these. which is several times faster than the average of 6 kilometers (4 miles) per year since 1831. Secular change (2-25 years/degree) Where were/are/will be the magnetic poles? As convection currents churn in apparent chaos in the Earth's core.Computalog centered dipole. 500 kilometers (300 miles) from the north magnetic pole.000 foot) climb even at a magnetically precarious location as Resolute. or this map at USGS. a 20. The magnetic pole positions can be determined more precisely by using a calculator that returns magnetic inclination. Its rate of displacement has been accelerating in recent years and is currently moving about 24 kilometers (15 miles) per year. Latitudes and longitudes can be entered by trial and error. each with a different orientation and intensity. all magnetic values change erratically over the years.

One theory to explain magnetic pole reversals is related to large meteorite impacts.Computalog South Magnetic Pole Movement 1945-2000 A given value of declination is only accurate for as long as it stays within the precision of the compass. but that the molten core would remain stationary. Magnetic Declination. This has the effect of moving the magnetic poles around an ellipse several tens of kilometers in diameter. which could trigger ice ages. As it rotates. even during periods of steady solar wind without gusts. A map that states: "annual change increasing 1. preferably one degree. but that rate of change just happened to be slow on the year of measurement. The Sun would then rise in the opposite direction. which proposes that the entire crust could shift and reverse the true poles in a matter of days. which have been recorded in the magnetic alignment of lava as it cooled. known as solar wind. which would disrupt magmatic convection cells into chaos. These theories are challenged by the controversial Reversing Earth Theory. The magnetic field has even completely collapsed and reversed innumerable times. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.0' " would suggest 60 years per degree. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Another theory is that the reversals are triggered by a slight change the angular momentum of the earth as a direct result of the impacts. These may reverse when a new pattern is established. distorts Earth's magnetic field. The Geological Survey of Canada shows a map of this daily wander or diurnal motion in 1994. # TD2003. The movement of water from the oceans to high latitudes would accelerate the rotation of the Earth. Typical secular change or variation (do not confuse with mariners' and aviators' variation) is 2-25 years per degree. resulting in apparent magnetic reversal. any location will be subject alternately to the lee side. This material is not to be reprinted.rev A . Diurnal change (negligible to 9 degrees) The stream of ionized particles and electrons emanating from the Sun.doc 8/29/00 1-15 Doc. and will more than likely accelerate. then the windward side of this stream of charged particles.

The varied colors are caused by oxygen and nitrogen being ionized. which would create erratic magnetic fields. compass needles at high latitudes have been observed swinging wildly. Solar magnetic activity (negligible to wild) The solar wind varies throughout an 11-year sunspot cycle. and will produce dazzling spectacles of auroras. "Bermuda Triangle" type anomalies (very rare) Legends of compasses spinning wildly in this area of the Atlantic. Magnetic Declination. It could make people feel light headed and confused because the gas replaces the air.1 degree of distortion. it could induce a static charge or could ionize the gas.doc 8/29/00 1-16 Doc.rev A .Computalog The resulting diurnal change in declination is negligible at tropical and temperate latitudes. 500 kilometers (300 miles) from the north magnetic pole. and then recapturing electrons at altitudes ranging from 100 to 1000 kilometers (60 to 600 miles). As the gas bubbles up. This error could conceivably be corrected. which creates gusts of solar wind. The gas would cause a ship to lose buoyancy. bursts of X-rays and charged particles are projected chaotically into space. During severe magnetic storms. This implies about four disturbed days per year. which itself varies from one cycle to the next. Ottawa is subject to plus or minus 0. The ionized gas may show as an eerie green glow at night. but both the time of day and the date would have to be considered. but it would not have the mercaptans that gas companies add to gas to give it its distinctive odor. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. in Resolute. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. or a plane flying through a rising pocket of natural gas could ignite it. The chance that the declination will be deflected by two degrees in southern Canada over the entire 11year cycle is 1% per day. before sinking a ship. the diurnal change cycles through at least plus or minus nine degrees of declination error. The influence of solar magnetic activity on the compass can best be described as a probability. For example. or blowing up an airplane. but in practice these days tend to be clustered in years of solar maxima. However. These magnetic storms will interfere with radio and electric services. as this effect also varies with seasons. The term "geomagnetic storm" refers to the effect of a solar magnetic storm on the Earth (geo means Earth. This material is not to be reprinted. These probabilities drop off rapidly at lower latitudes. In periods of high solar magnetic activity. # TD2003. may be related to huge pockets of natural gas suddenly escaping from the ocean floor.

which is useful for predicting declination. especially on maps of remote regions with several decades between updates. Magnetic Declination. For example. such as the 1:50. A rate of change over five years old is unreliable for one-degree precision.000 scale topographic maps by the Canadian Department of Energy. # TD2003. This material is not to be reprinted.rev A . until an earthquake triggers a release. In angular coordinate systems like latitude and longitude. cause them to decompose. The solid hydrates retain their stability until conditions. Some maps.((1997-1969) * 3. The value is usually out of date. corresponding to the center of the map. the water molecules form cages that trap gas molecules such as methane. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. the approximate mean declination 1969 on the Trout River. imposed on topographic maps by the United States and NATO armed forces. the distance covered by a degree of longitude differs as you move towards the poles and Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. The United States Geological Survey's 1:24. This phenomenon is not restricted to the "Bermuda Triangle". true north and Universal Transverse Mercator grid north. but that rate of change is erratic and reliability of the forecast decreases with time.Computalog At enormous pressures and low temperatures (as at the bottom of the sea). HOW DO I DETERMINE THE DECLINATION DIAGRAMS ON MAPS? Most topographic maps include a small diagram with three arrows: magnetic north.0'. The given value of declination.0) = 27° 93' but IGRF 1995 for 1997 yields 23° 44'. These compounds resemble ice but. The gas may remain trapped under silt. Mines and Resources include the rate of annual change. UTM Provides a constant distance relationship anywhere on the map. since it may have drifted several degrees due to secular change. which is 3° 25' less. water and gas molecules form gas hydrates. unlike ordinary ice. Grid north and declination diagrams (negligible to 2 degrees) Grid north is the direction of the north-south lines of the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid.doc 8/29/00 1-17 Doc. does not take local anomalies into account. The insurance statistics at the Lloyds of London have not revealed an unusual number of sunken ships in the triangle.000 scale maps do not even mention annual change. Newfoundland map was 28° 33' west with annual change decreasing 3. This implies a recent (1997) value of: 28° 33' . such as higher temperatures or lower pressures. showing that the 28-year prediction was in significant error.

Magnetic Declination. many other map users are adopting the UTM grid system for coordinates Printed Isogonic charts Isogonic or declination charts are plots of equal magnetic declination on a map. The 11th edition is based on magnetic epoch 1995. The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (1992 edition) provides a small world chart under "geomagnetism. that are simpler to use than latitude and longitude. Canadian maps show a blue fine-lined UTM grid. This material is not to be reprinted. while some USGS 1:24. known as central meridians. Again.rev A . Some isogonic charts include lines of annual change in the magnetic declination (also called isoporic lines). A Brunton 9020 compass included a 1995 isogonic chart of North America." The best is the 1:39. The difference between grid north and true north can be over two degrees. be sure to take bearings to and from the map by making the meridian lines on the compass parallel with the UTM grid (grid north).000. the older. you must make the meridian lines on the compass parallel with the edges of the map (true north).000 scale maps show black grid lines. if you use declination from a Canadian/Australian style declination diagram. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Therefore. and interpolating between isogonic lines. The choice of grid lines or tick marks on the US maps seems inconsistent by year or by region. Hydrographic charts include known magnetic anomalies.000 scale series of World Aeronautical Charts include isogonic lines. yielding its value by visually situating a location. With the advent of inexpensive GPS receivers. Ask for Geophysical Data Chart Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. if you use declination from a USGS style declination diagram or any of the other sources below.0 and includes lines of annual change and country borders. The problem with grid north is that is coincident with true north only at the center line of each UTM zone. but a US map shows magnetic north with respect to true north.Computalog only equals the distance covered by a degree of latitude at the equator. on a sheet copyrighted in 1992 The 1:1. However. # TD2003. but the others only show blue grid tick marks on the map margins. A declination diagram on a topographic Canadian map or an Australian map shows magnetic north with respect to grid north.doc 8/29/00 1-18 Doc.000. the less valid.000 Magnetic Variation chart of "The Earth's Magnetic Field" series published by the Defense Mapping Agency (USA). This might not be so bad if it were not for the different conventions with respect to declination diagrams adopted by different countries. The world charts illustrate the complexity of the field.

click to zoom.000. WOBZC42) at a National (USA) Ocean Service navigation chart sales agent or order from the NOS Distribution Division. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. 1995: National (USA) Geophysical Data Center World.8 meters (45" X 34").000 scale. GP-1002-D. Magnetic Declination. color. 42 (DMA stock No.00 (+ US$3. more detailed (caution: outdated--1985): Search and Rescue Society of British Columbia United States. Look it up at a university map library or order GP-1004-D from the United States Geological Survey.0.14 X 0. about US$10.000.000). Southeast Asia.9 meters (50" X 35").doc 8/29/00 1-19 Doc. small: United States Geological Survey World. It does include lines of annual change and country borders. five magnetic parameters and their rates of secular change. epoch 1990.000 (Alaska and Hawaii 1:3. Includes polar regions at 1:68. including polar projections: Kyoto University in Japan World. # TD2003. 1995. CGRF95: Geological Survey of Canada Canada. However. 43 (DMA stock No. USA Department of Defense Canada.22 X 0.26 X 0. about US$16. it lacks country borders. However. A 1:48. slightly more readable. seven magnetic parameters. Size: 1.00 + US$3.500.50 for shipping and handling). On-line Isogonic charts North America 1990. 1. the most recent edition is still based on magnetic epoch 1990. 1995. three magnetic parameters (note: longitudes are in 360° format): United States Geological Survey Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. small.Computalog stock No.000. A United States declination chart is also published. North and south polar areas are on Geophysical Data Chart stock No. It covers from 84° N to 70° S.0. color.rev A . Middle East. US$4. This material is not to be reprinted. 1995. Only US$4.50 S&H.000 scale "The World Magnetic Variation 1995 and Annual Rates of Change" chart published by the British Geological Survey.000 world declination chart of "The Magnetic Field of Earth" series is published by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Sciences Information Center.86 meters (48" X 34"). 5374. includes over 100 magnetic anomalies. larger. European marine chart distributors may have better availability for the 1:45. Others 1995: South America. Size 1. black and white. Australia/New Zealand. WOBZC43). Scale 1:5. 1995: National (USA) Geophysical Data Center or Stanford University in California World. Global: Ricardo's Geo-Orbit Quick Look satellite dish site World. Europe.000. Ask for No.

Sorry.htm Declinometer/Inclinometer A declinometer/inclinometer is sophisticated instrument makes precision measurements of declination and inclination. # TD2003.5: Australian Geological Survey Organization (AGSO) Finland. 1998. The angle at which its electronic fluxgate magnetometer reads a minimum value.pl Interpex Limited: GEOMAGIX http://geomag. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. On-line and downloadable declination data Use an atlas to find your latitude and longitude before you can use the links below.rev A . Finland wrote this Java applet in which you specify a region and date. ftp://ftp.co. Great idea.ngdc. but it computes great circle bearings and distances. It covers USA only.nrcan.gov/Freeware/geomagix. no zooms available. from 1862 to present.0: Finnish Meteorological Institute. AGRF95 for 1997.htm freeware can be downloaded.html National (USA) Geophysical Data Center: seven magnetic parameters and their rates of secular change.datacache. http://www.usgs.pangolin. http://www. True north is determined by sighting a true north reference target mounted some distance away.best. celestial navigation calculations on a sighting of the sun or another star.noaa. is compared to a sighting through its optical theodolite. Magnetic Declination. latitude or longitude and will transform bearings from one year to another. It is used to calibrate compasses or to periodically calibrate continuously recording variometers in magnetic observatories. The blue lines are declination. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. It has wavy isogones in an attempt to include magnetic anomalies from the Earth's crust. IGRF95: Instituto de Geofísica. or is derived from Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.com/~williams CBU Software: MAGDEC shareware (30-day trial) provides a plot of declination vs.gov/cgi-bin/seg/gmag/fldsnth1. Linux. years. and the red lines are annual change.noaa. Australia.exe Ed William's Aviation page: Geomagnetic Field and Variation Calculator freeware can be downloaded in Mac.ngdc. but the maps lack detail. Generate your own: Kimmo Korhonen at the Helsinki University of Technology.geolab. Pangolin in New Zealand features a Java applet that continuously returns magnetic variation as the pointer is moved over a map of the world.html Geological Survey of Canada: declination http://www. http://www.nz/magvar.com/descript.ca/geomag/e_cgrf.gc. http://www.doc 8/29/00 1-20 Doc.Computalog Mexico. Defense Mapping Agency: GEOMAG freeware can be downloaded. and DOS versions and are suitable for batch processing.gov/Solid_Earth/Mainfld_Mag/DoD_Model/Basic_Software/dmabasic. This material is not to be reprinted.

Computalog

**Link to references and acknowledgments.
**

Questions, comments, corrections, and additions are welcome. Please E-Mail me in French or English at gouletc@cam.org. Copyright 1997-1999 by Chris M. Goulet.. Updates of this FAQ will be posted at: Communications Accessibles de Montreal http://www.cam.org/~gouletc/decl_faq.html and at:Geocities http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/Gorge/8998/decl_faq.html Disclaimer (Lawyer Repellent): Permission is hereby granted to apply the information in this document on the condition that be author not be held responsible nor liable for any damages.

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Computalog Directional Drilling Azimuth Reference Systems

This paper discusses the primary azimuth reference systems currently used in directional drilling. This will include True North and Magnetic references with particular detail given to Grid Coordinate systems (i.e. UTM, Lambert, Geographic, and Local). A simple field-proven method is also presented to help avoid confusion when converting from one system to another.

More than one multi-million dollar directional drilling project has missed its intended target(s) due to errors and/or misunderstandings surrounding the azimuth reference system in use. The confusion arises primarily from the necessity to change from one system to another between the well planning phase, where most maps are drawn with respect to a local Grid North, and the drilling phase where surveying is performed with respect to a Magnetic or True North reference. The field company representative is faced with a confusing array of possible conversions, including declination corrections from Magnetic North to True North, True North to Grid North, Magnetic to Grid North, or Grid to Magnetic North. Is the correction to be added or subtracted from the survey measurement? Is the convergence magnitude and sign correct for the grid system used? With all these questions, it is easy to see why this seemingly simple task is often performed improperly and the mistake not realized until the target is missed. responsibility convergence the service for application The rig field to company foreman often passes on the

supplying the surveys or to the directional driller. While this practice may appear sound in theory, it usually creates additional confusion as basic information is often poorly communicated It is or not misconstrued. where several

uncommon that on projects service

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companies perform different surveys (i.e. MWD, single shots, multi-shots, and gyros) that each supplier comes up with a different convergence value.

A case in point involved a recent high visibility multi-million dollar directional drilling project. In this incident, a well known well planning company drew the well maps with respect to the local grid coordinate system, with a footnote stipulating that the directional contractor would be responsible for grid and magnetic declination convergence. When the operation began, the rig site was manned by a company representative, two consulting drilling engineers, and a directional driller all responsible for deviation control. The directional company was not accustomed to deriving grid corrections and solicited help from the company representative. He assumed the local grid was UTM (later learned to be state plane) and the appropriate UTM convergence was applied. He then had the directional company’s office redraw the well maps rotated by that UTM correction. The office complied and added in the magnetic declination as well. The directional driller missed this fact, however, and continued to apply a declination correction at the rig site as drilling continued. It was not until the project was completed and the target missed that the errors were realized.

This project was more closely supervised than a normal directional well, yet it serves as a classic example of how easily the relative relationships between coordinate systems can be poorly communicated and inappropriately applied. The remainder of this paper will examine methods to reduce these azimuth convergence errors by utilizing parties. field experience and suggested communication procedures between all involved

AZIMUTH REFERENCES

Azimuth, (AZ) used in directional drilling, may be defined as the direction of the wellbore (at a given point) projected into the horizontal plane measured in a clockwise direction from Magnetic North, True North or Grid North after applying a North Reference system. Azimuth should be

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expressed as a value on a 0°-360o compass system. Quadrant or bearing systems (i.e. N45° 20’E) may be easier to visualize, but make the probability of convergence mistakes higher than in an azimuth system. It is therefore recommended to have all survey printouts converted to an azimuth system when making initial convergence directional azimuth Magnetic North (GN). corrections. drilling references. North and For borehole They (MN), are True

surveying, there are three primary

(Geographic) North (TN), and Grid

Magnetic North is the direction of the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field lines at a particular point on the earth’s surface pointing to the magnetic pole. A magnetic compass will align itself to these lines with the positive pole of the compass indicating North. Magnetic North is usually symbolized on maps by a half arrow head or the letters MN.

True or Geographic North is the horizontal direction from a point on the earth’s surface to the geographic North Pole, which lien on the earths axis of rotation. The direction is shown on a globe by meridians of longitude. True North i.e. normally symbolized on maps by a star at the tip of the arrow or the letters TN.

Grid North is a reference system devised by map markers in “the complicated task of transferring the curved surface of the earth onto a flat sheet. The meridians of longitude on a globe converge toward the North Pole and therefore do not produce a rectangular grid system. A map can be drawn such that the grid lines are rectangular, for some specified area of the earth, the northerly direction of which is determined by one specified meridian of longitude. This direction is called Grid North and is identical to True North only for that specified central meridian. It is normally symbolized on a map by the letters “GN” at the tip of the arrow.

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GRID SYSTEMS

Geographic coordinates. One of the oldest systematic methods of location is based upon the geographic coordinate system. While this information is basic, a short review is included for reference. By drawing a set of east-west rings around the globe (parallel to the equator), and a set of north- south rings crossing the equator at right angles and converging at the poles, a network of reference lines is formed from which any point on the earth’s surface can be located. The distance of a point north or south of the equator is known as latitude. The rings around the earth parallel to the equator are called parallels of latitude or simply parallels. Lines of latitude run

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The line directly opposite the prime meridian. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. # TD2002. Lines east of the prime meridian are numbered to 0° to +180° and identified as east longitude: lines west of the prime meridian are numbered to 0° to -180° and identified as west longitude. with north-south distances measured between them. longitude is measured both east and west around the world. However. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. the parallels of latitude are numbered to 90° both north and south. The prime meridian accepted by the majority of the world runs through Greenwich. The direction E (+) or W (-) must always be given. One meridian is designated as the prime meridian. Lines of longitude (meridians) run north-south. It can also be further defined as Geographic/Geodetic or Geocentric Latitude. For most atlas maps and any directional drilling map. A second set of rings around the globe at right angles to lines of latitude and passing through the poles are known as meridians of longitude or simply meridians. Starting with 0° at the prime meridian. Geographic Datum. each degree into 60 minutes. The distance east or west of a prime meridian to a point is known as longitude. and each minute into 60 seconds. and the second by (‘’). Actually it more nearly resembles an oblate ellipsoid flattened by approximately one part in three hundred at the poles due to rotation. Each circle is divided into 360°. On small scale maps this oblateness is negligible. The Geocentric latitude is the angle made by a line to the center of the earth at the equatorial plane. The degree is symbolized by (0). Starting with 0° at the equator. may be referred to as either east or west longitude.rev A . with east-west distances measured between them. Geodetic is the angle that a line perpendicular to the surface of the earth makes with the plane of the equator. different ellipsoids will produce slightly different coordinates for the same point on the earth and therefore warrant a brief summary. Geographic coordinates are expressed angular measurement. The extremities are the North Pole at 90° north latitude and the South Pole at 90° south latitude. except at the equator and poles where it is the same due to the earth’s ellipsoidal shape. the minute by (’). and is known as the Greenwich meridian. England. This material is not to be reprinted. so the direction N or S must always be given. the earth may be considered a sphere. 180°. Az Ref Systems. Latitude can have the same numerical value north or south of the equator.Computalog east-west.doc 8/30/00 2-5 Doc. It is slightly greater in magnitude than the Geocentric latitude.

774.378.160 6.514.356.9 6.1 6.356.5 6.9 6.356.378.Computalog More than a dozen principal ellipsoids have been measured in the past two hundred years which are still in use by one or more countries.46 1/294. A map projection is a method of transferring part or all of a round body on to a flat sheet.378. # TD2002.98 Use Newly adopted NASA Australia SovietUnion Remainderof the”world Renainderof the world Most of Africa.356.doc 8/30/00 2-6 Doc.356.752.25 1/298. The different dimensions of the other established ellipsoids are not only the result of varying uncertainties in the Geodetic measurements that were made. Different applications require different projections. The table below illustrates some of the official ellipsoids in use today.911.9 meters.25 l/297 1/297 1/293. There is consequently no best method of projection for map making in general.3 6. An official shape was designated in 1924 by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) and adopted a flattening ratio of exactly one part in 297. Name GRS 19802 WGS 723 Australian Krasovaky Internat’1 Hayford Clarke Clarke Date 1980 1972 1965 1940 1924 1909 1880 1866 Meters 6.583.388 meters and a polar radius of 6. rather than using a generalized ellipsoid for the whole earth. Az Ref Systems.7 6.8 Flattening f 1/298.206.a. Equatorial Radius.863.388 6. This material is not to be reprinted.356. Since the surface of a sphere cannot be represented accurately on a flat sheet without distortion the cartographer must choose characteristics he wishes to display precisely at the expense of others.378. but also are due to a nonuniform curvature of the earth’s surface due to irregularities in the gravity field.911.245 6.356. Many countries did not adopt this ellipsoid however. Philippines Map Projections.378.249. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.378. including those in North America. It is for this reason that a particular ellipsoid will be slightly more accurate in the areas it was measured.388 6.4 PolarRadius b.356.26 1/298.378.911.135 6.France North America.0 6. This also includes satellite derived ellipsoids such as WGS72.378.137 6. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.257 1/298.356.750. metere 6.9 6. This was called the International Ellipsoid and was based on Hayford’s calculations in 1909 giving an equatorial radius of 6.rev A .378.

A map of relatively small size. will closely achieve most or all of these characteristics with any method of projection. complicating the location of points and the measurement of directions. such as a directional well path. An examination of these projections shows that most lines of latitude and longitude are curved. developed by Johann Lambert in 1772. Map projections are generally classified with respect to their method of construction accordance with in the developable surface from which they were devised. Army adopted this system in 1947 for designating rectangular coordinates on large scale military maps of the entire world. # TD2002.doc 8/30/00 2-7 Doc.S. The quadrangles formed by the intersection of these curved parallels and meridians are of different sizes and shapes. to which specific parameters have been applied. The U. equal area. Az Ref Systems. such as central meridians. true scale and size. Universal Transverse Mercator Grid (UTM).rev A . The UTM is based on the Cylindrical Transverse Mercator Conformal Projection. and planer. the most common being cylindrical. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.Computalog Some characteristics normally considered in choosing a particular projection are: true shape of physical features. The most common worldwide grid system used in directional drilling is the UTM. a rectangular grid maybe superimposed upon the projection. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. To facilitate these essential operations. rhomb (compass point) lines as straight lines. great circles as straight lines. conical. and correct angular relationships. This material is not to be reprinted.

Az Ref Systems. Most of the North America is included in Zones 10-19. its outer edges are curves. Dallas for example is in grid zone 14s covering a quadrangle from 96° to 102°W and from 32° to 40°N.rev A . which are farther apart at the equator than at the poles. Each zone is flattened and a square grid superimposed upon it. easting and northing make up the complete UTM Grid Reference for any point. beginning with zone 1 at the 180th Meridian.doc 8/30/00 2-8 8 Doc. # TD2002.Computalog The UTM divides the world into 60 equal zones (6° wide) between latitude 84°N and latitude 80°S. with its most important features. excluding I and O. These sectors are bounded by quadrangles formed every 8° in latitude both north and south and are designated by letters starting with C at 80° South to X at 72° North. UTM zones are sometimes further divided into grid sectors although this is not essential for point identification. Each of the 60 zones has its own origin at the intersection of its central meridian and the equator.000 meters. Note that when drawn on a flat map. The grid is identified in all 60 zones. This material is not to be reprinted. (since they follow meridian lines on the globe). 1. and distinguish it from any other point on earth. Sectors may be further divided into grid Squares of 100. These three components: the zone number. Each grid is numbered. its shape somewhat exaggerated.000 meters on a side with double letter designations including partial squares of 10. Any point in the zone may be referenced by citing its zone number. with zone numbers increasing to the east.000 meters and 100 meters designated by numbers and letters. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Polar regions are normally covered by a separate planer projection system known as Universal Polar Stereo-graphic. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. its distance in meters from the equator (“northing”) and its distance in meters from a north-south reference line (’easting”). International Date Line. The Figure below shows a zone.

Some maps. each is assigned an arbitrary value of 500.. have converted UTM coordinates from meters to feet. particularly in the U. beginning with a value of zero at the equator and increasing to the north. there are no negative numbers for the castings of points west of the central meridian.9996 of True to minimize variation in a given zone. # TD2002. which run east and west through its center.000 meters at the equator.000 meters to approximately 800.000 meters. the equator and is arbitrarily are assigned a value of 10 million meters. with no negative values. the zones somewhat exceed 600. This scale factor (grid distance/true distance) changes Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. The easting of a point represents its distance in meters from the central meridian of the zone in which it lies.rev A . northing values heading southward. and the central meridian. Northings for points north of the equator are measured directly in meters. easting values range from approximately 200. Az Ref Systems.000 meters from west to east. but positive. increasing to the east. In utilizing the Transverse Mercator Projection. To avoid negative northing values for points south of the equator.Computalog The two most important features of the zones are the equator. the central UTM meridian has been reduced in scale by 0.S. This material is not to be reprinted. The range of possible casting values narrows as the zones narrow toward the poles.doc 8/30/00 2-9 Doc. points measured with decreasing. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Since along the equator at their widest points. Easting and northing measurements are based on these two lines. Instead of assigning a value of 0 meters to the central meridian of each zone. By common agreement. The northing of a point represents its distance in meters from the equator.

doc 8/30/00 2-10 Doc. and Michigan).e. The Lambert System is based on a conformal conic projection and is particularly useful in mapping regions that have a predominately eastwest expanse. This system has heavy use in North America and is the official U. Louisiana. including Wyoming. Colorado. This material is not to be reprinted. This projection was first described by Lambert in 1772. # TD2002. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Az Ref Systems. Approximately 60 countries use the UTM as the most authoritative and general use projection within the world.rev A . The Russia.S. California. including the majority of those where oil is drilled and produced (i. The remainder of the states. Approximately 50 countries use other Lambert Conformal Conic Projection. this error is very small in directional drilling maps and is usually ignored. Texas. China and other European countries use the Transverse Mercator (Gauss-Kriiger) projections. with 6° zones. uses the Transverse Mercator with Alaska using a combination. However. Oklahoma. state plane coordinate system for more than half of the 48 contiguous states. but can be true along one Pole in same hemisphere is a point. other pole is at infinity Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Kansas. but received little use until the First World War where France revived it for battle maps. although some also use secondary local projections and grid references.Computalog slightly as you move away from the central meridian and should be considered if very accurate measurements are desired. Utah. The features of this conic projection include: • • • • Parallels of latitude are unequally spaced arcs of concentric circles Meridians of longitude are equally spaced radii cutting the parallels at right angles Scale is normally true along two defined parallels.

doc 8/30/00 2-11 Doc. the well’s target location may lie in a different zone from the surface location. local grids are used in Holland. Az Ref Systems. Local Grid systems. This material is not to be reprinted. There are numerous local grid systems in use around the world today. This is done by either extending the surface location zone by a few miles to include the target. 3° to the zone boundary.K.. In the U. 92° 301 w 30° 401 N 29° 18’ 3C” 42* 91° 201 28° 40’ 26° 10’ 27° 501 91° 201 25° 40’ The grid origins for most states are measured in feet. to reduce distortion at the center. covering different sizes of surface areas. with the east-west axis starting at 2. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. the U. North South Offshore 31° 10* N 32° 40t N ORIGIN Lat. but all serve the same basic purpose as outlined for UTM and Lambert. In these cases creating a nonstandard zone normally produces a special local grid.. or sets of the same depending on its size. it is possible to change the “standard parallels” to another pair by changing the scale applied to the existing map and recalculating standards to fit the new scale. Several countries have also shifted the starting of the UTM grid zones to fall inside their own territory.Computalog Since there is no distortion at the parallels. or shifting the zone center.rev A . as well as other privately surveyed grids.S. # TD2002. Each state or area has it’s own standard parallels. as sometimes is done with UTM. and other countries. Australia. Outside the U. In some situations when using standard grid coordinates. Louisiana is divided into three zones as shown in the Table below.000 feet and the north-south axis set at 0 feet. For example. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Zone STANDARD PARALLELS Long.S. These systems all have different base line coordinates and projections. lease lines often are used as a convenient grid reference.000. Brunei.

the declination and the date must be included. Az Ref Systems. ’90. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.Computalog AZIMUTH REFERENCE SYSTEM CONVERSIONS Most well proposals are generated from rectangular coordinates derived from the UTM or local grid system. and if to the east. The most accurate method to determine local declination is to measure the magnetic field with a magnetic transit. it will be necessary to convert between these references. When Magnetic North lies to the west of True North. When magnetic results are recorded. This material is not to be reprinted. Local values of magnetic declination Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. 1985. # TD2002. easterly. Their values and rates of change can be obtained from Computer programs like GEOMAG or “world magnetic variation charts” or “isogonic charts” which are issued by all major hydrographic institutes in the world once every five years (1980.doc 8/30/00 2-12 Doc. Since wells must be surveyed with sensors that reference direction to either Magnetic or True North. Magnetic Declination models are updated every year. the magnetic declination is said to be westerly.). etc. declination component The correction of the magnetic is the angle between the horizontal earth’s magnetic field lines and the lines of longitude.rev A . Declination Magnetic declination correction converts azimuth values between the Magnetic North and True North systems. Magnetic Correction. Computer programs like GEOMAG use current magnetic models and calculate up-to-date local declination figures. Values of magnetic declination change with time and location. The surface location to target direction will therefore be referenced to Grid North.

The directional software packages will at minimum handle UTM and Lambert conformal conic convergence. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.1O.348 Easting = 307077.1924 Ellipsoid). UTM Grid North is said to be “X” number of degrees either east or west of True North. the smaller the correction. When working with the UTM system. # TD2002. The chosen sign convention displays Grid North as “x” number of degrees east or west of True North. when you convert the geographic coordinates latitude N 30° 00’ 00” and longitude W 95° 00’ 00” to UTM coordinates (using the Hayford International . This sign convention is not necessarily the same for all contractors and should be clearly communicated and understood before drilling begins. The computation of the grid correction angle or angle of convergence will require special mathematical techniques depending on the type of projection of the curved earth’s surface on to the flat grid. Grid Correction Angle. Az Ref Systems.096 Grid Convergence = W 1° 0’ 0” This listing indicates a grid convergence of 1o 00’ 00”. The closer the point is to the grid central meridian and to the equator. To convert this UTM Grid North direction to a True North direction. Grid convergence as calculated by the directional software package is the angular difference in degrees between True North and UTM Grid North. A grid correction converts azimuth readings between the True North systems and the specified grid system. the computer will display the following results: UTM Coordinates: Hemisphere = North Zone = 15 Northing = 3320517. you must apply the grid convergence to the calculated UTM Grid North direction. This material is not to be reprinted. For example. The magnitude of the correction angle depends upon its location within the grid and its latitude. the calculated direction between two UTM coordinates is referenced to Grid North.Computalog should be stated in the well program to plus or minus 0. The angle of correction is the angle between the meridians of longitude and the Northings of the grid system at a specified point. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.rev A .doc 8/30/00 2-13 Doc.

The survey printout should include. for example does a west convergence angle put Grid North west of True North or visa versa?). Az Ref Systems.0° (CW) from True North and 8. 4. Draw an arrow pointing east (azimuth of 90°) for an arbitrary borehole azimuth reference. the following procedure is suggested: 1. 5. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. With this in mind. True North azimuth will equal 90°. # TD2002. Draw a polar diagram showing True North at 0 degrees azimuth (12 o’clock). the following data: 1) Grid North is 3. Draw an arrow for Magnetic North using an exaggerated angle east or west of True North showing the declination angle (east declination is east of True North and west is west).0° east grid convergence and an 8.0 o Magnetic North reference.0°E (CW) from Grid North. 2) Magnetic North is 5.0 o to all Magnetic North azimuths and so forth. This material is not to be reprinted. Convert quadrant/bearing readings.0 o Grid North reference and 85. declination/grid conversion polar diagrams should be drawn on all maps and clearly defined on all survey printouts.0o west grid convergence and a 5.0°W (CCW) from True North. 3. Grid azimuth will equal 90° plus/minus grid convergence.Computalog System Conversions. Magnetic azimuth will equal 90° plus/minus declination. to a 0360 degrees azimuth system. The chart adjacent to the polar diagram shows all possible combinations to change between systems.0 declination. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. including declination and grid convergence. Draw an arrow for Grid North using an exaggerated angle east or west of True North showing the grid convergence angle (be sure of the sign convention of the grid convergence value used. December 1987. To avoid this confusion. and 3] Survey printout is referenced to Grid North. Label the borehole azimuth with reference to each system. The diagram clearly shows the arbitrary True North azimuth of 90 o o east magnetic to equal 93. With these three references it is a simple matter to determine whether declination and/or convergence need to be added or subtracted to switch from one system to the other. Example one depicts a situation with a 3. Example two depicts a similar situation with a 3. misunderstandings surrounding the relationship between these references can cause a target to be missed. Once accurate magnetic declination and grid convergence angles are acquired.rev A .0° east magnetic declination. all that is needed to change reference systems is to add or subtract these angles from one another.doc 8/30/00 2-14 Doc. While this seems a simple task. To convert from Magnetic azimuth to True azimuth add 5. 2. 6. under an azimuth reference heading.

doc 8/30/00 2-15 Doc. geology. # TD2002. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. The next group might be land/hydrographic survey crews. operations drilling foremen. and a directional service company who might be responsible for developing well plans to the proposed targets from selected surface locations. Never assume the man on the rig will understand your written communications. and documented on the well prognosis and directional maps using a polar grid convergence diagram. magnetic declination. and use of polar grid convergence diagrams. and directional drillers who will be responsible for drilling the well to target as planned. CONCLUSION A missed target for any reason can be a financial disaster. convergence angle corrections. to assure that all parties understand the map azimuth reference and the magnitude and sense of necessary correction angles. geophysical and geology departments. The initial group will normally consist of seismic crews.rev A . A meeting should be held. both written and oral. cross checked. Az Ref Systems. at the rig site if necessary. who will be responsible for developing structure maps and choosing targets with respect to a common coordinate system. This function can generally be divided into two or three groups depending on the size of the organization and the complexity of the project. a missed target for azimuth reference convergence error is inexcusable. All groups should be in agreement with these values before release to operations. This material is not to be reprinted.Computalog COMMUNICATION Accurate communication. drilling engineering. This mistake can be avoided by: • TRAINING responsible personnel basic grid systems. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. The final group might consist of drilling engineering. At this point the grid convergence and magnetic declination angle should be computed. This is the stage where most errors and miscommunication are likely to occur. is the key to avoiding convergence errors.

Az Ref Systems. C.doc 8/30/00 2-16 Doc.C. Judson. New Jersey. Synder.: Physical Geology. (1982) Page 15 2. Inc. This material is not to be reprinted.Computalog • COMMUNICATION. and directional drilling contractors. both written and oral. Don L. Englewood Cliffs. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.S. Maryland (1985) Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Annapolis. Geological Survey. John P. Sheldon. and Wadsworth D. (1965) & Piloting. operations drilling superintendents. (1965) 2. Gillan.: “Automated Drilling Data Provides Instant Insights into Complex Problems” American Oil and Gas Reporter BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Washington D. Prentice-Hall.: Map Projections Used by the U. • PROFESSIONAL SUPERVISION provided by drilling engineering. Washington. New Jersey. John P. United States Government Printing office. # TD2002. 3.: Map Projections Used by the U. Geological survey. Synder. NOMENCLATURE GN Grid North MN Magnetic North TN True North UTM Universal Transverse Mercator Grid System x. (1982) page 60. Naval Institue Press. rig foremen.C. y Equatorial Earth’s Radius z Polar Earth’s Radius REFERENCES 1.rev A . of azimuth references and conversion corrections to all responsible parties from geophysics to geology to drilling engineering to operations to directional drilling contractors.S. and Left. Englewood Cliffs. D. United States Government Printing Office.

United States Government Printing office. John P.S. (1982) Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.rev A . This material is not to be reprinted. Washington.C.: Map Projections Used by the U.doc 8/30/00 2-17 Doc. # TD2002.Computalog 3. Az Ref Systems. Synder. D. Geological Survey.

as a sphere. it becomes quite an involved process to refer two points to each other and to represent them in two dimensions. In this way. any point on the earth's surface can be referred to by its latitude and longitude. EARTH Parallels of Latitude P ß ø Point: P can be expressed in terms of degrees of Latitude: ß and degrees of Longitude: ø Meridians of Longitude 2-18 . The meridians of longitude run 180° east and west of 0° (running through Greenwich). While this system is very accurate for defining the position of a point with reference to the center of the earth. The earth. The parallels of latitude run 90° north and south of the equator (0° latitude). is divided into theoretical lines (or meridians) of longitude (running from pole to pole) and parallels of latitude (running parallel to the equator).Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates One of the most accurate means of depicting a point on the earth’s surface is by referring to its geographic coordinates.

000 meters. Eastings range in value from approximately 200. TRUE NORTH # GRID NORTH NORTHERN HEMISPHERE # # GRID NORTH NORTHERN HEMISPHERE # CENTRAL MERIDIAN EQUATOR # # 2-19 NO RT H TR SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE UE . Zones are sometimes divided into sectors representing intervals of 8° latitude.000 meters and displacements in the southern hemisphere are measured with decreasing. polar regions are covered by other special projections.000. starting with zone 1 at the 180th meridian. The areas east and west of the Greenwich Meridian are covered by zones 30 and 31. Each of the 60 zones is numbered. but positive. tapering towards the polar region. Any point on the earth may be identified by its zone number. Thus.000 to 800. the central meridian in any zone is assigned the arbitrary eastings value of 500. values as one heads south. For points north of the equator. northings are measured directly in meters. Each zone has its own origin at the intersection of its central meridian and the equator. the equator is arbitrarily assigned a value of 10. with a value of zero at the equator and increasing toward the north. the world is divided up into 60 equal zones (each 6° wide) between 80° north and 80° south. Along the equator a zone is about 600.Universal Transverse Mercator System Universal Transverse Mercator System In the UTM System. its distance in meters from the equator (northing) and its distance in meters from a north south reference line (easting).000 meters wide. To avoid negative values for eastings. It is not essential to use the grid sector letter to identify the position of a point on the globe. To avoid negative northing values in the Southern Hemisphere. starting with zone C at 80° S and ending with zone X at 72° N (omitting I and O). its outer edges are curved when drawn on a flat map since they follow the meridian lines on the globe. Each zone is flattened and a square imposed on it.000.

TRUE NORTH GRID NORTH GRID NORTH (West of True North) (East of True North) GRID PROJECTION LATITUDE 90° 80° 70° 60° 50° 40° 30° LONGITUDE 20° 10° 0° E CENTRAL MEDIAN True North = Grid North 100° 90° EQU 80° O AT R 70° 60° 50° 40° 30° 20° 10° 0° 2-20 . at the central meridian. Convergence will vary with distance away from the central meridian and with distance away from the equator. Clearly. grid north equals true north.UTM System UTM System Convergence is the difference between grid north and true north.

As the movement of magnetic north is constant and predictable. the well surveys will use sensors that reference either magnetic or true north. However.Ø)° ø 2-21 .UTM System continued UTM System continued The well proposal is usually derived from coordinates in a grid system and. depending on the relative directions of convergence and magnetic declination. directions will be in terms grid north. the user must. magnetic declination can be calculated for any given point on the earth at any given time. Charts depicting the various declinations and rate of change (usually expressed as an annual change) are widely used. therefore. True North Grid North ß Grid Convergence is ß° West True Azimuth is Ø° Grid Azimuth is (Ø + ß)° Corrected Borehole Azimuth ø Magnetic Declination Correction Magnetic Declination Correction is the angle between magnetic north and true north. True North Magnetic North ß Hole Direction Magnetic Declination is ß° West Magnetic Hole Direction is Ø° Corrected Hole Direction is (ß . Although converting from one reference to another appears a simple task. An easterly declination is expressed as a positive value and a westerly declination is expressed as a negative value. be able to convert from one reference to the other. considerable care is needed. therefore. Values of magnetic declination change with time and location.

Any point within a lease can be defined in terms of distance from any two adjoining boundaries. In most cases. Land Locations Offshore Locations 2-22 . etc. jungles. cities. These leases are normally administered by local governing bodies or agencies and have clearly defined boundaries. The decision concerning the placement of the surface structure tends to be more affected by reservoir management considerations than geographic necessity. Northern Boundary Eastern Boundary SURFACE LOCATION Western Boundary ry cto aje Tr ed os op Pr TARGET Southern Boundary Hardlines Lines drawn on the plot which should not be crossed for geological and legal reasons. an offshore drilling rig can be placed anywhere above a reservoir. The main difference between positioning a surface location on land and offshore is that offshore directional programs tend to be drilled from multiwell structures and are not normally as restricted as on land (mountains. the surface location of the well will usually be determined by the factors originally prompting the decision to drill a directional well as opposed to a vertical well. With land wells.).Leaseline or Boundaries Leaseline or Boundaries In some countries. oil and gas leases are sold. Planning a directional well presupposes some limiting factors in the positioning of the surface location.

Once the exact location of the surface reference point and the target are known. there are various means of referring to a surface location (UTM. geographic. This involves using the surface location as a reference point (surface reference point) and attributing this point with the value 0. Partial Coordinates When planning and drilling a well. Normally. The Surface Reference Point (SRP) is usually the rotary kelly bushing. etc. The same is true for the target location with the addition of the vertical depth of the target. we look at the way in which targets are defined. thus simplifying calculation and plotting procedures.Bottomhole Targets Bottomhole Targets Geological Requirements The first step in planning any well is to define the objective(s). the partial coordinates can easily be determined. these are either rectangular or polar. it is simpler to use partial coordinates when referring to the target. North SURFACE LOCATION Rectangular Coordinate: East Polar Coordinates East Azim uth Rectangular Coordinate: South De pa rtu re TARGET 2-23 . A directional well can have one or more objectives: • Geological structures • Coring points • Geological features (such as faults or pinch outs) • Other wellbores (as with relief well drilling) • Combination of these In this section.0. All other coordinates can then be referred back to this point. the wellhead or the platform reference point.). As we have seen.

544.00 E/W (feet) 5.00 E 200. a negative value denotes south or west.000.354. De pa rtu re TARGET 2-24 .Bottomhole Targets Bottomhole Targets North SURFACE LOCATION Rectangular Coordinate: East Polar Coordinates East u Azim th Rectangular Coordinate: South Rectangular Rectangular coordinates are usually given in feet/meters north or south and east or west of the SRP.00 N -500.262.00 N -62.00 E -5.500.262. The target in the above example is 500 feet south (-ve) and 200 feet east (+ve) of the SRP.744. They can easily be derived by subtracting the UTM coordinates of the SRP from those of the target.00 A positive value denotes north or east. For example: N/S (feet) UTM Coordinates Target UTM Coordinates Surface Partial Coordinates 62.355.

we know the direction of the target from the rig is: S 21.2° Azimuth Departure = 538. in this case: tan-l( 200 ÷ 500 ) = 21.5 ( E/W Coord + N/S Coord ) . These are derived from the rectangular (or Cartesian) coordinates as follows: Azimuth = tan-1( E/W Coord ÷ N/S Coord ). the target is south and east of the surface reference point.2°. De pa rtu re TARGET ( 200 + 500 ) = 2 2 2-25 .Bottomhole Targets Bottomhole Targets North SURFACE LOCATION Rectangular Coordinate: East Polar Coordinates East u Azim th Rectangular Coordinate: South Polar Polar coordinates are derived from the rectangular coordinates and are expressed as a distance (departure) and a direction (either quadrant or azimuth).8° As we know.80 E in quadrant format or 158. or in this case: = 2 2 We can refer to our target in polar coordinates being 538. or.5 feet (or meters) at Azimuth 158.

particularly in multiwell projects. A well-defined target is essential in making these decisions. operating companies adopt an arbitrary in-house target size (or radius of tolerance). did not represent the actual objective of the well. so the acceptable limits of the target must be well-defined before the well is commenced. The size of the target radius often reflects the convention rather than the actual geological requirements of the well. 2-26 . the trajectory of the wellbore in relation to the target is constantly monitored. The technology available today allows us to drill extremely accurate wells. Often. It is common for specific restrictions or hard lines to be specified only when they depict critical features such as: • Fault lines • Pinch outs • Legal restrictions • Lease line boundaries Many directional wells have been unnecessarily corrected or sidetracked in order to hit a target radius which. in fact. The cost of drilling the well is largely dependent on the accuracy required. In many cases. costly decisions have to be made in order to ensure that the objectives of the well are met.Bottomhole Targets Bottomhole Targets Target Size During the drilling phase of a directional well. Cost versus accuracy is the key consideration.

HOW TO DETERMINE MUD PULSE & EM TOOLFACE OFFSETS 3-1 Toolface Offset Determination .

Record this length into the OTF work sheet as the OTF distance.12 correctly and verified by the Directional Driller.702 x 360 = 252. entered into TLW 2. Measure in a clockwise direction the distance from the MWD high side scribe to the motor high side scribe. In the following example. 2. Record this length into the OTF work sheet as the Circumference of Collar. this value is 351 mm. Calculate the OTF angle using the following formula: OTF Angle= OTF Distance x 360 Collar Cirumference From the above example. if the collar circumference is 500 mm.72o A sample form is as follows: 3-2 Toolface Offset Determ ination . Ensure that the OTF calculation is correct.NEGATIVE PULSE OFFSET TOOL FACE OFFSET TOOL FACE (OTF) SHEET This sheet is possibly the most important form that must be filled out correctly. All other work and activity performed by the MWD Operator means naught if the well must be plugged back with cement because of an incorrect OTF calculation (or the correct OTF not being entered into the TLW 2. The procedure for measuring the OTF is as follows: 1. 3. Measure the circumference of the tubular at the same location where the OTF distance is being measured. OTF Angle= (351/500) x 360 = 0.12 software).

F Entered into computer by: O. Calculated by: O.F.T.T. Angle (Distance / Circumference) x 360: O.T.F.T.NEGATIVE PULSE OFFSET TOOL FACE (O. MEASUREMENT) Well Name: Enter in the Well Name here Date: Enter in date OTF taken Time: Enter in time OTF taken Run #: Enter in the run number LSD: Enter in the LSD here Job #: Enter in the MWD job number here TOP VIEW OF MWD MWD SCRIBE PROPER DIRECTION OF OTF MEASUREMENT MOTOR SCRIBE (HIGH SIDE) O.T.F. Distance measured by: O.F Angle entered into Computer as: O.T. Distance (Anchor Bolts to Collar Scribe): Circumference of Collar: O. Measurement and calculation Witnessed by: Name(s) 351 mm 500 mm 252.72 degrees Both MWD Operator Names Both MWD Operator Names Both MWD Operator Names Directional Driller(s) 3-3 Toolface Offset Determination .F.F.72 degrees 252.T.T.F.

NEGATIVE PULSE OFFSET TOOL FACE 252.72 3-4 Toolface Offset Determination .

the OTF is zero. value reported from the high side tool face calibration from TLW 2. The positive Tool Face Offset (TFO) sheet entries are as follows: 1.12. Ensure that a zero OTF has been entered into TLW 2.12.O.F.Positive Pulse T.F. from PROGTM: Enter the T. TFO internal toolface offset 3-5 Toolface Offset Determ ination .POSITIVE PULSE Toolface Offset INTERNAL TOOL FACE OFFSET (TFO) SHEET Note: For the positive pulse MWD.O. Positive Pulse Pulser Set to High Side / Directional Driller: Enter the names of the MWD Operator and Directional Driller respectively. 2.

O.O.12 / G degrees/setting Alignment of Mule Shoe Sleeve Key to Motor Scribe: Name of 2nd MWD hand Witness O. from PROGTM: Gravity Tool Face (gtface) Should Equal Zero: Motor Adjustment: Name of MWD hand Name of Directional hand 163.POSITIVE PULSE T. Entered into Computer by: All Calculations Witnessed by: Driller Name of MWD hand Signature of Directional 3-6 Toolface Offset Determination .25 degrees 0.F. MEASUREMENT Well Name: Enter in the Well Name here Date: Enter in date OTF taken Time: Enter in time OTF Run #: Enter in the run LSD: Enter in the LSD here taken Job #: Enter in the MWD job number here number ROTATE PULSER TO HIGH SIDE PULSER KEY WAY PROPER DIRECTION OF TFO MEASUREMENT DAS HIGH SIDE TAB Positive Pulse Pulser Set to High Side: Directional Driller: Positive Pulse T.F.F.T.=0.00 degrees Witness Witness 2.

MWD .Positive Pulse OTF – External Drill Collar Offset Magnetic Declination Toolface switch over 3-7 Toolface Offset Determination .

EM MWD Toolface Offset Magnetic Declination The “Bearing Display” GEOGRAPHIC radio button must be selected for the Declination value to be applied (by the surface software) to the transmitted magnetic hole direction. 3-8 Toolface Offset Determination .

Toolface Offset Zero tool face offset G4 – this is the internal offset for the CDS probe. When using a bipod measure from the tool carrier scribeline to the mud motor scribeline. measure from the CSGx locking bolts to the mud motor scribeline. must be measured clockwise (looking toward bit) from the muleshoe boltholes to the mud motor scribeline (if using a stinger). 3-9 Toolface Offset Determination . Tool face offset DC – this is the external (drill collar) offset. this value is applied by the surface software. this value must always be entered as a NEGATIVE number from 0 to –360. For slimhole.

3-10 Toolface Offset Determination .The main page software display can be checked to verify that the appropriate declination and toolface offset are being applied to the transmitted data.

therefore offset = 0° Optional: If muleshoe sleeve is not aligned with motor scribeline. calculate offset as per procedure 0° to +360° values permitted 3-11 Toolface Offset Determination .Toolface Offset Summary Mud Pulse System None Internal Offset Negative Pulse Positive Pulse Directional Probe (DAS) Determine offset as per procedure and PROGTM into the DAS DAS highside is mechanically oriented to align with pulser anchor bolts Surface Software Measure clockwise from anchor bolts to motor External Offset 0° to +360° values permitted Surface Software Typical: Muleshoe sleeve is aligned with motor scribeline.

External Offset Stinger: Measure clockwise from muleshoe boltholes to mud motor scibeline. measure clockwise from the CSGx locking bolt to mud motor scribeline. (Zero toolface offset G4. 0° to +360° values permitted. 0° to +360° values permitted.EM System Electromagnetic Telemetry Surface Software Internal Offset Determine offset as per procedure and always enter value as a NEGATIVE number. 3-12 Toolface Offset Determination . Slimhole: With CSGx module. “Job Data” screen) 0° to -360° values permitted Surface Software Bipod: Measure clockwise from the tool carrier key to the mud motor scribeline. 0° to +360° values permitted.

The procedure for measuring the TFO is as follows: 1.72o 500 A sample form is as follows: Computalog USA. looking downward toward the bit from the HEL tool scribeline to the mud motor scribeline.702 ∗ 360 = 252. All other work and activity performed by the LWD Engineer means naught if the well must be plugged back with cement because of an incorrect TFO calculation (or the correct TFO not being entered into the Spectrum software). Record this length into the TFO work sheet as the Circumference of Collar. TFO Angle = 351 ∗ 360 = 0. or used in whole or in part for any other purpose or reason except for the one it was issued without written permission. Measure the circumference of the tubular at the same location where the TFO distance is being measured. reproduced. . Ensure that the TFO calculation is correct. Calculate the TFO angle using the following formula: TFO Angle = TFO Dis tan ce ∗ 360 Collar Circumference From the above example. if the collar circumference is 500 mm. This document contains Company proprietary information which is the confidential property of Computalog Drilling Services and shall not be copied. 2. disclosed to others. In the following example. 3.Precision LWDTM Tool Face Offset The Tool Face Offset is an external (drill collar) offset and must be measured clockwise. This is one of the most important measurements that the LWD Engineer makes and MUST be done correctly. Record this length into the TFO work sheet as the TFO distance. this value is 351 mm. entered into Spectrum correctly and verified by the Directional Driller. Measure in a clockwise direction the distance from the HEL tool’s high side scribe to the motor high side scribe. Inc.

Inc. .Computalog USA. This document contains Company proprietary information which is the confidential property of Computalog Drilling Services and shall not be copied. or used in whole or in part for any other purpose or reason except for the one it was issued without written permission. reproduced. disclosed to others.

reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.Computalog Drilling Services Directional Sensors Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.doc date 4-1 Doc.rev A . This material is not to be reprinted. # TD2007. Survey intro.

and magnetic toolface. high-side toolface. This material is not to be reprinted. azimuth. The sensor axes are not perfectly orthogonal and are not perfectly aligned. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. The surface computer then uses this data to calculate parameters such as inclination. for each sensor axis is uniquely a function of the local sensor temperature. three orthogonal axes of inclination and instrument temperature. and Temperature sensor. a Tensor Tri-Axial Magnetometer and a Tensor Tri-Axial Accelerometers. # TD2007. These modules are configured into a directional probe and are run in the field mounted in a nonmagnetic drill collar. Orthogonal misalignment angles are used with the thermally compensated bias and scale factors to determine the compensated sensor values required for computation of precise directional parameters.rev A . Therefore. Survey intro. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.doc date 4-2 Doc. the raw sensor outputs must be adjusted for thermal effects on bias and scale factor. The Directional Sensor provides measurements. scale factor and bias. These measurements are processed and transmitted by the pulser to the surface.Computalog Drilling Services INTRODUCTION The Directional Sensor is made up of electronic printed circuit boards. which are used to determine the orientation of the drill string at the location of the sensor assembly. The Directional Sensor measures three orthogonal axis of magnetic bearing. compensation of the measured values for known misalignments are required in order to provide perfectly orthogonal values. therefore. The exact electronic sensitivity.

The Single Port MPU is a modular micro-controller assembly based on the Motorola MC68HCll microprocessor implementing Honeywell's qMIXTM communications protocol (qMIX/ll TM). With the analog power switch off only the 5 volt circuits are active and the current drain from the sub bus is approximately 8 milliamps.Computalog Drilling Services DIRECTIONAL SENSOR HARDWARE The figure above shows the basic configuration of the Directional Sensor probe. The nonmagnetic collar is usually referred to as Monel. With the accelerometers powered up the current drain is approximately 120 milliamps. Triple Power Supply and a Digital Orientation Module. # TD2007. The current drain with the analog power switch on and the sensors off is approximately 80 milliamps. battery power is directed to the 12 volt regulator on the analog circuit. The directional probe is mounted to the MWD assembly and keyed into a Non-Magnetic Drill Collar. Survey intro. This material is not to be reprinted. The microprocessor provides the control and timing to interface the logic circuit controls the analog power switch. With the magnetometer powered up the current drain is approximately 140 milliamps. DIRECTIONAL SENSOR COMPONENTS Contained inside the assembly is a Single Port MPU. The Triple Power Supply provides regulated power for the complete assembly.rev A . reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. When the logic board switches on the analog power switch. The nominal length of the sub is 30 feet.doc date 4-3 Doc. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.

# TD2007. Sub Bus Voltage . 4.5 to 15.voltage that is currently being supplied to the magnetometer (0 or 12. Gy. Steering Mode Status .12.0 ma/g Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. and pressure transducer sensors. Accelerometer Output 3. 5.Computalog Drilling Services ANALOG Circuit The Analog Circuit provides an interface with the inclinometer. This material is not to be reprinted. magnetometer.rev A . 5 Volt Supply . Input Voltage +/.the 5 volt excitation supply from the 12 volt regulator that powers the pressure transducer. Input Current < 80 ma/g 3.doc date 4-4 Doc. A 5 volt excitation supply from the 12 volt regulator is used to power the pressure transducer.5v). The 16 channel multiplexer on the analog circuit takes input from various sensor outputs and sends the data to the logic circuit for transmission. and Gz) and also includes a temperature sensor.4. Magnetometer power Status . Accelerometer Power Status .5v). The sensor operates within the following parameters: 1.voltage that is currently being supplied to the inclinometer (0 or 12.5 volts when steering mode is set. 2.battery voltage on the sub bus. 3.5 volts 2. The status voltages appear on the surface probe test and are defined as follows: 1. A sensor power switch takes power from the 12 volt regulator and selectively powers up the accelerometers and magnetometers. The inclinometer has a 1g full scale output in survey mode and a 7 g full scale output in steering mode. TENSOR INCLINOMETER The TENSOR Tri-axial Accelerometer measures three orthogonal axes of inclination (Gx. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Survey intro.

A torquer coil is attached to the proof mass. The quartz disc is a proof mass with a hinge that has been chemically etched to allow movement in one direction. movement of the proof mass changes the capacitance. which measure the capacitance between the two magnets. which is suspended between the two permanent magnets. The operation of the accelerometer is based on the movement of a quartz proof mass during acceleration. We measure the acceleration of gravity in g's (gravity units) in Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.doc date 4-5 Doc.Computalog Drilling Services AC C ELER O M ETER ACCELER ATI N O CAPACI TAN CE PI CKO FF U PPER M AG N ET TO R Q U ER CO I L CH EM I CALLY M I LLED HI GE N Q U AR TZ PR O O F M ASS LEAD SU PPO R T PO STS LO W ER M AG N ET The inclinometer is made up of three accelerometers. The accelerometer consists of two magnets and a quartz disc with a coil attached to it. # TD2007. Survey intro.rev A . A circuit detects the change in capacitance and applies current to the torquer coil to restore the proof mass to its original position. The magnets have reference plates. The figure above is a diagram of a accelerometer. This material is not to be reprinted. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. The proof mass position is maintained by applying current to the torquer coil. Force is related to acceleration by F = ma. The amount of current required to restore the proof mass to its original position is a function of the amount of force applied to the accelerometer. When a force is applied to the accelerometer.

5 v/g 10 mv/deg K The Tensor Tri-axial Magnetometer measures three orthogonal axes of magnetic bearing (Bx.5 v/g 4. Input voltage +/.doc date 4-6 Doc.18 vdc 2. Y Accelerometer 3. while the Z channel and the temperature sensor have the same scaling for both modes. X Accelerometer 2.12 .000 Nanotesla) and operates within these parameters: 1. Z Accelerometer 4. The scaling of the X and Y accelerometer channels depends on the operational mode (survey or steering).5 v/g 4. # TD2007.000 Nanotesla (the earth's field is about 50. By.5 v/g 10 mv/deg K STEERING 642 mv/g 642 mv/g 4. The full scale output voltage sensitivity for each mode is as follows: CHANNEL 1. This allows us to calculate the inclination of the tool relative to vertical. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. This material is not to be reprinted.Computalog Drilling Services three orthogonal directions relative to the Directional Sensor probe. The Tensor Model 7002MK Magnetometer has an output operating range of plus and minus 100. and Bz) as well as temperature. Temperature TENSOR MAGNETOMETER SURVEY 4. Flux Gate Output 1 mv / 20 Nanotesla 4. Temperature Output Voltage 10 mv / oK Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Input current 25 milliamps 3. Survey intro.rev A .

the three flux gate channels and temperature channel are supplied power conditioned by a common pair of internal regulators. and fed back as a bucking magnetic field to maintain the core at a balanced around zero magnetizing force. The magnetometer Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.doc date 4-7 Doc. In the presence of an external magnetic field the point that the core saturates is shifted. certain metals will saturate sooner than others. The signal shift is detected. when the level of magnetic flux gets to a certain point the core will become saturated and greater amounts of flux will not pass through the core. that is . In the tri-axial set of magnetometers. The magnetometer continually drives the core to saturation. # TD2007.rev A . which has a certain magnetic permeability.Computalog Drilling Services TEN SO R R I G C O R E FLU X G A TE M A G N ETO M ETER N EXTER N A L M A G N ETI C FI ELD DRI VER SER VO AM P O U TPU T AM P PEA K D ET O SC The Tensor magnetometer is a saturable core device. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. i. amplified. The servo amplifier offset caused by the signal shift is further amplified and presented as the output of the magnetometer.e. This material is not to be reprinted. Survey intro. It consists of two coils with a core between them. The individual magnetometer transducers come in biaxial sets. The point at which a substance becomes saturated is a property of that substance. The core will only transmit a certain amount of magnetic field. A magnetic field produced by one coil travels through the core and induces a current in the other coil.

The sub bus around the magnetometer requires particular attention because the current through the sub bus is alternating current. any change in that current will produce a magnetic field that can affect the magnetometer. The scribe line on the DIRECTIONAL SENSOR sub allows measurement of the relationship between the tools axis and the bent sub or mud motor scribe line. in the direction the hole is being drilled. TO O L PH YSI A L A XI C S X scr be lne i i Y Z Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. The measurement is made from _________ scribe line to _____________ scribe line using the right hand rule. This material is not to be reprinted. DIRECTIONAL SENSOR MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATION The measurements that we make with the DIRECTIONAL SENSOR are made relative to these axes. The Z-axis is along the long axis of the DIRECTIONAL SENSOR. Survey intro. thumb pointing in the direction of the hole. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. measure in the direction the fingers of your right hand are pointing. The X-axis is perpendicular to the tools long axis and is in the direction of the scribe line etched on the DIRECTIONAL SENSOR nonmag sub. This measurement is called the toolface offset. Running a highside orientation program in the MWD software can also make the measurement.Computalog Drilling Services package contains two biaxial magnetometers. The Y-axis is also perpendicular to the long axis. The toolface offset is measured by extending the bent sub scribe line to the DIRECTIONAL SENSOR scribe line and measuring the degrees offset with a compass.rev A . of which only three axes are used.doc date 4-8 Doc. # TD2007.

This is calculated using the X-axis and Y-axis magnetometer measurements. This is calculated using the X-axis and Y-axis inclinometer measurements.doc date 4-9 Doc.Computalog Drilling Services The main parameters that we calculate with the raw data from the DIRECTIONAL SENSOR are as follows: Highside Toolface is the angle between the deflection tool scribe line and the top or highside of the hole. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Magnetic Toolface is the direction that the deflection tool scribe line is pointing relative to true or grid north. This material is not to be reprinted.rev A . Survey intro. # TD2007.

If you were exactly on top of the magnetic north pole the angle would be 90 degrees. This angle increases as you go north toward the magnetic north pole. Survey intro. always use the value provided by the directional driller. Magnetic Dip Angle is the angle between horizontal and the earth's magnetic field force lines. On a directional well it is important that the value for magnetic declination that we use is the same one that the directional driller is using.rev A .Computalog Drilling Services Inclination is the angle between vertical and the wellbore in the vertical plane. Magnetic Field Strength is the total magnitude of the earth's magnetic field in Nanotesla for a particular location on the earth. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Usually there will be a difference between the value that the software calculates and the one that the directional driller provides. This value also changes with time and location and can be determined using the software program. We measure this angle by measuring the direction of the earth's magnetic field relative to the tool. This value changes with time and location and must be determined using the software program. Magnetic Declination is the difference in degrees between magnetic north and true north or grid north for a particular location on the earth. This material is not to be reprinted. We measure this angle by measuring the direction that gravity acts relative to the tool. # TD2007. however. Gravity acts in a vertical direction and has a magnitude of 1 g at sea level at the equator. Azimuth is the direction of the wellbore relative to true or grid north in the horizontal plane. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.doc date 4-10 Doc.

-Gx) Gx = Gravity vector in the X direction Gy = Gravity vector in the Y direction Gxy = Sum of the X and Y vectors HSTF = Highside toolface and all vectors are in gravity units. On the left is a diagram of the tool and its relationship to the X .Computalog Drilling Services HIGHSIDE TOOLFACE The X-axis and Y-axis inclinometer measurements are required to calculate highside toolface. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.Y plane and on the Z-axis. # TD2007. Highside toolface is the angle between the X axis and the highside of the hole and is calculated as follows: Gxy = ( Gx2 + Gy2)1/2 COS ( HSTF) = -Gx / Gxy SIN (HSTF) = Gy / Gxy HSTF = ATAN ( Gy / -Gx ) or Where: HSTF = ATAN2 ( Gy. This material is not to be reprinted. Gxy is the vector sum of the X and Y components of the gravity vector measured by the tool. On the right is a diagram of the X .Y plane and the gravity vector. Survey intro.doc date 4-11 Doc.Y plane showing the X and Y components of the gravity vector and the sum Gxy. The figure below is a vector diagram showing the highside toolface measurement. along with the components of gravity in the X .rev A .

Survey intro.doc date 4-12 Doc. Bxy is the vector sum of the X and Y components of the magnetic vector measured by the tool. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. -Bx) Bx = Magnetic vector in the X direction By = Magnetic vector in the Y direction Bxy = Sum of the X and Y vectors MTF = Magnetic toolface and all vectors are in gravity units. # TD2007.Computalog Drilling Services MAGNETIC TOOLFACE The X-axis and Y-axis magnetometer measurements are required to calculate magnetic toolface. This material is not to be reprinted.rev A . Magnetic toolface is the direction the scribeline is pointing and is calculated as follows: Bxy = ( Bx2 + By2)1/2 MTF = ATAN ( By / -Bx ) Where: or MTF = ATAN2 ( By. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.

The figure shows a diagram of the tool and the relevant axes. Gz is the Z component of the gravity vector as measured by the tool. Gxy is the sum of the X and Y components of the gravity vector as calculated above. Y.rev A . This material is not to be reprinted. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Inclination is the angle between the Z axis and vertical and is calculated as follows: Gtotal = ( Gxy2 + Gz2 )1/2 Sin ( INC ) = Gxy / Gtotal Cos ( INC) = Gz / Gtotal INC = ATAN ( Gxy / Gz ) INC = ATAN2 (Sin (HSTF) Gy – Cos (HSTF) Gx. Survey intro.Computalog Drilling Services INCLINATION To calculate inclination we use the X. This sum should be equal to 1 g. # TD2007.doc date or or INC = ASin Gxy INC = ACos Gz 4-13 Doc. Y. Gz) Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. as long as your elevation is relatively close to sea level. and Z components. Again. Gtotal is the total gravity vector and is the sum of the X. and Z inclinometer measurements.

or only the Z measurement if one of the accelerometers fail. if only Gz is known the accuracy at low angles is less because the Z accelerometer is near full scale. # TD2007. that is the magnetic dip angle.Computalog Drilling Services Where: Gxy = the sum of X and Y gravity components Gz = the Z axis gravity component Gtotal = the sum of the X. The magnetic field that we measure. Y. By = magnetic vector in the Y direction 3.1/8o accuracy for inclination greater than 45o LONG COLLAR AZIMUTH To calculate azimuth using the conventional method the following data is required: 1. Bx = magnetic field vector in the X direction 2.rev A .doc date 4-14 Doc. Note that since we know that Gtotal is 1 g. however. and Z gravity components INC = inclination units are in g's. Survey intro. Bz = magnetic vector in the Z direction 4.1/4o accuracy for inclination greater than 30o and less than 45o +/. For Gz only: Not accurate for inclination less than 15o +/. HSTF = highside toolface 5. however. Therefore to reference our measurement to true north in the horizontal plane we Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. INC = inclination Azimuth is referenced in the horizontal plane to true or grid north. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.1/2o accuracy for inclination greater than 15o and less than 30o +/. we can calculate inclination from only the X and Y measurements. This material is not to be reprinted. is at some angle from the horizontal.

Survey intro. Where: Bn = horizontal component of the magnetic vector Btotal = total magnetic field strength DIP = magnetic dip angle Combining the above equations for raw azimuth yields the following: Bx Sin (HSTF) + By Cos (HSTF) AZ = ATAN {--------------------------------------------------------------------------} (Bx Cos (HSTF) . # TD2007.doc date 4-15 Doc. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. This material is not to be reprinted. This is why you need HSTF and inclination to calculate azimuth.Computalog Drilling Services must project the magnetic vector to the horizontal.rev A .By Sin (HSTF)) Cos (Inc) + Bz Sin (Inc) Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.

the long collar azimuth.Computalog Drilling Services SHORT COLLAR AZIMUTH Traditional compass type surveying instruments with their ability to sense only the direction of the local magnetic field vector must be used in conjunction with enough nonmagnetic drill collars so that the local magnetic field vector is uncorrupted by drill string magnetization. With solid state magnetometers and their ability to measure 3 orthogonal axes of the local magnetic vector it is possible to compensate for axial magnetization and use much shorter lengths of nonmagnetic material. The long collar azimuth. Survey intro. BHA movement or improper misalignment and/or scale/bias values were used. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. # TD2007. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.003 g of the local gravity. A Gtotal value outside of these limits may indicate that the Directional Sensor did not achieve stability during accelerometer polling.rev A . because the absolute magnitudes of the field vector components are required. The short collar azimuth is based upon a patented technique that uses the magnitudes of the magnetic field components Bx and By in conjunction with the known values of the earth's magnetic field strength and dip angle to compensate for the corrupted Bz measurement. requires only ratios of the magnitudes of these components. which is 1. and should be within +0.000 g in most locations. otherwise an extraneous magnetic field produces a systematic error in the azimuth measurement and the long collar azimuth differs from the true azimuth. however. SURVEY QUALITY The following items will be used to validate a MWD survey: Gtotal = (Gx2 + Gy2 +Gz2 ) ½ G total .doc date 4-16 Doc. When there is no magnetic interference the azimuth is the true azimuth. Azimuth is defined as any azimuth measurement made with respect to the local magnetic field without correction.this value is equal to (Gx2 + Gy2 + Gz2)1/2. An instrument used with the corrected azimuth technique requires highly accurate calibration. This material is not to be reprinted. thus reducing the calibration complexity and scale factor errors for this measurement. there was a hardware failure. ie.

The local magnetic dip angle is determined by using magnetic modeling software or directly measuring it through infield referencing. or that there was a hardware failure. i.0. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.350 Nanotesla from the local magnetic field strength or from survey to survey during a bit run.doc date 4-17 Doc. Magnetic Dip Angle should trend consistently over the interval of a bit run. Btotal may also change abruptly from bit run to bit run due to a change in BHA configuration. no cross-axial or axial magnetic interference or pipe movement). # TD2007. Btotal should not vary by more than +. As a general guideline. and should trend consistently over the interval of a bit run. no cross-axial or axial magnetic interference. Under ideal conditions. (i. or a hardware failure.Computalog Drilling Services Btotal = (Bx2 + By2 +Bz2 ) ½ B total is equal to (Bx2 + By2 + Bz2)1/2.rev A . MDIP should not vary by more than +. pipe movement or a hardware failure.3 degrees from the local magnetic dip angle or from survey to survey during a bit run. solar events. a nearby cased well bore.. (Bx * Gx) + (By * Gy) + (Bz * Gz) MDIP = ASIN {-------------------------------------------------------} Gtotal * Btotal As a general guideline.e. Surveys which do not conform to this guideline should alert the field engineer that some magnetic interference is probable or that there was a hardware failure. The local magnetic field strength is determined by using magnetic modeling software or directly measuring it through infield referencing. a nearby cased well bore. localized magnetic anomalies. Abrupt variations in Btotal during a bit run will be caused by a "fish".e. certain mineral deposits. Surveys which do not conform to this guideline should alert the field engineer that some magnetic interference or pipe movement is probable. This material is not to be reprinted. Abrupt variations in MDIP during a bit run will be caused by a "fish". solar events. localized magnetic anomalies. magnetic interference will be detectable by tracking the Btotal value.. which does not have the correct Monel spacing. Under ideal conditions. Btotal should read the earth's local magnetic field strength. MDIP may also Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. Since all of the above will typically affect all three magnetometer responses. MDIP should read the earth's local magnetic dip angle. Survey intro. certain mineral deposits.

reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE Magnetic interference problems when surveying a well are usually due to casing or a fish that has been left in the hole. The magnetic interference that we are primarily concerned with is in the X and Y direction. This is due to the fact that magnetic toolface uses the X and Y magnetometers to calculate toolface. Unfortunately. On production platforms or pads nearby wells can cause interference as well. A well is usually kicked off just below a casing shoe or through a window in the casing. Also with the Short collar method of surveying.doc date 4-18 Doc. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. A good way of determining how much magnetic interference we are getting on the Z-axis with the Short collar method is to compare Btotal measured with Btotal calculated. This would mean that a perpendicular distance of about 30' would be required when kicking off near casing.Computalog Drilling Services change abruptly from bit run to bit run due to a change in BHA configuration. X and Y interference changes. the ends of which act like magnetic poles from which the curving flux lines cause magnetic interference. Survey intro.rev A . which does not have the correct Monel spacing. only the X and Y magnetometers are used. but Btotal should stay the same. The orientation of the casing with respect to the magnetometers may have some effect on how much azimuth is affected. The X and Y magnetometers will react to magnetic interference in the same manner as the Z magnetometer. The casing is a large concentration of magnetic material. the majority of the magnetic interference problems occur when the accuracy of our azimuth is very critical. This material is not to be reprinted. As the tool is rotated. # TD2007.

it is necessary to have at least 10 diameters of clearance between the shoe and the DIRECTIONAL SENSOR.doc date 4-19 Doc. austenitic steels are used to make most nonmagnetic drill collars. When kicking off next to another well or a fish. both however are considerably more resistant to mud Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD.rev A . an alloy containing 30% copper and 65% nickel. Nonmagnetic drill collars are used to separate the electronic survey instrumentation from the magnetic fields of Drill string both above and below and prevent the distortion of the earth's magnetic field at the sensor. The collars are of four basic compositions: (I) K Monel 500. hot spots in nonmagnetic collars. Currently. Such interference can be caused by proximity to steel collars and by adjacent casing. The disadvantage of the austenitic steel is its susceptibility to stress corrosion in a salt mud environment. # TD2007. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. where the magnetic interference is perpendicular to the tool.Computalog Drilling Services Non-Mag Spacing When kicking off a well below casing. 13% nickel). (3) austenitic steels based on chromium and manganese (over 18% manganese) and (4) copper beryllium bronzes. up to 30' clearance may be required to obtain good magnetic toolface or surveys. Survey intro. magnetic storms. and formation with diagenetic minerals. This material is not to be reprinted. Take special care when running a magnetic survey to prevent the effects of magnetic interference. The K Monel and copper beryllium steels are to expensive for most drilling operations. (2) chrome/nickel steels (approximately 18% chrome.

The chrome/nickel steel tends to gall.doc date 4-20 Doc.Computalog Drilling Services correction than austenitic steels. The north slope of Alaska is in zone 3. B or C. 2 or 3. When the electronic survey instrumentation is located in a nonmagnetic collar between the bit and steel collars the distortion of the earths magnetic field is minimized and it is isolated from drill string interference generate both above and below the electronic survey instrumentation unit. Solution. Then the expected inclination and direction are used locate the curve. This is just a recommendation and the survey should always be checked to make sure it is with in acceptable tolerances of the (non-corrupted) earth's magnetic field. Survey intro. This material is not to be reprinted. causing premature damage to the threads. The figure above is a compilation of empirical data that are fairly reliable in selecting the number of nonmagnetic drill collars. the point falls in Area B.rev A . # TD2007. a zone is picked where the well bore is located either zone 1. on the north slope of Alaska a well plan calls for an inclination of 60 degrees and a magnetic north azimuth of 50 degrees. Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. First. The number of required nonmagnetic collars depends on the location of the well bore on the earth and inclination and direction of the well bore. indicating the need for two 30’ magnetic collars with the electronic survey instrumentation unit 8 -10 feet below the center. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. either A. From the chart for zone 3 at 60 degrees inclination and 50 degrees magnetic north azimuth. Example.

Survey intro. # TD2007. This material is not to be reprinted.doc date 4-21 Doc.Computalog Drilling Services Empirical Data Charts for Nonmagnetic Drill Collar Spacing ZONE 1 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Direction Angle from Magnetic N or S Compass Spacing Area A 18’ collar: 1’ to 2’ below center Area B 30’ collar: 3’ to 4’ below center Area C tandem 18’+25’: center of bottom collar 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Direction Angle from Magnetic N or S Compass Spacing Area A 30’ collar: 3’ to 4’ below center Area B 60’ collar: at center Area C 90’ collar: at center ZONE 2 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 ZONE 3 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Direction Angle from Magnetic N or S Compass Spacing Area A 60’ collar: at center Area B 60’ collar: 8’ to 10’ below center Area C 90’ collar: at center Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog.rev A .

Computalog Drilling Services

SURVEY ACCURACY Survey accuracy is a function of both instrument related uncertainties and systematic uncertainties. Instrument related uncertainties include such things as sensor performance, calibration tolerances, digitizer accuracy, and resolution. This is defined as the baseline uncertainty and it is present in all survey sensors. Systematic uncertainties are a function of magnetic interference from the drill string and can be reduced by housing the instrument in a longer nonmagnetic drill collar. The total uncertainty is equal to the baseline uncertainty plus the systematic uncertainty. The long collar azimuth, when measured in an environment free from magnetic interference, will always provide the most accurate azimuth, the only uncertainty being the baseline uncertainty. The Short collar algorithm corrects for systematic uncertainties due to the presence of magnetic interference along the Z axis of the magnetometer. For the Short collar method, the systematic uncertainty is in the values that we obtain for the magnetic field strength and dip angle. Due to the fact that this uncertainty is along the Z axis, survey accuracy will be a function of inclination and azimuth, as well as dip angle and magnetic field strength. If we consider only the baseline uncertainty, in the absence of magnetic interference, survey accuracy will be a function of inclination and magnetic dip angle. This relationship is shown in figures below, where Bn (Bnorth) is defined as the projection of the magnetic field vector in the horizontal plane, Berror is defined as the baseline uncertainty and has a constant value, and Bref is defined as the measured magnetic field vector (Bref = Bn + Berror). As shown in the figure below, as the inclination increases, the horizontal projection of Berror is a larger percentage of Bref resulting in a decrease in survey accuracy. In the figure below, the effect of magnetic dip angle on survey accuracy is shown. As the magnetic dip angle increases, the size of the horizontal

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S U R V E Y A C C U R A C Y A S A FU N C TI N O O F I C LI A TI N N N O

B ref @ I C 2 N B ref @ I C 1 N N O R TH

B error

B n2 I C 1 N B error I A LA R G E R S P E R C E N TA G E O F B ref A T H I H E R I C LI A TI N S G N N O B n1

I C 2 N

V E R TI A L C

projection of Bn decreases, resulting in a larger percentage of Berror in Bref. Thus anything that causes the horizontal projection of Berror to increase or Bn to decrease results in a decreased survey accuracy.

For systematic uncertainty, the uncertainty is along the Z-axis. This will result in decreased survey accuracy when drilling east or west as opposed to drilling north or south. This is due to the fact that Berror will tend to pull Bref in the direction of the Zaxis, away from Bn. This relationship is shown in the figure below.

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**SU R VEY A C C U R A C Y A S A FU N C TI N O O F M A G N ETI D I C P
**

C O N STA N T B er or r

Br ef Br ef N O R TH

Bn Bn

A S M A G D I I C R EA SES P N B er or I A LA R G ER PER C EN TA G E r S O F Br ef

I C R EA SI G N N M AG DI P VER TI A L C

E FFE C T D R I LI G E A S T O R W E S T L N O N SURVEY ACCURACY

N O R TH

B re f = B n + B e rro r Bn ERRO R I N A ZI U TH M B e rro r EAST A ZI U TH M Z AXI S

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Computalog Drilling Services

DIRECTIONAL SENSOR CALIBRATION The accuracy of borehole azimuth and inclination measurements are largely dependent on our ability to identify and correct constituent errors in the individual sensors that are used to calculate the directional parameters of the well bore. These sensors include the three orthogonal accelerometers and three orthogonal magnetometers. The calibration process is based upon the known value of the total field intensity of both the gravity and magnetic fields at the location of the calibration. Each sensor is rotated through the known field and its output is compared with known values. This process yields a set of values for bias, scale factor, and alignment corrections over a range of temperatures from room temperature to the upper operating limit. The data is fit to a third order polynomial so that the correction factors can be applied at any given temperature within the operating range of the tool. To be certain that the a calibration technique will meet the performance as well as maintenance objectives it must meet the following objectives:

1. Total package evaluation 2. Repeatability 3. Tolerant of positioning errors during calibration 4. Reliability under down hole conditions The calibration is performed at the highest level of assembly through the instruments data acquisition system and final housing. This allows a total package model to be built so that errors do not accumulate as separate modules are incorporated into each other. Repeatability and tolerance to positioning errors during calibration is achieved by establishing specific performance standards for each sensor and through the methodology of the calibration itself. Reliability under down hole conditions is addressed at the Materials Testing Laboratory by exposing each sensor to vibration and thermal cycling while monitoring their output. Reliability is also achieved through failure analysis and design and modification of the sensor package.

Confidential and Proprietary information of Computalog USA and Computalog LTD. This material is not to be reprinted, reproduced electronically or used for any purpose without the expressed written consent of Computalog. Survey intro.doc date

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CALIBRATION METHODOLOGY The calibration procedure consists of rotating the sensor through the field of investigation for each axis and comparing the output with known values. Examine the ideal response of a single axis rotation, at 0 degrees the sensor axis is aligned with the field and the output voltage is at a maximum. As you rotate the sensor counter clockwise the voltage decreases until at 90 degrees the output goes to 0 volts. As you continue to rotate the sensor counter clockwise the output voltage goes negative above 90 degrees and reaches a maximum negative value at 180 degrees. The response as you go from 180 to 360 degrees is similar. Note that this response applies to both accelerometers and magnetometers when rotated through the gravity or magnetic field. Scale factor corrections scale the output of the sensor to a given standard so that all sensors will have the same voltage response to a given field. Alignment errors are positioning errors between the individual transducers and the DIRECTIONAL SENSOR probe true physical axis. The computation of bias, scale factor, and alignment corrections based on the examination of a single axis would put considerable accuracy requirements upon both the calibration fixtures and the personnel that operate them. By performing an analysis using data simultaneously obtained from multiple axes greatly reduces sensitivity to positioning errors and improves repeatability.

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REFERENCES 1. Estes, R. A., and Walters, P. A., "Improvement of MWD Azimuth Accuracy by use of Iterative Total Field Calibration Technique and Compensation for System Environmental Effects", SPE paper presented at the 1986 MWD Seminar, May 16. 2. Russell, A. W., and Roesler, R. F., "Reduction of Nonmagnetic Drill Collar Length Through Magnetic Azimuth Correction Technique" , paper SPE / IADC 13476 presented at the 1985 Drilling Conference, New Orleans

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Gz) this works above 90o INC = ASIN (Goxy) INC = ACOS (Gz) Bx Sin (HSTF) + By Cos (HSTF) AZ = ATAN {--------------------------------------------------------------------------} (Bx Cos (HSTF) .By Sin (HSTF)) Cos (Inc) + Bz Sin (Inc) (Bx * Gx) + (By * Gy) + (Bz * Gz) MDIP = ASIN {-------------------------------------------------------} Gtotal * Btotal . -Bx) this does correct for quadrant INC = ATAN (Goxy / Gz) this does not work above 90o INC = ATAN2 (Sin (HSTF) Gy – Cos (HSTF) Gx.Goxy = (gx2 + gy2) 1/2 Gtotal = (gx2 + gy2 +gz2 ) 1/2 Boxy =(bx2 + by2) 1/2 Btotal = (bx2 + by2 +bz2 ) 1/2 HSTF = ATAN (Gy / -Gx) this does not correct for quadrant HSTF = ATAN2 ( Gy. -Gx) this does correct for quadrant MTF = ATAN (By/ -Bx) this does not correct for quadrant MTF = ATAN2 (By.

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. When the electronic survey instrumentation is located in a nonmagnetic collar between the bit and steel collars the distortion of the earths magnetic field is minimized and it is isolated from drill string interference generate both above and below the electronic survey instrumentation unit. The K Monel and copper beryllium steels are to expensive for most drilling operations. Millhelm. Nonmagnetic drill collars are used to separate the electronic survey instrumentation from the magnetic fields of Drillstring both above and below and prevent the distortion of the earth’s magnetic field at the sensor. The north slope of Alaska is in zone III. Then the expected inclination and direction are used locate the curve. (2) chrome/nickel steels (approximately 18% chrome. 2. Such interference can be caused by proximity to steel collars and by adjacent casing. From the chart for zone III at 55 degrees inclination and 40 degrees azimuth. The collars are of four basic compositions: (1) K Monel 500. Currently. The disadvantage of the austenitic steel is its susceptibility to stress corrosion in a salt mud environment. both however are considerably more resistant to mud corrosion than austenitic steels.003 gauss Magnetic Dip Angle +/1 . The number of required nonmagnetic collars depends on the location of the wellbore on the earth and inclination and direction of the wellbore. (3) austenitic steels based on chromium and manganese (over 18% manganese) and (4) copper beryllium bronzes. II or III. Young: “Applied Drilling Engineering” SPE textbook series. 1991. a zone is picked where the wellbore is located either zone I. hot spots in nonmagnetic collars.15 degrees Reference Bourgoyne. The figure above is a compilation of empirical data that are fairly reliable in selecting the number of nonmagnetic drill collars. indicating the need for two magnetic collars with the electronic survey instrumentation unit 8 – 10 feet below the center. B or C. First. 13 % nickel). Solution. and formation with diagenetic minerals. vol. on the north slope of Alaska a well plan calls for an inclination of 55 degrees and an azimuth of 40 degrees. This is just a recommendation and the survey should always be checked to make sure it is with in acceptable tolerances of the (non-corrupted) earth’s magnetic field.0. Example . magnetic storms. Chenevert. causing premature damage to the threads. the point fall just below curve B. The chrome/nickel steel tends to gall. Tolerances Total Magnetic Field +/.Take special care when running a magnetic survey to prevent the effects of magnetic interference. austenitic steels are used to make most nonmagnetic drill collars. either A. an alloy containing 30% copper and 65% nickel.

but it is useful to check them by hand.Basic Math Concepts Module Objectives Basic Math Concepts Directional drillers require a knowledge of basic math concepts. including a minimum competence in algebra. You generally perform any calculations required at the rigsite using a computer or programmable calculator. geometry. Module Objectives Solve simple trigonometric equations. Understand basic trigonometric functions. and similar triangles. and trigonometry. 6-1 . right triangles. Geometry The directional driller may be asked to perform calculations involving angles.

a c = 90° b = 28° 15’ c b Figure 1 Finding missing angles in a right triangle c = 90o b + a = 90o a = 90o . the sum of the other two angles is also 90o. find angle a.Basic Math Concepts Geometry Right Triangles A right triangle is one in which one of the angles equals 90o. if b = 28o15’. In the illustration below.28o15’ a = 61o45’ 6-2 . Consequently.

the side opposite to the right angle (side C) is called the hypotenuse.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Trigonometry The directional driller may be asked to solve simple trigonometric equations. such as the one shown below. a B C c = 90° A Figure 2 Relationship of angles to sides in a right triangle b 6-3 . In a right triangle.

= --Hypotenuse C Adjacent B cos a = -----------------------------. Tangents. and Cotangents The following trigonometric functions are defined: B (Adjacent) a C( Hy po ten use ) c = 90° A (Opposite) Figure 3 Trigonometric functions for angle a b Opposite A sin a = -----------------------------.= -Adjacent B 6-4 . Cosines.= --Hypotenuse C Opposite A tan a = ----------------------.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Sines.

then: sin 60o = cos 30o = 0.866025 cos 60o = sin 30o = 0. 6-5 . In a right triangle. If the complementary angle of a right triangle are 60o and 30o. you can solve for the other components. The cosine of one complementary angle is the same as the sine of its complement.5 The components of a right triangle are three sides and two angles (the third angle is 90o). sin a = cos b and cos a = sin b. the sum of the two complementary angles is 90o. Knowing the value of two components.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry a B C c = 90° A b Figure 4 Relationships among complementary angles in a right triangle A sin a = --C B cos a = --C B sin b = --C A cos b = --C Therefore. The sine of one complementary angle is the same as the cosine of its complement.

= 60 0.50 A sin a = --C A = C × sin a A = 60 × sin 60 sin 60 = 0.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry a = 60° B = 30 C =? c = 90° A=? Figure 5 Solving for components in a right triangle b Given B = 30 and a = 60o: B cos a = --C B C = ----------cos a 30 C = -------------cos 60 30 cos 60 = 0. C = --------.50 Therefore.866025 A = 51.96 6-6 .

Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Derivations of Sine Opposite sin a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Using the equation for sine.× Hypotenuse Hypotenuse sin a × Hypotenuse = Opposite Opposite = sin a × Hypotenuse Cancel the Hypotenuse.= ----------------------sin a sin a Opposite Hypotenuse = ----------------------sin a Cancel the Hypotenuse. we can use algebra to find for any of the variables. we get an equation to find the Opposite. Use the Sine equation to find the Hypotenuse: Opposite sin a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Multiply both sides by the Hypotenuse Opposite sin a × Hypotenuse = -----------------------------.× Hypotenuse Hypotenuse sin a × Hypotenuse = Opposite sin a × Hypotenuse Opposite -----------------------------------------------. Cancel the sin a. we get an equation to find the Hypotenuse. Use the Sine equation to find the Opposite: Opposite sin a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Multiply both sides by the Hypotenuse Opposite sin a × Hypotenuse = -----------------------------. Finally. 6-7 . Finally. Opposite asin sin a = asin -----------------------------Hypotenuse Opposite a = asin -----------------------------Hypotenuse Finally. Use the Sine equation to find the Angle: Opposite sin a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Multiply both sides by the inverse of sin (asin). we get an equation to find the Angle. Divide both sides by sin a. 1 Note: The inverse of Sine (asin) is the same as -----sin Cancel the sin and asin. Switch the equation.

6-8 .× Hypotenuse Hypotenuse cos a × Hypotenuse = Adjacent cos a × Hypotenuse Adjacent ------------------------------------------------. we get an equation to find the Adjacent. Divide both sides by cos a. Cancel the cos a.× Hypotenuse Hypotenuse cos a × Hypotenuse = Adjacent Cancel the Hypotenuse. Finally. Switch the equation. Adjacent = cos a × Hypotenuse Finally. Cancel the cos and acos.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Derivations of Cosine Adjacent cos a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Using the equation for cosine. Finally. we get an equation to find the Hypotenuse. we get an equation to find the Angle. Use the Cosine equation to find the Adjacent: Adjacent cos a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Multiply both sides by the Hypotenuse Adjacent cos a × Hypotenuse = -----------------------------. Use the Cosine equation to find the Hypotenuse: Adjacent cos a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Multiply both sides by the Hypotenuse Adjacent cos a × Hypotenuse = -----------------------------.= ----------------------cos a cos a Adjacent Hypotenuse = ----------------------cos a Cancel the Hypotenuse. Use the Cosine equation to find the Angle: Adjacent cos a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Adjacent acos cos a = acos -----------------------------Hypotenuse Adjacent a = acos -----------------------------Hypotenuse Multiply both sides by the inverse of cos (acos). we can use algebra to find for any of the variables.

× Adjacent Adjacent tan a × Adjacent = Opposite Opposite = tan a × Adjacent Cancel the Adjacent. we get an equation to find the Opposite. Use the Tangent equation to find the Opposite: Opposite tan a = ----------------------Adjacent Multiply both sides by the Adjacent Opposite tan a × Adjacent = ----------------------.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Derivations of Tangent Opposite tan a = ----------------------Adjacent Using the equation for Tangent. we can use algebra to find for any of the variables. Finally. we get an equation to find the Angle. Use the Tangent equation to find the Angle: Opposite tan a = ----------------------Adjacent Opposite atan tan a = atan ----------------------Adjacent Opposite a = atan ----------------------Adjacent Multiply both sides by the inverse of tan (atan).× Adjacent Adjacent tan a × Adjacent = Opposite tan a × Adjacent Opposite ---------------------------------------. Opposite tan a × Adjacent = ----------------------. Cancel the tan a.= ----------------------tan a tan a Opposite Adjacent = ----------------------tan a Cancel the Adjacent. 6-9 . Finally. we get an equation to find the Adjacent. Switch the equation. Use the Tangent equation to find the Adjacent: Opposite tan a = ----------------------Adjacent Multiply both sides by the Adjacent. Divide both sides by tan a. Finally. Cancel the tan and atan.

Cosine. and Tangent B (Adjacent) a C( Hy po ten use ) c = 90° A (Opposite) Figure 6 Trigonometric functions for angle a b Opposite sin a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Opposite Hypotenuse = ----------------------sin a Opposite = sin a × Hypotenuse Opposite a = asin -----------------------------Hypotenuse Adjacent cos a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Adjacent Hypotenuse = ----------------------cos a Adjacent = cos a × Hypotenuse Adjacent a = acos -----------------------------Hypotenuse Opposite tan a = ----------------------Adjacent Opposite Adjacent = ----------------------tan a Opposite = tan a × Adjacent Opposite a = atan ----------------------Adjacent 6-10 .Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Summary of Derivations of Sine.

69 a = ?° A=? 2. 4. 3. a = 60° A = 30 B= ? C=? A = 25 C = 50 a = ?° B=? C = 1200 a = 23° 15’ A=? B=? A = 36 B = 67 a = ?° C=? C = 3820 B = 988. and Tangent Formulas B (Adjacent) a C( Hy po ten use ) c = 90° A (Opposite) Figure 7 Trigonometric functions for angle a b Solve for the following: 1. 6-11 . Cosine.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Examples of Sine. 5.

866025 × 50 a = 30° B = 43.918791 × 1200 A = 473.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Problem 1 a = 60° A C = ---------sin a B = cos a × C a = 60° A = 30 B = 17.64 C = 34.64 A(Opposite) = 30 30 C = ------------sin 60 B = cos 60 × 34.64 B = 17.32 Problem 2 A(Opposite) = 25 A a = asin --C B = cos a × C A = 25 C = 50 a = 30° B = 43.866025 B = 0.55 6-12 .55 A = sin 23°15′ × 1200 B = cos a × C B = cos 23°15′ × 1200 C = 1200 a = 23° 15’ A = 473.64 30 C = --------------------0.50 B = 0.69 B = 1102.32 C = 34.50 × 34.69 B = 1102.394744 × 1200 B = 0.30 Problem 3 C(Hypotenuse) = 1200 A = sin a × C a = 23° 15’ A = 0.30 C(Hypotenuse) = 50 25 a = asin ----50 B = cos 30 × 50 a = asin 0.

69 a = acos --------------3820 A = sin 75 × 3820 A = 3689.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Problem 4 A(Opposite) = 36 A a = atan -B A C = ---------sin a A = 36 B = 67 a = 28.537313 36 C = -----------------------0.00° A = 3689.0473320 a = 28.84 B(Adjacent) = 988.25 C = 76.84 6-13 .06 B(Opposite) = 67 36 a = atan ----67 36 C = -------------------sin 28.69 C = 3820.06 Problem 5 C(Hypotenuse) = 3820 B a = acos --C A = sin a × C B = 988.25 a = atan 0.69 a = acos 0.00 a = 75.25° C = 76.258819 A = 0.965926 × 3820 a = 75.00 988.

a B = 30 C=? c = 90° A = 51. 6-14 .Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Pythagorean Theorem The square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.84 + 900 3599. C2 = A2 + B2 and C = A +B 2 2 Thus.96 + 30 2 2 A +B 2 2 2699. you can find the length of the third side.96 Figure 8 Right triangle showing sides opposite angles b C2 = A2 + B2 and C = C = C = C = 51.84 C = 60 Note: This is how you calculate horizontal displacement or closure from the rectangular coordinates. knowing the lengths of two sides in a right triangle.

the segment OA is the radius.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry Circles B O D R A C Figure 9 A circle A circle is a figure consisting of all points located the same distance R from a fixed point O called its center. 6-15 . The distance around the circle is called the circumference C and is calculated using C = 2 × π × R . In this figure.

E R T Figure 10 Tangency 6-16 . is a tangent to the circle. in the illustration below. because the radius is the shortest distance from the tangent to the center of the circle. It touches the circle at only one point (E). The tangent forms a right angle with the radius of the circle (R) at the point of tangency. the point of tangency.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry The Tangent TE.

= --------------------360° 180° If R = 25m and a = 40o. the ratio of an arc to the circumference is the same as the ratio of the angle to 360o.= 17. the circumference (C) can be calculated using the equation below. C = 2π × R = 2π × 50 = 314. R B R a R O C A Figure 11 An arc 2π × R × a π×R×a In the illustration above. 2π × R × a 2π × 25 × 40 arc AB = ------------------------. C = 2π × R = 2π × 25 = 157.= -----------------------------.Basic Math Concepts Trigonometry The Arc An arc is a portion of a 360o circle.= -----------------------------. For any angle. 2π × R × a 2π × 50 × 60 arc AB = ------------------------.45m 360° 360° If R = 50 ft and a = 60o. the circumference (C) can be calculated using the equation below.36 ft 360° 360° 6-17 .08m The arc AB can be calculated using the equation below.16 ft The arc AB can be calculated using the equation below.= 52. arc AB = ------------------------.

Calculate the radius of curvature. Module Objectives Understand well reference points with respect to lease boundaries. Convert rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates. rectangular coordinates.Well Planning Module Objectives Well Planning Directional drillers require a knowledge of basic math concepts. including a minimum competence in algebra. maximum inclination. Differentiate among partial coordinates. Calculate dogleg. Calculate the toolface setting required to project ahead. Calculate various sections of a well. Identify the factors determining kick-off point. 6-18 . and polar coordinates. and trigonometry. but it is useful to check them by hand. You generally perform any calculations required at the rigsite using a computer or programmable calculator. and build/ drop rates. geometry.

etc. The main difference between positioning a surface location on land and offshore is that offshore directional programs tend to be drilled from multiwell structures and are not normally as restricted as on land (mountains. With land wells.Well Planning Leaseline or Boundaries Leaseline or Boundaries In some countries. The decision concerning the placement of the surface structure tends to be more affected by reservoir management considerations than geographic necessity. cities. Northern Boundary Surface Location Western Boundary d se po tory o Pr jec Tra Target Southern Boundary Figure 1 Lease boundaries Hardlines Lines drawn on the plot which should not be crossed for geological and legal reasons. Planning a directional well presupposes some limiting factors in the positioning of the surface location. the surface location of the well will usually be determined by the factors originally prompting the decision to drill a directional well as opposed to a vertical well. These leases are normally administered by local governing bodies or agencies and have clearly defined boundaries. an offshore drilling rig can be placed anywhere above a reservoir.). oil and gas leases are sold. In most cases. Any point within a lease can be defined in terms of distance from any two adjoining boundaries. Land Locations Offshore Locations 6-19 Eastern Boundary . jungles.

the wellhead or the platform reference point. these are either rectangular or polar. This involves using the surface location as a reference point (surface reference point) and attributing this point with the value 0.0. All other coordinates can then be referred back to this point.Well Planning Bottomhole Targets Bottomhole Targets Geological Requirements The first step in planning any well is to define the objective(s). etc. The Surface Reference Point (SRP) is usually the rotary kelly bushing. it is simpler to use partial coordinates when referring to the target. there are various means of referring to a surface location (UTM. Surface Location North Rectangular Coordinate: East East e ur e os c Cl istan D Target Rectangular Coordinate = (East(x).). A directional well can have one or more objectives: • • • • • Geological structures Coring points Geological features (such as faults or pinch outs) Other wellbores (as with relief well drilling) Combination of these In this section. the partial coordinates can easily be determined. As we have seen. we look at the way in which targets are defined. Once the exact location of the surface reference point and the target are known. The same is true for the target location with the addition of the vertical depth of the target. thus simplifying calculation and plotting procedures. Partial Coordinates When planning and drilling a well. geographic. Normally. South(y)) Polar Coordinate = Closure Distance at Angle° Angle Rectangular Coordinate: South Figure 2 Rectangular/Polar coordinates 6-20 .

355. a negative value denotes south or west.00 E 200.744. 5.262. The target in the above example is 500 feet south (-ve) and 200 feet east (+ve) of the SRP. 6-21 .544 E (E/W) North UTM Coordinates 5.00 A positive value denotes north or east.354. They can easily be derived by subtracting the UTM coordinates of the SRP from those of the target.00 N 62.500 N Rectangular Coordinate: South Target Figure 3 Rectangular coordinates Rectangular Coordinates Rectangular coordinates are usually given in feet/meters north or south and east or west of the SRP.355.000 N (N/S).354.500.544.00 N -500.262.262.000.744 E Rectangular Coordinate: East East UTM Coordinates 62. For example: N/S (feet) UTM Coordinates Target UTM Coordinates Surface Partial Coordinates 62.00 E 5.00 E/W (feet) 5.Well Planning Bottomhole Targets Surface Location UTM Coordinates 62.262.

6-22 . we know the direction of the target from the rig is: S 21.Well Planning Bottomhole Targets Surface Location North 200 East e ur os ce Cl istan D Angle 500 Target Figure 4 Polar coordinates Polar Coordinates Polar coordinates are derived from the rectangular coordinates and are expressed as a closure distance and a direction (either quadrant or azimuth). the target is south and east of the surface reference point.2° Azimuth Closure Distance = 2 2 E or W Coord + N or S Coord . These are derived from the rectangular (or Cartesian) coordinates as follows: E or W Coord Angle = atan --------------------------------- N or S Coord or. or 158.2°. in this case: = 200 atan -------- 500 = 21.5 feet (or meters) at Azimuth 158. or in this case: = 200 2 + 500 2 = 538.80 E in quadrant format.8° As we know.5 We can refer to our target in polar coordinates being 538.

in fact. costly decisions have to be made in order to ensure that the objectives of the well are met. Cost versus accuracy is the key consideration. A well-defined target is essential in making these decisions. inclination and build rate.Well Planning Target Size Target Size During the drilling phase of a directional well. did not represent the actual objective of the well. particularly in multi-well projects. The size of the target radius often reflects the convention rather than the actual geological requirements of the well. The technology available today allows us to drill extremely accurate wells. the trajectory of the wellbore in relation to the target is constantly monitored. operating companies adopt an arbitrary in-house target size (or radius of tolerance). The kick-off point is determined by: • Well path • Formation type • Formation pressure 6-23 . The cost of drilling the well is largely dependent on the accuracy required. Often. In many cases. Kick-off Point The kick-off point is the vertical depth where the well is deviated in a specific direction. It is common for specific restrictions or hard lines to be specified only when they depict critical features such as: • • • • Fault lines Pinch outs Legal restrictions Lease line boundaries Many directional wells have been unnecessarily corrected or sidetracked in order to hit a target radius which. so the acceptable limits of the target must be well-defined before the well is commenced.

Well Planning Maximum Inclination Maximum Inclination Maximum inclination is determined by: • KOP and target location • Formation characteristics • Hole cleaning Build/Drop Rates Build/drop rates are determined by: • • • • • • Formation characteristics (hard/soft) Deflection tools available Mechanical limitations of the drillstring or casing Mechanical limitations of the downhole instrumentation Mechanical limitations of the production string or equipment Key seats Common build rates range from 1° to 3°/100 ft (30m) for traditional wells. 6-24 . Horizontal or extended reach wells may have build rates of well over 100 o/100 ft (30 m) in short radius applications.

C = A +B 2 2 C = A +B 2 2 6-25 . Opposite tan a = -------------------Adjacent Opposite Adjacent = -------------------tan a Opposite = tan a × Adjacent or or 4. Opposite sin a = --------------------------Hypotenuse Opposite Hypotenuse = -------------------sin a Opposite = sin a × Hypotenuse or or 2.Well Planning Basic Principle: Right Triangle Basic Principle: Right Triangle a B C c = 90° A Figure 5 Basic principle of the right triangle b 1. A a = atan -B or 2 B b = atan -A or 5. Adjacent cos a = --------------------------Hypotenuse Adjacent Hypotenuse = -------------------cos a Adjacent = cos a × Hypotenuse or or 3.

8734 π In our examples. Knowing the values for inclination at the start of the arc (I1) and the end of the arc (I2).× 30 π Radius = ------------------------Build Rate 180 Note: -------. you can find the incremental values for horizontal displacement (HD).× 100 π Radius = ------------------------Build Rate Meters 180 -------. Rc.5780 π 180 -------. and measured depth (MD).× 30 = 1718. vertical depth (VD). we will use approximate values of 5730 and 1719. the formula is: Feet 180 -------.Well Planning Calculating the Radius of Curvature Calculating the Radius of Curvature Knowing the build-up rate (BUR). To calculate a build or drop radius. The radius of curvature is normally expressed in degrees/100' (degrees/30 m). 6-26 . for the build-up section of a well.× 100 = 5729. you can calculate the value of the radius of curvature.

relationships among angles Feet 180 -------. Radius = TVD = Displacement 5730 BUR = ----------TVD 5730 BUR = -------------------------------Displacement ∆Inc × 100 Curve Length = -------------------------BUR Radius = TVD = Displacement 1719 BUR = ----------TVD 1719 BUR = -------------------------------Displacement Curve Length = ∆Inc × 30 ----------------------BUR 2.× 30 1719 π Radius = ------------------------. 6-27 R Meters ad iu s .= ----------Build Rate BUR 180 -------. 4. 3.= ----------Build Rate BUR 1.Well Planning Calculating the Radius of Curvature KOP (Kick Off Point) TVD (True Vertical Depth) Displacement Figure 6 Radius of curvature .× 100 5730 π Radius = ------------------------.

Angle 1 is the angle at the end of the build. and MD1 On the plot. 1. 180° = Right Angle + Angle 3 + Angle 2 and 180° = Right Angle + Angle 3 + Angle 1 Subtract 1 from 2. 0 + Angle 1 = Angle 2 – Angle 1 + Angle 1 Complete the addition. DISP1. 180° – 180° = Right Angle + Angle 3 + Angle 2 – Right Angle – Angle 3 – Angle 1 0 = Angle 2 – Angle 1 Add Angle 1 to both sides of the equation. Prove Angle 1(end of build angle) = Angle 2(∆Inclination). Angle 1 = Angle 2 6-28 R ad iu s R MD 1 1 .Well Planning Calculating the Radius of Curvature KOP 2 TVD1 3 DISP1 1 Displacement Figure 7 Calculation example Determine TVD1. 2.

3. 2. Note: DISP 1 = DISP B 6-29 R MD 1 1 . DISPB TVD1 DISP1 MD1 Calculate: 1. R1 2. R ad iu s Calculate: 1. DISP 1 = Radius – ( cos Angle 2 × Radius ) ∆Inc × 100 MD 1 = -------------------------BUR 4. DISP A = cos Angle 2 × Radius Adjacent = cos a × Hypotenuse 3. Formulas used: Opposite = sin a × Hypotenuse TVD 1 = sin Angle 2 × Radius 2.Well Planning Calculating the Radius of Curvature KOP DISPB DISPA 2 TVD1 3 DISP1 1 Displacement Figure 8 Calculation example Determine: 1.

Calculating a Directional Well Plan Basic Principle Right Triangle a A C b B c 1. A + B = C and C = Opposite sin a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse 2 2 2 A +B 2 2 or or Opposite = sin a × Hypotenuse Opposite Hypotenuse = ----------------------sin a 3. Opposite = Adjacent × tan a . A c = atan -B 6-30 Opposite Adjacent = ----------------------tan a 5. 2. Adjacent cos a = -----------------------------Hypotenuse Adjacent = cos a × Hypotenuse Adjacent Hypotenuse = ----------------------cos a B a = atan -A or or 4.

Calculating a Directional Well Plan Basic Principle Calculate the radius of curvature (normally expressed in degrees/100’ (30 m).× 100 π Radius = --------------------------Build Rate 6-31 . To calculate a build or drop radius the formula is: 180 -------.

Calculating a Directional Well Plan Feet Meters 180 -------.= ----------BUR BUR Radius = TVD = Displacement 1719 BUR = ----------TVD 1719BUR = ------------DISP ∆Inc × 30 Curve Length = ----------------------BUR Radius = TVD = Displacement 5730 BUR = ----------TVD 5730BUR = ------------DISP ∆Inc × 100 Curve Length = -------------------------BUR 3. 4.× 100 π 5730 R = ----------------------. 180 -------.= ----------BUR BUR 1. 2.× 30 π 1719 R = -------------------. 6-32 .

Angle 1 is the angle at the end of the build. and MD1 On the plot. Note: 180 = Right Angle + Angle 2 + Angle 3 and 180 = Angle 1 + Right Angle + Angle 3 therefore Angle 1 = Angle 2 ° ° 6-33 R A D IU S R MD 1 . DISP1.Calculating a Directional Well Plan KOP 2 TVD1 DISP1 3 1 DISPLACEMENT If you do not build from 0° – 90°: Determine TVD1.

Calculating a Directional Well Plan KOP DISPB DISPA 2 TVD1 DISP1 3 1 DISPLACEMENT Determine: 1. TVD1 DISP1 MD1 Opposite = sin a × Hypotenuse TVD 1 = sin Angle 2 × Radius Adjacent = cos a × Hypotenuse DISP A = cos Angle 2 × Radius DISP B = Radius – ( cos Angle 2 × Radius ) DISP 1 = DISP B ∆Angle × 100 MD 1 = --------------------------------BUR 6-34 R A D IU S R MD 1 . 3. 2.

× 100 π R = ----------------------BUR R 1 = 3820 TVD1 KOP ∆TVD 2 = sin 30° × 3820 TVD 2 = 1910 MD 1 TVD2 ( 0° – 30° ) × 100 MD 1 = --------------------------------------1.Calculating a Directional Well Plan Example 1 Given: 1.76 MD 3 = 3000 TVD4 DISP3 6-35 .5 MD 1 = 2000 DISP 1 = Radius – ( cos 30° × 3820 ) DISP 1 = 511. 2.5°/100' Drop Rate = 1. 3. Build Rate = 1.78 DISP1 TVD3 R 1 DISP2 MD 3 R 2 R 2 = 5730 ∆TVD 4 = 2865 DISP 3 = 767.0°/100' EOB =30° SL 180 -------.

2. 3. 9. 5. Surface Location Start Inclination = 0° Target TD = 9000' Target Displacement = 5000' Maximum Inclination = 40° Build Rate = 2°/100' SL 8. 6. 6. 2.Calculate a Well Proposal Type 1 Well (Build and Hold) Profile # 1 Given: 1. 3. 4. TVD1 TVD2 DISP1 MD1 MD2 Total MD KOP TVD3 DISP2 TVD1 KOP MD1 TVD2 R1 DISP1 MD2 TVD3 DISP2 Total 6-36 . Calculate: 1. 5. 7. 4.

**Calculate a Well Proposal
**

Type 1 Well (Build and Hold)

Profile # 1

Calculate R1 Calculate ýTVD2 Calculate DISP1 Calculate MD1 Calculate DISP2

5730 = ----------BUR

= sin a × Hyp otenuse = R 1 – ( cos a × Hypotenuse ) ∆Angle × 100 = --------------------------------BUR = Target DISP – DISP 1 = 5000 – 670.28

= 2865 = 1841.59 = 670.28 = 2000

= 4329.7 = 5159.96

Calculate ýTVD3 Calculate KOP

Opposite = ----------------------tan a

= ( ∆TVD 3 + ∆TVD 2 ) – Target TVD

= 1998.45

Calculate MD2 Calculate Total MD

Opposite = ----------------------sin a = MD 1 + MD 2 + KOP

= 6735.85 = 10734.30

6-37

**Calculate a Well Proposal
**

Type 1 Well (Build and Hold)

Profile # 2

Given:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Calculate:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Surface Location Start Inclination = 0° KOP = 3200' Target TVD = 12500' Target Displacement = 5000' Build Rate = 2°/100'

SL

9.

TVD1 TVD2 TVD3 DISP1 DISP2 Inclination at EOB MD1 MD2 Total MD

TVD1

KOP

MD1 TVD2

R1

DISP1

MD2

TVD3

DISP2

Total

6-38

**Calculate a Well Proposal
**

Profile # 2

SL

SL

TVD1

KOP

TVD1

MD1 R1

KOP 1

MD1 TVD2

R1

TVD2

DISP1

DISP1 5 L1 3 L2

MD2

4

TVD3

DISP2

Total

2 TVD3 DISP1 DISPB

DISP2

Calculate R1 Calculate DISP3

5730 = ----------BUR = Target DISP – R 1

= 3820 = 8500 – 3820 = 4680

Calculate L1 Calculate Angle 1

= Target TVD – KOP DISP B = atan ---------------L1 =

= 12500 – 3200 = 9300 = 26.71° = 10411.17

Calculate L2

DISP B + L 1

2

2

Calculate Angle 2

R1 = asin ----L2

= 21.53°

6-39

**Calculate a Well Proposal
**

Profile #2

SL

TVD1

KOP 1

MD1 TVD2

R1

DISP1 5 L1 3 L2

4

2 TVD3 DISP1 DISPB

DISP2

**Calculate Angle 5 Where:
**

1.

180° = Angle 1 + Angle 2 + Angle 3

and

2.

180° = Angle 3 + Angle 4

and subtracting 1 from 2 0° = Angle 1 + Angle 2 - Angle 4 and moving Angle 4 to the other side Angle 4 = Angle 1 + Angle 2 Since Angle 4 and Angle 5 are created by a vertical line intersecting the hold section, Angle 4 = Angle 5, then Angle 5 = Angle 1 + Angle 2 Angle 5 = 48.5°

6-40

**Calculate a Well Proposal
**

SL

TVD1

KOP 1

MD1 TVD2

R1

DISP1 5 L1 3 L2

4

2 TVD3 DISP1 DISPB

DISP2

Calculate ýTVD2

= sin a × Hyp otenuse = 48.24 × 3820 = 2849.50 = 1275.84 = 3216 = R 1 – ( cos a × Hypotenuse )

Calculate DISP1 Calculate MD1

**∆Angle × 100 = --------------------------------BUR
**

= L 1 – ∆TVD 2 = 9300 – 2849.50

Calculate ýTVD3

= 6450.50 = 7224.16

Calculate DISP2 Calculate MD2

= Target Displacement – DISP 1 = =

DISP B + ∆TVD 3

2

2

2 2

7224.16 + 6450.50

= 9684.91

6-41

Calculate a Well Proposal Type 1 Well (Build and Hold)

**Calculate a Well Proposal
**

Profile # 2

SL

TVD1

KOP

MD1 TVD2

R1

DISP1

MD2

TVD3

DISP2

Total

TVD1 TVD2 TVD3 DISP1 DISP2

= =

3200.00 6049.50

= 12500.00 = = 1275.84 7224.16 48.24° 3216.00 9684.91

Inc at EOB = MD1 MD2 Total MD = =

= 16100.91

6-42

This distance (500 meters) can also be described as a distance along a direction (polar coordinate) or as a direction and a magnitude (vector).Target Approach Calculations The diagram below indicates that the direction from the surface location to the center of the target at the given true vertical depth (TVD) is along an azimuth of 29o. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Target 29 degrees 450 400 0m 50 350 300 Target Center = 500 meters at 29° Northings 250 200 150 100 50 Surface Location Figure 1 0 10 m 10 m -50 6-43 . The distance from the surface location along a straight line to the target center on the horizontal section is 500 meters.

31 m N 29° 300 Target Center = 500 meters at 29° OR 242.40 meters E (because the direction is east if its sign is positive and directionally known as departure. a distance of 500 meters along 29o would then be shown as a point described as 437.40 m E 437.31 m N Northings 250 200 150 100 50 0 N/S = Adjacent = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(29) x 500 N/S = 0.40 m E 450 400 0m 50 350 E/W = Opposite = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(29) x 500 E/W = 0.40 m E 437.You may also calculate the target boundary using rectangular coordinates.309854 N/S = 437.31 meters N (because the direction is north if its sign is positive and directionally known as latitude) and 242.31 m N 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 2 6-44 . In this instance.874620 x 500 N/S = 437.404810 E/W = 242. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 242.484810 x 500 E/W = 242.

40 m E N/S = Adjacent = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(29) x 500 N/S = 0.309854 N/S = 437.874620 x 500 N/S = 437. Eastings -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Target Center = 500 meters at 29° OR 242.31 m N Figure 3 6-45 .484810 x 500 E/W = 242. North and East are positive signs and South and West are negative signs.40 m E 437.31 m N 29 degrees 400 300 200 100 Northings 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 20 m 20 m -500 E/W = Opposite = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(29) x 500 E/W = 0.404810 E/W = 242.As shown below.

681998 x 400 E/W = 272.731354 x 400 N/S = -292. Eastings -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Target Center = 400 meters at 137° OR 272.A 400 meter distance along a direction of 137o equals 272.31 m N 300 200 137 degrees 100 Northings 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 20 m 20 m -500 E/W = Opposite = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(137) x 400 E/W = 0.54 meters South (-).799344 E/W = 272.80 meters East (+) and 292.80 m E N/S = Adjacent = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(137) x 400 N/S = -0.54 m S 400 Target Center = 500 meters at 29° OR 242.40 m E 437.54 m S Figure 4 6-46 .541481 N/S = 292.80 m E 292.

777146 x 450 N/S = -349.40 m E 437.72 m S Figure 5 6-47 .194176 E/W = 283.19 m W N/S = Adjacent = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(219) x 450 N/S = -0.A 450 meter distance along a direction of 219o equals 283.629320 x 450 E/W = -283.715683 N/S = 349.80 m E 292.72 meters South (-).19 m W 349.19 meters West (-) and 349. Eastings -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Target Center = 450 meters at 219° OR 283.31 m N 300 200 100 Northings 219 Degrees 0 -100 Target Center = 400 meters at 137° OR -200 272.54 m S -300 -400 20 m 20 m -500 E/W = Opposite = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(219) x 450 E/W = -0.72 m S 400 Target Center = 500 meters at 29° OR 242.

31 m N 300 200 100 Northings 0 347 Degrees -100 Target Center = 400 meters at 137° OR -200 272.730911 E/W = 87.72 m S -400 20 m 20 m -500 E/W = Opposite = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(347) x 390 E/W = -0.224951 x 390 E/W = -87.00 m N Figure 6 6-48 .A 390 meter distance along a direction of 347o equals 87.40 m E 437.80 m E 292.004325 N/S = 380.73 m W 380.974370 x 390 N/S = 380.00 meters North (+). Eastings -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Target Center = 390 meters at 347° OR 87.73 m W N/S = Adjacent = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(347) x 390 N/S = 0.54 m S -300 Target Center = 450 meters at 219° OR 283.73 meters West (-) and 380.00 m N 400 Target Center = 500 meters at 29° OR 242.19 m W 349.

in order to be within the target. Generally speaking. we will arrive at the low side.Since we can use polar/rectangular coordinates from surface to the center of the target. we can also use this same calculation to determine the coordinates from the target center to any point on the circumference of the target circle. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.31 m N Left Side Target Center High Side 450 Right Side 400 Low Side 350 300 Northings 250 200 150 100 50 Surface Location 0 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 7 The center of the target is 500 meters along a 29o azimuth. we need to calculate the coordinates that would place us inside the 30 meter radius constraint. low side. on a conventional directional well.40 m E 437. and right side. left side. If we subtract 30 meters from 500. We want to be able to calculate the coordinates that would place us inside the constraint of the 30 meter radius. 470 meters along a 29o azimuth 6-49 . we wish to know the points on the target that are known as the high side.

40 m E 437.860522 E/W = 227. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.071262 N/S = 411.07 m N 150 100 50 Surface Location E/W = Opposite = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(29) x 470 E/W = 0.07 m N 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 8 6-50 .07 meters North (+).484810 x 470 E/W = 227.is 227.86 meters East (+) and 411.31 m N Left Side Target Center High Side 450 Right Side 400 Low Side 350 300 Northings 250 200 Low Side = 470 meters at 29° 227.86 m E 411.874620 x 470 N/S = 411.86 m E 0 N/S = Adjacent = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(29) x 470 N/S = 0.

Using the same criteria to determine the high side. we would use 530 meters along a 29o azimuth.07 m N Northings 250 200 150 100 50 Surface Location E/W = Opposite = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(29) x 530 E/W = 0.55 meters North (+).55 m N 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 9 6-51 .548445 N/S = 463.484810 x 530 E/W = 256.55 m N Low Side = 470 meters at 29° 227.40 m E 437.949099 E/W = 256. or 256.874620 x 530 N/S = 463.86 m E 411.31 m N Left Side Target Center High Side 450 Right Side 400 Low Side 350 300 High Side = 530 meters at 29° 256.95 meters East (+) and 463.95 m E 463.95 m E 0 N/S = Adjacent = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(29) x 530 N/S = 0. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.

This angle is the difference between the distance and angle to the center of the target and the distance and angle to the left AND right side of the target.40 m E 437. you can determine the angle formed between the long leg and the hypotenuse.06000 a = 3. The right and left side points are at 90o from the proposed direction of 29o. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242. This 30 meter length (target radius) and the 500 meter length (distance from the surface to target center) form two legs of a right triangle. you can determine the length of the hypotenuse of this triangle. se =5 50 350 Hy pot enu 300 Northings 250 200 a = 3. We now have the angle of the left and right side points on the target circumference and a distance to these points (the hypotenuse).31 m N Left Side 30 m 450 Right Side 400 90 m 0m 00.Two methods exist to mathematically determine the coordinates to the right or left hand sides of the target circle. The first method uses the two given outlined in the directional plot/proposal to construct a right triangle. This angle difference is SUBTRACTED from the proposed direction to arrive at the direction to the left side point and ADDED to arrive at the right side point.90 m 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 10 6-52 . Using the Pythagorean theorem.43) C = 500/0. The distance from the surface location to the target center is 500 meters and the distance of the target radius is 30 meters.998209 C = 500.897288 C = 500.43° a 150 100 50 Surface Location Angle a = atan = Opposite/Adjacent atan = 30/500 atan = 0.43° 0 Hypotenuse = C = Adjacent/(cos a) C = 500/(cos 3. Using the inverse tangent geometric formula.433630° a = 3.

Combining this direction with the length of the hypotenuse (500.43° 150 100 50 Surface Location Left side angle = Target center .a Left side angle = 29 .43 Left side angle = 25.43o from the proposed direction.43° Right Side Distance = Hypotenuse Right Side Distance = 500.90 meters) allows you to convert polar to rectangular coordinates. if you add 3.43 Right side angle = 32.40 m E 437.31 m N Left Side 30 m Right Side 450 400 90 m 0m 00.43° a Right Side is 500. Conversely.If you subtract 3.57o.43o from the proposed direction.90 meters at 25. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.43o and can convert from polar to rectangular coordinates.3.57° Hy Northings 250 200 a = 3.90 meters 0 Right side angle = Target center + a Right side angle = 29 + 3. se =5 50 350 pot enu 300 Left Side is 500.90 meters 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 11 6-53 .90 meters at 32. you obtain the right side direction of 32.57° Left Side Distance = Hypotenuse Left Side Distance = 500. you obtain the left side direction of 25.

431613 x 500.84 m N Figure 12 6-54 . Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.902059 x 500.90 E/W = 0.40 m E 437.57 converts to 451.90 meters along an azimuth of 25.84 m North (Latitude) and 216.90 N/S = 0.57) x 500.84 m N Right Side is 500.20 m E 0 10 m 10 m -50 N/S = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(25.90 N/S = 451.20 m E 451.31 m N Left Side 30 m Right Side 450 400 50 0m 500 .90 meters at 32.43° Left Side is 500.195198 E/W = 216.90 meters at 25.90 E/W = 216.20 m East (Departure).57° 216.500.57) x 500.43° Northings 250 200 150 100 50 Surface Location E/W = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(25.841174 N/S = 451.90 m 350 300 3.

78 m North (Latitude) and 268.43° 268.43) x 500.536269 x 500.500.78 m N Figure 13 6-55 .40 m E 437.90 N/S = 422.844047 x 500.78 m N Northings 250 200 150 100 50 Surface Location E/W = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(32.90 N/S = 0. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.90 meters along an azimuth of 32.84 m N Right Side is 500.90 m 50 350 300 3.90 E/W = 0.43) x 500.57° 216.90 meters at 32.90 meters at 25.62 m East (Departure).90 E/W = 268.783268 N/S = 422.43o converts to 422.62 m E 0 10 m 10 m -50 N/S = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(32.43° Left Side is 500.617047 E/W = 268.62 m E 422.31 m N Left Side 30 m 450 Right Side 400 0m 500 .20 m E 451.

Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242. you can calculate their coordinates relative to the surface location. 90o added to the target direction of 29o equals 119o. This method is longer. and also acts as a check system.3099 m N 30 m 30 m 299° Left Side 200 250 300 350 500 29° 299° Right Side 119° 29° 450 400 350 Left Side Right Side Northings 250 200 150 100 119° 300 50 Surface Location Left Side angle = Target Direction .90 Left Side angle = 29 . The direction is defined by the addition and subtraction of 90 o to the proposed direction and the distance is defined by the target radius.4048 m E 437. but demonstrates that there are two ways to arrive at the same answer. and 90o subtracted from 29o equals 299o.90 Left Side angle = 299° 0 Right Side angle = Target Direction + 90 Right Side angle = 29 + 90 Right Side angle = 119° 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 14 6-56 .You may also calculate coordinates by working within the target circle. Here we find the rectangular coordinates of the left and right sides of the target circle by using polar coordinate data. When you identify the coordinates that are 30 meters along 90o left and right of the target center point.

31 m N Left Side is 30 m at 299° 26.484810 x 30 N/S = 14.54 m N Figure 15 6-57 .Converting polar to rectangular coordinates.544289 N/S = 14. gives you the following calculations: -50 Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.24 m W 0 10 m 10 m -50 N/S = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(299) x 30 N/S = 0.40 m E 437.54 m N Eastings 500 299° 450 30 m 119° 400 299° 350 30 m 119° Northings 250 200 150 300 100 50 Surface Location E/W = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(299) x 30 E/W = -0.24 m W 14.24 m W 14.874620 x 30 E/W = -26.54 m N 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Left Side is 30 m at 299° 26.238591 E/W = 26.

31 m N Right Side is 30 m at 119° 26.24 m E 14.24 m E 0 10 m 10 m -50 N/S = cos(Angle) x Hypotenuse N/S = cos(119) x 30 N/S = -0.24 m E 14.544289 N/S = 14.54 m S 500 299° 450 30 m 119° 400 299° 350 30 m 119° Northings 250 200 150 300 100 50 Surface Location E/W = sin(Angle) x Hypotenuse E/W = sin(119) x 30 E/W = 0.40 m E 437.54 m S 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Eastings Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.874620 x 30 E/W = 26.54 m S Figure 16 6-58 .-50 Right Side is 30 m at 119° 26.484810 x 30 N/S = -14.238591 E/W = 26.

31 + 14.26.31 m N 450 Right Side is 30 m at 119° 26.31 m N + 14. in fact.54 N/S = 451. correct.40 .90 meters along a 25.24 m W 14.16 m E 0 N/S = Target N/S + Left Side N/S N/S = 437.40 m E 437.85 m N 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 17 6-59 .54 m S 400 350 300 Left Side is 216.24 E/W = 216. Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Left Side is 30 m at 299° 26.16 m E 451.24 m W E/W = 242.57o azimuth.54 m N Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242. Checking on the horizontal section plot shows you that these coordinates are. By converting from rectangular to polar coordinates.These are the coordinates from the surface location (0 meters North and 0 meters East) to the left side of the target center point.24 m E 14.40 m E + 26.85 m N Northings 250 200 150 100 50 Surface Location E/W = Target E/W + Left Side E/W E/W = 242.54 m N N/S = 437. this point is defined as 500.

85 m N Northings 250 200 Right Side is 268.64 m E 422.54 m S N/S = 437.16 m E 451.14.24 E/W = 268.54 m N Target Center is 500 meters at 29° 242.24 m W 14.54 m S 400 350 300 Left Side is 216.24 m E 14.64 m E 0 N/S = Target N/S + Right Side N/S N/S = 437.40 m E 437.40 + 26.31 m N + 14.54 N/S = 422.31 .The same calculation is used to determine the right side of the target’s coordinates.40 m E + 26.77 m N 10 m 10 m -50 Figure 18 6-60 . Eastings -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 500 Left Side is 30 m at 299° 26.77 m N 150 100 50 Surface Location E/W = Target E/W + Right Side E/W E/W = 242.31 m N 450 Right Side is 30 m at 119° 26.24 m E E/W = 242.

high. left side. low side. you will be calculating your surveys to determine where you are relative to the target. center. 6-61 . Knowing the direction of your survey and the direction to the left and right side of the target constraints will determine whether corrective directional steering is required or not. you will be able to calculate the distance and direction required to land within the target boundaries.By knowing these coordinates. you will convert the rectangular coordinates to polar and be left with the distance and direction to each point. After subtracting the calculated survey latitude and departure from the coordinates of all four points (high side. and right side). left. Combining the distance to target and the remaining TVD (target TVD minus the survey calculated TVD) will allow you to use the tangent formula to calculate the required inclination to the low. Important: It cannot be stressed enough that ALL calculations have to use the data EXTRAPOLATED to the bit depth and NOT the survey depth. As the directional job progresses. and right sides of the target.

The target center is at a TVD of 2784.Vertical Section Calculation Find the center.90 m and a Vertical Section of 500m. high side. with a target inclination of 60°. low side of the target from an inclination of 58°. Figure 19 6-62 . The current bit position at a TVD of 2728.90 m and a Vertical Section of 400 m. The target radius is 30 m.

Figure 20 Calculate the ∆TVD and ∆VS (Vertical Section) of target center: ∆TVD = T arg etT VD – CurrentTVD ∆TVD = 2784.00 ∆VS = T arg etVS – CurrentVS ∆VS = 500 – 400 ∆VS = 100 Figure 21 6-63 .9 – 2728.90 ∆TVD = 56.

00 ∆VS HS = ∆VS + T arg etRadius ∆VS HS = 100 + 30 ∆VS HS = 130 Figure 23 6-64 .9 – 2728.90 ∆TVD = 56.Figure 22 Calculate the ∆TVD and ∆VS of the high side of the target: ∆TVD = T arg etT VD – CurrentTVD ∆TVD = 2784.

00 ∆VS LS = ∆VS – T arg etRadius ∆VS LS = 100 – 30 ∆VS LS = 70 Figure 25 6-65 .Figure 24 Calculate the ∆TVD and ∆VS of the low side of the target: ∆TVD = T arg etT VD – CurrentTVD ∆TVD = 2784.9 – 2728.90 ∆TVD = 56.

Figure 26 Calculate the Angle and distance to the target center: Method 1 MD = MD = MD = MD = ∆TVD + ∆VS 56 + 100 2 2 2 2 ∆VS Angle = asin ---------MD 100 Angle = asin --------------114.75 100 MD = --------------------0.872524 Angle = 60.872496 MD = 114.61m Method 2 ∆VS Angle = atan --------------∆TVD 100 Angle = atan -------56 Angle = atan 1.61 Angle = asin 0.75° ∆VS MD = ---------------------sin Angle 100 MD = -------------------sin 60.61m 6-66 .785714 Angle = 60.75° 3136 + 10000 13136 MD = 114.

693717° MD = 141.54m The difference is a minor rounding error between Method 1 and Method 2.918403 Angle = 66.548578 m Method 2 Angle = 66.Figure 27 Calculate the Angle and distance to the high side of the target: Method 1 MD = MD = MD = MD = ∆TVD + ∆VS HS 56 + 130 2 2 2 2 ∆VS HS Angle = asin ---------------MD 130 Angle = asin --------------141.695113° MD = 141.70° ∆VS MD = ---------------------sin Angle 130 MD = -------------------sin 66.918446 MD = 141.55 Angle = asin 0.69° 3136 + 16900 20036 MD = 141.543374 m 6-67 .70 130 MD = --------------------0. Method 1 Angle = 66.55m Method 2 ∆VS Angle = atan --------------∆TVD 130 Angle = atan -------56 Angle = atan 2.321429 Angle = 66.

250000 Angle = 51.34° MD = 89.780901 Angle = 51.64m 6-68 .64 Angle = asin 0.Figure 28 Calculate the Angle and distance to the low side of the target: Method 1 MD = MD = MD = MD = ∆TVD + ∆VS LS 56 + 70 2 2 2 2 ∆VS LS Angle = asin --------------MD 3136 + 4900 8036 70 Angle = asin -----------89.64m Method 2 ∆VS LS Angle = atan --------------∆TVD 70 Angle = atan ----56 Angle = atan 1.34 70 MD = --------------------0.780867 MD = 89.34° ∆VS LS MD = ---------------------sin Angle 70 MD = -------------------sin 51.

4.18 m Inclination = 46. 2. 3. 500 m at 29° TVD = 2792. 5.50 m Inclination = 60° KOP = 2000 m Target Radius 30 m Calculate target approach and vertical section locations. Figure 29 6-69 .Target Approach Project Current Location: 1. 4.63° Target Location: 1. 2. 3. E 100 m N 250 m TVD = 2586.

80° = 269.874620 × 500 = E242. 13. 11.371388 100 = atan -------250 100 = -------------------sin 21. 10. 2.26m = 21.371368 = 21. 9. 18. 8. 7.31m Current Location Distance and Angle Method 1 Dist = EW + NS 2 2 = 100 + 250 2 2 = 72500 = 269. 12. 15.40m = N437. 14.400000 100 = --------------------0.484810 × 500 = 0. 3. Target Coordinate Location Current Position Distance and Angle Partial Coordinates from Current Location to Target Center Angle and Distance to Target Center from Current Location High Side Coordinates Low Side Coordinates ∆Angle from Target Center to Side Right Side Coordinates Left Side Coordinates Vertical Section ∆Vertical Section to Target Center ∆TVD to Target Center Target Center ∆Angle and ∆MD ∆Vertical Section to High Side ∆TVD to High Side High Side ∆Angle and ∆MD ∆Vertical Section to Low Side ∆TVD to Low Side Low Side ∆Angle and ∆MD Target Center Coordinates EW = sin Angle × Dist NS = cos A ngle × Dist = sin 29 × 500 = cos 29 × 500 = 0. 4. 16. 5.80 = atan 0. 19.80° EW Angle = asin ---------Dist Method 2 EW Angle = atan -------NS EW Dist = ---------------------sin Angle 100 = asin --------------269. 6.Calculate the following: 1.27m 6-70 .26 = asin 0. 17.

40 + 187.40 = asin --------------235.760237 142.40 = atan --------------187.29 = asin 0.31m 6-71 .24 = atan 0.31m Current Location Distance and Angle Method 1 Dist = EW + NS 2 2 = 142.605211 142.24° = 235.29m = 37.31 142.4 – 100 = 437.Figure 30 Partial Coordinates EW = T arg etEW – CurrentEW NS = T arg etNS – CurrentNS = 242.24° EW Angle = asin ---------Dist Method 2 EW Angle = atan -------NS EW Dist = ---------------------sin Angle 142.40 = --------------------0.40 = -------------------sin 37.40m = N187.605155 = 37.31 – 250 = E142.80 = 235.31 2 2 = 55362.

991961 = 237.29 – 30 = 205.605155 × 265.24 × 265.796108 × 265.24 × 265.23m = cos 37.54m = cos 37.29 + 30 EW = sin A × Dist HS NS = cos A × Dist HS = 265.29 = E160.29 = 0.605155 × 205.29 = N211.24 × 205.27° 6-72 .29 = 0.29 = E124.127502 = 7.29m = sin 37.29 = --------------------acos 7.Figure 31 High Side Coordinates Dist HS = Dist + 30m = 235.20m 30 = atan --------------235.29 = 0.29 = 0.27 235.29 = atan 0.29 = N163.29 = --------------------0.43m ∆Angle T arg etR ∆A = atan -------------------Dist Distance to Side Dist Dist S = -----------------acos ∆A 235.796108 × 205.29m = sin 37.24 × 205.20m Low Side Coordinates Dist LS = Dist – 30m EW = sin A × Dist LS NS = cos A × Dist LS = 235.

15m Left Side Coordinates A L = Angle – ∆A EW = sin A L × Dist S NS = cos A L × Dist S = 37.Figure 32 ∆Angle and Distance to Side T arg etR ∆A = atan -------------------Dist Dist Dist S = -----------------acos ∆A 30 = atan --------------235.24 + 7.27 = atan 0.20 = 0.29 235.713128 × 237.15m 6-73 .51 × 237.27 = 44.20 = 166.29m = cos 44.713128 × 237.51° = sin 44.20 = 169.27° = 237.991961 = 7.20 = 0.51 × 237.24 – 7.29 = --------------------acos 7.97° = sin 44.20 = 0.29m = cos 44.29 = --------------------0.27 = 29.20 = 169.127502 235.20m Right Side Coordinates A R = Angle + ∆A EW = sin A R × Dist S NS = cos A R × Dist S = 37.51 × 237.20 = 0.701034 × 237.20 = 166.701034 × 237.51 × 237.

70m Target Center ∆Angle and ∆MD ∆VS ∆Angle = atan --------------∆TVD ∆VS ∆MD = -------------------------sin ∆Angle 232.85 = atan --------------167.95m ∆Vertical Section and ∆TVD to High Side ∆VS HS = ∆VS + 30m = 232.27 = 267.15 = 232.24 = atan 1.992115 × 269.50 – 2624.70m ∆TVD = T arg etTVD – CurrentTVD 6-74 .80 = 167.85 + 30 = 262.388491 232.85 = --------------------0.24° = 286.2 × 269.85m = 2792.80 = 167.15m = 500 – 267.811472 = 54.85 = -------------------sin 54.27 = 0.85m ∆VS = T arg etVS – CurrentVS ∆TVD = T arg etTVD – CurrentTVD = 2792.Figure 33 ∆Vertical Section and ∆TVD to Target Center VS = cos ∆a × Dist = cos 7.50 – 2624.70 232.

770736 = 50.70 202.85 = atan --------------167.85 = --------------------0.70 262.843016 = 57.70m ∆TVD = T arg etTVD – CurrentTVD Low Side ∆Angle and ∆MD ∆VSLS ∆Angle = atan --------------∆TVD ∆VS LS ∆MD = -------------------------sin ∆Angle 202.50 – 2624.42° = 263.85 = -------------------sin 57.80 = 167.46 = atan 1.85 = atan --------------167.19m 6-75 .85 = --------------------0.567382 232.85m = 2792.46° = 311.85 – 30 = 202.209600 202.Figure 34 High Side ∆Angle and ∆MD ∆VSHS ∆Angle = atan ---------------∆TVD ∆VS HS ∆MD = -------------------------sin ∆Angle 262.80m ∆Vertical Section and ∆TVD to Low Side ∆VS LS = ∆VS – 30m = 232.42 = atan 1.85 = -------------------sin 50.

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4. 6. Review what is needed for the Final Completion Survey Final Completion Survey Example MD. Determining Ground and KB elevations and adjust proposal accordingly 2.4. Start of Job 1. 5.1. Tie on Adding surveys Deleting surveys Editing surveys 3. 5.1. AND Closure Dist.2.1.3. Review options in Quick Printing 5. & Dep. Quick Printing 4. 3. Adding Text Lines 3.1. Geologist and well license 1.6. TVD and Subsea methods to input Text Lines 4. and Closure Azimuth Review Plan view parameters with step sizes Review Side view parameters with step sizes Change colors of wells Turn Wells on and off in graphics Turn targets on and off in graphics Exaggerate the vertical to show changes in TVD in Side view .1.2. 3.1. 2. Targets 6.5.3. Entering Surveys 2. 2. 2. Review adding targets based on Lat. Graphics 5.2. 5. 5.3.2.1. 5. Compare Proposal well name and location with rig manager.

Build Section Example Required Correction to Target review Radius of Curvature – BUR to Target TVD and INC Review Other Projection Methods Posting Projections Stacking Projections .Under Tools Multiple Interpolations .5. 9. 8. 8. 8. 7.7. Show how to turn on the “Graph Targets” option to view targets in the plan and side views 7.2. Interpolating 7.1. Review difference between Interpolating and Extrapolating Interpolating using Edit Text Lines Interpolating using the Quick Print Insert Single Interpolation .2. 7. 8. Project To Bit Directional Example Straight Line Projection 9.2. KB Adjustments 8. 8.6.6.3.Under Planning – Show Plan Survey 8. Projecting Ahead 9.3.1.2. 7. 8.3. 7. KB vs Subsea Example with diagram KB vs TVD Example with diagram Tie on to existing build with new KB Example with diagram Field Example #1 Tie on to an existing build Field Example #2 Tie on to an existing build Field Example #3 Tie on to an existing lateral Shifting Build Surveys to reflect a new KB elevation 9.4.4.1.5.

Review Types of wells that can be planned using Simple Planning Plan with 2 out of 4 unknowns (step sizes) Plan with 2 out of 7 unknowns (step sizes) 11. Set up 2 well surfaces relative to each other Create 2 proposals using Simple Planning 12.2. Simple Planning 10.10. 12.1. 10. Anti-Collision 12. 11.1. Field Setup Exercise 11.2. 10.1.3. Review basics of anti-collision Run anti-collision report for two wells: Switching the offset and reference wells Varying the Interpolation Interval Varying the scan radius Determine which well is above and below the other when the two wells cross using Tool Faces and 3-D viewer .2.

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the Wellz file can be accessed later at this “Wellz Start Up” dialogue box using the Open button.ico Step 2: Select to create a new Wellz survey file This is the “Wellz Start Up” box. a more detailed explanation of all features can be accessed through the Help section of the Wellz program.Wellz Quick Start Manual WELLZ QUICK START INSTRUCTION MANUAL 1. Once you have jumped into the program. typical examples and brief explanations. 2. INTRODUCTION The purpose of the Wellz Quick Start Instruction Manual is to provide an easy to follow. This manual outlines how to properly setup a new Wellz Survey file and utilize the software’s key features by incorporating a logical sequence of screen captures.Computalog Drilling Services . Note: Once the Wellz file has been created. 5-1 . CREATING A NEW SURVEY FILE Step 1:Start Wellz Double click the Wellz icon on the Desktop wellz. Click the New button to create a new Wellz file. step by step guide for the Survey portion of the Wellz software.

The above survey files will correspond with proposal files 10950P. 5-2 . Enter the actual KB elevation of the rig. 10950S for leg #1 surveys. From Proposal middle pages. When all required fields have been completed. 10950SA for leg #2 surveys.Wellz Quick Start Manual Step 3: Enter the required Header data From the Proposal front Label for graph. click the OK button to save and close the dialogue box. ex. 10950PA and 10950PB.Computalog Drilling Services . Clicking the Cancel button will close the dialogue box and not save changes to the header data. Example: Actual Leg #1 Vs Proposed Leg #1 Enter the V-section that the proposal is calculated on. This is the file name that will be printed on the top of the printed survey report. 10950SB for leg #3 surveys etc. All survey files should be labeled with a “S” ending. Enter the actual as measured ground elevation for the well site. leaving the header data blank. Note: The Header Data can be edited by clicking the Edit Header button on the Survey Tool Bar Tab at the left hand side of the survey screen.

10950SA for the leg #2 survey file. Or select an existing directory to save your new Wellz survey file. Click on the create directory button to create a new working directory. click the Save button.Computalog Drilling Services . type the name of the survey file. To save the survey file under the desired directory and file name. Note: The units used for the current Wellz file can be changed later by selecting Units under the Tools drop down box at the top of the main Wellz screen. Example: 10950S for the build + leg #1 survey file. 10950SB for the leg #3 survey file and 10950SB1 for a sidetrack off leg #3. select meters and click Apply. 5-3 . click the Cancel button. Step 5: Saving the file Ensure that the C drive is selected to save the survey file to your local hard drive. To close the “Save As” dialogue box without specifying the file name. To work in feet and calculate DLS over a 100 foot interval. Example: My Documents Once your working directory has been created (or selected). select feet and click Apply. The name of the survey file should match the file name entered previously in the Set Header Info dialogue box.Wellz Quick Start Manual Step 4: Selection of Units (meters vs feet) To work in meters and calculate dogleg severity (DLS) over a 30 m interval.

Computalog Drilling Services .Wellz Quick Start Manual Step 6: Selecting the Survey Select the Survey tab to enter the survey section of the Wellz program. Note: Selecting the Exit tab will also move the user into the survey section of the Wellz program. 5-4 .

A small dialogue box will then appear.Computalog Drilling Services .2. The DLS values may change slightly since the 30 m interval does not exactly match a 100 foot interval. SETTING SURVEY VIEW OPTIONS 3. The Units dialogue box will then appear. Another method of changing the units used is to single click the green box at the top right corner of the main Wellz survey screen. 5-5 .1. Note: Changing the units will convert all previously entered survey depth values to the appropriate new measured depth value (ie. The Units dialogue box will appear just as it did when you started a new Wellz file. select Units under the Tools drop down menu.Wellz Quick Start Manual 3. 3.48 m). Changing Decimal Places Displayed Select Set Decimal Places Displayed under the Tools drop down menu. 100 feet will change to 30. Changing Units To change the units used for the current Wellz file.

To view the Survey Tool Bar Tab on the left side of the screen.3. Arranging Columns Select Pick Column Arrangement under the Tools drop down menu to pick a new column arrangement. To customize your column arrangement select Create Custom and follow the instructions. Hiding and Unhiding The Survey Tool Bar Tab To hide the Survey Tool Bar Tab on the left side of the main Wellz survey screen. The Survey Tool Bar Tab.Wellz Quick Start Manual 3. 3. select ToolBars/Tabs under the Tools drop down menu and click Hide. 5-6 .Computalog Drilling Services . follow the same steps and click Survey.4.

Note: Lat = North Dep = East The Tie On Point can also be edited at any time by double clicking the tie on point row. The Tie On Point row will appear in yellow as the active row. click once on the Departure (Dep) field and hit the Enter key to go to the next row.Wellz Quick Start Manual 4. INPUTTING SURVEYS Step 1: Inputting the Tie On Point The first survey station is the Tie On Point. Hit the Enter key to input from left to right through the required fields starting with measured depth (MD). Step 2: Entering surveys Once the Tie On Point has been properly entered.Computalog Drilling Services . The “Edit Survey “ dialogue box will then appear. 5-7 . The default Tie On Point is all zeros.

Or Single click the Edit Survey button to enter a row number and access the “Edit Survey” dialogue box. 5-8 . Step 3: Editing The Survey Data To edit an existing survey station. double click the desired row. AZM) below the Tie On Point as required by hitting the Enter key. click the Insert Survey button to access the “Insert Survey Point” dialogue box. To delete a survey station from the survey file. INC.Computalog Drilling Services . Tip: Click on the desired row that you want to delete before clicking the Delete Row button. click the Delete Row button and input the row number or row numbers that you wish to delete. This will ensure that the row number in the dialogue box corresponds to the row that you want to delete. Or Single click on the most recent survey station highlighted in yellow.Wellz Quick Start Manual Input consecutive surveys (MD. To insert a single survey station.

Note: The interpolated text line survey depths can also be inserted into your survey file by clicking the Apply. click on the desired row and click the Delete button.Wellz Quick Start Manual 5. To save your changes without closing the dialogue box. double click on the desired field in the table at the top of the dialogue box. The Text Lines For Active Well dialogue box will then appear. Interpolate Text Line Depths to Sheet. Step 2 Insert an interpolated text line by 1: Selecting an Interpolation Method. To edit an existing text line. click Apply. INSERTING INTERPOLATED TEXT LINES FOR PRINT The following are the steps required to interpolate surveys with text lines that can be inserted onto your survey printout. click OK. 3: Entering a Text Line and 4: Clicking Add. To save your changes and exit the dialogue box. select Edit Text Lines under the Tools drop down menu. Step 1 To add text to your survey file. 2: Entering a Depth. To close the dialogue box without saving your changes. click Close. 5-9 .Computalog Drilling Services . To delete an existing row.

QUICK PRINTING Step 1: Access the Quick Print Options Dialogue Box To print out a listing of the survey file. The Start Column and End Column. Text lines with or without the interpolated Text Line Points can be inserted into the survey print out. select Quick Print under the File drop down menu.Computalog Drilling Services . 5-10 . The Quick Print can be Previewed. Note: The Printer Settings may have to be configured before you are able to print properly. Select to indicate Row Numbers and extrapolated surveys (EXT). corresponding to the columns in the main Wellz survey window. select Row Number.Wellz Quick Start Manual 6. can also be selected. MD or TVD and the Start and End points. To include interpolations on the printout. Printed or Canceled. select Interpolate by MD or TVD and click the Apply New Settings button that appears. Step 2: Configure the Quick Print Options Dialogue Box To select the range of survey stations that you wish to print.

To do this. The targets dialogue box can also be accessed by clicking the Targets button on the Survey Tool Bar Tab and clicking Show Targets. select Options under the Graphics drop down menu and check the Graph Target Points. Step 2: Add Targets The location and orientation of multiple targets can be added to the current Wellz file by clicking on the table below. To add more targets. A target radius can be specified in the Targets dialogue box.Computalog Drilling Services .Wellz Quick Start Manual 7. expand the size of the above table by clicking the Add Target bu tton. Note: The target will not appear on the plan view graphics unless the Graph Target Points is turned on. click the Delete Target button and enter the appropriate row number. The user has the option of inputting the Latitude (north) and Departure (east) OR the Closure distance and Closure Azimuth from surface for each target. To delete a target. 5-11 . select Show Targets under the Planning drop down menu. TARGETS Step 1: Access the Targets Dialogue Box To access the targets associated with the current Wellz file.

click Calculate.Wellz Quick Start Manual 8. The Project To Bit dialogue box can also be access using the Project To Bit button on the Survey Tool Bar Tab. PROJECTING TO BIT Step 1: Open Project To Bit dialogue box To access the Project To Bit dialogue box. the projection to bit survey can be inserted into the survey file by clicking the Insert in Active Well button.Computalog Drilling Services . Turn Rate and Change in MD have been entered. the Change in MD distance is the distance from the bit to the survey tool sensor. Note: When projecting to the bit. Turn Rate to a specific measured depth distance ahead (Change in MD). 5-12 . If you wish. Step 2: Set Parameters For Projection To Bit These are the survey numbers to the last survey station. Once the Build Rate. use the Delete button. To remove the EXT rows. Input the estimated Build Rate. The projected survey to the bit will appear in the adjacent row. Note: The inserted survey will have an EXT row number and all row numbers thereafter will be EXT extension. select Project To Bit under the Survey drop down menu.

Projecting To A Target Step 1: Open Project Ahead Dialogue Box To access the Project Ahead dialogue box. The Project Ahead dialogue box can also be accessed using the Project Ahead button on the Survey Tool Bar Tab.Computalog Drilling Services . select Project Ahead under the Survey drop down menu.Wellz Quick Start Manual 9.1. 5-13 . PROJECTING AHEAD 9.

The Required Correction To Targets. The survey station that the projection is tied to can be selected by entering the survey row number or by clicking the Get Next Survey or Get Previous Survey buttons. To create extrapolations using various projection methods. are displayed above. The required correction uses a constant dogleg to target projection method. Note: Remember to enter a target radius for the selected target. This projection method indicates to the directional driller whether the well is lined up to hit inside or outside the target radius. 5-14 . click the Edit Targets button below (right). calculated from the selected survey station to the selected target. To edit or add a target to the list.Computalog Drilling Services . The Build Rate To Target TVD and Target Inc is displayed below. click the Project Ahead button. the desired target inclination and target TVD must be entered in the Target info (Edit Targets). Note: For this number to be meaningful. The Straight Line Projections from the selected survey station to the selected target are displayed above. Note: This is NOT the build rate to target.Wellz Quick Start Manual Step 2: Set Parameters For Projecting To a Target The target for the projection can be selected by entering the target row number or by clicking the Get Next Target or Get Previous Target buttons.

select the Next Target or Previous Target buttons.Computalog Drilling Services . To adjust the parameter values. the appropriate variables will appear below. Once a Projection Method has been selected. click on a box and enter a new value Click Calculate after all variables are entered to update the extrapolation in the table below. Following the last survey station. Parameter Values can also be adjusted by clicking the Step Buttons below.Wellz Quick Start Manual 9. 5-15 . Projecting Ahead (Extrapolating) Step 1: Set Parameters For Projecting Ahead Select from one of the seven Projection Methods below. click the Post Projection button and select another Projection Method. Note: When a Projection Method is selected. This input method will calculate automatically Note: The size of each step can be changed by checking the Set Step Sizes Mode box.2. the Extrapolation (EXT) will appear in the above table. The extrapolation(s) will appear in the survey file with EXT row numbers. To change the target. click the Close button. Note: The extrapolated survey station(s) can be removed from the survey file later by following the same steps to remove an actual survey station (row). the EXT row will change accordingly. To add the extrapolation(s) to the survey file. To delete the last extrapolation. click the Delete Projection button. To close this dialogue box without adding the extrapolation(s) to the survey file. click the Ok (add to surveys) button. Each time the Projection Method and/or parameter values change. the default parameter values that appear are linked to the corresponding selected target values. To extrapolate from an extrapolation.

the Show Interpolation dialogue box will then appear.1. TVD or Subsea). The text line should clearly state that the survey station is an interpolation.Computalog Drilling Services . insert a text line at the same interpolated depth following the steps outlined in Section 5. click the Insert in Active Well button. Ex. To indicate that a survey station is an interpolation. follow the same steps used to remove an actual survey station (row). “INTERPOLATION”. Inserting a Single Interpolated Point The following steps will allow the user to insert a single interpolated point. INTERPOLATING 10. To insert the interpolated point as a survey row. After an interpolated depth has been entered. A dialogue box will then appear where you can enter the desired interpolation depth. To close the dialogue box without inserting the interpolation. The current version of wells does not distinguish interpolated survey stations with actual survey stations. Step 1: Select an Interpolation Method Insert an interpolated point by clicking Insert Interpolated Point under the Tools drop down menu. Note: To remove the inserted interpolated point. click the Close button. Select one of the interpolation options (Measured Depth. The interpolated point will appear as an actual survey station in the Wellz file.Wellz Quick Start Manual 10. 5-16 .

Computalog Drilling Services . Viewing and Printing Multiple Interpolations To create multiple interpolations across the entire survey file that can only be Viewed or Printed.Wellz Quick Start Manual 10. 5-17 . Note: To remove (hide) the interpolated points follow the same steps above and select Hide Interpolated points. 3. 2. Enter the desired interpolated distance. Note: The multiple interpolated points do not become survey stations and can only be viewed or printed. follow the steps outlined below. Select Show Plan Survey under the Planning drop down menu. Select Interpolate by Measured Depth or Interpolate by TVD that the distance will be calculated on.2. 1.

3) 11. (Section 11.2. Enter a suitable value (180) and the 3-d View will rotate Select Options to further modify the graphics window.1. GRAPHICS 11. To open a graphics window. selected the desired view (3-d. Use this option when viewing the 3-d View. The Graphics Menu The Graphics Menu allows the user to change the look of the Graphics Window. A second window will also appear on the right side of the screen containing Graphics Parameters with Well Parameters. Plan and Section Views Step 1: Select the View Select Plan View or Section View under the Graphics drop down box. Plan or Section).Computalog Drilling Services . When multiple Wellz files are open in memory. A Wellz – graphic window will appear on the left side of the screen.Wellz Quick Start Manual 11. To close the graphics window. To modify the view of the graphics window relative to the Active Well. A dialogue box will appear requesting the number of frames for 360 degrees of rotation. each file can be turned OFF or ON using the Pick Wells to Display. 5-18 . Note: The Well Parameters portion of the screen is a smaller version of the main Survey screen and will not be further discussed in the graphics section of the manual. select Hide Graphics. select from the list.

The sector size in the North – South direction.The sector size in the East – West direction.Decrease the Scale North to expand the north-south axis.Decrease the Scale All to zoom in and increase the Scale All to zoom out. The Scale All value affects the east-west and north-south axis together. .Adjusts the East coordinate of the graphics view (box) center.Tip: Match the Sector North value with the Scale North value. 5-19 . . . . . uncheck the Set Step Sizes Mode box. . Box Center East Box Center North Sector Size Scale East Scale North Sector East Sector North Note: To view your changes to the graphics window. the Calculate button must be selected. To exit the Set Step Sizes. . . The step sizes can be adjusted by checking the Set Step Sizes Mode box. Note: Using the up and down arrow at the right side of the graphics parameters screen is a quick way to modify the graphics view. Decrease the sector size to increase the number of grid lines. .Computalog Drilling Services .Adjusts the North coordinate of the graphics view (box) center.The sector size is the grid box size outlined in black. Increase the sector size to reduce the number of grid lines.Tip: Match the Sector East value with the Scale East value.Wellz Quick Start Manual Step 2: Modify The Graphic Parameters PLAN VIEW GRAPHIC PARAMETERS Scale All .Decrease the Scale East to expand the east-west axis.

. The Scale All value affects the vertical and horizontal axis together. Increase the sector size to reduce the number of grid lines.The sector size in the horizontal direction.Decrease the Scale All to zoom in and increase the Scale All to zoom out.Decrease the Scale Horizontal to expand the horizontal axis.Tip: Match the Sector Horizontal value with the Scale Horizontal value.Tip: Match the Sector Vertical value with the Scale Vertical value. Note: Using the up and down arrow at the right side of the graphics parameters screen is a quick way to modify the graphics view. . . .Adjusts the TVD of the graphics view (box) center. 5-20 .The sector size in the vertical direction. Decrease the sector size to increase the number of grid lines.Decrease the Scale Vertical to expand the vertical axis. Scale Vertical Scale Horizontal Sector Vertical Sector Horizontal . Sector Size . To exit the Set Step Sizes. .Adjusts the Section Displacement of the graphics view (box) center. .Computalog Drilling Services .Wellz Quick Start Manual SECTION VIEW GRAPHIC PARAMETERS Scale All Box Center TVD . uncheck the Set Step Sizes Mode box. Note: To view your changes to the graphics window.The sector size is the grid box size outlined in black. Section Displacement . the Calculate button must be selected. The step sizes can be adjusted by checking the Set Step Sizes Mode box.

Computalog Drilling Services . select Do Not Graph Points. The Local Coordinate system is the most commonly used coordinate system. Primarily used to alter only the 3-d view. Grid Lightener). Graph Survey Points will place a point at every survey station. Graphics Options Select Options under the Graphics drop down menu to access the graphics options below. The coordinate system used for the graphic view can be selected as: Field Coordinates and Subsea depths OR Local Coordinates and TVD depths To add. EAST OF FIELD CENTER AND KB ELEVATION VALUES FOR ALL WELLZ FILES IN MEMORY ARE PROPERLY ENTERED IN THE EDIT HEADER DATA DIALOGUE BOX. thickness and dot line interval for the Active Well. select the Edit Points of Interest. THE FIELD COORDINATE SYSTEM SHOULD ONLY BE USED WHEN THE NORTH OF FIELD CENTER. Note: The Local Coordinate and TVD system puts the surface location for all Wellz files in memory at a latitude(north) = 0. This coordinate system is useful when viewing multiple wells in an area and/or producing anti-collison reports with Wellz.3. select Graph Points of Interest. To remove all points from the graph. Also used to change the darkness of the secondary grid lines for all views (ie. Select Graph Target Points to display all the targets entered in the Target table on the graph. Graph Points of Interest will graph points from the Points of Interest table. To change the color. To view the points of interest on the graph. 2. remove or edit the Points of Interest table. Note: Remember to enter a radius for the target in the Target table. Note: The Field Coordinate and Subsea system is based on an arbitrary field center location that all well surface locations can be referenced from.Wellz Quick Start Manual 11. Select the Set Color and Line Type of Well. Red is generally used for the “Proposed” line trajectory and blue is used as the “Actual” line trajectory. 3. 5-21 . departure(east) = 0 and KB starts at 0 m TVD. There are three options for adding points to the graph: 1.

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& INTERPRETATION Directional Data . APPLICATION.LWD SENSOR THEORY.

the customer “Delivery of high quality.Importance of Directional Data accurate directional data is your highest priority on my wellsite” . .

Importance of Directional Data • Things to remember: – You only have one chance to put the hole in the right spot – You can’t assume that because the computer comes up with an answer that it’s always correct (GIGO) – It costs the company lots of money (profit) to correct a directional data screw up .

Implications of Bad Directional Data • Well is drilled at wrong inclination or in wrong direction • Well collides with another well • Well crosses a lease line • We lose credibility with the customer • You potentially lose your job .

consists of the following components: – Inclination – Hole Direction (Azimuth) – Measured Depth • The highest quality survey data is best achieved as a static measurement • Survey data tells the directional driller where the hole has been • Inclination and hole direction are downhole directional sensor measurements • Measured depth is a surface derived depth monitoring system measurement . or more appropriately a survey station.What is Survey Data? • A survey.

by which the wellbore or survey instrument axis varies from a true vertical line • An inclination of 0° would be true vertical • An inclination of 90° would be horizontal. measured in degrees. .Inclination • Inclination is the angle.

SE. SW) • Hole direction is the angle. of the horizontal component of the borehole or survey instrument axis from a known north reference • This reference is true north or grid north. NW.Hole Direction measured in degrees. . and is measured clockwise by convention • Hole direction is measured in degrees and expressed in either azimuth form (0° to 360°) or quadrant form (NE.

Measured Depth • Measured depth refers to the actual depth of hole drilled measured from the surface location (drill floor) to any point along the wellbore .

or toolface data.What is Steering Data? • Steering. is dynamic data and tells the directional driller the position of the bend of the mud motor • Orienting the bend to the desired position allows him to control where the hole will be going • There are two types of toolface data – Magnetic – Highside (Gravity) .

in the horizontal plane.Magnetic Toolface • Magnetic toolface is the direction. that the mud motor bend is pointing relative to the north reference • Magnetic Toolface = Dir Probe Mag Toolface + Total Correction + Toolface Offset • Magnetic toolface is typically used when the inclination of the wellbore is less than 5° • The magnetic toolface reading is whatever magnetic direction the toolface is pointed to .

then gravity toolface can be used • The toolface will be referenced to the highside of the survey instrument. relative to the high side of the hole • Gravity toolface = Dir Probe Gravity Toolface + Toolface Offset • If the inclination of the wellbore is above 5°. about the tool axis. no matter what the hole direction of the survey instrument is at the time • The toolface will be presented in a number of degrees either right or left of the highside .Gravity Toolface • Gravity toolface is the angular distance the mud motor scribeline is turned.

. the gravity toolface would be 70° to the right. a toolface pointed to the highside of the survey instrument would have a gravity toolface of 0° • A toolface pointed to the low side of the survey instrument would have a gravity toolface of 180° • If the probe highside point was rotated to the right of highside.Gravity Toolface • For example.

Electronic Accelerometer & Magnetometer Axes • “Z” axis is along the length of the probe (axial plane) • “X” and “Y” are in the cross-axial plane and are perpendicular to each other and to the “Z” axis • “Highside” is aligned with the “X” axis • All three axes are “orthogonal” to each other .

Quartz-Hinge Accelerometers • Respond to the effect of the earth’s gravitational field in each plane • An alternating current (AC) is used to keep the quartz proof mass in the reference position as the accelerometer is moved relative to gravity • The intensity of the “bucking” current is related to the gravitational force felt by the accelerometer .

• • . an alternating magnetic field is created. which magnetizes the rods Any external magnetic field parallel with the coil will cause one of the coils to become saturated quicker than the other The difference in saturation time represents the external field strength.Fluxgate Magnetometers • • • Respond to the effect of the earth’s magnetic field in each plane The magnetometer contains two oppositely wound coils around two highly magnetically permeable rods As AC current is applied to the coils.

nickel and cobalt and is ferromagnetic The Earth can be imagined as having a large bar magnet at its center. lying (almost) along the north-south spin axis Although the direction of the field is magnetic north.Earth’s Magnetic Field • • The outer core of the earth contains iron. the magnitude will be parallel to the surface of the Earth at the equator and point steeply into the Earth closer to the north pole • .

Earth’s Magnetic Components • • • • • • • M = Magnetic North direction N = True North direction Btotal = Total field strength of the local magnetic field Bv = Vertical component of the local magnetic field Bh = Horizontal component of the local magnetic field Dip = Dip angle of the local magnetic field in relationship to horizontal Dec = Variation between the local magnetic field’s horizontal component and true north Gtotal = Total field strength of the Earth’s gravitational field • .

Latitude • Lines of magnetic flux lie perpendicular (90°) to the earth’s surface at the magnetic poles • Lines of magnetic flux lie parallel (0°) to the earth’s surface at the magnetic equator • Dip Angle increases as Latitude increases • As dip angle increases the intensity of the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field decreases .Dip Angle vs.

Latitude • At the magnetic equator. Bv = Btotal • Bh is the projection (using the dip angle) of Btotal into the horizontal plane Bh = Btotal(cos Dip) Btotal Bv = Btotal(sin Dip) .Dip Angle vs. Bh = 0. Bh = Btotal. Bv = 0 Bv = Btotal Bh = 0 Bh = Btotal • At the magnetic poles.

Magnetic Declination • Complex fluid motion in the outer core causes the earth’s magnetic field to change slowly and unpredictably with time (secular variation) The position of the magnetic poles also change with time However. we are able to compensate for this variability by applying a correction (declination) to a magnetic survey which references it to true north • • .

Magnetic Pole Movement (1945 – 2000) North Pole South Pole .

or geographic north. is aligned with the spin axis of the Earth • True north does not move making it a perfect reference • A survey referenced to true north will be valid today and at any time in the future • The correction we apply to change a magnetic north direction to a true north direction is called declination. .True North • True north.

Declination must be added: True Direction = Magnetic Direction + Declination Important Note: • East Declination is Positive & West Declination is Negative in both the northern and southern hemispheres .Applying Declination • To convert from Magnetic North to True North.

Applying an East Declination • An east declination means that magnetic north is east of true north • For example. the true north direction would be calculated as follows: True Direction = Magnetic Direction + Declination 80° = 75° + (+5°) . if magnetic north hole direction is 75° and the declination is 5° east.

Applying a West Declination • A west declination means that magnetic north is west of true north • For example. if magnetic north hole direction is 120° and the declination is 5° west. the true north direction would be calculated as follows: True Direction = Magnetic Direction + Declination 115° = 120° + (-5°) .

Implications of an Incorrect Declination • Since declination is a addition of degrees of correction to the magnetic hole direction. if you intend to apply a +18° declination but instead input a -18 ° declination. any mistakes made to the declination have serious consequences. • For example. your reported hole direction will be wrong by 36°! • This mistake may not be detected until the data is compared against independent survey data .

Grid Convergence • Corrects for the distortion caused by projecting the curved surface of the earth onto a flat plane • Correction becomes more severe moving from the equator towards the poles • Two common projection methods are Transverse Mercator and Lambert .

UTM Grid Projection • In the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid. the earth is divided into sixty. 6° grid zones .

Grid Zones • A central meridian bisects each 6° grid zone • Each central meridian is along true north • If directly on the central meridian or on the equator. the grid correction is ZERO Convergence is zero here .

Grid Zones • Convergence correction increases as location moves away from the equator and central meridian • Convergence should not be more than +/-3°. otherwise the incorrect central meridian has been chosen Maximum Grid Correction .

arbitrary values have been established within each grid .Grid Zones • For rectangular coordinates.

shape. scale.Comparing Grid Projections • Different projections yield varying views in terms of distance. and area .

Applying Convergence • To convert from Grid North to True North. Convergence must be subtracted: Grid Direction = True Direction – Convergence Important Note: • • East Convergence is Positive & West Convergence is Negative in the Northern Hemisphere East Convergence is Negative & West Convergence is Positive in the Southern Hemisphere .

Applying an East Convergence • An east convergence means that grid north is east of true north • For example. if true north hole direction is 70° and the convergence is 3° east.(+3°) .Convergence 67° = 70° . the grid north direction would be calculated as follows: Grid Direction = True Direction .

(-3°) .Convergence 123° = 120° .Applying a West Convergence • A west convergence means that grid north is west of true north • For example. the grid north direction would be calculated as follows: Grid Direction = True Direction . if true north hole direction is 120° and the convergence is 3° west.

the grid direction is calculated as: 138° = 130° + (+5°) .(-3°) . and the magnetic direction is 130°.Applying Declination and Convergence Simultaneously • Replacing the formula for a true north direction in the grid north direction equation gives us the following formula: • Grid Direction = Magnetic Direction + Declination – Convergence • (Declination – Convergence) is called the Total Correction • If magnetic declination is 5° east and the grid convergence is 3° west.

Static Survey Procedure • Drill down to the end of the joint or stand and stop rotating • Work the pipe up and down to release any built up torque in the drillstring • Lower the bit to the survey point and shut down the pumps • Wait 30 – 40 seconds • Turn on the pumps and transmit the survey to the surface (pipe may be moved slowly while sending up the survey) .

Sources of Real-time Inclination Errors • These factors can introduce error into the inclination value presented to the directional driller: – – – – – Movement during a survey (axial or rotational) Accelerometer or associated electronics failure Calibration out of specifications Sensor measurement accuracy Real-time Data resolution .

Inclination Quality Checks • Does the inclination value match the actions of the directional driller? • Is Gtotal within +/.003 g of the Local Gravitational Field Strength? Gtotal = (Gx + Gy +Gz ) 2 2 2 1/2 .0.

Sources of Real-time Azimuth Errors • These factors can introduce error into the hole direction value presented to the directional driller: – – – – – – – – – Magnetic Interference (axial or cross-axial) Magnetometer or associated hardware failure Calibration out of specification “Bad” accelerometer input (inclination and highside toolface are part of the calculation!) Mathematical Error (at 0° and 90° inclination) Sensor measurement accuracy Real-time Data resolution Latitude. Hole direction Wrong Declination and/or Convergence . Inclination.

350 nT of the Local Magnetic Field Strength? Btotal = (Bx + By +Bz ) 2 2 2 ½ • Is Gtotal within +/.Azimuth Quality Checks • Does the azimuth value match the actions of the directional driller? • Is Btotal within +/.003 g of the Local Gravitational Field Strength? .0.

3º of the Local Magnetic Dip value? MDIP utilizes inputs from the accelerometers and magnetometers but is not as sensitive of a quality check as Gtotal and Btotal It is possible for the MDIP to be out of specification even if the Gtotal and Btotal are not NOTE: MDIP should not be used as sole criteria to disqualify a survey if Gtotal and Btotal are within specification .Additional Survey Quality Checks (Bx * Gx) + (By * Gy) + (Bz * Gz) • MDIP = ASIN {----------------------------------------------} Gtotal * Btotal • • • • Is the calculated Magnetic Dip value within +/.0.

Survey Quality Checks • Gtotal = (Gx + Gy +Gz ) • Btotal = (Bx + By +Bz ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 1/2 1/2 (Bx * Gx) + (By * Gy) + (Bz * Gz) • MDIP = ASIN {----------------------------------------------} Gtotal * Btotal .

350 nT • MDIP = Local Dip +/.003 g • Btotal = Local Field +/.Survey Quality Check Limits • Gtotal = Local Gravity +/.0.0.3° .

25 Based on your observations.72 AZ 125.Survey Quality Example #1 Given the following survey data.000 g Btotal = 58355 nT Mdip = 75.0012 Btotal MDip 58236 75. are the inclination and azimuth values acceptable? .01 Gtotal 1.20° INC 3. decide whether each quality check is within limits Local References: Gtotal = 1.

01 Gtotal 1.0012 +0.72 AZ 125. are the inclination and azimuth values acceptable? YES / YES .0012 Btotal MDip 58236 75. decide whether each quality check is within limits Local References: Gtotal = 1.000 g Btotal = 58355 nT Mdip = 75.25 -119 -0.Survey Quality Example #1 Given the following survey data.05 Based on your observations.20° INC 3.

01 AZ 127.Survey Quality Example #2 Given the following survey data. decide whether each quality check is within limits Local References: Gtotal = 1. are the inclination and azimuth values acceptable? .33 Gtotal 1.20° INC 5.84 Based on your observations.0009 Btotal MDip 58001 74.000 g Btotal = 58355 nT Mdip = 75.

01 AZ 127.33 Gtotal 1.36 Based on your observations.84 -354 -0. are the inclination and azimuth values acceptable? YES / NO .Survey Quality Example #2 Given the following survey data.20° INC 5.000 g Btotal = 58355 nT Mdip = 75. decide whether each quality check is within limits Local References: Gtotal = 1.0009 Btotal MDip 58001 74.0009 +0.

28 Based on your observations.52 AZ 125. are the inclination and azimuth values acceptable? .Survey Quality Example #3 Given the following survey data. decide whether each quality check is within limits Local References: Gtotal = 1.9953 Btotal MDip 58150 74.000 g Btotal = 58355 nT Mdip = 75.20° INC 8.34 Gtotal 0.

34 Gtotal 0.92 Based on your observations.9953 -0.52 AZ 125.20° INC 8.28 -205 -0. decide whether each quality check is within limits Local References: Gtotal = 1.Survey Quality Example #3 Given the following survey data.000 g Btotal = 58355 nT Mdip = 75.0047 Btotal MDip 58150 74. are the inclination and azimuth values acceptable? NO / NO .

44 Based on your observations.88 Gtotal 1.0120 Btotal MDip 57623 73. decide whether each quality check is within limits Local References: Gtotal = 1.20° INC 17.000 g Btotal = 58355 nT Mdip = 75. are the inclination and azimuth values acceptable? .Survey Quality Example #4 Given the following survey data.13 AZ 129.

0120 +0. are the inclination and azimuth values acceptable? NO / NO .76 Based on your observations. decide whether each quality check is within limits Local References: Gtotal = 1.44 -732 -1.20° INC 17.Survey Quality Example #4 Given the following survey data.0120 Btotal MDip 57623 73.000 g Btotal = 58355 nT Mdip = 75.13 AZ 129.88 Gtotal 1.

Survey Calculation Methods • Once we have verified the quality of the inclination. hole direction. and measured depth values at the survey station the data is then passed to the directional driller • Survey calculations are performed between survey stations to provide the directional driller with a picture of the wellbore in both the vertical and horizontal planes • If the input parameters are identical the calculated survey values on your survey report should match the directional drillers’ .

Survey Calculation Methods • Survey calculations are more easily understood by applying basic trigonometric principles .

Tangential Calculation Method • Assumes that the borehole is a straight line from the first survey to the last .

Average Angle Calculation Method • Assumes distances from survey to survey are straight lines • Fairly accurate and conducive to hand calculations .

Radius of Curvature Calculation Method • Applies a “best fit” curve (fixed radius) between survey stations • More accurately reflects the shape of the borehole than Average Angle .

Minimum Curvature Calculations • Uses multiple points between survey stations to better reflect the shape of the borehole • Slightly more accurate than the Radius of Curvature method .

Comparison of Calculation Methods • • • • Total Survey Depth @ 5.985 feet Maximum Angle @ 26° Vertical hole to 4. then build to 26° at 5.985 feet Survey Intervals approximately 62 feet .064 feet.

Survey Terminology .

Survey Terminology

• Survey Station

– Position along the borehole where directional measurements are taken

**• True Vertical Depth (TVD)
**

– The projection of the borehole into the vertical plane

• Measured Depth (MD)

– The actual distance traveled along the borehole

• Course Length (CL)

– The measured distance traveled between survey stations

Survey Terminology

• Horizontal Displacement (HD)

– Projection of the wellbore into the horizontal plane – Horizontal distance from the wellhead to the last survey station – Also called Closure

•

Latitude (Northing)

– The distance traveled in the northsouth direction in the horizontal plane – North is positive, South is negative

•

Departure (Easting)

– The distance traveled in the eastwest direction in the horizontal plane – East is positive, West is negative

Survey Terminology

• • Target Direction

– The proposed direction of wellbore

Vertical Section (VS)

– The projection of the horizontal displacement along the target direction – The horizontal distance traveled from the wellhead to the target along the target direction

•

**Dogleg Severity (DLS)
**

– a normalized estimate (e.g., degrees / 100 feet) of the overall curvature of an actual well path between two consecutive survey stations

**Vertical Section Calculation
**

• To calculate vertical section the closure (horizontal displacement), closure direction, and target direction must be known The vertical section is the product of the horizontal displacement and the difference between the closure direction and target direction

•

VS = HD * (Target Direction – Closure Direction)

Vertical Projection

• In the vertical projection the directional driller plots True Vertical Depth versus Vertical Section The wellbore must pass through the vertical target thickness along the vertical section direction in order to hit the target in this plane

Kickoff Point True Vertical Depth Tangent Vertical Section

•

Build Section Locked in Section

Horizontal Projection

• In the horizontal projection the directional driller plots Latitude versus Departure The wellbore must pass through the horizontal target radius along the proposed target direction in order to hit the target in this plane

N

Closure Proposal Direction E Departure Vertical Section

•

Latitude

Introduction to Directional Drilling • Directional drilling is defined as the practice of controlling the direction and deviation of a well bore to a predetermined underground target or location 1 Directional Wells • Slant • Build and Hold • S-Curve • Extended Reach • Horizontal 2 .

Applications of Directional Drilling • Multiple wells from offshore structure • Controlling vertical wells • Relief wells 3 Applications of Directional Drilling • S-Curve 4 .

Applications of Directional Drilling • Extended-Reach Drilling • Replace subsea wells and tap offshore reservoirs from fewer platforms • Develop near shore fields from onshore. and • Reduce environmental impact by developing fields from pads 5 Directional Drilling Tools • Steerable motors • Instrumented motors for geosteering applications • Drilling tools • Surveying/orientation services • Surface logging systems • At-bit inclination 6 .

Applications of Directional Drilling • Sidetracking • Inaccessible locations 7 Applications of Directional Drilling 8 .

Reduces lost circulation and stuck pipe incidents. and Reduces or eliminates the need for costly stimulation programs. 9 Directional Drilling Limitations • • • • • • • 10 Doglegs Reactive Torque Drag Hydraulics Hole Cleaning Weight on Bit Wellbore Stability . Increases ROP while extending bit life.Applications of Directional Drilling • Drilling underbalanced • • • • Minimizes skin damage.

fast and accurate 11 Whipstock Operations 12 . still valid and inexpensive • Downhole motors • Most commonly used.Methods of Deflecting a Wellbore • Whipstock operations • Still used • Jetting • Rarely used today.

Jetting 13 Effect of Increased Bit Weight • Increase Weight on Bit – Increase Build Rate 14 .

Effect of Decreased Bit Weight • Decrease Inclination Decrease Weight on Bit 15 Reasons for Using Stabilizers • • • • • Placement / Gauge of stabilizers control directional Stabilizers help concentrate weight on bit Stabilizers minimize bending and vibrations Stabilizers reduce drilling torque less collar contact Stabilizers help prevent differential sticking and key seating 16 .

Stabilization Principle • Stabilizers are placed at specified points to control the drill string and to minimize downhole deviation • The increased stiffness on the BHA from the added stabilizers keep the drill string from bending or bowing and force the bit to drill straight ahead • The packed hole assembly is used to maintain angle 17 Stabilizer Forces 18 .

Inclination 20 .Design Principles • Side force • Fulcrum Principle • Weight on Bit 19 Typical Side Force vs.

in 21 Typical Collar Stiffness • SC = IE • I: moment of inertia. in4 • E: modulus of elasticity • SC : stiffness coefficient. lb in 2 • LT : axial length over which bend occurs. in • SC : stiffness coefficient.0 LT3 • Bi : displacement distance of bending interference. lb in2 I = π/64 (DO4 .Di4 ) 22 .Side Force • Force resulting from bending the tubular • F S = Bi * SC * 3.

0 26.0 27.Properties of Tubular Steels Metal Low Carbon Steel Cr-Mo Steel Monel K-500 304 Stainless 316 Stainless Inconel Aluminum Density lb/ft 491 491 529 501 501 526 170 3 Modulus of elasticity 10 psi 29.1 31.0 10.3 6 23 Physical Properties • Modulus of elasticity • Size and weight • Stiffness 24 .4 28.0 28.

Drill Collar Weight 25 Fulcrum Principle • Fulcrum-stabilizer inserted drill string above the bit • Applied weight causes the bottom collars to bow o • Above 5 inclination. build section 26 . it bows toward the low side of the hole • Pushes the bit hard against the top of the hole.

Build Assemblies • Building assemblies use a fulcrum to create and control positive side force F1 L1 = F2 L2 27 Fulcrum Position • The closer to the bit the higher the side force for given drill collar size 28 .

Weight on Bit • Axial loading created by weight on bit produces buckling forces between stabilizer and bit • Hole size • Collar size • Weight on bit 29 Directional Control • BHA types • Drop (pendulum) • Build (fulcrum) • Hold (packed hole) • Design principles • • • • Side force Bit tilt Hydraulics Combination 30 .

properly placed.Pendulum Principle • The stabilizer above the bit is removed and an additional drill collar is added. making the bottom hole assembly more flexible • The upper stabilizers. causing the hole to lose or decrease angle 31 Dropping Assemblies • Dropping assemblies act as a pendulum to create and control negative side force 32 . hold the bottom drill collar away from the low side of the hole • Gravitational forces act on the bottom collar and bit.

Slick Assembly • To increase drop rate: • • • • • increase stiffness increase bit size to collar size ratio increase drill collar weight decrease weight on bit increase rotary speed 33 Stabilizer Placement • To increase drop rate: • • • • • increase tangency length increase stiffness increase drill collar weight decrease weight on bit increase rotary speed 34 .

Dropping Assemblies • To increase drop rate: • • • • • increase tangency length increase stiffness increase drill collar weight decrease weight on bit increase rotary speed • Common TL: • • • • 35 30 ft 45 ft 60 ft 90 ft Drop Assemblies Response High Medium Low - 36 .

15.75° 0.00° 0.000 lbs 1.00° • 20° .000 lbs 15.75° .000 lbs 15.1.00° .50° 15.0.000 lbs 0 .000 lbs 0 .1.50° .0.30.00° .000 .45° WOB 0 .5° 37 Angle Drop 60' • Inclination • 30° .00° 0.00° 0.30.15.000 lbs 15.1.000 lbs Est.00° 1.2.30° • 0° .20° 38 .000 lbs 1.000 .15.30.000 lbs 2.00° .0.000 .000 .15.30° • 5° .30.Angle Drop 90' • Inclination • 30° .25° . drop rate/100 ft 0 .1. drop rate/100 ft 1.000 lbs 15.000 lbs 0 .50° 0.15.50° 0.25° 1.000 .000 lbs 0 .20° • 0° .25° .75° 0.30.15.000 .30.000 lbs 15.000 .50° 0 .45° WOB Est.15.50° • 20° .75° .000 lbs 15.75° 0.30.

75° 0.000 lbs Est.15.50° 0.000 .45° WOB 0 . drop rate/100 ft 0.Angle Drop 30' • Inclination • 20° .25° 0.25° • 20° .15.30.000 lbs 0 .30.000 .000 lbs 15.000 lbs 15.30° 39 Building Assemblies • Two stabilizer assemblies increase control of side force and alleviate other problems 40 .

Build Assemblies Response High High High Medium Medium Medium Low 41 Hold Assemblies Response High High High Medium Low 42 .

Expected Dog Leg BR = θ x 200 L1 + L2 English units BR = θ x 60 L1 + L2 SI units 43 Predicting Build Rate BR = delta Inc. x 30 Curve length 44 .

Special BHA’s • Tandem Stabilizers • Provides greater directional control • Could be trouble in high doglegs • Roller Reamers • Help keep gauged holes in hard formations • Tendency to drop angle 45 Application of Steerable Assemblies • • • • • • Straight-Hole Directional Drilling / Sidetracking Horizontal Drilling Re-entry Wells Underbalanced Wells / Air Drilling River Crossings 46 .

Steerable Assemblies • Build • Drop • Hold 47 48 .

Planning a Directional Well • Geology • Completion and Production • Drilling Constraints 49 Geology • Lithology being drilled through • Geological structures that will be drilled • Type of target the geologist is expecting • Location of water or gas top • Type of Well 50 .

Completion and Production • Type of completion required (“frac job”. etc. pumps and rods.) • Enhanced recovery completion requirements • Wellbore positioning requirements for future drainage/production plans • Downhole temperature and pressure 51 Drilling • Selection of surface location and well layout • Previous area drilling knowledge and identifies particular problematic areas 52 .

5 o/30m • KOP as deep as possible to reduce costs and rod/casing wear • In build sections of horizontal wells.Drilling • • • • • Casing size and depths Hole size Required drilling fluid Drilling rig equipment and capability Length of time directional services are utilized • Influences the type of survey equipment and wellpath 53 Planning • Build rates • Build and hold profiles should be at least 50m • Drop rate for S-curve wells is preferably planned at 1. plan a soft landing section 54 .

Planning • Avoid high inclinations through severely faulted. dipping or sloughing formations • On horizontal wells clearly identify gas/water contact points • Turn rates in lateral sections of horizontal • Verify motor build rates 55 Planning • Where possible start a sidetrack at least 20m out of casing • Dogleg severity could approach 14o/30m coming off a whipstock • Identify all wells within 30m of proposed well path and conduct anticollision check 56 .

Hole Cleaning . • These cuttings can be transported out of the well by a combination of two different mechanisms.Transportation • The cuttings are effectively suspended by the fluid shear and beds do not form for holes inclined less than 30°. • Slide as a block • transported at the bed/mud interface as ripples or dunes 57 Hole Cleaning 58 . causing the annulus to pack-off. the cuttings form beds on the low side of the hole which can slide back down the well. • Beyond 30°.

ROP Increases in penetration rate result in higher cuttings concentrations in the annulus. In wells deviated beyond 60°. 59 Hole Cleaning . Removing these deeper beds require higher flowrates. PERCENT (%) 60 .5% is the maximum allowable annular concentration to efficiently drill vertical and near vertical wells. Past experience has shown that 0. It is important to control and limit instantaneous ROP’s in deviated wells since deep beds are difficult to remove. The angle range for cuttings bed slide depends largely on mud rheology and problems cleaning the hole can be experienced from 40°–60°. For deviated wells. the cuttings form stable beds.Hole Cleaning . These beds are supported by the sliding friction against the wellbore.Hole Angle Cuttings removal generally becomes more difficult as hole angle increases. Angles between 50°–60° present most problems because the cuttings have a tendency to slide down the annulus and cause packing off. deeper cuttings beds form as the penetration rate increases.

As a rough guide. • Plastic viscosity should be minimized to reduce pressure losses and obtain a flatter viscosity profile. and additional losses due to mud motors/MWD tools.Pump Rate The single most crucial factor for successful hole cleaning is mud flow rate. In critical cases.Hole Cleaning . Take all reasonable steps to reduce frictional pressure. careful consideration should be given to BHA design.MUD Rheology • Low viscosity fluids are most effective at angles above 30° since they induce turbulence and encourage cuttings removal by saltation. 61 Hole Cleaning . Doing so will extend the range of available flowrate. nozzle selection. 62 . the annular velocity needed for cleaning wells deviated 50°–60° is approximately twice that required for the vertical case. especially for deviated holes.

Hole Angles Above 40° • Turbulent/transitional flow is most effective in cleaning and evacuating/minimizing cuttings bed formation • Laminar flow • highest possible pump output/annular velocities. pipe rotation. reciprocation. backreaming when top drive is available. then bit nozzles can be selected for optimum hydraulics in the normal way.Bit Nozzle Selection • If sufficient flow rate is available for hole cleaning. it is also important to note that: • Certain mud motors have optimum bit differential pressure ranges • Nozzles should be selected to minimize potential hole erosion problems for friable formations 63 Hole Cleaning . When sizing bit nozzles.Hole Cleaning . and pills pumped 64 . • Optimize the low shear rheology • High initial gel strength gives rapid suspension of cuttings • wiper trips.

the flowrate required to maintain adequate hole cleaning is directly proportional to the cuttings mud density differential. 65 Hole Cleaning . Cuttings shape and size is also important in vertical transport. The larger.Hole Cleaning . Shape and size have little influence in highly deviated wells because the cuttings move in blocks rather than discrete particles. more rounded particles are the hardest to remove.Cuttings Type Increased cuttings density make hole cleaning more difficult for both vertical and inclined wells. This applies for both vertical and deviated holes. For small changes in density.Mud Weight Mud weight influences hole cleaning by affecting the buoyancy of the drilled cuttings. 66 .

• If possible. Field studies show that pipe rotation while drilling enhances the hole cleaning efficiency. Consider rotating the string prior to tripping. and into the fast moving mud stream. maintain maximum mud YP close to 10 lb/100 ft . The rotating pipe forces cuttings upwards to the high side of the hole. 67 Hole Cleaning Practices • Flow rates in the 300–500 gpm range will generally be adequate for cleaning 216 mm (8-1/2 in) horizontal sections. • Limiting nozzle pressure drop for motor considerations (i.. Drillpipe rotation also encourages mud flow in the narrow gap between the pipe and the settled bed. plan well trajectory to avoid drilling long sections of large diameter holes above 50°. When a downhole motor in oriented mode is used in a deviated well. Ensure that ECD does not cause formation breakdown when drilling horizontal section. 2 • To achieve turbulence. • Select MWD/downhole motors that do not restrict flow rates for hole cleaning. 68 . but formation strength remains fixed. if possible.Hole Cleaning .e.Drillpipe Rotation Rotating the drillstring will assist in mechanically disturbing cuttings beds in deviated wells. • Select mud properties which provide turbulent flow. Look closely at the pump capacity of the rig. • ECD increases when drilling horizontally. maximum allowable bit pressure drop for motor being used) may be necessary. the cuttings beds are probably not being disturbed.

if necessary. • Make a rotary wiper trip after a long section is drilled with downhole motor. • Control instantaneous ROP’s. 70 . Use “minimum” circulation times. • Design BHA’s for minimum pressure loss in critical wells. Calculate volumes to ensure well control. A minimum of 60 rpm is recommended. 69 Hole Cleaning During Tripping • Always circulate the hole clean prior to tripping. • Drillpipe rotation assists hole cleaning in deviated holes.Hole Cleaning Drilling Hydraulics • Deviated wells require higher flow rates. • Increase flowrate rather than changing rheology when cleaning deviated wells. Higher rpm’s assist. • Use a riser booster pump on semi-submersibles. • Rotate the pipe at maximum of 60 rpm when circulating prior to tripping. • Drill “minimum rat hole” consistent with safe running of casing. • Increased mud weight assists cuttings removal. • Hole angles 50°–60° are most difficult to clean (can be 45°–60° dependent on mud rheology). • Minimize hole washouts by developing a good hydraulic design. • Use low vis/low wt pills for wells > 30°. • Make sure cementing pumps are available to pump in the case of an emergency.

71 72 .

Mud Motors Turbine PDM 73 Commander TM PDM Motors 74 .

7/8 Lobe 75 Components of PDM Motors • • • • • Dump Subs Motor Section Universal Joint Assembly Adjustable Assembly Bearing Assembly 76 .4/5 Lobe • Low Speed / High Torque .1/2 Lobe • Medium Speed / Medium Torque .Motor Selection • These are the three common motor configurations which provide a broad range of bit speeds and torque outputs required satisfying a multitude of drilling applications • High Speed / Low Torque .

Closed • Discharged Ports • Connections 77 Motor Section • Positive Displacement Motor ( PDM ) • Lobe Configurations • Stages 78 Performance Characteristics .Open .Pump Off .Pump On .Dump Sub • Allows Drill String Filling and Draining • Operation .

Motor Section • Positive Displacement Motor PDM 79 Universal Joint Assembly • Converts Eccentric Rotor Rotation in to Concentric Rotation • Universal Joint • Flex Rod Constant Velocity Joint -80 .

Adjustable Assembly • Two Degree and Three Degree • Field Adjustable in Varying Increments to the Maximum Bend Angle • Used in Conjunction with Universal Joint Assembly H = 1.962 81 o Bearing Assembly • Transmits bit axial and radial loads to the drillstring • Thrust bearing • Radial bearing • Oil reservoir • Balanced piston • High pressure seal • Bit box connection 82 .

Motor Specifications • • • • Motor specifications Dimensional data Ultimate load factors Performance charts 83 Motor Specifications 84 .

Motor Specifications 85 Performance Charts 86 .

Rotor Bypass • Used to increase the flow rate through the drilling motor beyond the capacity of the power section • All Multi-lobe motors from 3 3/8’’ and larger use ported rotors • May be field installed if required 87 .

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