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Prompt: Analyze the cultural and economic changes and continuities brought about by the introduction of Islam in ONE of the following regions between 600 and 1450 C.E. West Africa South Asia Europe

CCOT Pre-Write
Region: ____________________Theme: _____________________Time Period: ______________

Beginning

Change

Continuity

analysis/explanation

Analyze process of change:

Analyze process of continuity:

Thesis:______________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________

CCOT ESSAY SAMPLE


Question: Choose TWO of the areas below and analyze the developments of major religious & philosophical ideas between 2000 BCE & 600 CE. Be sure to discuss continuities as well as changes. Europe South Asia Middle East Thesis: The major developments in religion and philosophy in the period 2000 BCE to 600 CE were that religions moved from concrete, polytheistic and localized to abstract, monotheistic and universal. In both the Middle East and Europe, especially after about 500 BCE, there was an increase in the use of logic, reason, and science to explain some of lifes most basic questions. Throughout the period, people in both regions remained religious and continued to seek answers to questions such as their existence, afterlife and natural phenomena, but the more complex the societies became and the more dissatisfied they became with the polytheistic religions, the more they moved toward monotheism and rationalism. Beginning: Religions at the beginning of the period4 were concrete, local to the culture and polytheistic3. Most societies explained natural phenomena and answered lifes most basic questions through their religion3. The development of religion is older in the Middle East than in Europe. The first societies4 such as the Sumerians believed in many gods and goddesses that were super humans2, but had the same characteristics as man. Not having the scientific knowledge to explain natural occurrences, these early civilizations explained them through the actions of their gods. Because priests had knowledge of and access to the gods they were powerful religious and political figures2. In Europe, the Greeks and early Romans also worshiped a plethora of gods and goddesses, who were thought to control the heavens, the earth and the underworld2. These Gods married, had children, and fought just as humans did2. But these early religions did not set out principles for right conduct. 2 These religions became inadequate as the societies became more complex and there was greater interaction between them. Changes: By 500 BCE changes in religion began to occur in both Europe and the Middle East4 as the first monotheistic religion appeared in the Middle East, and in Europe the Greeks began to develop a philosophy based on rationalism2. 3. The Hebrews returned from the Babylonian captivity with a strong belief in a single monotheistic god who was not only the god of the Hebrews, but a single universal god2. The Hebrews also were the first to have a religion that set out laws for living ones life, as in the 10 Commandments2. The Persians who were a much larger and more complex empire than the Hebrews, also moved toward a religion-Zoroastrianism, which preached about judgment day, free will, and the forces of good and evil2. As trade and travel between civilizations increased there was interaction between different religious groups1. Nestorian Christians traveled west across the silk roads attempting to convert those of central Asia2. The development of Manichaeism, a syncretic blend of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and Christianity, in Persia revealed an increasing interaction between religious ideas from different societies2. In Greece, Athens was experiencing its golden age2. To the educated, the polytheistic religion of the past was no longer satisfactory for explaining natural phenomena1. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle encourage the use of logic and reason in the search for truth2. Early Greek philosophers and Aristotle sought answers to the nature of things such as the elements of the universe. The developments in science continued as Alexander the Greek brought the ideas of the Greeks of Europe together with the ideas of those in the Middle East. This interaction caused major developments in physics, math and medicine. As the societies became increasingly more complex and there was continued interaction between different cultures further changes in religious ideas and philosophy developed. Continuities: Although changes in religion and philosophy continued into the Classical Era, the people continued through out the time period to seek answers to their own existence, proper conduct, and the nature of the universe3. Religious institutions continue to be closely tied to the state3. In the period between the first century and sixth century, both regions are brought together by the Roman Empire. Ethical monotheism continued its growth in the region with the development of Christianity2. It first developed in the Middle East and then spread into Europe. The spread of Christianity was helped by the extensive roads, general peace and later, imperial support of the Roman Empire2. The Greek tradition of humanismto glorify and honor mans accomplishments continued to be popular with the Romans2. Philosophy also continued to develop with the Romans adoption of Stoicism and the work of people like the physician, Galen2. Even after the collapse of the Roman Empire, the Byzantines continued the legacy of Christianity and Greco-Roman traditions2. By the end of the Classical era, two monotheistic religions and a philosophy of humanism and rationalism had developed in the regions. Conclusion: From the earliest of civilizations until 600 CE, religion played an important role in the lives of those in Europe and the Middle East. Religion became more complex as the societies developed and grew. All the major world religions and philosophies except Islam had developed by the end of the period in question. Judaism and Christianity provided their believers with a guide for living life on earth and explanations for the afterlife. Philosophies such as that of the Socratic philosophers pushed men to use reason as well as faith as a path to the truth.

BASIC CORE Competence 1. Has acceptable thesis (Addresses the global issues and the time period(s) specified.) Points 1 Excellence

EXPANDED CORE Points 0-2

Expands beyond basic core of 1-7 points. A student must earn ALL 7 points in the basic core

2. Addresses ALL parts of the question, though, not necessarily evenly or thoroughly.

area before earning points in the expanded core area.

Examples: (Address most parts of the question: for example, addresses change but not continuity.) (1) 2 (1) Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis. Analyzes all issues of the question (as relevant): global context, chronology, causation, change, continuity, effects, content. Addresses all parts of the question evenly. Provides ample historical evidence to substantiate thesis. Provides links with relevant ideas, events, trends, in an innovative way.

3. Substantiates thesis with appropriate historical evidence.

(Partially substantiates thesis with appropriate historical evidence.)

4. Uses relevant world historical context effectively to explain change over time and/or continuity.

5. Analyzes the process of change over time and/or continuity.

SUBTOTAL

SUBTOTAL