International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 01– No.

1, Issue: 01 March2012

U.M.Mohana PG scholar SNS College of Technology, Mrs.S.T.Suganthi Assistant Professor, SNS College of Technology

ABSTRACT Increase in power generation capacity of electrical power systems has lead to increase in the fault current level which can exceed the maximum designed short-circuit ratings of the switchgear. Many conventional protective devices installed for protection of excessive fault current in electric power systems, especially at the power stations. The main protective devices are the circuit breakers tripped by over-current protection relay. They have the response-time delay that allows initial two or three fault current cycles to pass through before getting activated. Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) is innovative electric equipment which has the capability to reduce fault current level within the first cycle of fault current. The first-cycle suppression of fault current by a SFCL results in an increased transient stability of the power system carrying higher powerwith greater stability. In this work, a resistive type SFCL model was proposed using simulink tool. The performance of SFCL tested on both single phase and three phase systems and the comparison results are analyzed during the presence and absence of SFCL respectively. Keywords-Fault Current Limiter, Superconducting Fault Current Limiter, Resistive SFCL.

I. INTRODUCTION Conventional protection devices installed for protection ofexcessive fault current in electric power systems, especially atthe high voltage substation level, are the circuit breakerstripped by over-current protection relay which has a responsetimedelay that allows initial two or three fault current cyclesto pass through before getting activated [1].But, superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) isinnovative electric equipment which has the capability toreduce fault current level within the first cycle of fault current[2]. The first-cycle suppression of fault current by a SFCLresults in an increased transient stability of the power systemcarrying

higher power with greater stability [3].The comparison of conventional methods used for protection of single phase systems provides the informationregarding the working of all types of relays especially overcurrent protection relays operation and its construction. Theimportance of SFCL, its features, advantages of SFCL over other protection devices has to be studied in detail in order todifferentiate the operation of the SFCL clearly [4].A feasibility study of the current limiter by simulationanalysis is the operation of a normal fault current limiter with a series compensator and the effectiveness of the currentlimiter is evaluated from the viewpoints of transient stabilitymprovement and device capacity. The current limiter is auseful

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current and magnetic field variations.International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 01– No. This excess heat is transferred along theconductor. A. Realtimecircuit current is as an input signal to the SFCL model.e. Once initiated.the quench process is often rapid and uncontrolled. It prevents a short at an outlet fromshutting down power to the entire building. Normal operation 2. also called short-circuit current (Isc). Theexperiments and the simulations were carried out using theresistive type and inductive type SFCL. The combined current and temperature can causethese regions to become normal and also generate heat.and the output of the model is controlled by an advancedcontrolled timedependent resistance. So we have developed an ElectromagneticTransient Program (EMTP) model of high temperatureresistive type SFCL based on characteristics of HTS. More specifically.and the transformer limits its magnitude. causing the temperature of adjacent sections to increase. Severalhundred patents exist showing theoretical ways in which thisphenomenon might be used to control fault currents in theelectric power grid.The current increase can cause a section of superconductorto become so resistive that the heat generated cannot beremoved locally.describes current flow during a short. II. hazardous. efforts to develop the conceptsinto commercially viable product have culminated in only afew practical designs and even fewer working prototypesThe bases of this generalized characteristics of the SFCLoperating regimes outlined below and the characteristics arealso shown here. It is found that theresistive SFCL in the electric power system gives theimprovement of the suppressing fault current and powersystem transient stabilities.the extent of the normal region and the temperature rise in thematerials can be predicted. high power transmissionsystems. The concept of using the superconductors to carry electricpower and to limit peak currents has been around since thediscovery of superconductors and the realization that they possess highly non-linear properties. Fault current is generallyvery large and.The most important physical property dominating thecurrent limiting behavior of the SFCL is the electric fieldcurrentdensity characteristics of High TemperatureSuperconductors (HTS) [6] which is dependent ontemperatures.One objective of electrical distribution system design is tominimize the effect of a fault. These are also referred as three modes ofoperation during the presence of SFCL. 1. therefore. the wire. However.1. Theterm “ quench ” is commonly used to describe the propagationof the normal zone through a superconductor. It passes through allcomponents in the affected circuit. the quench process can beused in the design into a superconducting component. its extent and duration. Superconducting technology SFCLs utilize superconducting materials to limit thecurrent directly or to supply a DC bias Page 56 .EMTP simulation results based on a model system alsoshow that SFCLs are effective for enhancing the transient stability of electric power systems by restraining the generatorrotors from accelerating after faults and improving powerquality [7]. i. The three modes are. Operation during fault-limiting action 3. This method is very effective but continuousprotection of power system is difficult [5].Increasing any of these three parameters can cause a transitionbetween the superconducting and the normal conducting regime.The experimental results are analyzed by using the powertransmission simulators and the computer simulation usingEMTP. Thus. thecurrent limiting behavior depends on their nonlinear responseto temperature. on the uninterrupted part of the system. Coordinating the sizes ofcircuit breakers and fuses assures that these devices isolateonly the affected circuits. Issue: 01 March2012 protection device for large. Recovery period following a fault.Though once initiated the quench process is uncontrolled. SUPERCONDUCTING FAULT CURRENT LIMITER Fault current. about the SFCL on improvement of power systemstability and suppressing fault currents as in [8]. Only the combinedimpedance of the object responsible for theshort.

or by other unforeseen faults. The control systems designed inSimulink for the proposed SFCL model can be directlyintegrated with SimPowerSystem models [8]. When operated above Tc.1. Ic (current) c.0iV/cm is observed along the conductor. While manyFCL design concepts are being evaluated for commercial use. A large. A larger transformer can be used tomeet increased demand on a bus without breaker upgrades. Working of SFCL The working of SFCL mainly depends upon the impedanceof the passing current. Hc normal stateresistance is restored. Superconductors have virtually zero resistance. The resistive type SFCL was modeled considering fourfundamental parameters of a resistive type SFCL. When operated below critical parameters. both of which areproportional to the square of the current’s value. Reduced faultcurrentflows in the highvoltage circuit that feeds thetransformer. An R-SFCL directly exploits the transitionfrom superconducting to normal state that a material exhibitswhen the transport current exceeds the critical value.1 Fig. III. bylightning striking an overhead line.SFCLs use the transition of superconductors from zero tofinite resistance to limit the fault currents that result from shortcircuits in electric power systems. Tc (temperature)b. the convention is to define “critical current” as thecurrent at which a voltage drop of 1. the subsequent fault currentis limited only by the impedance of the system between thelocation of the fault and the power sources.1 Simulink model of Single phase SFCL. low impedance transformer can be used to maintainvoltage regulation at the new power level. B. Thisimprovement is due to the ability of HTS materials to operateat temperatures around 70K instead of near 4K. and leads to highmechanical and thermal stresses. R-SFCLR-SFCLs utilize the superconducting material as the maincurrent carrying conductor under normal grid operation.a. Issue: 01 March2012 current that affects thelevel of magnetization of a saturable iron core. Hc (magnetic field)2. which isrequired by conventional superconductors.C. SFCLsnormally operate with low impedance and are “invisible”components in the electrical system. In the event of a fault.Superconductors offer a way to break through systemdesign constraints by presenting impedance to the electricalsystem that varies depending on operating conditions. If not deliberately checked. SIMULATION MODEL Simulink/SimPowerSystem was selected in order to designand implement the SFCL model for both single phase andthree phase systems.4. The inherent ability to “switch” from virtually zeroresistance to a finite value when Ic is exceeded can beused to limit short-circuit fault currents. The advantage isthat the refrigeration overhead associated with operating at thehigher temperature is about 20 times less costly than the initialcapital cost. This current can reach as much as 100 times the nominal current of the system(the largest current in normal operation). Theseparameters and their selected values are:1) Transition or response Page 57 . which minimizes the voltage dip on the upstreamhighvoltage bus during a fault on the medium- voltage bus. The current passing through the shunt resistor is denoted as Ishunt. Theprinciple of their operation is to suppress the fault currentwithin the first cycle of fault current.improvements in superconducting materials over the last 3years have driven the technology to the forefront.1. for HTSmaterials.International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 01– No. Fig.3. Ic. Such short circuits can becaused by aged or accidentally damaged insulation. At present. thelimiter inserts impedance into the circuit and limits the fault current. It consists of a shuntresistor and variable resistor.

The simulation model of a single phase test system withand without SFCL is shown in Fig. A normal first orderfilter is used for reducing the harmonics. if apassing current is larger than the triggering current level.01 ΩMaximum impedance = 20 Ω3) Triggering current and = 550 A4) Recovery time. The performance of the SFCL can also be tested in a power system generation and distribution systems using threephase SFCL for controlling the fault current for each phase .1.The SFCL model developed in Simulink/Sim-PowerSystemis shown in Fig.1.1 plays a mainrole which consists of standard parameter values of SFCL.SFCL model calculates the RMS value of the passing currentand then compares it with the characteristic table. Fig.The SFCL model developed is tested in both single phaseand three phase test systems and the current waveforms arerecorded with the presence and absence of SFCL. The importantparameter to be given in SFCL is the current limitingresistance value. filter is used. Harmonics filtration is used in order to reduce the harmonicscaused due to the abnormal fault current.2 and Fig. Fig. Finally.3 respectivelyand the current waveforms are recorded.2 Simulation model of single phase system with SFCLThe type of the fault induced in the model is single phaseto ground fault where it is induced through the AC voltagesource.International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 01– No. The SFCL model works as follows.The SFCL model can also be implemented using EMTP. The fault current isinduced in the source directly in order to reduce thecomplexity of the simulation model. It is stored in the SFCL characteristic table.In order to avoid harmonics caused by transients.2 is the SFCL modeldesigned for single phase system which is shown in Fig. The maximumimpedance value can be varied from 20 ohms to 27 ohms. Fig. The SFCL characteristic table shown in Fig. when the current level fallsbelow the triggering current level the system waits until the recovery time and then goes into normal state. Issue: 01 March2012 time = 2 msec2) Minimum impedance & = 0. Page 58 . SFCL ’ s resistance increases to maximum impedance level in apre-defined response time. First. = 10 msecThe SFCL working voltage is 22.A controlled voltage source is connected in order tocompensate the voltage sag caused due to the induced faultcurrent which is caused due to both internal and external causes.1. Thecurrent limiting resistance value is calculated and this value isimplemented in the simulation model. Second. An RMS block is needed in order to calculate the RMS value of the incoming current signal and to increase theimpedance value according to the limited fault current valuespecified in the SFCL characteristic table.The subsystem specified in Fig.9kV.3 Simulation model of single phase system without SFCLThe SFCL subsystem can be implemented in varioustypes of single phase test systems and the operation can betested. The type of the filter can be changed depending upon the application of the system.

6 and 7 respectively. Issue: 01 March2012 Fig. A three phase load is connected to the power plant.5 Simulated current waveforms for a single phase systemwith SFCLThe simulated current waveforms of the single phasesystem model developed with the help of simulink tool areshown in Fig. The voltage value will increase steadily afterthe recovery from the specified delay time.7 Simulation model of a three phase system without SFCL Fig.Fig. Withoutthe presence of SFCL the fault current is exceeded above450A.The plot is drawn across the line current and the voltage across the resistance.8. In earlier performances theefficiency of R-SFCL is from 67% .8 Normalized plot of voltage and current in a superconductor at a constant temperature and magnetic fieldDuring constant temperature and magnetic field. In many applications the maximumimpedance value is fixed as 20 Ω . With the presence of SFCLthe fault current value is limited around 400-410A.71%. Thefault occurred here is three phase to ground fault.The simulink model of a three phase system with SFCLand without SFCL are shown in Fig.The SFCL developed for the single phase system can beimplemented in the three phase system by connecting theSFCL to each phase and the current waveforms for each phasecan be recorded.4 Simulated current waveforms for a single phase system without SFCL induced in both thesimulink models. theperformance of the voltage value across the line current isshown in Fig.1.6 Simulation model of a three phase system with SFCLA three phase to ground fault is Page 59 .International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 01– No. Fig.4 and 5 respectively. The voltage value is increased after thecritical current value.The subsystem should operate with the time delay specified inthe SFCLparameters. Here the SFCL model developed for single phase is converted to three phases and attached as a subsystem in the distribution line.Asynchronous machine is considered as conventional power plant. Fig. A step input signal is given to the fault blockin order to give the specific time of mentioning at what timethe fault should occur and which time it should be recovered.

In the single phase system the rated current value is given as 400A. Current value is limited below2000A. The simulation results show the validity andeffectiveness of suggested scheme and also the ability of theSFCL to reduce the inrush current. CONCLUSION The above tests conducted using the SFCL single-phaseprototype showed the excellent Page 60 .Current value is above 2000A. V. Issue: 01 March2012 Fig. With SFCL the single phase faultcurrent is limited in the range of 400-420A.In the three phase system the rated current value is given a1800A. Without SFCL the single phase system with fault.So. The second waveform indicatesthe current value with SFCL. The comparison results are shown in Table1.By using SFCL for limiting the fault current the systemreliability and integrity is increased. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The performance characteristics indicating the relationshipbetween the SFCL impedance (Ohms) and reduction in faultcurrent (%) is shown in Fig.10. From the graph it is seen that. Fig. The fault current limitation in the single phase and threephase systems of imposing an upper limit on the current thatmay be delivered to a load with the purpose of protecting thecircuit generating or transmitting the current from harmfuleffects due to a short circuit in the load. Comparison of current values of single phase and three phasesystems with and without SFCL During the presence of SFCL the fault current is limitedcloser to its rated triggering current value.1. Without SFCL the single phase system with fault. 10 Performance evaluation graph indicating the relationship betweenSFCL impedance and reduction in fault current. The SFCL withstandsshort circuit currents for a longer period. With SFCL the single phase faultcurrent is limited in the range of 1900-2000A.9 Simulated current waveforms for three phase system with SFCL andwithout SFCL. as impedance increases thepercentage of reduction in fault current also increases.The comparison results of the three phase system during the presence and absence of SFCL is shown in the Fig.International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 01– No. Thefirst waveform indicates the current value without SFCL.Table 1.9.the current is above 440A. The most feasibleSFCL concept appears to be an in line resistive device. thecurrent is above 2000A. IV. SFCL limits the fault current in the first cycle than anyother deces.

Belmans. 646–653.Oct. 1252–1254. L. 1997-2005. Paper107. E.”2008 [Online]. 235–246. June 2007. and N. E. Fickert. Tarlochan S. W. Issue: 01 March2012 current limiting capability ofthe fault current. K. J.. 4. Dec. and Roger Penlington. 21.[7] W. “A power system tool based on simulink. 2006. Bar-Haim. Dec. 7.“Saturated Cores FCL . pp. “The Smart Gird: AnIntroduction. Jarventausta. Vol. 576-585. R. Kida. Yeshurun. J. and T. Li Ran. “Protection issues inmicro-grids with multiple distributed generation units. Obkircher. reducing effectively the shortcircuit currents to much smaller current amplitudes. 6. 2009. Arita. 1999. pp. 17. C. Z. Vol. no. April 2008. Benysek.[5] R. 2412–2419. Vermeyen. Future ElectricityTechnologies and Systems. These results are very important forstudying the behavior and to evaluate the impact of SFCLdevices on transmission lines and many electrical apparatusnetworks and also to give useful hints to the design ofpractical SFCL devices. Pundak. Schmautzer. 83–97. Available:http://www. ntro-duction.[12] V. D. and R.“Principle and characteristics of a fault current limiter with seriescompensation. Kopansky. Ahmed. K. “Study on aseries resistive SFCL to improve power system transient stability:Modeling. Jul. IEEE Transactions on PowerDelivery.. No. Friedman.[9] K. U.[2] T. K. G. and C. Park. vol. P. 2008. A.1. Al-Haddad. “Safetyand reliability for smart-. 2. London. pp. Sidhu. W. Y.From the comparison results and performancecharacteristics it is proved that the SFCL is a promising novelelectric equipment to reduce excessive fault current in electricpower systems effectively.2006. Power Electronics in SmartElectrical Energy Networks. It also provides fault current limiting actionsin the first half of cycle (t<5ms). Perel. Y. no. J. F. “Effect of wind powerbased distributed generation on protection of distribution network. H. Pollitt..” IEEE Trans. Ko.[10] M. 2. 56. and P. Press. Le-Huy. Nagoya.vol. 11. Repo. C. Park. vol. Rozenshtein.Industrial Elec-tron. Sybille. Strzelecki and G. Driesen. vol.oe.” presented atthe CIRED Seminar: SmartGrids for Distribution.Brunelle. no.”in IEEE Developments in Power System Protection. Dessaint. April 2007. “Restoration of DirectionaOvercurrent Relay Coordination in Distributed Generation SystemsUtilizing Fault Current Limiter”. Jun. 327–330. Ghanim Putrus. Apr. and M.K. 1. Ron. 2004.” IEEE Trans. 1996. Z. Preparedfor U. They utilizesuperconducting materials to limit the current directly or tosupply a DC bias current that affects the level ofmagnetization of a saturable iron core. micro-. Jamasb. and islanded grids. Harel.“Development of a Prototype SolidState Fault-Current Limitingand Interrupting Device for Low-Voltage Distribution Networks”.” in PowerConversion Conf. No. E. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Yamagiwa. No. 842–847. Fakui.Industrial Elec-tron.Results of simulations are very satisfactory and fullydescribe the behavior of SFCL devices for all nominal andlimiting conditions. pp. M.International Journal of Communications and Engineering Volume 01– No. Page 61 .Thus SFCLs are materials which have the ability to conductelectricity without loss of energy. G. H. Wolfus. pp.IEEE Trans on Power Delivery.[8] L. S.S. 203–213.[3] B. and P. simulation and experimental verification. and T. pp. 2. Power Delivery. [4] Litos Strategic Communication. pp. Friedl. Sugimoto. 46. Sung.[11] Walid El-Khattam. [6] J. Nuttall.A New Approach” IEEE Transactions onApplied Superconductivity.: SpringerVerlagLondon Ltd.” IEEE Trans. REFERENCES [1] S. Maki. The main advantage isit is 20 times less costly in terms of initial capital costs.htm. pp. pp. 2008. Department of Energy. In practical application of thisnovel device into electrical networks.. it causes favorableimpacts on the electric power system.

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