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What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy steroid of fat that is produced in the liver or intestines.

It is used to produce hormones and cell membranes and is transported in the blood plasma of all mammals.[2] It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition, cholesterol is an important component for the manufacture of bile acids, steroid hormones, and vitamin D. 3
.Pearson A, Budin M, Brocks JJ (December 2003). "Phylogenetic and biochemical evidence for sterol synthesis in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100 (26): 15352– 7. doi:10.1073/pnas.2536559100. PMC 307571. PMID 14660793.

Function:
-modulates membrane fluidity over the range of physiological temperatures.7
Haines TH (July 2001). "Do sterols reduce proton and sodium leaks through lipid bilayers?". Prog. Lipid Res. 40 (4): 299– 324.doi:10.1016/S0163-7827(01)00009-1.PMID 11412894.

- functions in intracellular transport,8
Pawlina, Wojciech; Ross, Michael W. (2006). Histology: a text and atlas: with correlated cell and molecular biology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins. pp. 230.ISBN 0-7817-5056-3.

- cholesterol is the precursor molecule in several biochemical pathways: 1 -cholesterol is converted to bile, 2- Cholesterol is an important precursor molecule for the synthesis of vitamin D and the steroid hormones, 9
Smith LL (1991). "Another cholesterol hypothesis: cholesterol as antioxidant". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 11(1): 47– 61.doi:10.1016/0891-5849(91)90187-8.PMID 1937129.

Significance:

Hypercholesterolemia
According to the lipid hypothesis, abnormal cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia)—that is, higher concentrations of LDL and lower concentrations of functional HDL—are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease because these promote atheroma development in arteries (atherosclerosis). This disease process leads to myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.34
Brunzell JD, Davidson M, Furberg CD, Goldberg RB, Howard BV, Stein JH, Witztum JL (April 2008). "Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk: consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation".Diabetes Care 31 (4): 811–22.doi:10.2337/dc08-9018.PMID 18375431.

level mg/dL Level mmol/L Interpretation

Whitlock G. Collins R (December 2007).Lancet 370 (9602): 1829–39. cancer.000 vascular deaths". Sherliker P. andcerebral hemorrhage. Emberson J. the low cholesterol levels seem to be a consequence of an underlying illness.2 Borderline high risk > 240 > 6. [36] Lewington S. Clarke R. Halsey J. Research into the causes of this state is relatively limited. Qizilbash N. . "Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age.1016/S0140-6736(07)61778-4.< 200 < 5.2–6. rather than a cause. Peto R. sex.PMID 18061058.2 Desirable level corresponding to lower risk for heart disease 200–240 5. and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55. In general. but some studies suggest a link with depression.doi:10.2 High risk Hypocholesterolemia Abnormally low levels of cholesterol are termed hypocholesterolemia.

VLDL. In other words. LDL and HDL.[31] . have low measured HDL-C levels yet very low rates of cardiovascular events even with high blood cholesterol values Ways to increase HDL levels[vague] [edit]Diet and lifestyle Certain changes in lifestyle may have a positive impact on raising HDL levels: [17]          Aerobic exercise[18] Weight loss[19] Nicotinic Acid supplementation[19] Smoking cessation[19] Removal of trans fatty acids from the diet[20] Mild to moderate alcohol intake[21][22][23][24][25][26] Addition of soluble fiber to diet[27] Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids such as fish oil[28] or flax oil[citation needed] Increased intake of cis-unsaturated fats[29] and cholesterol. are chylomicrons. which is the main reason why the cholesterol carried within HDL particles (HDL-C) is sometimes called "good cholesterol" (despite the fact that it is exactly the same as the cholesterol in LDL particles). about thirty percent of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet may have similar response to taking niacin as described below (lowered LDL and increased HDL) through beta-hydroxybutyrate coupling the Niacin receptor 1.High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins which. [30] A highfat. IDL. adequate-protein. Those with higher levels of HDL-C seem to have fewer problems with cardiovascular diseases. specifically increasing one's HDL might not increase cardiovascular health. i. apparently more efficient. It is often contrasted with low density or LDL cholesterol or LDL-C.e. HDL ApoA1 protein variant called ApoA-1 Milano.[citation needed] Most saturated fats increase HDL cholesterol to varying degrees but also raise total and LDL cholesterol. in order of sizes. HDL particles are able to remove cholesterol from within artery atheroma and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilization. which enable lipids likecholesterol and triglycerides to be transported within the water-based bloodstream. no incremental increase in HDL has been proven to improve health. In healthy individuals.[3] Additionally. while those with low HDL-C cholesterol levels (less than 40 mg/dL or about 1 mmol/L) have increased rates for heart disease. largest to smallest. the amount of cholesterol contained in HDL particles. those few individuals producing an abnormal. while high HDL levels might correlate with better cardiovascular health.[1] Blood tests typically report HDL-C level.[2] While higher HDL levels are correlated with cardiovascular health.

.. "Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition". M. Schaefer. National Heart. J. PMID 7749823. Z. G. P. R. PMID 3772283.1016/S0003-9993(99)90174-0. 3. "Targeting residual cardiovascular risk: raising highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol levels". doi:10. A controlled diet study".. T. PMID 11734581. (1986). American Heart Association. thrombosis.. Retrieved October 8. and Blood Institute (NHLBI). RE (1999). et al. Siest. Journal of epidemiology and community health 40 (3): 249–256. J. Van Tol. (1995). J. J. Schaafsma. "The "Good Cholesterol" High-Density Lipoprotein". ^ "LDL and HDL Cholesterol: What's Bad and What's Good?". Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford. Hendriks. (2001). R. J. edit 5. Clevidence. Richard N.. E.. (September 15. Arteriosclerosis. Scheek. 4. B.. 2. July 2. Schatzkin. T. 2009. PMID 3987006. (1985). W. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 80 (6): 691– 5..com. ^23 Hendriks. 17. A. Retrieved October 8. Keyser.. J. edit 8.^ Spate-douglas. Jenner. Circulation 111 (5): e89-e91. Retrieved 2 June 2011. edit . Clinical chemistry 31 (5): 763–766. ^ a b c "NIH stops clinical trial on combination cholesterol treatment".1136/hrt. H. Judd. Yellon DM (June 2008). and vascular biology 15 (2): 179–184. Steinmetz. L. Reichman. Campbell. 2... Vermunt.. Li. A. Heart 94 (6): 706–14. 20^ "Trans fat: Avoid this cholesterol double whammy". Journal of lipid research 42 (12): 2077– 2083.. Mikstacki.Fogoros. Veenstra. G. The American journal of clinical nutrition 75 (3): 593–599. ^24 Clevidence. ^ 26Brenn. ^ 25Cuvelier. Taylor. 3. 18.125401. "The Tromsø heart study: Alcoholic beverages and coronary risk factors". Van Tol.. edit 7. M. PMC 1052533. T... PMID 9719399. "Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport". Muesing. edit 9. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Schaafsma. 2009. 2009. 19-^ a b c Hausenloy DJ. D. Retrieved 2 June 2011.. B. Retrieved 2010-06-25. "Moderate alcohol consumption lowers risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women fed a controlled diet". (1998).2007. edit 6. E. Oxfordshire) 33 (4): 403–410. Groener..Footnotes 1. Judd. About. G. "Variations in total phospholipids and highdensity lipoprotein phospholipids in plasma from a general population: Reference intervals and influence of xenobiotics". H. Brown. National Institute of Health. I. "Effects of alcohol consumption on lipoproteins of premenopausal women.. "Raising Your HDL Levels".. S.. (2002). doi:10. PMID 11864868. PMID 10378497...PMID 18480348. A. Peter (2005). Muesing. ^ Toth. ^ 22Van Der Gaag. Lung.. "Exercise intensity: its effect on the high-density lipoprotein profile".. 21^ Baer. 2009).

. 11. "National Institues of Health".. Katan. I. M. Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk. Mensink. 2003 Jan-Feb. "Nicotinic acid receptor subtypes and their ligands". pp. AP (2007). doi:10. The Cleveland Clinic Heart and Vascular Institute. 12. PMID 17238156. M.A.) Atherosclerosis: Diet and Drugs. et al. (2003). ^ a31 b Soudijn. Arnold D. Medicinal research reviews 27 (3): 417–33. "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials". Springer.P.". 13. Zock. ISBN 9783540225690. Ronald P. 2009. Van Wijngaarden. . In Arnold von Eckardstein (Ed.10. Ijzerman. 171–172. "Effects of soy and other natural products on LDL:HDL ratio and other lipid parameters: a literature review. W. and R. Peter L.20102. Kester. 14. (2005). ^ 27Hermansen K. Martijn B. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77 (5): 1146. ^ 29Mensink. ^ 28"The Power of Fish". Retrieved October 8. 30^ Thijssen. Accessed 2011 May 31. PMID 12716665..1002/med.