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A Comprehensive Study on

Jute Fiber

A Comprehensive Study on

Jute Fiber
1st Edition Author Arifin Al Haque Edited by Shamsuddin Muttaki Published by

Dedication

Jute is a versatile, natural fiber that has been used for thousands of years to make things such as rope, twine, Hessian bags, rugs, and much more, yet for last couple of decade it lost its world market due to over usage of polythene etc. But the recent world wide climate movement has further reminded us the necessity of jute since jute cleans the air, use less fertilizer, herbicides & pesticides, improves soil conditions. It also has high biological efficiency, sound agricultural practices and biodegradability. The ‘green’ credentials of jute bags and fabrics are excellent when it is rapidly growing worldwide awareness of environmental problems and of the need for sustainable development. Gopal Chandra and other farmers are washing Jute. This Ebook is Dedicated to those farmer, who are trying to return our golden history of Jute Fiber.

Author’s Massage:

Hi, I am Arifin Al Haque. I am a student of Southeast University (Dept. of Textile Engg.). Fabric Manufacturing Technology is my major Subject. I will work as a Fabric Technologist after completing my B. Sc in Textile Engineering. Currently I am working as a contributor of Textile Bulletin. I have some experience in Textile Technology. If someone need any Technical Support for Fabric Manufacturing Technology, please don’t hesitate to contact with me. Email: Website: arifin@textilebulletin.com www.textilebulletin.com

Editor’s Massage:
Hi, this is Shamsuddin Muttaki from Southeast University (Dept. of Textile Engineering). Accepting challenges is the foundation of my life & I always devote myself in performing my responsibilities. You will find me a totally dynamic, highly motivated & committed individual with pride in being spontaneous and communicative. Currently, I am working for the development of jute products manufacturing process. Jute Market analysis, Economic condition of jute fiber products, Jute –Kenaf & Jute Cotton Blended yarn producing. I am also working for Diversified Jute products promotion. Once upon a time Bangladesh was the largest jute producer country. There was 77 jute industry in Bangladesh. 80% Foreign Remittance was gained by Jute. World Bank, IMF, ADB creates pressure to stop our jute industry. On the other side Indian jute mills are increasing day by day. We have some duty to rise our hand to promote our jute & we are responsible for this. By promoting our jute we can re open our 56 jute industry & create employment for the nation.
If anyone has any enquiry about jute, please let me know what is your idea , problem or specific any questions. Please mail to: muttaki@classictex.com

our employees. Jute Geo Textiles. Conference Bag. File Folder. etc. our business associates. Christmas Bag. Hand Bag. Promotional Bag. Carpet Backing Cloth (CBC). Jute Coaster. Each of our activities must benefit and add value to the common wealth of our society. Jute Paper Hand Tag. Jute Canvas. Address Book. Jute Hessian Cloth.facebook. Handmade Jute Paper. Notebook.Sponsor's Massage: We are pleased to introduce Asia Jute as one of biggest exporter of jute goods of Bangladesh. Pen Holder. Jute Yarn. our customers. Jute Textiles. Jute Hydro-Carbon Free Cloth. Fancy Bag. We Manufacture and Export Non-traditional/Diversified Jute Goods like Eco Friendly Jute Bag. Handworks Bag. Hydro-Carbon Free Bag. Industrial Jute Goods. Beach Bag.com/asiajute asiajute@gmail. Jute Handicrafts. We hope to become your supplier in the near future. Promotional Bag. Jute Handicrafts. jute Ornaments. Envelops. Jute Carpets & Mats. Canvas Bag. Shopping Bag. Jute Burlap. Ladies Bag.49 49 50 880. Eco-Massage Bag. We welcome any enquiry regarding any of the above goods or any other tailor made jute goods as per the Specification / Samples provided by the Buyers. Jute Webbing. Jute Mats & Durries. Card Holder. Jute Fabrics. Juco Bag. and our shareholders. Travel Bag. Greeting Card.1610. Jute Blinds. Jute Furnishings. Sacking Bag. Carry Bag. Table Mats.49 49 50 . Jute Felt. Jute Rugs. Lamp Shades. Industrial Jute Goods. Hessian Cloth Bag. Jewelry Box. Jute Canvas. Our mission: For more info Website: Facebook: Email: GSM : http://www. Jute Hammocks.com 880. We firmly believe that in the final analysis we are accountable to each of the constituents with whom we interact. Telephone Book.1552.asiajute. please feel free to contact us for more information. If you are interested in our products. namely. Sling Bag. Wine Bottle Bag. Jute Carpets. Photo Frame. Jute Pouch.com/ http://www.Cane Bag. Gift Box. Jute Food Grade Bags. Wine Bottle Bag. Visiting Card. our fellow citizens. Jute Apparel.

Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Introduction History Properties Cultivation Grading System Defects Advantage & Disadvantage Features 9 10 11 15 19 23 25 26 .

Index 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Manufacturing Process Market Analysis Products Manufacturers Buyers Conclusion Reference 27 32 37 44 48 49 50 .

1 Introduction 9 Jute is a natural fiber popularly known as the golden fiber. India. The fibres are off-white to brown. ramie. etc. It falls into the bast fibre category (fibre collected from bast or skin of the plant) along with kenaf. It is also produced in southwest Asia and Brazil. industrial hemp. It is thus a lignocellulosic fibre that is partially a textile fibre and partially wood. and 1–4 meters (3–12 feet) long. or more recently in Malvaceae. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus. . which has been classified in the family Tiliaceae. Bangladesh. shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse. It is one of the cheapest and the strongest of all natural fibers and considered as fiber of the future. flax (linen). Bimli or Mesta (kenaf). soft. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fibre) and lignin (major components of wood fibre). The jute fiber is also known as Pat. Jute is a long. The industrial term for jute fibre is raw jute. kosta. China and Thailand are the leading producers of Jute. Nalita. strong threads. Jute is second only to cotton in world's production of textile fibers.

Latif Bawany Jute Mills. set up the first jute mills in Bengal. Jute-related organisations and government bodies were also forced to close." However. Among these industries are paper. much of the raw jute fibre of Bengal was carried off to the United Kingdom. formerly owned by businessman. due to its texture.Margaret Donnelly. The long decline in demand forced the largest jute mill in the world (Adamjee Jute Mills) to close in Bangladesh. Many jute exporters diversified away from jute to other commodities. mainly due to demand in the internal market. where natural fibres are gradually becoming better substitutes. however. Jute has been called the "Golden Fibre of Bangladesh. as the use of polythene and other synthetic materials as a substitute for jute increasingly captured the market. non-woven textiles. it could only be processed by hand until it was discovered in that city that treating it with whale oil. composites (pseudo-wood). During the British Raj in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Between 2004–2010. when nylon and polythene were rarely used.During some years in the 1980s. the jute market recovered and the price of raw jute increased more than 500%. change or downsize.2 History 10 For centuries. farmers in Bangladesh burnt their jute crops when an adequate price could not be obtained. it could be treated by machine. one of the primary sources of foreign exchange earnings for the erstwhile United Pakistan was the export of jute products. celluloid products (films). In the 1950s and 1960s. the jute industry in general experienced a decline. based on jute grown in then East Bengal now Bangladesh. Farmers in Bangladesh have not completely ceased growing jute. and geotextiles. . was nationalized by the government. but this trade had largely ceased by about 1970 due to the appearance of synthetic fibers. jute has been an integral part of culture of Bengal. a jute mill landowner in Dundee in the 1800s. so as to raise the profile of jute and other natural fibers. Initially. in the entire southwest of Bangladesh and some portions of West Bengal. where it was then processed in mills concentrated in Dundee.Jute has entered many diverse sectors of industry. Bangladesh's second largest mill.In December 2006 the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres.The industry boomed ("jute weaver" was a recognized trade occupation in the 1901 UK census). Yahya Bawany.

2% 10. (i) untreated jute fibers.002 mm. in AFM topographic images. And according one estimate it is 1150.8% 1. (vi) untreated sisal. .48 Moisture Regain of Jute: 13. high stiffness.But in wet conditions lower than dry. Ultimate Diameter of Jute: 0.015 to 0. (iii) neem oil (NO)–resin and rice bran oil (RBO)–resin treated jute fibers. Resiliency: Bad. Specific Gravity: 1. (ii) alkali treated jute fibers.3% Cellulose: Cellulose of jute fiber is highly crystalline and it constitutes the main building materials of its ultimate cells. Physical Properties of Jute: Ultimate Jute Length: 1.5% 0. Jute Color: Jute fiber can be White. Abrasion Resistance: Moderate. less extension . Length: 150 to 300 CM (5 to 12 Feet).2% 22. (iv) untreated jute.75 % (Standard). Yellow. Dimensional Stability of Jute: Good on average. and (vii) neem oil–resin treated sisal fibers. Brown or Grey. Strength of Jute: Tenacity (dry) 3. SEM and AFM photomicrographs of untreated and treated LCFs.5 to 4 mm. Specific heat: 0. Elasticity: Breaking Extension 1. Degree of polymerization (DP) of jute is reported to be one of the lowest among the vegetable fibers.8% and Elastic Recovery very low.325 Chemical composition of jute: Constituent Cellulose Hemi-cellulose Lignin Water soluble Fat and Wax Percentage 65. It an absorb as much as 23% of water under high humid conditions.3 Properties 11 Fig.5 to 5 G/Den. Jute fiber is brittle and can hold less twist. (v) neem oil–resin treated jute fibers. So emulsion is added to make it soft.

Good affinity to basic days. complex etc. such-as pcoumaryl alcohol etc. and uronic acid. Resistant to organic solvent Poor sunlight resistant . Cold weak acids do not affect it. lignin from all sources contains similar types of functional groups such as hydroxyl. Burns rapidly. hexosans. Chemical properties of jute: Effect of bleaching Effect of acid and alkalis Effect of solvent Effect of sunlight Effect of heat Dye ability Biological properties Conductivity : : Not affected by oxidizing and reducing agent. scorches at high temperature. It is soluble in 18% aqueous alkali. methoxy. dioxymethylene. Resistant to alkalis. which are increase the fiber strength and also reduce the flexibility and extension of the fiber. Solding red after glow. : : : : : : . Moderate conductors of heat and electricity. but light fastness and wash fastness are poor.3 Properties 12 Hemicelluloses: Hemicelluloses like Cellulose is a chain molecular substance but is distinguishable from the latter in having a relativity short chain length (DP not more than 150) and being mainly composed of pentsans. Easily damager by hot dilute or cold concentrated acids. Lignin: Lignin is a complex polymer which functions as the structural materials in plants. Structural unit of lignin are aromatic alcohols with a phenyl propane backbone. Soured jute has good to excellent resistant to microorganism and insects.

Microscopic structure of jute:  Jute fibers show several elements bundle together.  Between two separate elements. (b) freeze-dried bacterial cellulose (BC).  Towards the end of the fiber the lumen broadens out considerably causing the cell wall to become very thin.  There are more or less polygonal in shape with sharply defined angles.  Externally the fiber is smooth and lustrous and has no ion for transverse makings.  Longitudinally the lumen shows constriction or irregular thickness of cell wall.  The lumen is about as wide as the was and is round or oval in cross section. Scanning electron micrographs of (a) jute.3 Properties 13 Fig. (c) disintegrated jute (dis-Jute) and (d) disintegrated bacterial cellulose (dis-BC) after freeze-drying. there is a narrow medium layer. .

The Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible mentions this vegetable potherb as Jew's mallow. Simple handlooms and hand spinning wheels were used by the weavers.It is similar to capsularis variety. Along with white jute. Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) state that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. • Dark yellow flower. Properties : • The jute plant of this variety is annual and collected from seeds.3 Properties 14 Botanical species of jute: There are 40 botanical species of jute among them The principle two botanical species of jute as follows: Several historical documents (including. • Two to three feet high. who used to spin cotton yarns as well. White jute (Corchorus capsularis): Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) : Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) is an Afro-Arabian variety. It is quite popular for its leaves that are used as an ingredient in a mucilaginous potherb called molokhiya. especially Bengalis. and stronger than white jute. • Bark of the stem is brown. • The leaves are lovely green in color. • The leaves are green in color. and Bangladesh) is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety. Properties : • Leaves taste bitter. India. • Speed pods are long and circular in shape & • Quarter inch in diameter. • Flowers are yellow in color. This variety astonishingly showed good sustainability in the climate of the Ganges Delta.popular in certain Arab countries. • Leaves taste not so bitter.Tossa jute fibre is softer. tossa jute has also been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. Currently. • Speed pods are short and circular and • The jute plant of this type annual and grows from ends. silkier. the Bengal region (West Bengal. • It is about 6 – 12 inch long • ½ to ¾ inch in diameter. . History also states that Indians.

a view fine preparation of the land is necessary. Therefore. Sowing methods: There are generally two methods of sowing. which does not invent the soil very well. The country plough made of wood is used generally for ploughing the land.1 4 Cultivation 15 Requirements of jute cultivation:  High temperature to 95®F with a minimum 80®F during the pried of growth.  Facilities for placing the fibers in the market. . is best for jute. So the land is ploughed and cross-ploughed at least repeated about 6-8 times. Such as –  Broad cast sowing  Line sowing. Cultivation of jute: Jute seeds are small.  Well preventive soil or fairly fine texture  Suitable seeds  Rainfall over 40’’  A sufficient supply of water for retting the plants and washing the striped fibers. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful. The new gray alluvial soil of good depth. Flow ever jute is grown widely in sandy loams and clay loams. receiving salt from annual floods.  Sufficient supply of skilled labor to handle the crop at the proper time. Climate and soils: Jute requires a warm and humid climate temperature between 24®C to 37®C.

. In flooded land. Line sowing: Line sowing is done where machine ploughing and machine sowing are used. The harvested plants are left in field for 3 days for the leaves to shed. first weeding is carries out. plants are up rooted.4 Cultivation 16 Broadcast sowing: In broadcast sowing. IN between these periods weeding is carried out if necessary. In fact time of sowing and harvesting generally depends upon the weather condition and position of bands in the respective areas. the seeds are thrown by hand and by the method known as cross sowing. This process must be done at the current time with minimum of delay. Time of sowing: Corchorus capsularies variety can be sown any time after January depending upon the position of lands and weather condition. The plant from 8 to 12 feet high are cut with stickles at or close the ground level. weeding and training are carried together and this is again repeated when the plants are about 2’-3’ high. Therefore selection of proper harvesting time is very important. When the plants are about 3’-4’ high. early harvesting gives good healthy fibers. Weeding and Training: When the plants are about 1’-2’ high. But corchorus olitorius variety should not be sown before March because plants have a tendency of branching premature flowering and reveling to wild bush forms without proper growth if seen too early. This method permits uniform distribution of the seeds over the ground. This method permit easy weeding and thinning of plants as well as gives better yield both in quality and quantity. Jute is harvested any time between 120 days to 150 days when the flowers have been shed. Harvesting Time: The value of jute lies in its fiber. The quality and quantity of fiber are dependent upon the maturity of plants.

Stripping of jute fiber: Stripping is the process of removing the fibers from the stalk after the completion of retting. the process is carried out in the following stages : Retting of Jute: Retting is the process by which the fiber is removed from the stalk.The bundles are then laid on the ground for a period to allow the stem to soften fall off. The presence of periderm on the stem surface hampers retting and lowers the fiber quality.Tish is done by the combined action of water and microorganisms. The fiber is obtained by retting. Retting is process in which the fibers in the bark are loosened and separated from the woody stalk due to the removed of pectins. To extract the fibers from the stem. When is found that fibers can be separated from the stem each stripping. They are. These are then arranged in layers in ponds. Jute is a natural fiber. At lower temperature and running water retting process may take about one month. Then the fibers are washed in clear water. disintegration of the tissues starts from the interior of the stem and extends of the outside. Washing and drying of the fibers should be done as quickly as possible. The plant is easy to cultivate and harvest. Jute is a natural fiber. Cutting of Jute: Cutting of jute is usually done by hand with ‘dao’.The bundles are then taken to aonvenient location of water. liberating the fiber boundless from the wood.The cut stemps are tied into bundles of about 9 to 142 inches in diameter. Stripping by hand Bunch stripping .4 Cultivation 17 The Fiber Extraction The jute plant's fibers lie beneath the bark and surrounded the woody central part of the stem. To judge the right time for striping the fibers from the retted plants of the ponds or cannels where the plants have been kept for retting. gums etc. There are two methods of stripping. During retting.

Loose fibers are then drawn to permit easy separation from the rest of the stems. Packing into kutcha bales about 250 pounds for use in the home trade. allowed to drain off and then each stem stripped separately. They are transported to jute market or direct to jute mills. Bunch stripping: The worker stands in water. The dark color of fibers can be removed by dipping them in tamarind water for 15 to 20 min and again washed in clean water. Fibers are made up into handful and then washed. they are broken off. C and X-bottom. After squeezing excess water the fibers are hang on bamboo railing for sun drying for 2-3 days. He takes some stems in his left hand and beats the roads of the steams cloth a wooden mallet. B. . They are transport to market or direct in jute mills. Bailing and Packing After grading the jute they packed in bales about 250 pounds for use in the home trade. Washing and drying: Extracted fibers are washed in clean water. The stripped of fibers are then washed. middles. The fiber is graded into tops.4 Cultivation 18 Stripping by hand: The bundles of stems are removed from water. When the roots ends are sufficiently crushed.

5 Grading System 19 Jute fibers are graded according to three qualities of fibers. Length II. Color V. On the basis of color: There are two colors White and golden  Brown to red Corresponding to the main varieties capsularies and olitorius. Lusture VI. Strength III. On the basis of export: A bottom B bottom C bottom X bottom On the basis of quality of raw jute Pucca grading Kutcha grading . Fineness IV. They areOn a basis of fiber properties: I. Roots and cleanliness and uniformity in color.

Uniform light golden to reddish color Fine texture Strong and good luster Clean cut and well hackled Completely free from any blemish. Light to medium grey color Sound clean Good texture Average luster Clean cut and well hackled Free from any defects 2. well hackled Free from blemish and red ends excluded Bangla White-C (BW-C): Light grey or light reddish to straw color Sound strength Average luster Clean but free from croppy or hard gummy Tops and roots and red soft ends are permissible. 20 Pucca grading: Raw jute from which roots have been cut. Bangla White-D (BE-D): Any color Average strength Occasional bark and specks permissible Slightly croppy and gummy tops permissible Red ends also permissible Bangla White-E(BW-E): Any color Any strength but free from perished fibers Unretted jute Bangla Tossa-B (BT-B): 1. Light grey or reddish excluding dark gray color Sound clean Good texture Average luster Clean cut and well hackled Free from any defects . Bangla Tossa-A(BT-A): 1 Uniform sliver grey to golden color Fine texture Strong and good luster Clean cut and well hackled Completely free from any blemish. clean Completely free from red ends and any blemish Bangla White-B (BW-B): Light cream to straw color Good texture Strong and good luster. well hackled Completely free from any defects Entirely free from red ends Bangla White-A (BW-A): White to light cream Fine texture Strong and very good luster.5 Grading System Tossa jute: Bangla Tossa Special (BTS): Uniform golden or reddish color Finest texture Very strong Very good luster Clean cut and well hackled Completely free from any defects. clean. 2. White jute: Bangla white special (BWS): White or creamy Finest texture Very good luster.

5 Grading System 21 Middle: Strong sound fibers Average color and luster Free from all specks runners and harsh crop end (White 25% Tossa 15%) Bottoms: Sound fibers Medium strength Free from all hard centered jute (White 30% Tossa 20%) B-bottoms: Sound fiber Medium strength Not suitable for higher grade(White 35% Tossa 25%) C-bottoms: Medium strength Any color Free from runners and choppiness. Kutcha bales are graded as followsTops Middle Bottoms B-bottoms C-bottoms X-bottoms Tops: Very strong fiber Excellent color and luster Free from all defects Cutting not more than (White 15% Tossa 10%) . harsh jute Free from tagled jute and stick Habijabi: Tangled jute Free from any dust and cuttings Bangla Tossa-C (BT-C): Mixed colors Average strength Occasional bark and soft specks allowable free from runners Slightly croppy and gummy tops permissible Well cut and hackled but free from black root ends. X-bottoms: Weak. Bangla Tossa-D(BT-D): Mixed colors Average strength Occasional bark and specks allowable Free from runners croppy and gummy tops permissible Rough cut and hackled Free from black root ends Bangla Tossa-E(BT-E): Any color Any strength but free from unretted jute Stick and perished fibers Rough cut and hackled bark and hard Centre permissible Kutcha grading: Raw jute from which roots have not been cut.

5 Grading System 22 Classification of jute according to the quality (Geographical distribution according to Bangladesh):  Jat  District  Northern Jat: Jat is the finest quality jute with firm It has good color and length It has good luster This type of jute fiber grows in the district of Mymensingh. This type of jute grows in District of Rangpur. The fiber is not uniform in textures and strands Its color varies from light ream to dull grey Its length is shorter.Lower Comilla. Dhaka and Comilla.Barisal. District: District jute is close to jat in quality. The fiber is dull-colored fluffy hairy and barky Generally medium length and weak.Sylhet.It mainly grows in the district of Faridpur Soft district: This type of jute grows in district of Noakhali. They areHard district Soft district Hard district: The hard district jute is better than the soft district.Chittagong and some part of Dhaka. Dinajpur.Jessor.Pabna. There are two types of District jute.Khulna. Northern: Northern jute is of somewhat inferior quality. . Bogra and Rajshahi.

. Knotty Jute: This kind of knotty jute defects is caused by insect bite in the jute plants. Speck in jute is a major defect which lowers the quality of Jute fibers. black and hard then stripping is insufficient which causes croppy jute.6 Defects 23 Specky Jute: If the Jute Fibers are not rotted and washed properly. Hunka: This type of Jute is hard and barky caused by insufficient removal of hard bark from jute. the barks of jute adhere to the fibers and causes them speck. Rooty Jute: This kind of Jute Defects occurs due to various reasons such as under retting of the root ends of Jute fibers and if the root portion is not completely under water during ratting. Croppy Jute: If the top end of the fibers is rough.

Glossy Jute: Highly lustrous jute fiber sometimes creates problems. Sticky or Woody: In the top end at the jute plant is not stripped properly from the fiber. . This kind of highly lustrous jute fiber is named as Glossy Jute. It is due to over retting of lower part of the plant is under retting of lower part of the plant is under retting of the top end. The mosses adhere to the Jute fibers causing Mossy Jute. Dazed Jute Fibers: The Jute fibre which has lost it’s strength and luster due to over retting or excessive moisture in it. the brow pieces of the plant remain the fiber ceurecl this defect.6 Defects 24 Mossy Jute: Mossy grows in stagnant of water. This all about the Jute Fiber Defects or Faults and reasons. Weak fibers: Over retting is the main cause of weak fibers. Runners: Long hard and broken ribbon like fibers caused careless stripping and washing. also due to under drying and sorting in moist condition. Flabby Jute: Hairy Jute fiber defects are created due to over retting and careless stripping of Jute. Heart Damage: This kind of defects caused for badly damage rotten or tendered fibers.

75%).  100% Biodegradable.7 Advantage & Disadvantage 25 Advantages of Jute Fiber:  Jute Fiber has great antistatic properties.  Create Shade effect and becomes yellowish if sunlight is used.  Produce no irritation in skin.  If Jute is wetted it lose it’s strength. Sulpher and Reactive Dyes. .  Jute is a insulating fiber and this is why it can be used to make cloth which would be used in electrical works.  Available in the market and the overall productivity of Jute Fiber is good. so that any kind of static charges are not produced during Jute Product making or using. Woven Sector and Nonwoven Sector.  Tensile strength is high.  Jute Fiber can be blended with Natural and Synthetic fibers.  Can be widely used in Agriculture Sector.  Drape Property is not good enough.  Temperature is passed in this fiber slowly because of the low thermal conductivity. so it is environment friendly fiber like Cotton.  Can be died by Basic. Vat.  Cheap in market.  Jute Fabric is highly breathable and comfortable to use. Textile Sector.  Moisture Regain properties is good enough (about 13. Disadvantages of Jute Fiber Using:  The crease resistance of Jute is very low.

 It helps to make best quality industrial yarn. and also becomes subject to microbial attack in humid climates. preparation of fabrics with castor oil lubricants result in less yellowing and less fabric weight loss. construction. as well as increased dyeing brilliance. softness. and yellowing in sunlight. non-textile. . textiles. It is one of the most versatile natural fibres that has been used in raw materials for packaging. basic. jute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bulk packaging. reactive. To meet this demand. and ensures better breathability of fabrics. net. and agricultural sectors. both synthetic and natural. In one attempt to dye jute fabric with this extract. fabric. Jute can also be blended with wool.  It has high tensile strength. Other advantages of jute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no skin irritations.  It is a natural fibre with golden and silky shine and hence called The Golden Fibre. production. low extensibility. pliability. As the demand for natural comfort fibres increases.8 Features SOME IMPORTANT FEATURES OF JUTE: 26  Jute fibre is 100% bio-degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly.  Jute has the ability to be blended with other fibres. bleached fabric was mordanted with ferrous sulphate. Therefore. brittleness. Jute has a decreased strength when wet. and pigment dyes. which can be made from marigold flower extract. some manufactures in the natural fibre industry plan to modernize processing with the Rieter's Elitex system.  The best source of jute in the world is the Bengal Delta Plain in the Ganges Delta. crimp. global consumption. the demand for jute and other natural fibres that can be blended with cotton will increase.  Advantages of jute include good insulating and antistatic properties. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute. The resulting jute/cotton yarns will produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. sulfur. Bulking of yarn results in a reduced breaking tenacity and an increased breaking extensibility when blended as a ternary blend. By treating jute with caustic soda.  It is the cheapest vegetable fibre procured from the bast or skin of the plant's stem. vat. This process is used for bright and fast coloured valueadded diversified products made from jute. increasing the fabric's dye uptake value. Once treated with an enzyme. as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain.  It is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton. and availability. jute shows an affinity to readily accept natural dyes. in terms of usage. fibre shedding. Jute also responds well to reactive dyeing.  Some noted disadvantages include poor drapability and crease resistance. and appearance is improved. aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flameproofing agents. and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural. Jute can be processed with an enzyme in order to reduce some of its brittleness and stiffness. and sacks. most of which is occupied by Bangladesh. However.

second and finisher drawings) Spinning Yarn Twisting Warp Yarn Weft Yarn Spool Winding Yarn Package .9 Manufacturing Process Processes Products 27 Selection of jute for batching Softening and lubricating Conditioning or Piling Carding (Breaker and Finisher) Drawing and Doubling ( First.

9 Manufacturing Process Warp Yarn 28 Weft Yarn Twisting Reeling Warp Spool Winding Beaming/ Dressing Bundle Yarn Cope Winding For Shuttle loom Spool Winding For shuttle less looms Weaving Finishing Jute Bags Bag Making Hessian Cloth. CBC .

9 Manufacturing Process 29 Raw jute in the form of bales are processed in jute mills to produce hessian. jet sprayer. Sacking weft etc.e. jute bales are carried to softning section by workers called Gariwala and Bajawala. There are three different carding sections: (i) breaker carding (ii) Inner carding (iii) finisher carding . After selection. raw jute bales are opened to find out any defect and to remove the defective portion from the mora by experienced workers. carried by trucks are unloaded are stacked in the jute mills gowdown. The bales are assorted according to end use like Hessiean weft. vat. In the selection process. emulsion tank and the jacket. 150 kg weight and 180 kg weight with or without top portion cutting. Jute fibres are formed into ribbon called "sliver". In this softning process jute becomes soft and pileable and suitable for carding. nozzles. motor. and other useful products. Generally an emulsion plant with jute softner machine is used to lubricate and soften the bark and gummy raw jute. Carding is a combining operation where jute reeds are splitted and extraneous matters are removed. The emulsion plant consists of gear pump. jute yarn. Sacking wrap. use of softening machine and use of jute good spreader. Raw jute bales are of two types i. Two methods are used for softning. sacking. bags. In softning process jute morahs are made soft and pileable. Raw jute bales from jute fields or suppliers.

retaining roller. Drawing is a process for reducing sliver width and thickness by simultaneously mixing 4 to 6 sliver together. staves.9 Manufacturing Process 30 In the Breaker carding machine soften jute after piling is feed by hand in suitable weight.  Finisher carding machine make the sliver more uniform and regular in length and weight obtained from the Breaker carding machine.  Nearly 4 to 12 slivers obtained from Breaker carding machine is fed on this machine. crimpling box etc. In this process root cutting is necessary before feeding the material to the hand feed breaker carding machine. equalizing the sliver and doubling two or more slivers. In most mills 3 Drawing passages are used in Hessian and 2 Drawing passages are used in Sacking.  Finisher carding machine is identical to the Breaker carding machine. level and provide quality and color. This machines includes delivery roller. pressing roller. The first drawing frame machines makes blending. pinning arrangement and speed. check spring. having more pair of rollers. faller screw sliders. The machine by action with different rollers turns out raw jute in the form of jute sliver for finisher carding.. The slivers obtained from finisher carding machine is fed with four slivers on to the first drawing frame machine.  The material thus obtained is send to drawing section. . There are three types of Drawing Frame machine. back spring.

the Third Drawing frame machine uses the sliver from second drawing.9 1. The Second Drawing machine makes more uniform sliver and reduce the jute into a suitable size for third drawing. The Third Drawing machine is of high speed makes the sliver more crimpled and suitable for spinning.9 Manufacturing Process 31 In second drawing. Drawing Process st Drawing 1 2nd Drawing 3rd Drawing Efficiency Range(%) 55 .74 67 .73 64 . the Second Drawing Frame machine obtain the sliver from the First drawing machine and use six slivers and deliveries per head.62 – 1.31 – 1.4 . The jute spinning frame machine is fitted with slip draft zone and capable of producing quality yarns at high efficiency with auto-dofting arrangements also. The comparison of the three drawing process: Spinning is the process for producing yarn from sliver obtained from Third drawing.70 Productivity Mt/mc/shift 1.75 – 2. In the third drawing.2 1.

Jute production in South Asian countries is given below .0 7. World 100% 2465 India 62.0 1404.83 TOTAL INDIA.0 1620.0 10.4 56.5 57.3 2000/2001 814.3 2496.2 29.6 2698.6 3144.2% of total world production of jute.0 17. They are. Pabna) and India(West Bengal.3 2001/2002 924.7 47. Jassore.0 41.9 2002/2003 793.0 SOURCE: FAO In ‘000 metric tons.75 Nepal 0. India and Nepal has produced 98. 1999/2000 Bangladesh China India Indonesia Myanmar Nepal Thailand Vietnam WORLD 731. More then 98% of total world production of jute grown in three south Asian countries.61% to the total world production of jute.0 12.7 126.5 15. Faridpur. China an Burma.7 14.2 11.6 6. Orissa).0 20. Global jute and Allied fiber production chart is given below . many other parts of Africa. Dhaka. Bangladesh contributed 35.0 42.0 27. India contributed 62.10 Market Analysis 32 Jute producing countries in the world: Major jute producing countries are Bangladesh(Mayemansingh.2% 2423 .0 7. But the best qualities of jute produced in Bangladesh and India.BANGLADESH.0 165.4% 827.61% 16. 4%.0 1977. Rangpur. • Bangladesh • India • Nepal In 2001-2005 Bangladesh.0 2060.8 16. Coochbihar.5 3292.19% and Nepal 0.5 26.3 155.0 1890. Brazil. Large amount of raw jute produce in Bangladesh.2 50.19% 1533 Bangladesh 35. Tripura. Attempts have been made to grow jute in Nigeria.3 7.6 2003/2004 963.5 3185.8 41.0 14.9 17. NEPAL 98. Japan. Assam.8 15.5 164.7 136.

10 Market Analysis 33 Market and market shares of jute good products: Jute distributed in world market in this way. .

000 tons. the BJMC and BJMA mills now use an estimated 250.000 tons by the year 2010.000 tons per year. Raw fibre is exported as well as jute manufactured goods. On the other hand there is the BJSA with over 40 mills. This is an association of private sector yarn producers. Raw jute exported each year ranges between 300.000 tons for use in the national mills.000 tons is exported and about 45. On the one hand there is the Government owned BJMC with 22 or so mills.10 Market Analysis 34 BANGLADESH The jute industry in Bangladesh is primarily export oriented. will soon use about a similar amount for yarn production. 1980 – 40.000 tons. It would be reasonable to anticipate a little over 120.  The amount of jute goods consumed internally in Bangladesh is in the range 100.  The internal consumption of jute goods in Bangladesh is about half the amount per capita compared to that of India.  Bangladesh provides over 90% of the world’s raw jute and allied fibre exports. There has been a slow build up of internal consumption over the years.000 tons with India accounting for half. In statistical terms the BJMC and the BJMA output all of which are composite fabric mills are here shown together. As noted earlier about 300. The range of products produced is similar to India but the structure of the industry is different.000 and about 350. running the bulk of the operational looms and the semi-privately owned BJMA with 12 operating mills.000 tons is consumed in village consumption.  Depending on availability of finance and thus how many mills are operating. and Carpet Backing Cloth. India.000 tons in recent years.000 tons and the BJSA (Yarn mills) was less than 100. 1990 – 50. Pakistan and China between them take about 250.  Jute fiber availability in Bangladesh is generally in the range 750.  During the early 1990s the combined output of the BJMC & BJMA was around 450. The BJSA mills (which year on year continue to increase output). which leaves about 500.000 tons.000 tons. in 1970 – 30. Hessian. .000 to 850.000 tons. In effect during the last decade the manufacture and export of yarn has largely substituted for the decline in the production and export of Sacking.000 tons and in 2000 – 80.000 tons of the national crop of raw material.

000 tons 35 Broadly the current annual Bangladesh jute market profile is : Local consumption of fibre at village level Local consumption of mill manufactured jute goods.000 tons 100.10 Market Analysis 45.000 tons 20. Total local/internal consumption EXPORT OF JUTE IN BALED FIBER FROM BJMC and BJMA exports of Sacking Hessian Carpet Backing BJSA EXPORT OF YARNS (Includes BJMA yarn shipments) TOTAL EXPORTS OF JUTE GOOS IN MANUFACTURED FROM 400.000 tons TOTAL RAW JUTE AND JUTE EXPORT 700.000 tons 300.000 tons .000 tons 90.000 tons 145.000 tons 230.000 tons 50.

10 Market Analysis 36 Worldwide the current annual breakdown of jute may be assumed as follows. .

Jute Hammocks. Jute Bottle Bags. Jute Sacking Bag. Jute Coasters. Jute Sling Bags. Jute Hydro-Carbon Free Bags. Jute Carpets → Industrial Jute Goods: Jute Felt. Jute Food Grade Bags → Jute Handicrafts: Notebook. Jute Beach Bags. Jute Webbing . Jute Hydro-Carbon Free Cloth. Jute Shopping Bags. Jute Yarn. Jute Cushion Covers. Jute Wall Hangings. Gift Box. Tissue Box. Jute Footwear. Jute Blinds. Jute Promotional Bags. Jute Carpet Backing Cloth (CBC). Jute Hessian Cloth Bags.11 Jute Products 37 → Jute Bags : Jute Hand Bags . Jute Stationery → Jute Textile: Jute Hessian Cloth or Burlap. file folder. Jute Geo Textiles. Pen holder. Jute Table Mats. Jute Canvas. Jute Rugs. Greeting cards. Memo Box. → Jute Apparel: Jute Jacket. Slip Pad Holder. Photo frame. Jute Fabrics. Jute Lamp Shades. Jute Fashion Accessories → Jute Furnishings: Jute Mats & Durries. Jute Christmas Bags.

11 Jute Products 38 JUTE bags .

11 Jute Products 39 APPAREL .

11 Jute Products 40 Office accessories .

11 Jute Products 41 Footwear: .

11 Jute Products 42 furnishings .

11 Jute Products 43 Decorations: .

drik.Dhaka1000. 9557118 Fax : 88-02-9567508.com Alijan Jute Mills Ltd.S. 93 Motijheel C/A. 8115394 Fax : 88-02-8113898 Email : shubrota@tradescanbd. Eastern View (7th Flr). 9144457 Fax : 88-02-8318392 Email : bengal@bd.com Ahad Jute Mills Ltd. 9667755 Email : mail@anwargroup. Road No. 9353068 Email : bsjsl@bdcom.netbd Bengal Jute Industries Ltd. 9351139. 9560864 Fax : 88-02-9569537. Dhaka 1000. Dhaka 1209 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9113085 Fax : 88-02-8113267 Email : mahai@bol-online. 216 Outer Circular Road (2nd Flr) Bara Moghbazar. Road-11/A.net Al-Haj Aminuddin Jute Mills Ltd.com B. House No. 115-120 Motijheel C/A. Azad Center (3rd Flr.com . 9564519 Email : akijute@akij. 50 DIT Extension Road. House-79. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9564033-7 Fax : 88-02-9564020. (3rd Floor) Aziz Bhaban.R. West Dhanmondi R/A. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-7112326-8.com Aziz Fibres Ltd. Lal Bhaban Stadum East Gate Dhaka 1000 Phone : 88-02-9556251 Fax : 88-02-9562076 Email : sonali@bol-online.com Bangladesh Jute Association 77 Motijheel C/A Dhaka Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9552916 Fax : 88-02-9552916 Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation Adamjee Court.12 Jute Manufacturer 44 Anwar Jute Spinning Mills Limited 27 Dilkusha C/A Dhaka 1000.net A. 18 Rajuk Avenue. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9667023-5. 73 Dilkusha C/A Dhaka 1000. 9331344. 9562691 Fax : 88-02-9559675 Email : info@azizpiepes. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9550992.A Jute Mills Ltd. Jute Spinners Ltd. Dhaka 1000. Akij Chamber. 55 Purana Palton. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9558182-86. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9567533.com ABC Agency 62/1 Purana Paltan (2nd Flr) Dhaka 1000. Dhaka 1205 Phone : 88-02-8115392. 88-0421-72337 Akij Jute Mills Ltd. 55-I. 9555813 Fax : 88-02-9563296 Email : abcjute@bdcom.). 9564740 Email : bjmc@bttb. Dhaka 1217 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9333851. 0421-74064 Fax : 88-02-9553439.9A Dhanmondi R/A. Dhaka 1000 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-8321297.

Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9572170 Fax : 88-02-7161801 Email : corofin@bdonline. Dhaka 1209 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9113085 Fax : 88-02-8113267 Email : mahai@bol-online. 3rd Flr. 1st Flr Dhaka.com Jute Spinners Ltd. Dhaka 1209. 9565669 Email : fairgrup@citechco. Co.agni. Ltd. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9555192-5. 8113202 Fax : 88-02-8111650 Email : shams@dhaka. 9131141 Fax : 88-02-8113267 Email : mahai@bol-online. 9565668 Fax : 88-02-9565662. 49/1 Imamgonj (2nd Flr).net Janata Jute Mills Ltd. West Dhanmondi. Ltd.net Fatima Alyaf Tala-E Jute Inds. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9349132 Fax : 88-02-9334806 Email : ikmr@bangla.1000. 33 Banani C/A. Ispahani Building (2nd Flr).net Keraniganj Jute Fibres Ltd.com Karim Jute Spinners Ltd. Motijheel C/A. 69/1 Pantha Path Green Road. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-8629391-3 Fax : 88-02-8629395 Email : kjsl@bdmail.net . 50 Purana Paltan Lane. Road-9/A. Dhaka. Dhaka 1209 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-8111994. Dhanmondi R/A. SMC Tower.com Creative International Road New 14. 7314260 Fax : 88-02-7314406 Email : kjfl@bijoy. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9560081.12 Jute Manufacturer 45 Ferdaus Jute Mills Ltd. Road-11/A. Malek Mansion (6th Flr). Chandrahila Suvatu Tower (4th Flr). West Dhanmondi. 3 DIT Avenue Motijheel C/A. 9556386 Fax : 88-02-9565319 Email : ispahani@bangla.net Corofin Jutex Corporation 128.net Charmuguria Jute Mills Ltd. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9143158. Dhaka. Old 29 Hosue 7 Dhanmondi. 14-15 Motijheel C/A. Dhaka 1000. House 98. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9673168. 218 New Elephant Road (2nd Flr) Dhaka 1205. Dhaka. Dhaka. Road 9A(New). 9663481 Fax : 88-02-8612373 Email : faridpur@bangla. Dhaka 1209 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-8115329. Dhaka.com Chittagong Jute Mfg.com Islam Khan Jute Mills Ltd. House-79. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-7310065. Haq Chamber (2nd Flr). 9138139-40 Fax : 88-02-9122847 Email : cretativeinet@hotmail.net Faridpur Jute Fibres Ltd. House-121. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9888419 Fax : 88-02-9881027 Email : jasahuq@bdonline.

net Nissan Jute Mills Limited Nahar Mansion (3rd Flr).net Patuakhali Jute Mills Ltd. Dhaka 1000.Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9552577. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9888419 Fax : 88-02-9881027 Email : jashuq@accesstel. Kakrail. 7126141 Fax : 88-02-9564757. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9362065 Fax : 88-02. 9550615 Fax : 88-02-9568174 Email : metroexp@citechco.net Nowapara Jute Mills Ltd. 9669470 8611891-5 Fax : 88-02-861470. 150 Motijheel C/A. Road # 2 Dhaka 1205.net . Kakrail Dhaka 1000. EBCO Chamber (1st Flr). Ltd. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9333851. Dhaka. Land Mark (3rd Floor) 12-14 North C/A. 8th Flr. 9564756 Email : namjute@citechco.8315335 Email : erba@bdmail.net Lytton Jute Mills Limited 216 Outer Circular Road. 9552220 Fax : 88-02-9564208 Email : pjml@spaninn. 9550707 Fax : 88-02-9563472 Email : sader@citechco. Ltd.drick.net Mutual Jute Spinners Ltd. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9550641. Dhaka 1000. Purana Paltan Line. Gulshan-2 Dhaka -1212 . Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-8618220-7.com Sadat Jute Industries Limited SMC Tower (3rd Flr) 33 Banani C/A. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9558582. Dhaka 1217. Dhaka 1213.net New Dacca Industries Limited 17 Dhanmondi RA. Bara Moghbazar. 94.net Saddat Trading Co.net Metropolitan Exports Corporation 9-G Motijheel C/A. 7167525. Paribahan Bhaban. Dhaka Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9559454. Dhaka 1000 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9552222. 9560912 Fax : 88-02-9561891 Email : nissanbd@citechco. 21 Rajuk Avenue. Jatiya Scout Bhaban (9th-12th Flr) 70/1. 9144457 Fax : 88-02-9130201 Email : bengal@bd. Motijheel C/A. Room 3. 2nd Flr. Dhaka 1000. Dhaka 1000 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9346111 404103 011-855438 Fax : 88-02-8319776 Email : jutebiz@bijoy. 9551853 Fax : 88-02-9558906 Email : popular@bdonline. Rajuk Annex Building (4th Flr) Dilkusha C/A.com Popular Jute Mills Ltd. 28 Dilkusha CA. 9-K. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9551754.Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-8822581 Fax : 88-02-88115100 Nawab Abdul Malek Jute Mills (BD) Ltd.12 Jute Manufacturer 46 Northern Jute Manufacturing Co. 8613297 Email : bexijute@bangla.

com Specialised Jute Yarn & Twine Mfg.net . Motijheel C/A. Dhaka 1212. 9330836 Fax : 88-02-9330836 Email : aline@e-fsbd. Al-Helal Bld (3rd Flr). Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-8111994. 3rd Flr. Dhaka -1000. Gulshan Avenue. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-7100089. Dhaka 1000. 54. Adamjee Court (2nd Flr). Dhaka 1000.com Transocean Fibres Processors (BD) Ltd. 13th Flr. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-8321914 Fax : 88-02-9343546 Shamsher Jute Mills Ltd. 186 Inner Circular Road. 9560939 Fax : 88-02-9553428. Ltd. Dhaka. 8315490 Fax : 88-02-8312943 Email : mma-atoz@bangla.net Sonali Aansh Industries Ltd. Elite House (3rd Flr). Room-10/12 Fakirapol. 18 Rajuk Ave. Akusha Bhaban 53. 86 Nawabpur Road. 333/1 Segunbagicha (1st Floor) Dhaka 1000. 7100547 Fax : 88-02-7100675 Email : sbjutex@bttb.net Sarwar Jute Mills Ltd.12 Jute Manufacturer 47 Shyamol Bangla Jutex Ltd.net. 8113202.bd Sidlaw Textile (Bangladesh) Ltd. Dhaka 1100 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-7110985 Fax : 88-02-7117548 Shihab Jute Spinners Ltd. Dhaka 1000 Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9553351-52 Sagar Jute Spinning Mills Limited 392 New Eskaton Road. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9340284. 9-G Motijheel C/A. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9334038. Agrambagh. 8116337 Fax : 88-02-8111650 Email : shams@agni. Dhaka Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9552024.net Supreme Jute and Knitex Limited House # 98. Dhaka 1000. Email : sjml@bol-online. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9551413. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9358024 Fax : 88-02-8312933 Email : fdl_sjsm@bangla. 115-120 Motijheel C/A. 50 DIT Extension Road. 1st Flr. Co. 392 New Eskaton Road. 9550632 Fax : 88-02-9560398 Email : sjrl@sparkbd. Dhaka 1209.net Sayeed Jute Spinning Ltd. Road # 9A (New) Dhanmondi RA.com Sharif Jute Mills Ltd. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9556251 Fax : 88-02-9562076 Email : sonali@bol-online. Lal Bhaban. Bangladesh Phone : 88-02-9881867-8 Fax : 88-02-8823727 Email : jute@citechco. Eastern View. Dhaka.

13 Jute Buyers 48 .

The earth has a mission to turn green and is looking to escape the grasp of in-disposable incurable substance. . The tears of loss of the heritage has been wiped with a joyous return to the foray.but no more. information and linkage for Bangladesh is in place to dominate the world market. Jute. A drop of tear in a pool that has dried husk in the sun. The return to Jute.14 Conclusion 49 Farmer gathering Jute from the harvest.a mere nostalgic remembrance and faint sense of pride in what is our golden heritage. sustaining the farmers through the wealth that flowed into the land from exporting Jute. It looked destined to become another 'muslin' of the east story . This is the high time. as a natural substance for the need has reinvigorated the land. This is a story of a golden fiber. The fiber was the gold flowing in the veins of Bengal. that lost its dominance to negligence. The people twined gold fibers through hard labor and lived off the salt earned through sweat on the soil. The worth on the environment that plastic has brought had escaped the eye of the world for so long . misappropriation and mismanagement. that we have to ensure the best technology.

org www.bangladesh. 7.bjmc.infokosh. Reference 50 Jute Basics – International jute Study Group Jute Yarn Manufacturing in Bangladesh www. 3. 2.gov. 4.worldjute.jute.bd www.bd/ . 8.com/jute-history-and-uses/ http://www.com http://www.15 1. 5.bd http://informedfarmers.bjri.gov. 6.gov.

so please all want to help us to achieve this & reuse our bags again & again & again & again.com asiajute@gmail.asiajute.we.com . reduce the use of Plastic shopping Bags. www. .