You are on page 1of 116

Reference Guide

Release 1

Written by: Matt Clifford, Purdue University Anthony J. Palumbo, Bowling Green State University Steven Dunlop, Purdue University

We wish to acknowledge others that have contributed to the writing of this book. Without their assistance the quality of this document would not be as complete.

Jeff Major Chief Engineer Electric Vehicle Institute, Bowling Green State University Aaron Bloomfield Faculty, M.S.E.E., Northwest State Community College, Archbold, Ohio Peter ORegan Grad student Purdue University Mark Suchomel Grad Student Purdue University Daniel White Director of Motorsports at Purdue, Purdue University Garrett Hunter Western Illinios University Grant Chapman Student Purdue University

Copyright reserved Content intended to be used by registered evGrand Prix Participants No other use with out prior written permission Published by Collegiate Grand Prix Consortium, First Edition March 2012

ABSTRACT The purpose of this handbook is to provide a guide for fielding a team, building a kart and competing in the evGrandPrix on track events. Topics include but are not limited to, organizing a team, planning, designing, fabricating and building the racer, preparing for the race, and race day information. By following this handbook teams should be better able to prepare their entry into the evGrandPrix. The information presented in this handbook is not to be interpreted as the final word of rules and specifications. These are provided in separate documentation. The information presented in this guide is a resource guideline, not as law. Teams are encouraged to be innovative and think of new ideas as long as the rules and specifications are met.

TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT......................................................3 FIGURES AND IMAGES ....................................6 BACKGROUND ...............................................7 EV GRAND PRIX HISTORY ...............................8 CHAPTER 1 TEAM ...........................................9 Assembling a team ..................................... 9 Team Roles ................................................. 9 GENERAL TEAM ADMINISTRATION ....................... 11 Travel Expenses ........................................ 11 Tools ......................................................... 11 Racer Costs ............................................... 11 Registration .............................................. 12 Team apparel ........................................... 13 Team Log Book ......................................... 13 SPONSORS AND MARKETING .............................. 14 Sponsors ................................................... 14 Promotion expences ................................. 15 FINDING WORK SPACE ....................................... 15 Place to Work on Racer ............................ 15 Place to Research and Plan ...................... 15 Place to Practice and Tune Racer ............. 15 SCHEDULE/TIMELINE......................................... 16 CHAPTER 2 MECHANICAL ............................. 17 Chassis ...................................................... 17 Frame ....................................................... 18 Vehicle Measurements ............................. 19 Frame construction standards. ................ 22 Front Bumper ........................................... 23 Nerf Bars .................................................. 24 Weight Analysis........................................ 24 Fasteners .................................................. 24 CHAPTER 3 DRIVER RESTRATING SYSTEM ... 25 Seat and Seat Mounts .............................. 25 Driver Restraint system ............................ 25 4 Seat Belts, Harness and arm Restraints ... 26 Seat Belt Mount ....................................... 27 Arm Restraints ......................................... 27 Seat Belt Mount ....................................... 27 Head Rest ................................................. 28 CHAPTER 4 BEARING, AXLES, STEERING ........ 29 Steering Assembly .................................... 29 Chassis tuning .......................................... 31 CHAPTER 5 BRAKING SYSTEMS ..................... 35 Brakes ...................................................... 35 Throttle .................................................... 35 Throttle and Brake Pedals........................ 35 Brake Master Cylinder ............................. 36 Brake Caliper and Disc ............................. 36 Tires, Rims, Hubs, and Wheels ................ 37 Axle .......................................................... 40 CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL DRIVE TRAIN ......... 41 Open Drive (Chain) Guard ........................ 41 Motor Mount Bracket .............................. 41 Motor Mount ........................................... 42 CHAPTER 7 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS.................. 43 TRACTION POWER SYSTEM ................................ 43 CHAPTER 8 BATTERY ................................. 44 Battery Selection ...................................... 44 Battery Chemistry .................................... 44 Pack Voltage ............................................ 45 Capacity rating......................................... 45 Batteries................................................... 48 Packs ........................................................ 48 Charging................................................... 50 Battery Box .............................................. 50 Battery Mount ......................................... 51 Storage..................................................... 51 Battery Temperature Control................... 52 Battery Safety .......................................... 53 Charging and discharging ........................ 53

Emergency Procedures ............................. 55 CHAPTER 9 BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (BMS) .......................................................... 57 BMS Configurations ................................. 58 Distributed................................................ 58 BMS Systems Comparison Table .............. 59 CHAPTER 10 MOTORS .................................. 60 Electric Motor introduction ................. 60 DC MOTORS.................................................... 61 Mechanically communtated .................... 61 Permanent Magnet PMDC Operation ..... 61 Wound field WFDC motor ........................ 63 Shunt Field................................................ 63 Series Wound ........................................... 64 Compound Wound ................................... 65 AC MOTORS .................................................... 65 Brushless or Electronically Communtated 65 Permanent Field Operation ...................... 66 Wound Field Operation ............................ 68 Induction Motor Operation ...................... 68 Switched Reluctance Operation ............... 70 MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS .................................... 71 Additional INFORMATION on Motors ...... 73 CHAPTER 11 MOTOR CONTROLLER ............... 75 DC MOTOR CONTROLLERS .................................. 75 Contactor as a Controller ......................... 76 Resistor Speed Control ............................. 77 Field speed Control ................................... 77 Electronic DC Speed Control. .................... 78 Forward and reverse control .................... 79 DC Controller wiring diagram .................. 79 DC Controller Specifications ..................... 80 DC Motor Controller Kits .......................... 81 AC MOTOR CONTROLLER (INVERTER) .................. 81 AC Motor Controller Kits .......................... 83 Encoder .................................................... 84 AC Controller wiring diagram................... 84 5

AC Controller Specifications ..................... 85 CHAPTER 12 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS &WIRING 88 wiring diagram ........................................ 88 circuit elements........................................ 89 Wiring ...................................................... 92 Electrical Leakage Test............................. 94 Mounting Plate ........................................ 95 CHAPTER 13 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ................................................. 97 Helmet ..................................................... 97 Neck Brace ............................................... 98 Seat Belts ................................................. 98 Racing Gloves ........................................... 98 Safety Glasses .......................................... 98 CHAPTER 14 FABRICATION MATERIALS ......... 99 Aluminum................................................. 99 Steel ......................................................... 99 CHAPTER 15 ROLL CAGE ............................... 99 Roll Cage Mount ...................................... 99 Body Panels .............................................. 99 CHAPTER 16 RACE PREPARATION & RACE ... 100 Practice Racing ...................................... 100 Practice Pits ........................................... 100 Safety training ....................................... 100 Acquire Radios ....................................... 100 Develop Race Strategy ........................... 100 GLOSSARY ................................................. 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................... 105 APPENDIX .................................................. 106 APPENDIX A - ANATOMY OF A RACING TEAM ...... 106 APPENDIX B - BOLT CHART .............................. 112 US Bolts ................................................. 112 Metric bolts ............................................ 113

FIGURES AND IMAGES Figure 1 Cost Breakdown .. 12 Figure 2 ............................. 16 Figure 3 ............................. 17 Figure 4 ............................. 18 ............................... Figure 5 .......................................... 19 Figure 6 ............................. 19 Figure 7 ............................. 20 Figure 8 Figure 9 ....... 20 Figure 10 Figure 11 .. 21 Figure 12 Figure 13 ... 21 Figure 14 ........................... 22 Figure 15 Figure 16 .. 22 Figure 17 Figure 18 ... 23 Figure 19 Front Bumper .... 23 Figure 20 ........................... 25 Figure 21 ........................... 26 Figure 22 ......................... 26 Figure 23............................ 27 Figure 24 Figure 25 ... 29 Figure 26............................ 29 Figure 27............................ 30 Figure 28............................ 31 Figure 29............................ 35 Figure 30 Figure 31 . 36 Figure 32 Figure 33 ... 37 Figure 34............................ 39 Figure 35 Figure 36 .. 40 Figure 37 Motor Mount Figure 38 Motor mount bracket 42 Figure 39 battery made of cells in connected in series 48 Figure 40............................ 51 Figure 41 Figure 42 ... 61 Figure 43............................ 62 Figure 44............................ 63 Figure 45............................ 64 Figure 46............................ 65 Figure 47............................ 69 Figure 48............................ 69 Figure 49............................ 76 Figure 50............................ 77 Figure 51............................ 78 Figure 52............................ 79 Figure 53 Figure 54 ... 81 Figure 56............................ 83 Figure 58............................ 89 Figure 59............................ 93 Figure 60............................ 96 Figure 61............................ 97

BACKGROUND

The 2012 evGrand Prix Collegiate Program represents an innovative, team-based approach to developing the next generation of automobile powered by electricity. The vision of the founders is to make this a national event, with racing teams coming from across the country to showcase their expertise by competing with the best and brightest future electric vehicle designers, engineers, enthusiasts and racing teams! The purpose of this program is to accelerate innovation through education by encouraging college students to study science, technology, engineering and math, and pursue a career in the electric vehicle industry. This is a learning-by-doing reality based environment. Using electric powered racers as the focus, the program inspires students to commit their creative energies to develop future electric vehicle technologies--technologies that will secure sustainable and environmentally responsible transportation for future generations. To compete in the evVehicle Grand Prix, students organize teams to design, build, and promote the events and electric vehicle technology. Teams partner with industry, government agencies, and community outreach programs which help to fund the program. While there may be other series of electric motorsports that focus on running fast, the EV Grand Prix is focused on providing an affordable educational venue for students to learn, design, drive and race an electric vehicle. It is important to understand that the real winners are those students who complete a racer and bring it to the track. These are the students who have the fortitude and ability to complete a complex project. Coming across the finish line first is icing on the cake. The winner of the season series is the team that best blends vehicle design, race placement, educational outreach and optimal efficiency over the seasons events. Qualification runs , solo runs and sprint races may also be run as part of the season event calendar, as college teams from across the nation come together and compete for scholarships and bragging rights. The future of transportation is changing and the Purdue Electric Vehicle Grand Prix looks to charge the innovation of personal vehicles with new and exciting technologies learned in the classroom and proven on the track. Join us as we develop new modes of transportation for the future fueled by clean and renewable energy. In 2012, Purdue University is hosting two race events, evGrand prix at Purdue and the evGrand Prix at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. In addition outreach, efficiency and technical events are also on the season schedule and will count for the season championship.

EV GRAND PRIX HISTORY The evGrand Prix was launched in 2010 as part of Purdues electric vehicle initiative. Funded by a $6 million federal grant, Purdue partnered with the leading technical universities and colleges in Indiana to establish a program to educate and train the workforce needed to design, manufacture and maintain advanced electric vehicles, and formed the Indiana Advanced Electric Vehicle Training and Education Consortium (I-AEVtec). The IAEVtec will develop and offer Certificates, as well as Associate degrees for training vehicle technicians, BS and MS degree programs for design and manufacturing engineers in the electric vehicle industry and a Certificate program in electric vehicle safety for emergency responders. A leading engineering and technology university, Purdue seeks to train students and the Indiana workforce to deliver and maintain the electric vehicles of tomorrow. Purdue University hosted the inaugural ev Grand Prix regional race on April 18, 2010 which was held at the Purdue University track in Lafayette. The inaugural event was organized by students from the Electric Vehicle Engineering Projects in Community Service (EPICS) teams and students enrolled in electric vehicle courses. In 2011 Purdue hosted the second reginal evGrand Prix at Purdue on April 30, 2011. With two regional races under their belt, Purdue opened up the series to the nation, inviting post secondary schools to participate in the first evGrand Prix at Indianapolis. This was a history making event as 30 racers took the green flag and for the first time in its 100 year history electric vehicles competed wheel to wheel at Indy!!!

CHAPTER 1 TEAM ASSEMBLING A TEAM Assembling the perfect team is one of the most difficult things to do. A good team pools people of different backgrounds and abilities to complete a similar project. Those people then work together in order to be successful. Hard work, a positive work ethic, and the ability to research are essential to completing this build. Keeping the team together and on task ia a major a challenge for team leaders and advisors. TEAM ROLES Below we will outline key personnel to any electric vehicle racing organization. Advisor: It is important to emphasis that the teams are led by students and that students are able to make mistakes in a safe manner. Having a Faculty from the home institution in charge or as an advisor is needed for any race team to function. A faculty is preferred as the representative of the institution and will will represent the team to the governing organization and insure that all school policies are followed. The advisor can also help with the scholoraly based events. The advisor will oversee activities and insurea safe work environment. It is hoped that every team would have an adult advisor but it is essential that there be at least one advisor per institution. Each team should consist of at least six people. The Driver and Crew Chief and the Scorer are required positions the three others can serve various roles as crew members. Driver & Driver Tips: Becoming a race driver is not as easy as many believe. Drivers are atheletes with good instincts coordination and mental focus. A good driver also has a working knowledge of the technology built into the vehicle. Successful drivers must be willing to help lead the team and work in public relations and team funding and promotion. Research: extensive research on the background of mechanics and driving. The sooner one begins schooling , the better chance at becoming successful behind the wheel. Read everything about the sport of racing performance vehicles that you can. This includes books, magazines, mechanic's manuals, textbooks, etc. Go to race tracks. Talk to race track employees. Speak to drivers, crew members and anyone else involved on a race team. The more people in the field you approach, the more knowledge you can add to your repertoire and the more contacts you will have when it is time to start getting more serious. Experience: Experience and research go hand and hand. Once you have gained a significant amount of knowledge it is time to acquire hands on experience. Try your hand at driving at a concession track. Getting a feel for what it is like driving in traffic at speed will give you an idea if you have what it takes to become a race driver. Get a job at a race track. Sell tickets. Become an usher. Just make sure you are involved with the day-to-day operations that help make a racetrack a profitable place to recreate.

Volunteer to help out a race team. Sweep the floors clean the car. Get up close and personal with people in the business. Make sure they realize you are serious about learning. Work part-time for a mechanic. Go racing every chance you get. Seat time is everything, no matter what vehicle you are driving Attend a Race School: Attending a race school is essential for the aspiring driver. Not only will it provide a more thorough and well-rounded education, but will also give future drivers a chance to compete against those that have their same level of skill and experience. Working with an experienced teacher will minimize problems and accelerate your learning process. Before choosing a school, keep in mind that the some well known schools are not always the best for you. Do some research before committing to a specific one. Also, bear in mind that the type of racing you are pursuing will determine which school you attend as well. Practice Racing: Seat time is the most important commodity for a future racecar driver. Get behind the wheel as often as you are able to. Utilize your time at race school wisely, as this is the perfect opportunity to gain experience, improve upon your skills and hopefully convince a sponsor or race team to take you on. Team Manager - This is the business manager for the team. Contacting and working with sponsors, organizing shows, ordering parts, keeping others working on schedule, travel logisitics are just some of the tasks that must be coordinated for a team to be a success. Crew Chief - The Crew chief is the technical spokesperson for the team. The Crew Chief will direct the other mechanical and electrical crew members. The crew chief can serve as the spotter and is typically in communication with the driver. Scorer - In addition to electronic scoring, a manual scorer is essential to insure the team is being scored properly. Scorers must be schooled in the system being used by the event organizers. This can mean anything from counting laps to monitoring the karts efficiency. The scorer looks out for the well being and placement of the team Electronically Knowledgeable Person - Designing an electric vehicle consists heavily in understanding electronics. Understanding even basic circuitry is required in order to not only design a racer, but wire it. The ideal person should know circuit basics, understand power as it pertains to movement as well as battery storage, and understand the individual components from the controller to the electric motor. Mechanically Knowledgeable Person - Complementing all the electric aspects are all the general mechanics of the racer. Understanding gearing, being able to repair brakes, and being able to work with general tooling will help any team complete their project faster. Racer set up is critical to winning!

10

GENERAL TEAM ADMINISTRATION A budget is generally a list of all planned expenses and revenues. Before you begin to create your budget, it is important to provide as much detailed information as possible. Ultimately, the budget should be generated on a spread sheet and converted to a ledger. Computer programs such as Excell are excellent for this. The budget will show where your money is coming from, how much is there and where it is all going. Outlined below are some of the expenditures you will need to budget for an evGrand Prix team. TRAVEL EXPENSES One of the most underestimated costs in a racing team is traveling from event to event. Traveling can consist of the entire team going to practice tracks to races, and to outreach events. Miles accrued can add up over a short time if travel is not planned and multiple vehicles are used. Travel expences may also include food on the road, rental vehicles such as vans and accommodations for events. TOOLS Tools are the facilitators of any hands on project. Without tools, the project cannot be started or completed. Below are lists of two sets of tools. There are necessary tools that you will commonly use throughout the building and running process and more advanced tools for advanced fabrication work. The advanced tools listed are not a must have. These items may be available at the institution for team use. Teams may also secure the services of a local fabricator to assist with the construction process. Tools should be organized in tool boxes for quick access. One box should be a hot pit kit that contains only the tools and equipment your team needs for a pit stop for battery change, tires or adjustments. The remaining tools would be kept in a box in the paddock area. Institutions with mulitlple teams may also have a special tool box which contains special tools which are shared among teams. Necessary Tools Allen Wrenches Wire cutters Wrench Set Drill Socket Set Hammer Screwdriver set Voltmeter/Ammeter/Ohmeter Wire crimper Jigsaw or saws-all Wire strippers Soldering Iron Tape Measure Advanced Tools Sheet Bender Tube Bender Tig Welder Hand /bench Grinders Drill/Press Tire changing equipment Alignment gauges Tire temperature gauge Weight Scales Air tank Punch, chisel set Portable vise C Clamps

RACER COSTS Below is a spreadsheet outlining racer fabrication and assembly costs that were accrued by a student team during their build. Dont let the bottom line discourage you. Many teams have built and fielded racers for less money. In kind products, used chassis and components can help reduce the costs. Another factor is that once you have the 11

racer built, you can run it for more than one season allowing your team to spread costs over several years. The high visibility events and intercollegiate competition should make this a fund raising venture not a fund buster.
Item Rolling Chassis Motor Controller Batteries Battery Shipping Contactor Throttle Charger Power Connectors Connector base Connector Handle Fuse Main Wire Ring Terminal Small Wire Safety Switches Small Connectors Throttle Cable Chain Rear Sprocket Motor Sprocket Battery Boxes Motor Mount Controller Mount Nerf Bars Roll Cage Seat belt Arm Restraints Helmet Racing Suit Racing Gloves Neck Collar Hardware Shipping Totals Manufacturer Margay MARS Alltrax ThunderSky Freight Albright Curtis Zivian Anderson Anderson Anderson Ferraz Fuze General Cable Thomas & Betts Local Mouser Local Fox Valley EK Rocket Sprocket McMasterCarr Custom Custom Custom Custom Custom Simpson Simpson Vega Bell Azusa Simpson Misc Misc Model Bravia 1.4 ETEK-RT AXE7234 LFP60 Estimated SW-180 PB-6 POTBox NG1 175A red #1/0 Double pole base Locking Handle 200A/150V 1/0AWG #J972 12-16AWG Many(estimated) 12-16awg 100/bag 6 with plastic #35 96 links #35 52-72Teeth #35 25teeth To Match LFP60 To match ET-RT Fit Rear Axel To fit battery Box To fit Chassis 5 way harness Simpson Arm Re Mach one Velocity Suit Nylon Karting Nomex Round Misc Hardware Shipping for all(est) Price Qty. Total $2,995.00 1 $2,995.00 $525.00 1 $525.00 $480.00 1 $480.00 $120.00 48 $2,880.00 $2.00 24 $48.00 $85.00 1 $85.00 $85.00 1 $85.00 $565.00 1 $565.00 $18.50 4 $74.00 $12.50 2 $25.00 $25.00 2 $50.00 $44.00 1 $44.00 $6.00 30 $180.00 $4.00 25 $100.00 $0.25 25 $6.25 $25.00 1 $25.00 $10.00 1 $10.00 $5.00 1 $5.00 $20.00 1 $20.00 $17.00 1 $17.00 $20.00 1 $20.00 $100.00 2 $200.00 $60.00 1 $60.00 $40.00 1 $0.00 $80.00 2 $0.00 $2,000.00 1 $0.00 $110.00 1 $0.00 $38.95 1 $0.00 $105.00 1 $105.00 $80.00 1 $80.00 $25.00 1 $25.00 $37.00 1 $37.00 $150.00 1 $150.00 $500.00 1 $500.00 $10,042.25

Figure 1 Cost Breakdown

REGISTRATION To insure entry into the race various forms and payments for registration and identification must be completed before the race. There are deadlines for the various forms and fees. Commuications between teams and the event organizers are key to meeting deadlines. Fees from individual teams may also be assessed to support your institutions commitment to the national organization. Spare parts must also be budgeted for. Items in this category include racer parts that are subject to loss, wear and damage or are needed to make adjustments in the set up. Typically this includes wheels and tires, suspension components, fasteners, fuses, chains, sprockets, and similar parts need to be on hand at the track. 12

Expendibles are items that are used up in the process of running or working on the racer. These items are usually not thought of until last and though cost little per unit add up quickly over the season of racing. Rags, oil, lubricants, suntan lotion, first aid supplies. TEAM APPAREL Drivers gear helmet shoes and suit must be secured and kept up to date. Team shirts, gloves and goggles must also be on hand. TEAM REGISTRATION Every team must register their school, racer, racer number, and individuals involved. Earlier registration insures the number chosen is the one assigned on race day. INDIVIDUAL REGISTRATION Each individual that plans on racing, being in the pits or being near the track must register as part of the team. Individuals will be given passes allowing them into various parts of the track based upon registration. Drivers must also complete detailed forms proving driver eligibility. MEDICAL FORMS Each individual must complete and sign a medical form which states that the individual understand that the organizers will not provide medical coverage and that participation in this event is voluntary. LIABILITY FORMS Each individual must complete and sign a form stating that organizers, sponsors and event personnel are not liabile and is understood by that person. Persons under the age of 18 must have a parent or guardians permission to participate. TEAM LOG BOOK The Team log book is a summarization of all the necessary documents a team will need over the course of the construction, practice and events. It should include the following sections: a. MSDS sheets / chemical inventory b. All Inspections records c. Hazard Analysis plan d. Safety Plan e. Track / Practice log f. Any equipment change out records which are needed (see kart spec for potential items) g. Electric leak testing record h. Kart weight analysis i. Copy of team waivers, medical releases j. Copy of submitted team information documents k. Copy of any deviation requests submitted and EMT action There are examples of these documents / templates on the web site under forms.

13

SPONSORS AND MARKETING SPONSORS Racing is a business. It is also a show. Keeping this in mind helps to focus the fund rasing activity and the opportunity to run and operate an enterprise. Recognizing the high cost associated with fielding an entry and wishing to encourage the involvement of businesses in the EV Grand Prix, the EV Grand Prix endorses the recruitment of commercial sponsors for individual entries. Race teams and schools must clear their sponsors through EV Grand Prix before entering into any agreement. Any information given to the EV Grand Prix before recruiting a sponsor will be held in confidence. No team can be sponsored by any organization or business associated with alcohol or tobacco, or dealing with items or services of a sexual or denigrating nature. This requirement includes businesses that are bars, where the bar is not set apart separately from a family area. The race director has final say on any discrepancies with this requirement. Finding a sponsor does not have to be a difficult task. The first thing one should do when searching for a sponsor is research. Research will indicate whether a particular sponsor is already to contributing to other teams, or to other organizations at the school. School policy as to solicitation of outside agencies should also be known prior to moving forward on a sponsorship campain. This research can be done in libraries, by observing competitions in a particular sport that the organization or person participates in, asking others what sponsors (if any) they have, by searching Internet sponsor websites promoting for particular activities, by investigating magazines or publications having to do with the activity engaged in, and by inquiring to existing organizations having sponsored members or participants. Printed, electronic and social media may be means for finding potential sponsors. Look for unique fits with the EV Grand Prix goals and nitch interest areas. Think about what your team can do to help promote the potential sponsors service or product. Look for products or services that you need or that you could test and promote by actually using on your racer. In kind parts and donated services are just as good as cash. Sponsorship letters and proposal documents are of vital importance when applying for sponsorship. Brochures are also good for handing out at shows and campus events for soliciting smaller donations such as send a student to INDY fundraiser. The sponsorship letter shows that the applicant has given thought to what the individual or organization wants to accomplish. It helps if you have a name of the contact person at the particular organization being solicited. Cold calls and emails many times go unread or unresponded to. The documents should be organized to provide the potential sponsor with basic statistical data such as how many individuals on the team or in the organization (if more than one person), location of the team, organization or individual and what type of awards or special honors any participants have received. Most important is a section or paragraph describing the prestige and opportunity for exposure to the public that national competition will provided to the sponsor. After the basic introductions of important details and statistics, sponsorship proposals would benefit from discussing the sponsorship they desire. Explaining goals of the team/individual/organization is a good start. A schedule of levels of cash and inkind contributions and what you will do for them, should be included for sponsors to see what they get for their contribution to your team. This introduction sets up in the potential sponsor's mind what to what benefit and ends the sponsor's money would be spent. Explain what the sponsor would gain from supporting your team as far as how many events and locations that you expect to participate per sporting season. Location and exposure are important to potential sponsors as it draws attention to them and is a form of marketing their business. It is also a good idea to specify (if possible) the length of the sponsorship and the amount of money needed. Some sponsorship agreements are long term and some are short termed. Most sponsorships are contracted agreements and so it is important for an individual or organization to make clear what they want and what the sponsor is willing to contribute before any deals are made. 14

Follow up is most important to sponsors, be sure to include sponsors in news letters and invitations to events. After season thank you letters with pictures and information as to what events and shows where you promoted their product or service is the key to securing sponsorship the following season and for establishing goodwill with your institution. Most of all be sure you deliver on those promises you made to attend events and promote products. PROMOTION EXPENCES Some of your funds need to be reserved for promotion of your marketing partners and team. This is crutial to keep sponsors happy and advertising your team. Fliers, newsletters, website host cost , display posters fit into this category. These expences typically will be in support of your teams outreach activity. Dont forget to add in the cost of food and drinks for those recruitment parties and at your hospitality tent at the events.

FINDING WORK SPACE PLACE TO WORK ON RACER Find a location that is large enough to store and secure your racer, tools, and extra parts while also leaving room to work on the racer. Make sure you have access to electricity and be sure that the owner of the property is aware that you will be using lots of electricity (charging batteries and running power tools) and that you may be working many hours of the day. Lastly, try to find a location close to campus. This will make it easier for your team to get there and you wont spend all of your time traveling. If your team is affiliated with a specific academic department, check with them to see if they have an open room that your team can work in. The team advisor should be helpful in finding spaces at the home school for you to work. Ask your instructors about including project elements of the design and build into your class experience. Teams that are affiliated with a Greek organization typically set up a shop in the basement of their house. If your team does not fall into one of these categories, you will have to search a little more. Talk with friends around campus and ask if they know of any garages for rent off campus. Also, check with various real estate agents that rent houses and apartments in the area. They may know of an open garage or shed in the area. Sponsors may also be able to help provide or locate space especially if its a fabrication shop. PLACE TO RESEARCH AND PLAN Try to find a place where your whole team can sit down and plan your racers design. This can be a computer lab or quiet room on campus. Access to Internet and a white board are very important to have so that you can research and draw up designs. The location should stimulate an open and thoughtful design process. Coffee houses and internet cafes may also provide an area for small groups to gather. This adds to the fun and socialization that a team experience can provide. Through out the entire design, fabrication, and racing of the vehicle the team should enjoy working. PLACE TO PRACTICE AND TUNE RACER Once the racer is running you will need a safe area to tune, test and practice with your racer. Research race tracks within reasonable driving distance in your area. Once you find a few tracks near you, call them and ask if they allow open practice sessions. Some tracks will allow drivers to bring their own racers and others will not. Start looking for a track early because this will be very important as the race approaches. Open parking areas at the school are 15

very inviting for testing. Avoid the temptation of running down the street to check out the machine. Check with your institution authorities as to places where you can go to test and what they may require as safety precautions. Caution is the important rule here. All out speed on a non secured parking lot with ditches, drain covers, cars and curbs is a recipe for disaster. Running at a reasonable speed to demonstrate system operation or shaking out a problem may be conducted provided the operational area is blocked off and hazards are considered.1.4 Instructions/Rules You can find the instructions and rules on the EvGrandPrix website. Your team should all read these over thoroughly so that you know and understand what is allowed and what is not. It is your responsibility to know and follow the rules and regulations. The best method is to first read the rules of start to finish. The team should highlight or mark any rules that are confusing or misleading. Any rule clarification can be done through the EV GrandPrix organization. Once the rules are understood teams can begin their design. It should be kept in mind that teams should always clarify designs with the EV GrandPrix organization to keep their designs to within race specifications.

SCHEDULE/TIMELINE

Figure 2

Above is a sample timeline from the 2011 race year that should give your team an idea of what you should be doing and when. This is by no means an exact timeline, but should give you a general idea of the time involved for each step. Many project management software programs may be incorporated to help your team keep on task and insure your team will be ready to take the track when you arrive at the event. With organization, commitment and hard work, it has been shown that teams can build and field a racer starting in January. We recommend seeking student members, fund raising and outreach begin in the fall when school starts. This is typically when students are looking for organizations and extracurricular programs to join. Institutions that have not been previously fielded an evGrand Prix racer, need to get started as early as possible to inform the appropriate institutional offices and determine the specific requirements to be met for your institution to participate. Contact the EvGrandPrix Organization regarding ordering tires, batteries, etc,as these may be covered under a blanket agreement which may reduce your expense.

16

CHAPTER 2 MECHANICAL Once your team is funded, you are ready to design, order parts and build your racer. The information in this section will assist you in what you should look for when designing your racer and ordering your parts. This section will take you through each part of the racer. It will describe what the part is, its purpose, and what specifications it must meet in order to be used in the race.

Complete racer less safety cage

Figure 3

CHASSIS In the final construction of the racer we will work our way front to back and bottom to top. The final construction and ultimately the project are only as strong as each individual part. Designing as well as fabricating each individual part will be discussed however is left up to each team. Bear in mind this is only a guide, and design is completely up to the team. There are many ways to mount, secure, fasten, and otherwise design parts. We hope that this guide will give your ideas that you can build upon and innovate yourselves. First well begin with a completely bare chassis, simply a frame and as the guide continues parts will be added. By the end of the guide, you should have a completed racer.

17

Figure 4

FRAME A critical component of a speedy and strong racer is the frame also known as the bare chassis. The frame provides the suspension and support of all the other components. A precisely-designed and sturdily built frame keeps you safe and your tires glued to the track while racing through busy tight corners at top speed. Spinning out of control is much more liable to happen with an inferior frame. Inferior design, welds and material selection can cause serious accidents, injury and DNF (did not finish). The evGrand Prix specifications call for the racer to be built on a go-kart frame. The frame or chassis is made from strong steel tubing since kart based racers don't have a suspension the chassis must be rigid enough not to break under the strain and flexible enough to act as the suspension. Challenging corners are a major aspect of racing and can be very tough on chassis, so some flexibility is crucial for maneuvering although some stiffness is crucial for strength.

18

VEHICLE MEASUREMENTS

40-66 inch Wheelbase

Roll cage must not extend beyond center line of front and rear tires.

30-55 inch Tread Width

Figure 5

Chassis Diagram

Figure 6

19

Frames can be either straight or offset. The chassis are given their respective names based on the position of the driver. If the driver sits in the middle of the go cart it is known as a straight frame. If the driver sits on the left side it is an offset frame. Straight chassis are usually used in for road courses with left and right hand turns whereas offset frames or chassis are most commonly used to bias weight toward the inside or speedway racing or oval tracks. Speedway racing is most commonly the name given to oval tracks encompassing all left turns.

Figure 7

Enduro and upright sprint frames are also available. Enduro frames are of the laydown style where the driver is nearly in the prone position. This style of chassis is not permitted to be run in the EVGrand Prix. The Upright or sprint frames is the choice for the EVGrand Prix racer. This chassis design though not as aerodynamic, seats the driver more upright to take advantage of the seat belt and provides better visibility. Be sure to check the specifications for the minimum angle when positioning the seat for the driver.

Figure 8

Figure 9

Most karts are of the open frame design where the driver is not strapped in and literally rides on the kart. Upon roll over, the driver is ejected similar to that of a motor cycle. Drivers are vulnerable to abrasion and injury by contact with other racers. Drivers typically wear leather suits similar to motorcyclists to minimize such injury. Open frames are not allowed to compete in EVGrand Prix events. 20

A caged frame has a roll-over cage attached or made part of the frame design that encircles the occupant of a kart. Its most important objective is to prevent harm or injury during a crash, principally in a crash involving a roll-over, but additional can also help reinforce the chassis. Typically the cage kart makes the roll over cage an integral part of the frame to reduce weight. This design works well on non-kart racers with suspension but the added stiffness can be a detriment if the frame is made too stiff to conform to the track. Caged frames are allowed in to compete in the EVGrand Prix provided they meet the material and dimension specifications.

Figure 10

Figure 11

Most EVGrand Prix teams, just starting out, choose an open frame design and make appropriate modifications to attach a removable safety cage. In this approach the cage, which is described later, is mounted to allow the frame to flex while being strong enough to remain attached during mishaps. The best frames or chassis permit easy altering or adjustment of the stiffness to adapt handling for weather and track conditions. Varying the stiffness is done by adding or removing stiffening bars on the rear, front, and side of the chassis. Stiffening up a chassis can overcome chatter or bounding when making a high speed turn... Excessively stiff chassis, lacking enough flexibility will not conform to the surface creating poor steerability and can create fracture. The appropriate amount of flexibility and stiffness will allow a driver to keep a truer line through tricky cornering instead of drifting sideways. This will improve performance and increase the lifespan of the chassis. You must consider the extra battery weight when making your adjustments and selecting a chassis.

Figure 12

Figure 13

21

Figure 14

FRAME CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS. Frames may be custom built or purpose built. A custom built frame is typically a one-off shop built assembly fabricated by the race team or for the race team by a non-recognized or non-certified constructor. To be used in competition these frames must be made of the material and use welding standards and dimensions listed in the series vehicle specifications document. Shops built frames are subject to close scrutiny at technical inspection and will be allowed to compete only at the discretion of the technical inspector. You should be prepared with documentation as to material and weld quality when presenting a racer with a non certified frame for inspection. Having the frame inspected by an official prior to its first competition and documented in the vehicle log may minimize anxiety and disqualification of the racer from competition come race day.

Figure 15

Figure 16

Purpose built or so called factory frames are permitted in competition. These frames are typically identified by factory placed welded on tags with make, model, serial numbers and WKA or ICA certification numbers. Keeping this tag clean and visible is essential for quick inspection. Use clear finish to keep the tag looking good. The construction of these frames is assumed to be engineered and have demonstrated performance over numbers of units and years of service and are not subject to the material or welding specifications. Any factory frame without 22

a certification tag will likely be treated as a one-off frame and be subject to scrutiny by the technical inspectors. As factory frames may or may not use the specified welding or materials listed in the specifications, you need to be prepared to convince the technical inspector of the authenticity of the frame.

Figure 17

Figure 18

It is important that any modification to the frame follow the vehicle specification document. Permanent additions of seat supports, frame members, tabs, brackets or mountings must be made using the welding techniques specified. It is specified that welded joints be inspected prior to painting the frame. A series of pre-paint pictures may also prove useful when being questioned at later technical inspections. Some racers prefer to clear coat their frame rather than using an opaque color to place emphasis on the quality of construction and allow quick inspection As the chassis frame is the largest component of the racer. A rolling chassis includes the frame, wheels, tires, brake caliper, brake master cylinder, brake lines, steering rod, tie rods, spindles, steering wheel, pedals for brake and acceleration, brake linkage, throttle cable, seat mounting points, seat belt mounting points, bearing cassette mounts, bearings, and axle.

FRONT BUMPER The front bumper is necessary to absorb energy in a collision. This is a manufacturers recommended safety device and should be incorporated into your design. The front bumper can either be bolted to the frame or in some cases has a special harness that also helps spread the force of impact. It is important that your front bumper be secure as this is a common collision impact zone.

Figure 19 Front Bumper

23

NERF BARS Normal racers have nerf, or side bars. These are usually expendable chrome or aluminum bumpers on the side the racer that prevent other racers from protruding close the driver. In this race it is recommended and strongly advised to construct new bars that would hold the weight of batteries and other components placed on them. Nerf bars can be as simple as bending pipes in two spots to attach to the previous plugs that the weaker nerf bars were once attached to. You will most likely want the nerf bars to have battery box mounts WEIGHT ANALYSIS Max. Weight of Racer (with driver) (Max 625 lbs.)______________ Weight of Racer (without driver and Batteries) Weight of Batteries Percent of Battery vs. Racer C/B ______________ ______________ ____________%

Weight for the vehicle and driver cannot exceed 625 pounds. Battery packs alone cannot exceed 50% of the total vehicle weight as weighed without the driver or battery packs.

FASTENERS An understanding of the mechanical elements of a racer is not complete without a discussion of fasteners. Fasteners are what hold the mechanical parts together when the vehicle is running and allow parts to be removed for service or replacement. Often fasteners are taken for granted until a lost race or accident is blamed on a fastener failure which later was found to be a result of miss application of the part or improper installation techniques. Fasteners include bolts, nuts, screws, and a variety of special purpose devices that can be used to hold parts together. Fasteners need to be installed properly to work. Thread types for nuts and screws must match. Knowing the difference of strength insures you have a fastener that will hold the tensile load. Use of the torque wrench on screws insures that the fastner is proplerly tightened. Use manufacturers recommendations and follow the race specifications when applicable. The charts in Appendix B are provided when specific recommendations are not available. More Info on Fasteners http://www.boltdepot.com/fastener-information/ HTTP://WWW.ENGINEERSHANDBOOK.COM/TABLES/TORQUE.HTM

24

Chapter 3 Driver Restrating System SEAT AND SEAT MOUNTS Seat Mounts

Figure 20

Seat mounting should be done with the racer on scales. The seat mounting position will make a huge difference in balancing the racer. This is critical and the driver will be needed to get this correct. see racer set up video before mounting the seat! Illustrated above are the mounts in which the racer seat is attached, the rear mounts are not shown on this diagram; however they are of similar size. Usually they are metal tabs with holes in them behind the steering wheel and before the back axle. Seats may have to be drilled to customize the seat position. Holes, cracks and damage must be repaired to maintain seat strength. Racers can have the seat positioned either centered or over to one side depending on driver preference and racer design. Check specifications for seat back angle. DRIVER RESTRAINT SYSTEM All belts must be securely fastened to the chassis frame or to a fixed bracket system bolted or welded to the frame. No belts or belt supports may be attached to the safety cage, nerf bars, or bumpers. Commercial restraint system mounting hardware is recommended. U-bolts are not permitted to attach the seat belts to the frame. The shoulder harness bracket system shall be designed so that a load applied in any direction will not result in any movement of the shoulder harness bracket. Shoulder harness straps/belts must be positively retained to any harness support. For example a metal rod with cotter keys on both end so that straps do not fall off of shoulders. Mounting brackets must be installed at an angle that is compatible with the direction of pull on the webbing under full load. A minimum specification for bolts and washers to attach the driver restraint system hardware is Grade 8. Under no circumstances are bolts inserted through belt webbing acceptable for mounting. Belt webbing may be required to be replaced if the webbing shows signs of wear, tear, and age. Belts with webbing inspection date of more than three years may not be acceptable.

25

Driver Restraint System/Mount What the driver restraint system Mounting plates must have a proper should look like. direction of pull

Figure 21

Harness/Harness Mount Harness Mount Harness Proper Belt Usage

Figure 22 (Use commercially manufactured belts and mounting systems) SEAT BELTS, HARNESS AND ARM RESTRAINTS A seat belt, sometimes called a safety belt, is a 5 point safety harness designed to secure the occupant to the racer to minimize harmful movement, contacting interior elements or ejection that may result from a collision or a sudden stop. Belts must be SFI rated. belts and harnesses are also strongly recommended. Belts that exceed three year tested date may be sent in to SFI for re-evaluation. Safety belts are required to have a width of at least three inches (3). The intention for arm restraints is to keep their arms within the roll cage.

26

Seat Belt Mount Use commercially available mounting brackets to insure the safety of the driver. The mounts must be TIG welded to the frame. Arm Restraints Arm Restraints

Figure 23

All racers must be equipped with commercially made arm restraints, which do not allow the drivers arms to extend beyond the roll cage. The arm restraints should be worn according to the manufacturers recommendations. They should also be a different color than the drivers suit.

Seat Mounting There are 4 points that are used to mount the seat. They are located under the steering wheel and on 2 tubes that extend upwards from the frame. The seat should be mounted in such a way that the driver is comfortable for long periods of time. This includes if need be, buying a larger seat to accommodate him/her. Remember seat mounting had a huge effect on the racer setup review racer setup video before mounting seat.

SEAT BELT MOUNT First take the seat belt out of the box and find the proper orientation. There should be 2 side mounts and one rear mount. First mount the rear attachment. 27

There is a bolt located on the bar that protrudes behind the seat. The bolt should be facing the rear of the racer and be located right above the axle. Slide the mounting bracket over the bolt and then place a distorted nut on the bolt. Tighten all the way down. Next find the 2 tabs located on either side of the seat. Take the side mounting brackets and line them up with the holes in the tabs. Place a grade 8 Bolt through both holes and tighten with a distorted nut. This is how the seat belt is held on the racer. Have the driver sit in the seat and put the belts on them. Tighten the belts so that it holds the driver in place and allows for as little wiggle room as possible. Once tightened, use either duct tape or zip ties to collect and hold out of the way any stray pieces of the seat belt so they do not drag or get caught in any moving components.

HEAD REST The head rest is an important component for safety. Although the head rest was allowed to be mounted on the roll cage in previous years in the 2011 event the head rest must be mounted from the frame of the racer. This means that it must be attached to the chassis. While constructing your head rest make sure that it is aligned with the driver in X, Y and Z planes. The headrest should be positioned toward the middle of the back of the drivers helmet.

Head rest

Helmet

Rounded Corners

28

CHAPTER 4 BEARING, AXLES, STEERING

Bearing
Figure 24 Figure 25

Axle

The axle is located at the rear of the racer. It is supported by two bearing on either side of the racer allowing it to freely spin. The axle supports the brake disk and slips through tire hubs for tires to attach to it. The bearings attach to the axle to the racer. The axle is held in place with set screws on the bearing hub. It is recommended that shaft collars are added to the axle support to insure the axle does not slip. STEERING ASSEMBLY Steering Assembly Components

Figure 26

29

The steering assembly is what allows the driver maneuver on the track. The assembly consists of the steering rod, tie rods, spindles, and steering wheel. The front wheels are attached to the spindles. Spindles are attached to the front axle of the frame with king pin bolts. These allow the spindles to swivel. The steering wheel is attached to a hub on the steering column. This column is attached to the spindles with tire rods near the front of the racer. As the driver turns these rods angle the front tires in the direction the steering wheel is turned. A quick release type steering wheel hub mount may be used to assist entry and exit of the racer when roll cage is in place.

Figure 27

Tie rod ends are screwed on to either a shaft or a tube. An important part is the jamb nut. After adjustment of toe the nut is jammed against the rod end to keep the rod from turning. It also stops fretting of the threads. It goes without saying what would happen if a tie rod pulls out when the racer is at speed or negotiating a turn.

30

Figure 28

CHASSIS TUNING Because a kart based racer has no active suspension and most rear axles are solid, the majority of the handling characteristics are affected by tire selection and inflation, chassis stiffening, weight distribution and the adjustments of the steering assembly. In this section we will discuss the steering assembly; the remaining factors will be discussed in other portions of this document. The steering assembly may provide adjustable features to allow front wheel alignment. At a minimum the tie rods provide for length change to allow the front wheel toe to be adjusted. Toe In/Out.-This is the angle at which the front wheels either point in towards each other, or away from each other. Zero degrees toe in/out means that the wheels are parallel. Toe in/out is set by changing the length of the tie rods. Always recheck the toe when making camber or caster adjustments.

31

Other front end alignment adjustments to consider are caster and camber. Some racers have fixed caster and camber built into the front axle or frame. Some chassis provide for adjustment for these alignment parameters. Camber - The tilt of the tire as viewed from the front of the car. If the top of the tires lean toward the center of the car then you have negative camber. If the top of the tire tilts out away from the center of the car then you have positive camber. A camber setting of 0 means that the tire sits flat on the track. Maximizing the amount of rubber on the track is one of the aims of the setup. Camber is measured with a caster camber gauge. Camber may be adjusted by replacing front spindles. Some racers have adjusters to allow for fine adjustment. Adjusting camber can have a dramatic effect on the cornering of your car. Most oval track racers run negative camber on the right side of the car and positive camber on the left. Optimum camber settings will result in more speed and ideal tire wear. The amount of static camber that you should run is a result of testing, pyrometer measurements, front suspension geometry and discussions with your car builder. Remember that poor camber settings will cause excessive tire wear. Camber settings set to extremes can reduce the braking ability of the car.

Camber Angle - This is the inclination inwards at the top of the king pin towards the center of the kart, and it is aimed at counter-acting the jacking effect of the castor: at the same time it helps to produce a stronger joint, which will be able to withstand higher shearing forces. Generally this angle is between 10 degrees and 12 degrees, and to allow the wheels to stand flat on the floor is offset by a similar angle on the stub axle. Caster - This is the angle of the kingpin, which is the point around which the stub axles rotate. This is one of the most important settings for inducing wheel lift during cornering. 32

Scrub Radius-This is distance from the center of the tire to the point where a line down the kingpin axis intersects the ground. Along with caster this affects wheel lift during cornering. Scrub radius is set using spacers on the stub axle King Pin Inclination-This is the inward lean of the kingpin, and it modifies the amount of camber change caused by the caster when steering. It is not usually possible (or necessary) to adjust the KPI although some camber adjusts systems may let you do it. Ackermann Steering.-Ackermann steering uses the angle of the stub axle arms (and often an offset on the steering column) to make the inner wheel on a corner turn more than the outside wheel. With cars this is used to reduce tire scrub on corner, but of more importance to karts is the greater wheel lift effect caused by increasing the inner wheels turn when compared to the outer.

The Ackermann angle refers to the placement of the steering arms (when viewed from above), in relation to the chassis, and the rear axle. Ideally, lines projected through the center of the King Pins, and through the bolts holding the track rods, should meet at the center point of the rear axle. Some chassis designers will place the apex of the angle forward or behind the rear axle to change the scrub effect when turning. The effect of the angle is that the inside wheel always describes a smaller radius arc than the other wheel, when the kart is being turned this is 33

most especially important at low speeds, and on tight corners. The length of the steering arm, in relation to the spade/drop arm, affects the speed of the steering reaction. A long steering arm causes slow but very light steering, whereas a short arm causes quick steering but requires greater effort. Further Information on chassis tuning http://racingarticles.com/article_racing-24.htm http://www.kartweb.com/TechArt/Chassis/setupfordummies.html http://www.karting.co.uk/KandK/Tech/KartSetup.html http://www.agcoauto.com/content/plugins/p2_news/printarticle.php?p2_articleid=176

34

CHAPTER 5 BRAKING SYSTEMS BRAKES The braking system on these racers consists of a brake pedal and linkage, which leads to a master cylinder which actuates the rear caliper through dot 5 brake fluid. Be sure that brake line doesnt have any bubbles and is completely filled. The rear caliper contains brake pads that have to be replaced when worn. These can also be adjusted closer to the brake and to allow the brake disc more space. This adjustment is to allow the pads to be as close as possible to the brake rotor without rubbing when not engaged. As seen to the right, the brake disc should be secure and in the middle of the brake caliper. This ensures consistent as well as even wear on both brake pads.

THROTTLE The throttle consists of a pedal and linkage attached to a throttle cable which is enclosed in a plastic sheath to prevent unwanted activation of the throttle. At the end of the throttle cable is an adjustment piece, which attaches the cable to the potentiometer box and then can be adjusted for proper throttle response.

THROTTLE AND BRAKE PEDALS Throttle and Brake Pedal Diagram

Figure 29

Each of these pedals is located at the front of the racer. The throttle is located on the right and responsible for the acceleration of the racer. The brake is located on the left and responsible for bring the racer to a stop. The throttle will be connected to an electronic accelerator called the potentiometer using throttle cable or rod. The throttle 35

cable is a steel wire that has the flexibility to travel down the length of your kart to where the electronics are located. A most important is the throttle return spring. Two springs are required to provide redundant return to stop. One should be located at the pot box area and be strong enough to pull back on the cable. Cables are designed to pull not push. When a throttle rod is used the spring may be located on the throttle pedal. The second spring should be set up to return the potentiometer to zero should the cable brake.

BRAKE MASTER CYLINDER Brake Master Cylinder similar to ones you may use in your Racer. Brake master cylinder installed

Figure 30

Figure 31

Most modern racers use hydraulic brakes, though mechanical brakes may be used as long as they are powerful enough to stop the racer according to the vehicle specifications. Connected to the Brake pedal is the Brake Master Cylinder is a large cylinder in a hydraulic system in which the working fluid is pressurized by a piston. Brake Caliper and Disc Illustrated below you will see the brake caliper and disc. The disc is attached to the axle which spins as you race down the track. When you apply the brake, pressure from the master cylinder forces liquid down the brake line and then the caliper squeezes the disc causing it to stop spinning.

36

Brake Caliper and Disc

Figure 32

Figure 33

The brake caliper is attached to the chassis. A spring on the brake pedal is used to return the master cylinder and release the caliper. Brakes are required on the rear axle. If desired brakes may be also fitted to the front wheels for increased stopping power and system redundancy. TIRES, RIMS, HUBS, AND WHEELS Tires are the part of the racer that contacts the racing surface. All of the chassis geometry, acceleration and deceleration turning and handling come down to keeping the tire in contact with the surface of the road and the friction of the tire to the surface.

Racing kart tire size is given by numbers such as 11 x 6.00-5, which is a different system than that used for ordinary tires. In this example, 11 indicates tire diameter, 6.00 shows the tire width and the 5 indicates rim diameter. Measurements are in inches but the figures are rough estimate. For more precise dimensions, refer to the tire dimension chart below. The first thing that must be determined for a kart tire proper inflation pressure if you want to get the best performance from any individual kart tire. That is easily said, but the real problem is the word "proper" because it meaning varies delicately with conditions such as driver, frame, course layout, road surface, weather and temperature, to name but a few. The manufacturers limits of pressure is typically from 11 to 23 psi and the proper inflation pressure should be selected from that range to match individual conditions. Lowing inflation pressure improves grip because the effective contact area is increased and there is a better tire cushioning effect. If pressure is lowered too far, however, contact becomes uneven and driving is more difficult.

37

Air pressure setting


contact shape contact pressure contact area Tire stiffens (Suspension effect) The best way is for each individual to determine the regular inflation pressure for there situation. 16 psi can be considered a good starting point for both front and rear tires. Drive for a while with the tire inflated to this pressure and then change inflation pressure from 1-3 psi until you find the inflation pressure you think is best. SLICK SL - Compound and construction provides firm grip and excellent wear resistance.

SLICK HIGH GRIP - Compound and construction provide excellent grip. Chart below shows one manufacturers information on compounds and construction. Generally soft compounds are used on colder days and short races when maximum grip is desired with minimum warm up. Hot days and long races dictate harder compounds. DBC/DBH/RH2: Hard compound which offers excellent wear and heat resistance. Hard compound suitable for mediumtohigh road surfaces and medium and high temperatures Medium compound suitable for low-tomedium- road surfaces and to low-tomedium temperatures. Ultra soft compound suitable for low- dirt surfaces and low temperatures.

DBM:

DBS: DBW:

38

RAIN - Knobby or treadded patterns in soft compounds give excellent performance and optimizes wet grip and maximizes water drainage. Rain tires will wear fast on dry hot surfaces.
More information on Tires http://www.kartweb.com/TechArt/Chassis/KartTires.htm http://www.russellkarting.com/settings.htm

Wheel Components Hub Rim Tires

Figure 34

Tires are mounted on rims. Rim size and width is selected based on the tire being used. Rim width can help to minimize or increase side wall flex that effects how a tire sets while cornering and how it expands at speed. (Paragraph about selecting rims)Rims are made of various materials the most popular is aluminum. Rims can be either bolt on or of the integral hub type. The hubs are the part that attached the wheel to the ends of the axle. On live rear axle racers the hubs are keyed and either compressed or nutted to attach them to the shaft. Front hubs and hubs on dead axle racers include bearings which allow them to roll freely on the axle. Bearings must be of the precision type and be checked to insure they have the load capability demanded by the heavier ev racer. Bearings can be sealed or lube type and must be properly adjusted and kept clean and lubricated to keep friction as low as possible. Bolted hubs as shown above consist of threaded studs which the rims are fitted over and the secured. Hub material selection is based on loading, weight and cost. Steel and aluminum are the most popular material though composites and plastics are making inroads in the sport. It is important that a retaining pin be provided to insure the hubs do not slide off during operation. A loose wheel is dangerous and must be avoided at all cost.

39

Figure 35

Figure 36

AXLE The rear axle is the main part of the rear end. Mounted on it are the rear wheel hubs, brake rotor, sprocket and sprocket carrier, and the 3 bearings in their cassettes. Most components on the rear axle are held on by set screws, keys, or a combination of the two. To attach most components to the rear axle the components that are towards the outside must come off first. For example if the brake rotor needed to be changed the bearing on the side and the wheel hub on that side would have to be removed and the brake rotor slid on first followed by the bearing and then the wheel hub. Plan for this when changing components on the rear axle. The components on the axe from the inside out are the Brake rotor on one side and then 2 bearings on the other, then the bearing on the brake side with the sprocket carrier on the other, finally the wheel hubs are at either end. Once on the axle the components can be maneuvered into alignment without taking off the other components. When aligning the components it is extremely important to ensure that components like the sprocket and brake rotor are perfectly aligned left to right and at a 90 degree angle to prevent uneven brake wear and to prevent chain binding. Either of these conditions can cause inefficiencies, heat generation, and premature component failure and wear. Once all of the components are on the rear axle it can be mounted to the frame. The bearing cassettes are the points of contact. Each cassette has 3 bolt holes in it that line up with the holes in the cassette holders on the racer. These bolt holes use 6mm head Allen bolts with a special tapered head along with a special tapered washer that allow the bolt to fit snugly in the cassette and holder. DO NOT LOSE these bolts and washers they are not common and are expensive to replace. To mount the axle simply line up the bearing cassettes on the axle to match those on the racer. Place the axle on the racer and insert each bolt. Do not tighten the bolts until all of them are started in their respective holes. Then tighten each bolt a little more until all are in. This will prevent binding and misalignment which can be very frustrating. That is how you put together the rear end. BEARING HOLDERS They are 3 protrusions on the back of the frame and have slots for the axel and holes for the bearing cassettes. There are 2 on the motor side and 1 on the brake side. Any hole in the tubular frame must be plugged for the safety of the track workers.

40

CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL DRIVE TRAIN The mechanical drive train provides the connection from the motor output shaft and the drive wheel. The driveline typically provides some mechanical advantage to match the motor power curve to the application. The mechanical drive train is often the last system to be considered when building a racer. Selection of optimized components using engineering principles is just as often overlooked. It is a mistake to simply apply the components that are typically used for engine driven racers on an electric vehicle. The high torque capability of an electric motor and the increased weight of an electric vehicle can quickly destroy a drive train that works well on a so called high power shifter kart. Be sure to apply manufacturers data to the system design. Terms listed in advertising like high quality, strongest available, high tensile mean nothing without numbers and units to back them up. If a vendor cannot supply the information you need, move on. If you are in doubt as to what a part can do, test it. Areas that can be reserached or tested are: Torque, Power, Speed, Over Load capability, Chains, Belts, and Gear boxes OPEN DRIVE (CHAIN) GUARD The specifications require that open mechanical drives has a guard to protect anyone from incidentally contacting a moving part. Chain Guards

MOTOR MOUNT BRACKET This component is a more traditional racer component that allows the motor assembly to be attached to the frame of the racer. One common design has a flat top plate that offers a solid platform to attach the motor assembly. On the bottom it has to groves that run the length of it allowing it to sit in the tubes of the racer frame. Two smaller pieces with circular groves secure the flat component to the frame. Because the bolts that attach the Motor Plate to the Motor Mount end up being directly below the motor, it is important to attach the Motor Plate to the Motor Mount before installing the motor. Other methods may be used but it is important that your design securely fastens 41

the motor to the frame of the racer. A jack bolt is necessary to keep your mount position and the chain tight. Tube coilers also will work. The motor torque will cause the motor to shift and the chain will begin to jump. MOTOR MOUNT The motor mount is a custom build face mounting system that mounts to the motor on the side with the drive shaft. It should have bolt holes that align with the pattern on the motor and a circular hole in the center for the drive shaft to come through. On the bottom it should have holes that line up with the motor plate. Steel should be used to ensure that the mount will hold up to the strain of the motor.

Figure 37 Brackets

Figure 38 Motor mount bracket

42

CHAPTER 7 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Traction Power System

Driver Input

As the name suggests, the ev racer is equipped with an electric drive system. This system is sometimes called the traction power system. Its purpose is to develop the mechanical power that propels the racer down the track. The system is made up of three main components, motor, controller and battery. As this racing series requires an allelectric drive, batteries are needed to supply power to the controller which meters and conditions the power to the motor based on driver input. According to the specifications, the traction drive power system must not exceed 14kW peak (18.74HP peak) at any time during the race. The system may use any combination of battery instantaneous voltage and instantaneous current, as long as product of volts and amps never exceeds 14kW as measured in the input of the motor controller. In addition, the racer is only allowed to use 8640 Watt-hours per race. This is measured at the battery pack terminals. Selection of the electric drive components should be made with this in mind. There is little to no benefit gained from carrying a heavy extra-large motor or controller that you cannot use. Specifying too small a motor or controller will result in poor performance and premature component failure.

43

Chapter 8 Battery

BATTERY SELECTION Ideally, batteries should store as much energy as possible in a given volume to achieve a long operating range, have the lowest weight possible to reduce the load on the drive system, and perform well through many charge/discharge cycles over the life of the battery. Much consideration needs to be put into the selection of the battery or energy source for the eV racer. Likely to be the most expensive component it is prudent to know how it works, and how to charge and service it to get the most performance and life. Batteries are electro chemical devices used to store electrical energy and deliver power on demand to an electric circuit. The basic electrochemical unit is a cell. A batterys cell consists of four major components: 2 electrodes (anode and cathode), seperators, and the electrolyte. These parts are contained in a case/enclosure. The enclosure shape and size varies with capacity and application. During discharge, the negative or anode readily gives up its surplus electrons, while the positive electrode or cathode accepts these electrons. This process is reversed when the battery is charged. The external circuit containing the controller and motor creates a pathway for the electrons to flow or the load for the battery. The electrolyte provides a pathway for positive ions to pass between the cathode and anode. The separator is the divider which keeps the cathode and anode portions of the cell insulated from one another.

BATTERY CHEMISTRY Chemistry determines if a cell is a primary or secondary type. Primary cells similar to conventional alkaline flashlight batteries are one time use and are removed and recycled. Secondary cells can be used and recharged a number of times. Secondary cells are the type typically found in modern electric vehicle use.

The chemical makeup of the cell, specifically the anode and the cathode determine the electromotive force or

voltage of the cell. Battery manufactures formulate the materials to optimize power and storage capability and operating life. A lead acid cell develops 2 volts (nominally); NiMh develops 1.2 volts and Lithium Cells 3.2-3.7 volts. Voltage is a measure of the electromotive force (EMF) needed to push the electrons through the circuit. The higher the voltage a cell develops, the fewer cells are needed to be connected in series to meet the applications required battery voltage. A 12 volt lead acid battery has six cells where a 12 volt Lithium battery will have three or four cells in series. The voltage of a battery pack for EVGrand Prix competition may not exceed 72 nominal volts.

44

When one or more cells are assembled together they form a battery. This is done to add additional storage capacity measured in amphrs or raise the electromotive force (EMF) measured in volts or increase the power.

PACK VOLTAGE The best pack voltage is determined based on the motor and controller you select and what capacity battery cells are available to you within the vehicle specifications and within your budget. The ideal pack voltage is a compromise. Weight of a pack is also a consideration. Some people believe that the weight of a high voltage pack is less because smaller wires can be used to carry the same power. This may be a misnomer since you need more intercell connectors and non-power producing hardware and containers which need to be considered.

CAPACITY RATING A cell or battery stores electrical energy by storing a charge which can be delivered across a potential difference (voltage) between its terminals. So it stores charge and does work when that charge is delivered across a voltage. This is in line with energy being equal to voltage times charge. The convention is to quantify the capacity of a cell or battery in terms of charge and it is called C. Also convention is to have a standard discharge time for C. This standard time is 20 hours. The basic unit of electric charge is the Coulomb which is equal to one ampere for one second (As) the size of batteries of interest here will use Ampere hours (Ah) as charge units. One Ah = 3600 As or 3600 coulombs. A battery rated at 20 Ah can deliver its entire charge in 20 hours at a rate of one ampere. 20h * 1A = 20Ah. The term C rate is used to normalize discharge rated for batteries of different capacities. In the example above, C = 20Ah. The discharge rate (C rate) is C/20 = 1A. If the capacity was 50Ah, a C rate of C/20 would equal 2.5A. If the current was 150A from the 50Ah battery, the C rate = 3C. The capacity of the battery can vary depending on the C rate. The higher the C rate, the less charge can be extracted from a battery and the less work it will do. This is described by what is called the Peurkert Effect. It is quite dramatic with lead acid chemistry but much less so with Lithium. Charge and charge ratings for batteries are independent of voltage. The cells or batterys voltage will vary due to the internal resistance of the cell. The terminal voltage is equal to the open circuit voltage minus the internal resistance times the current. Vterm = Vo.c. I * Rint. This becomes a large factor when running batteries at high power. Low internal resistance is required for high peak power. The internal resistance is also the mechanism for battery heat (I^2*R loss). Battery voltage will also change with regard to state of charge (SOC). As the cell or battery discharges, the voltage will decrease. Actually the relationship of battery (or cell) voltage and current is linear. V = Voc - Ri * I. Where V = actual battery voltage at the terminals, Voc = open circuit voltage, Ri = battery internal resistance and I = battery current. The 45

plot of this function (V vs I) is a straight line starting at Voc, 0 A and descending to 0 V at Isc. Isc = short circuit current for the battery and by definition occurs at V = 0. So Isc = Voc / Ri. The power delivered measured at the battery terminals is P = V * I. This P function can be calculated and drawn as a curve as P vs I. At I = 0 (open circuit), P = 0. At Isc, P = 0 because V = 0. If we substitute (Voc - Ri * I) for V in the power equation, we get P = Voc * I - Ri * I. This is the classic quadratic equation, a parabola. The power function has a singular maximum. You can draw it and plainly see it or you can use math. The maximum point on the curve occurs when the slope = 0, which is when the derivative = 0. dP/dI = Voc - 2 * Ri * I. Set this = 0 and solve for I to get I = Voc / (2 * Ri) for the current at which maximum power occurs. Notice that this is equal to Isc. We can now substitute the formula for current at maximum power into the basic power equation. This results in: Pmax = Voc / (4 * Ri). So if you know the battery internal resistance, it is pretty easy to calculate the maximum power. And it is clear that the maximum power will occur at Voc and Isc. A double check would be to use Pmax = Voc * Isc. We know Isc = Voc / Ri, so Pmax = Voc * ( * Voc / Ri) = Voc/4Ri. When one looks at the power function plotted against current for the battery (the parabola), it is obvious that: 1) You want to be left of the peak for efficient power delivery from the battery. 2) The rate of power increase with respect to current increase diminishes rapidly as you approach peak power. So typically it is not wise to load the battery to more than about 40% of the short circuit current value. If you wanted to get the most power from the lightest pack weight you would try to run at the peak value. This may prove valuable for qualifying and in short sprint races or for determining pit stop strategy in long races . Long races with no pit stops will likely require more capacity and therefore the battery will be run at the lower side of the power curve.

Battery Power Curve

The actual power from the battery will always equal the actual voltage multiplied by the current at the instant of interest. Often times the nominal battery voltage is used which will be misleading at high current. The actual 46

energy from the battery is the actual power integrated over the discharge cycle. This requires instrumentation often not available. So a nominal energy figure is often used. This is the rated charge in Ah times the nominal voltage. A battery pack made for 48 volts (nominal) with a rated capacity (C) of 200Ah would then have a nominal energy of 9600Wh or 9.6kWh. Unless you plan to use that energy over a 20 hour period, which is not likely in an electric vehicle application, the battery will only deliver a fraction of that. The normalized C rate method allows one to examine the power capability of cells or batteries. Comparing different cells with regard to power would be very difficult just using watts or amperes. Cells are available in many types and sizes. One can arrange small cells in various ways to construct batteries. Cells connected in series will have the voltage add. Cells connected in parallel will have capacity add. Two 3V, 5Ah cells in series = 6V, 5Ah. Six 3V, 5Ah cells in parallel = 3V, 30Ah. Twelve 3V, 5Ah cells in a 6 parallel and 2 series connection = 6v, 30Ah. Often seen as a 6P2S connection. Typically the parallel connection is made first, then the series connections. No matter the connection, it does not change the cell C or C rate characteristics. Cell and battery manufactures provide specifications which include the capacity and C rating. If a cell is rated at 3C continuous, it means you can discharge it in 1/3 hour (20 minutes) without exceeding rating. It may also have a maximum C rate specified like 10C for 5 seconds. It is sometimes call peak or burst rating. You could not expect to run at 10C for 1/10th hour without cell damage or overheating. But knowing the capacity of the battery pack, 10C times the pack voltage would indicate the peak power. Consider a race lasts for 1 hour and the traction drive draws an average of 200 amps. The battery will need to be rated at 200 amp hours at a 1 hr. rate. Battery design and chemistry can affect the ability of a battery to deliver full capacity at high rates. Be sure to compare the battery capacity at the average rate expected when choosing a battery for the racer. A useful way to calculate how long a battery will last under a heavy load is to multiply the Ah capacity by 60 to give ampere-minutes, A 1 Ah battery is a 60 ampere-minute battery; to calculate how many minutes the battery will last, divide by the average current drawn (e.g. a 10 A average current draw will mean that a 60 ampere-minute battery will last for 60/10 = 6 minutes). Work in an electric circuit is a function of EMF (measured in volts) and charge measured in coulombs). A volt coulomb is equal to another SI unit the Joule. Work and energy are analogous. Therefore the amount of work that a battery can do or energy it can store or deliver is expressed in SI units of VoltCoulombs or Joules Another common unit of energy is the Watt hour. A coulomb of charge delivered over one second is equal to a rate of one amp. In direct current circuits (DC) when amps are multiplied by volts you get watts. One volt multiplied by one Amp = 1 watt. When you multiply watts by a time unit such as the hour, your result is expressed in Watthours. Watt hours is equal to 3600 Joules of work. If the 10 A.h battery in the example above was a 10 volt then it would store 360 kJ or 100 Wh. In summary, the amount of energy stored depends on the EMF and capacity, and is equal to the voltage times the charge in coulombs, or 3600 times the voltage times the charge in ampere-hours. You need to determine the number of batteries and cells you need for your racer based on the amount of work or Watt-hours you are permitted to use for a race and how much total energy you can bring to a competition event. EvGrandPrix specifications limit the total energy to 8640 Watt-Hours for an entire race regardless of battery chemistry. The total energy you can bring to the site must not exceed 12,960 Watt-hours. All batteries do not need to be mounted on the race vehicle at once as pit stops may be made to exchange battery packs.

47

As an example, a 48 volt system with 180 Amp-hours of capacity (8640 Watt-Hours) is permitted to use two 90Ah packs, three 60Ah packs, four 30 Ah packs, eight 15 Ah packs, etc. Other voltage and amp-hour combinations are permitted, as long as the total energy capacity per race does not exceed 8640 Watt-hours. BATTERIES Batteries are made up of two or more cells electrically connected in parallel or series. Typically a battery unit is housed in its own case.

Figure 39 battery made of cells PACKS in connected in series Battery backs are made up of two or more batteries connected in parallel or series and assembled into one or more cases that hold Two battery packs for a racer on a them safely in place in the vehicle and protect them during hand truck operation. Ev Racers typically need more than one pack to compete at an event to allow for practice, heat races and potential battery failure.

The four most popular secondary battery chemistries commercially available for use in electric vehicles are lead acid (PbS04), nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride (NiMH), and lithium (Li). Variations of lithium chemistry such as Li polymer and Li ion add to the mix. Selection of chemistry for the racer is a balance of power, energy weight, cost, density, safety and availability. A Rigone Chart shows the relationship of power to energy storage capacity based on weight of the most popular battery types.

48

Riggonni Chart shows energy power relationship vs weight

Lithium performs the best in low weight and energy density, but is normally very expensive. Lead acid are common in the auto industry, they are inexpensive and easy to find, but do not hold the same energy as lithium and are very heavy. Nickel related batteries hold a mid-ground between lithium and lead acid, they are cheap and energy dense, but not comparable to lead acid and lithium respectively. Below is a simple chart derived from the Rigonni chart and cost showing the basic characteristics. Battery Type Energy/weight Watt-hours/Kg 30-40 Energy/volume Power/weight Energy/US$ watt-hours/L watt/Kg watt-hr/$ 60-75 180 4-10

Lead-acid Nickel-Cad Nickel MH Lithium-Ion 160 Lithium-Polymer 130-200

270 300

1800 to 2800

3-5 3-5

Two other values should also be considered, the self-discharge rate, which causes the charge to diminish over time, and the cycle life of the batteries, the number of times the batteries can undergo a deep discharge and still accept charge. The batteries listed above perform well in those categories. It is best to create a race strategy based on length and energy required and weight capability of your racer to determine the best battery of choice. It is consiveable that with strategic well executed pit stops that lead acid batteries can compete with the more expensive types. Be sure to factor in the total vehicle weight limit with driver (GVW, Gross Vehicle Weight) and ratio of battery weight to rolling chassis.

49

CHARGING
Charging reverses the chemical reaction process in the battery. All batteries must be charged carefully. The basic process is to begin the charge at constant current until each cell reaches its peak charging voltage; the charger must then gradually reduce the charge current while holding the cell voltage at peak until the charge current has dropped to a small percentage of the initial charge rate, at which point the battery is considered 100% charged. Some manufacturers specify 2%, others 3%, but other values are also possible. Charge profiles are determined by battery chemistry, size and model characteristics. Profiles for lithium chemistries for example may cut off charge after a period of time once a given cell voltage is achieved. Charge profiles for Lead Acid batteries may require a small continuing charge over a longer period of time while keeping cell temperature in check. Balance charging simply means that the charger monitors the voltage of each cell in a pack and varies the charge on a per-cell basis so that all cells are brought to the same voltage. It is important to note that trickle charging is not acceptable for lithium batteries; Li-ion chemistry cannot accept an overcharge without causing damage to the cell, possibly plating out lithium metal and becoming hazardous. Most manufacturers claim a maximum and minimum voltage of 4.23 and 3.0 volts per cell, but it is chemistry depend and must be validated. Taking any cell outside these limits can reduce the cell's capacity and ability to deliver full rated current it can also become a safety hazard. Most dedicated lithium polymer chargers use a charge timer for safety; this cuts the charge after a predefined time. Battery management systems are used in charging and discharging mode of operations. Nickel and Lead acid batteries are not as delicate as lithium batteries, it is always prudent to have a proper charge rate and temperature monitor in place to insure safety and maximize the charge effectiveness. Batteries being charged by chargers mounted on a portable cart.

BATTERY BOX The Battery box is an insulated and reinforced box that holds the energy storage method of the race. The box itself is designed to prevent an improper and unexpected electrical occurrence such as a short circuit. The rules state that each battery pack must be enclosed in a nonconductive material and then also enclosed in a supporting box or fixture to prevent and external harm or damage. The battery box should also be design to be easily removed from the racer. Depending on racer design, teams may wish to do multiple battery swaps during the race. As time is a

50

major factor in the race, quick pits stops will incorporate fast unfastening assemblies. It is up to each team to find a way to quickly disconnect their batteries. Battery box

BATTERY MOUNT The batteries will need to be fastened securely during the race. A recommendation would be to find a fastening system from the battery box to the frame or nerf bars. Fasteners could be pins, bolts or elaborate locking mechanisms. As pits stops are possible it is recommended to design quick ways of removing the batteries. The mounts will be tested in a roll over test to insure that during a rollover they will not come loose. Battery box Example battery box connector Quick release

Figure 40

STORAGE
Investing in a set of batteries is like investing in a race horse. Unlike its gasoline counterpart, electric vehicles, specifically the batteries must be fed and cared for when put away or stored properly to protect and achieve the most from the investment. Keeping batteries at the right state of charge and temperature is two of the most important considerations.

51

Be familiar of what your battery needs. Lead acid batteries typically need to be charged and kept at room temperature followed by periodic recharging to overcome self-discharge Lithium polymer batteries may be stored for one or two months without significantly losing charge. However, if storing for long periods, some manufacturers recommend discharging the battery to 40% of full charge. Some sources recommend refrigerating (but not freezing) the cell. Follow your manufacturers recommendations. Follow the manufacturers guidelines for storage. For long-term storage, battery health can be preserved by keeping them in a cool, dry place, disconnecting them from any loads, and leaving them between a 40% and 50% state of charge. The latter action best maintains equilibrium conditions for the reaction occurring inside the cell. As mentioned above, cells tend to age over time, so some overall capacity loss can be expected.

BATTERY TEMPERATURE CONTROL Keeping a battery within its optimal operating temperature will allow you to get the most energy and power from the pack. A warm battery allows the best balance of chemical reaction to occur. All batteries have internal resistance to current flow. When current flows through the resistance it creates heat. High performance race vehicles exaggerate this condition by draining batteries quickly. This is typically followed by fast charging between events can cause cells to be overheated. Overheating causes cell damage and premature failure. In extreme cases, batteries can discharge hot electrolyte or even blow open a case. Lithium and Nickel based batteries can go into a thermal runaway condition which causes catastrophic failure and possible injury. Temperature controls on the battery management, chargers Are important to monitor and prevent such occurrence. Provisions for cooling air flow will also help to remove heat from the battery when the racer is moving at speed. Cooling fans should be considered at the charge station to remove heat since the batteries are stationary.

This battrry case is designed allows air flow over the top of the battery cells and is finger safe to avoid contact with electrical components.

52

BATTERY SAFETY Knowing what to do when a battery is damaged or becomes overheated is critical to minimize injury and hazards. All of the batteries in your battery pack should be of the same chemistry and from the same manufacturer because otherwise they will discharge unevenly and unpredictably. Below are the most common rechargeable chemistries: Chemistry Lithium iron phosphate LiFePO4 Lithium ion (polymer) LiCoxNiyMnz NiMH Lead Acid Nominal Voltage 3.2-3.3V Notes Less susceptible to thermal runaway than traditional lithium ion systems (safer). Slower power response, but higher peak current than lithium ion. Slightly heavier, longer shelf life. Fast power response. Overcharging, overdischarging, or high temperatures can drive cells into thermal runaway. Specific concentrations of cobalt, nickel, and manganese determine cell performance. Heavier than a lithium ion cell. Overdischarging can cause polarity reversal, killing the cell and possibly damaging attached electronics. Robust, mature technology. Five times heavier than an equivalent lithium ion system. May leak sulfuric acid or hydrogen gas if overcharged.
Table 1: Common secondary battery chemistries

3.6-3.7V

1.2V 2.1V

Batteries store a lot of energy, particularly those used for electric vehicles. To ensure personal safety while working around them, always wear personal protective equipment such as rubber-soled shoes and safety glasses. Always work in a clean, dry space and have a fire extinguisher available. Use insulated tools and leave all battery terminals covered whenever practical. Never work in an area where metal tools or equipment can fall and short the pack. Double-check all your electrical connections, particularly before connecting components. Avoid working on fully-charged packs. It is important to understand and respect the energy: large packs can carry enough voltage to render you unconscious or even cause death. CHARGING AND DISCHARGING Charge Cycles The charge cycle for your battery pack is highly dependent on the chemistry. Overcharging a pack, particularly lead acid or lithium-based chemistries, is dangerous because it can release harmful vapors or drive the cell into thermal runaway (fire). Charging or discharging at high rates may also damage the performance of the cells. Follow the instructions of the manufacturer to maintain good battery pack health. Similarly, overdischarging can damage the ability of the cell to hold its charge. There are four major types of charging, listed below. It is common to combine two or more types to form a charge cycle. Constant Current charging (CC) supplies a constant flow of current to the pack. It regulates the voltage of the charger. Constant Voltage charging (CV) maintains the potential across the pack terminals, regulating the supplied current to do so. The response of the battery voltage is dynamic based on the power drawn or supplied, but as the batterys true stable voltage approaches the one applied by the charger the current supplied will rapidly drop off. 53

Trickle charging supplies a very small amount of current for as long as the battery is plugged into the charger once it has reached its fully charged state. This method is popular with NiMH chemistries in order to counter their self-discharge, but it is not recommended for lithium ion-based chemistries because they can easily be overcharged. Timed charging applies any of the above three profiles for a set amount of time. Often the last portion of a charge cycle contains timer cutoff to prevent inadvertent overcharge if, for example, the battery has experienced some damage. A typical lithium-ion charge cycle consists of a period of constant current charging until it reaches its cutoff voltage (~4.2V), followed by constant voltage charging at that potential for a few hours or until the supplied current falls below a specified threshold, but it is chemistry depend and must be validated. Capacity and Charge Rate A battery is basically a giant capacitor. Its capacity is reported as a unit of charge, essentially corresponding to the number of electrons it can hold when completely charged. Common units are amp-hours (Ah) and, for smaller batteries, milliamp-hours (mAh). A typical cell phone battery has a 1Ah charge. A typical battery for an EV racer has a 60Ah charge. One amp-hour is equivalent to 3600 coulombs (C), the SI unit for charge. The charge and discharge rates can be reported absolutely in amperes (1A = 1C/s) or relative to the batterys capacity using a measure termed the C-rate. A C-rate of 1.0 is defined as supplying enough current so that a fully discharged battery would receive enough charge to achieve its full state in one hour. So, using the 60Ah battery above, a C-rate of 1.0 would translate to 60 amps. A C-rate of 0.5 would translate to 30 amps, and the battery would take twice as long to charge (2 hours). Since rechargeable battery capacities all vary slightly and should never be fully discharged, these are idealized estimates, but they provide a measure for performance comparisons between batteries of different chemistries or sizes. To get the approximate time to recharge a battery using a given C-rate, take the reciprocal of the C-rate. The table below shows the relationship between rates and capacities: Capacity: 150mAh C-rate: 0.4hr-1 Actual charge rate: Time to full charge: 0.4 150mAh = 60mA 1/0.4 = 2.5 hr

Table 2: Example relationship between battery capacity and C-rate The C-rate technically has units of inverse hours (h-1) but to make things confusing between capacities (coulombs) and discharge rates, a C-rate of 0.2 is often reported as 0.2C. Usually, the context can help determine which parameter is being described. Most batteries prefer being charged at no greater than 0.3C, but always consult the manufacturers guidelines before implementing a charging regime. Rechargeable batteries are designed to last for hundreds or thousands of cycles, though their capacity will naturally decrease as they are cycled more and as they age. Improper charging and discharging will exaggerate this effect. As a consequence of decreased capacity, the effective C-rate increases. For example, to a battery originally possessing a capacity of 60Ah, a C-rate of 0.5 is 30A. However, if the capacity of the battery falls to 50Ah over time, that same 30A now represents a C-rate of 0.6. The result is that the battery appears to charge faster, though in reality it has lost capacity.

54

Charge Monitoring and Balancing Batteries arranged as a pack will not charge evenly, primarily because of small differences in the cells introduced during manufacturing, which affect their internal resistances. To a lesser degree, variations in the conductivity of the electrical connections between cells will also affect the voltage seen across the cells. As a result of these differences the cell voltages and corresponding states of charge can become unbalanced. At the top and bottom of the charge state this becomes dangerous for pack health because the pack voltage may appear to be within the safe operating limits, however individual cells may exceed them. To protect individual cells from damage, use of a battery management system (BMS) is required. At their most basic level, these systems will monitor the individual battery voltages using small taps to each cell. They cut off the pack from the discharging load or charging source when the levels fall outside of the safe region. Safety cutoffs are usually accomplished through relays. More advanced systems can interface with the charger to throttle back the charging rate as the pack approaches its fully charged state, issue commands to the load (such as an EV throttle controller) to ease up on power draw when the pack reaches low levels, and perform balancing operations to topbalance individual cells. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Properly maintained batteries are unlikely to malfunction. However, below is a list of procedures to follow in the event of a battery-related emergency. Always evacuate and call 911 if you are unable to handle the situation. Event Individual terminal sparks or arcs Cause Short made between terminals of the battery Risk Electrical shock, extended contact will cause a fire and fuse things to terminals Lethal electrocution, fire Action Be cautious about metal tools near terminals. Always keep one terminal covered.

Pack sparks when connecting

Improper wiring

De-energize pack. Verify that all connections are properly wired. Somewhere, a short circuit is being created. De-energize pack and leave the area until fumes have cleared. Replace vented cells. De-energize pack. Use a spill kit, if available, to soak up the electrolyte. Leave area and allow it to evaporate. Avoid skin contact with liquid or remaining residue. Replace cell.

Cell Venting

Overcharging, overdischarging Puncture

Hazardous fume inhalation Fire (flammable electrolyte), skin contact

Cell Leaking

55

Cell Bulging

Overcharging, overdischarging

Internal gas buildup may vent unexpectedly

De-energize pack and ensure cells are not outside safety limits. Replace severely bulging cells. (Keeping cells banded prevents this.) De-energize pack and monitor cells closely. Replace smoking cell.

Cell Smoking

Overcharging, overdischarging, internal short Overcharging, overdischarging Shorted connection for an extended period or thermal runaway

Fire

Hot Cell

Thermal runaway, fire

De-energize pack. Let cell cool. Replace cell. De-energize pack. Evacuate and call 911.

Fire

Hazardous fumes, smoke, large energy release

Table 3: Emergency procedures for battery events

Additional INFORMATION on batteries The above information is provided to answer questions for ev racer builders. Additional research on battery technology should be conducted for a full understanding of battery technology. The following reference is recommended as a start: Buchman, Isidor, Batteries in a Portable World - A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-Engineers 3rd addition, ISBN 978-0-9682118-3-0, 2011. Excerpts from the book can be found at http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/ You may also find this website helpful. http://www.mpoweruk.com/chemistries.htm, http://www.mpoweruk.com/performance.htm

56

CHAPTER 9 BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (BMS) Even with highly controlled manufacturing processes, each cell will has its own characteristics of performance. When cells are connected to make a battery and batteries connected to make a pack it is important that each unit be tested and placed into a pack with other units that produce similar characteristics to maximize the pack performance. Extreme temperatures are the enemy of batteries. Running at high temperature causes a cell to vaporize electrolyte, destroy cell materials and if left unmanaged cause catastrophic failure and potential for injury. Running too low slows down the chemical process which reduces power output. Extreme low temperatures can cause electolyte to freeze, the expansion causing plate damage. Even with extremes in control, temperature variation and other operational conditions can cause individual cells to become out of balance, that is for a cell to have a lower or higher charge than others in the same pack. If one cell gets too far out of balance, it can be damaged by over or under charging and can become a safety hazard if continued to be used As the number of cells and load currents increase, the potential for mismatch increases. There are two kinds of mismatch in the pack: state-of-charge (SOC) and capacity/energy (C/E) mismatch. Though the SOC mismatch is more common, each problem limits the pack capacity (mAh) to the capacity of the weakest cell. Most battery management systems used in electric vehicle battery packs balance the cells by a process known as top balancing. Top balancing consists of using a circuit that slowly drains the cell and dissipates the energy from the cell as heat by passing current through a resistor. The process is done during the charge cycle of a battery pack. While a battery pack is charging the Battery Management System monitors each cells voltage. When a cell reaches a predefined peak voltage (dependent on cell chemistry), the BMS turns off the charger, and then closes a circuit over the high cell so it will discharge through the balance resistor. This is usually accomplished using mosfets. When the cell has reached a predefined balance voltage the BMS will turn the charger back on. When the next cell reaches this peak voltage the process repeats. This process is done over and over until all cells reach the peak voltage at the same time. Thus all cells have almost the exact same voltage. Another common form of balancing the cells of a battery pack is to have a charger that will individually charge each cell, rather than the pack as a whole. For example if one wanted to charge a 72V nominal battery pack made of LiCo cells (3.6V nominal thus 20 cells in the pack) they could either purchase a 72V bulk charger or 20 3.6V individual cell chargers. If the bulk charger is used (a charger that charges the series chain of cells all at once), a top balancing BMS must be employed. However, if the cells are all individually charged there will not be a need for a top balancing BMS because the charger would charge each cell to the same voltage. There are a few other processes that can be used in a battery management system to balance cells, but due to their rare use and complicated process they will not be discussed in this text. Battery pack cells are balanced when all the cells in the battery pack meet two conditions: If all cells have the same capacity, then they are balanced when they have the same relative state of charge (SOC.) In this case, the open circuit voltage (OCV) is a good measure of the SOC. If, in an out-of-balance pack, all cells can be differentially charged to full capacity (balanced), then they will subsequently cycle normally without any additional adjustments. Battery balancing and Management systems can be simple or complicated depending on the battery design use and chemistry. The simplist balancing system used for Lead Acid batteries is the equilization charge which trickles a small current for an extended period at the end of the normal charge cycle. Lead Acid chemistry can withstand this 57

as long as cell temperature is not exceeded. Cut off charge and discharge control and an individual cell balance technique can work for applications were only a few charge discharge cycles are needed to complete a mission such as a weekend of three races. More sophisticated continuous cell by cell control is needed and typically employed for Lithium based batteries, used on electric vehicles used for common public use over years of expected operation. A proper management system significantly improve battery life, efficiency and increase the overall pack capacity and safety. A battery management systems is required for lithium batteries used for the evGrandPrix. BMS CONFIGURATIONS Systems may take several designs. The most common are classified as centralized and distributed. Either architecture may support modular operation, where smaller systems are chained together to control larger packs. Digital systems offer more sophistication and control at the cost of complexity. Centralized Centralized systems use wire taps or harnesses to connect to each battery. The cables all return to a single board which contains circuitry to detect voltage and temperature problems. Relay connections and balancing are also connected to this board. They generally require less time to set up since only wires must be connected to the system. Since they require a single board they are usually less expensive for larger systems. However, expanding the size of the system is more difficult, and a failure of one component (e.g. a balancing resistor) can damage the entire board.

DISTRIBUTED 58

Distributed systems use voltage sense boards on each cell to measure voltages and balance the cells. Cells are usually daisy-chained together using a string of communication cables. The cables are either terminated on a master communication board, to which relays and alarms are connected, or they connect directly to the relays and alarms. Distributed systems generally require more set-up work and are a little more expensive because of the added sense board cost. Once installed they easily travel with a pack, and a single failed component can be replaced without affecting the entire system.

BMS SYSTEMS COMPARISON TABLE Several BMS systems are presented below, all of which have high voltage, low voltage, and temperature cutoffs. Not all systems work with all chemistries or battery pack form factors. For a much more complete listing of models and feature sets, visit http://liionbms.com/php/index.php.
Approx Cost*

Name

Design

Modular Balancing

Communication

Circuitry

CleanPowerAuto MiniBMS

Centralized and Distributed models

Pack readout via additional unit

Analog

$700

Elite Power Solutions EMS

Distributed

Composite Video Display, CANBus optional CANBus CANBus,

Digital

$1100

Elithion

Distributed

Digital

$1500

Ewert Energy Orion BMS

Centralized, Harness

PC interface RS-232

Digital

$800

Genasun BMS

Distributed

Digital

$1800

59

Manzanita Micro mk3

Centralized, Harness

Rudman bus, Y Y PC interface No readout Digital $850

Pacific EV ittyBMS

Distributed

Analog

$950

Table 4 - *based on 20-cell system 2011 costing

CHAPTER 10 MOTORS ELECTRIC MOTOR INTRODUCTION The following section is provided as an introduction to motors for the purpose of familiarizing the electric vehicle builder with basic operation and terminology needed to ask inteligent questions about motor application. This is written for the reader that has a basic understanding of the difference between an AC and DC circuit and a working understanding of the following units volts, amps, watts, torque and power. The electric motor is an electric machine (dynamo) that converts electric power into mechanical power. Motors can be either of the rotary or linear variety. As the great majority of motors used in electric vehicles are rotary converters we will concentrate our discussion on rotory motor types typically found in electric vehicles. All rotary electric motors have a stationary part called the - stator and a rotating moving member called the rotor which is supported by bearings. The rotor and stator are separarted by an air gap, or the clearance between the moving and nonmoving members. The field of the motor establishes a magnetic flux across this air gap and through the armature. Current flow in the armature conductors (coils) produce torque when interacting with the field flux. This does not require motion. If there is motion (rotation)of the armature relative to the field, a voltage is generated across the armature conductors (or coils). In motors, this generated armature voltage opposes the applied voltage which produced the initial current flow. The product of the generated voltage and the armature current is the actual electrical power converted to mechanical power disregarding losses. Either the armature or field can be the moving or stationary member depending on the motor design and application, but obviously you need one of each to produce a motor. The armature and field may also be designed in an axial or radial configuration. Axial motors are sometimes refered to as pancake motors. This is usually based on application space constraints.

Radial Rotary field

Axial Rotary

Axial Rotary Armature

field 60

Figure 41

Figure 42

If you've played with magnets, you know that they are polarized, with a North and a South pole. The attraction between opposite poles and the repulsion of similar poles can easily be felt, even with relatively weak magnets. What is not apparent is that this force is the result of magnetic fields and that there is a magnetic flux which flows through and around the magnets. A motor uses these properties and the interaction with electric fields created by electric current to convert electricity into force and motion. A simple demonstration can be seen by placing a flexible copper wire across a magnet and then connecting the ends of that wire to a flashlight battery. When the wire is connected, it moves as a result of current through the wire in the presence of the magnetic flux from the magnet. Try it again with the battery reversed and the wire moves the other direction. This would be the simplest homopolar linear motor. Useful rotary motors will consists of multiple magnetic poles in the field structure always found in pairs, N & S. The wires which carry the current to produce the force (or torque in this case of rotary machines) are found in the armature. As these armature conductors pass from one pole to the next, relatively speaking, the direction of current flowing in those conductors must be switched to maintain a continual direction of torque. This changing of direction of current or switching in the armature conductors (or coild) is called commutation. For our purposes electric motors can generally be classified into two families based on the method of communtation: mechanically communtated commonly refered to as direct current (DC) motors and electronically comuntated commonly called alternating current (AC) motors.

DC MOTORS MECHANICALLY COMMUNTATED Mechanically communtated motors are the simplest motor to control as they come equipped with a swithching mechanism to reverse (alternate) the flow of current through the armature. To make these motors change speed with a given load, a relatively simple control is required that raise or lowers the voltage. Because of this relatively simple control, mechanically communtated motors were the main variable speed workhorse of industry prior to the development of power transistors and computer controlled electronics. Torque capability at a given speed is a function of the armature current. These motors require only a two wire circuit from the power supply to function. Though all can opeate from a two wire DC power source, hence called DC motors, some designs may also designed to run from a two wire AC power source. These are referred to as universal motors. The speed limitation and wear of the mechanical communtator and mating brushes are a disadvantage of this design. Mechanical, communtators must be kept free of oil and grit for reliable operation. These motors are generally gas (air) cooled from the inside.

PERMANENT MAGNET PMDC OPERATION The 2 pole permanent magnet stationary field DC motor is the simplest to understand. The two outer magnets, called the field are permanent, that is made of a material that maintains its magnetic properties over a long period of time. Typically the outside faces of the two magnets are shaped to fit inside the motor housing which are magnetically coupled together through the steel housing. Between the two magnets is a placed a segmented shaped steel wheel. The wheel is called the armature core and in this example becomes an electromagnet by 61

winding insulated wire around it. The shape of the armature core face in this example concentrates the magnetic energy from the coil onto its two faces, making it a two pole armature. The armature is attached to a shaft which is allowed to rotate on bearings. Each end of the armature winding is connected to a terminal segment which is insulated from each other and the shaft. Wires from the external circuit supply direct current to the segments through parts that slide on the segment called brushes. Brushes are typically made of copper, brass and carbon. The segments as positioned become a a mechanical switching device called the commutator. In the following diagram, let us assume that the left magnet is a north pole and the right magnet is a south pole.

*
Figure 43

When a direct electric current is supplied through the commutator to the coils of wire on the armature a magnetic force is created in the steel. The timing of the brush contact to commutator segment is timed to produce a a north pole on the armature core face under the north permanent magnet and south pole on the face under the permanent south magnet. Because like poles repel and opposite poles attract, the armature is forced to turn so that its north pole rotates toward the south permanent magnet, and the armatures south side will rotate to where the north permanent magnet is. As the poles of the armature reach the place of strongest attraction, the commutator and brushes are timed to switch the flow of current in the armature coil as the brushes slide to the next segment. This, makes the armature core change magnetic polarity. That is the side that was north becomes south, and the side that was south becomes north. In that instant the magnetic forces are again opposing, and the armature keeps rotating. As the armature spins the shaft, the commutator changes the flow of electricity to the winding, so the magnetic forces continue to cause the wheel to rotate. The direction of rotation of this motor can be easily reversed by reversing the polarity of the input leads from the outside direct current power supply. The armature of practical DC motors has multiple windings connected to multiple commentator segments. Field poles may also be increased. This increases power density and smooths torque as the armature rotates. Armature and Field of DC motor.

62

Typical Speed - Torque Curve


The permanent magnet motor has excellent starting torque, with speed regulation not as good as compound motors. However, the speed regulation can be improved with various designs, with corresponding lower rated torques for a given frame. Because of permanent field, motor losses are less with better operating efficiencies. These motors can be dynamically braked and reversed at some low armature voltage (10%) but should not be plug reversed (reversed under power) with full armature voltage. Reversing current can be no higher than the locked armature current.

Figure 44

The availability of rare earth permanent magnet material has made the permanent magnet design gain popularity in ev applications due to its relative low cost and simplicity. Cooling is focused on removing heat that is generated in the armature. WOUND FIELD WFDC MOTOR Mechanically communtated electric motors can be built with an electromagnet field in place of the permanent magnets used in a PMDC. The armature is made similar to PMDC motors. The wound field can be connected in parallel (shunt) or series with the armature. There is also a version of this design called a compound wound motor which has both a parallel and series field. SHUNT FIELD

63

Shunt wound motors, with the armature shunted across the field, offer relatively flat speed-torque characteristics. Combined with inherently controlled no-load speed, this provides good speed regulation over wide load ranges. While the starting torque is comparatively lower than series or compound wound fields, shunt wound motors offer simplified control for reversing service and are easy to control for regeneration. Reversing is accomplished by either reversing the current through the field or armature but not both. Reversing of the field can be done with small contactors. In electric vehicle applications, the field is typically connected to a constant voltage DC supply. Speed control is then accomplished by changing voltage to the armature as in the permanent magnet scheme. Shunt field motors whose field is connected to an external power supply different that the armature are refered to as separately excited, sepex motors. In this approach the armature voltage can be held constant or changed without effecting the field flux. Field voltage can also be changed if desired. Reducing voltage to the field when the motor reaches its voltage speed balance causes the motor to speed up with a reduction in torque. This process is called field weakening which can be used to raise speed when cruising. Control of the separately excited field can also be used to control regenerative braking. TYPICAL SPEED - TORQUE CURVE

Figure 45

SERIES WOUND Series wound motors have the armature connected in series with the field. The field is wound with heavy wire as all the current flows through both the armature and the field. While it offers very high starting torque and good torque output per ampere, the series motor has poor speed regulation. Series motors should be avoided in applications where they are likely to lose there load because of their tendency to "run away" under no-load conditions. These motors dominate as cranking motors for engines. They also find application in industrial trucks and for heavy direct drive traction applications in locomotives and self propelled rail cars. Reversing of the series motor is accomplished by reversing the field leads. This requires heavy contactors to carry the high currents. Regeneration though possible, is impractical to accomplish reliably. TYPICAL SPEED - TORQUE CURVE

64

Figure 46

COMPOUND WOUND Compound wound (stabilized shunt) motors utilize a field winding in series with the armature in addition to the shunt field to obtain a compromise in performance between a series and shunt type motor. This type offers a combination of good starting torque and speed stability. Standard compounding is about 12%. Heavier compounding of up to 40 to 50% can be supplied for special high starting torque applications, such as locomotives and rail car applications.Regeneration is possible by exciting the shunt field. Reversal is typically done by changing polarity of the armature rather than switching two fields. This motor can also be shunt field weakened to raise speed during cruising. Typical Speed - Torque Curve

AC MOTORS BRUSHLESS OR ELECTRONICALLY COMMUNTATED Although the flow of current in all motor armatures alternate, electronically communtated motors must be connected to AC power to run. Several versions will start and run at a fixed speed from commercial AC power. Prior to the development of computer controlled electronics and power transistors these machines were relegated to constant speed duty and were not utilized in electric vehicles because the speed of these machines is dependent on frequency. Power is dependent on the voltage supplied to the windings. The main advantage is that the commonly used AC motors for traction service do not use brushes and commentators . Because they have no 65

commutator, brushless motors are less expensive per power, more efficient, need less maintenance, and can operate at higher speeds than conventional dc motors. The brushless motors are rugged and can be internally gas or liquid cooled. The motor consists of two basic parts, a stationary stator having armature coils supplied with alternating current. This produces a rotating magnetic field, and the moving part or rotor which provides a matching field for the stator field to act upon. The rotor is attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. Motors can be made with the rotor outside and the stator inside. Outside stator

Though AC motors are maded to run on two wire AC (single phase) power that is supplied commercially to buildings, there is little application of the single phase AC motor in electric vehicles. We will therefore concentrate our study on the polyphase (three phase) versions of these machines. There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a submultiple of the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is generated either by current delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet. The second type is the induction motor, which runs slightly slower than the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current.

PERMANENT FIELD OPERATION The brushless DC is the simplest of these motors to understand from a functional standpoint. It gets its name because it is configured as a reverse of a DC motor with the field magnets on the rotor and the armature as the stator. The name is a misnomer in that it actually needs AC current and cannot run on DC current without an inverter.

66

This type of motor produce a magnetic field in the rotor by using permanent magnets attached to it and commutation is achieved electronically. Control for motoring this machine is somewhat complicated and aspects of it will be covered later in the controller section of this writing. In the in running syle of this motor, the outside faces of the two magnets are shaped to fit inside the motor stator and are magnetically connected together through the rotor to which they are firmly attached. The segmented stator is fitted closely around the rotor. The stator coils are wound around the stator core and provides an electromagnet when current passes through the wire. The coils are connected alternately into three separate windings. This winding is spatially distributed for poly-phase AC current. The shape of the armature core face concentrates the magnetic energy toward the rotor. When Ac current is applied to the windings in the correct sequence a rotating field is produced. The speed of rotation is a function of the change in the AC sequencing refered to as the frequency. The higher the frequency the faster the motor will run.

If the electrical rotation is timed to coincide with the position of the rotor magnets, the rotor will become magnetically coupled and is dragged around producing rotation. The strength of the magnets determine the torque capability of the machine. Because of the magnets on the rotor, this motor will run in synchronous with the frequency, that is at the same speed. High efficiency and small size are especially important for military, aircraft, and automotive applications, and for portable instruments and communications equipment

67

TYPICAL SPEED TORQUE CURVE

WOUND FIELD OPERATION Though not generally used for traction applications, the wound field synchronous machine is a popular device finding most of its application as a generator though there are advantages to using this machine in as a motor in large power applications. A version of this design is used in automotive charging alternators. For purposes of completing our understanding of synchronous motors we will take a moment to describe the features and operations of a wound field motor. The wound field motor functions and has many similarities to the permanenet field machine. The stator is essentially the same with the outer shell of the motor, carries the armature winding. This winding is spatially distributed for poly-phase AC current. This armature creates the rotating magnetic field inside the motor. The rotor is the rotating portion of the motor. It carries a field winding, which is connected to an external DC source. The rotor may be connected to the external sourse by slip rings which are fed by brushes. To eliminate brushes some designs incorporate an inductive coupling on the rotor. The rotor in this design is then built with a rectifier (diode) bridge to convert the alternating excitation current to DC needed to excite the field winding. On excitation, the field winding behaves as does the permanent magnet machine and therefore follows a similar speed torque curve. Motoring this machine from a DC battery requires an inverter and circuits to excite and control the field winding. INDUCTION MOTOR OPERATION The induction motor has sometimes been refered to as the workhorse of industry powering hundreds of machines for well over a hundred years. Application to electric vehicles was limited until the development of variable frequency inverters have provided a means to change speeds. Its simplicity, efficieincy, low cost and ruggedness has made this machine become popular in electric vehicle applications.

68

An induction motor is a type of alternating current motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction. The stator is essentially the same with the outer shell of the motor, carries the armature winding. This winding is spatially distributed for poly-phase AC current. This armature creates the rotating magnetic field inside the motor. The rotor is the rotating portion of the motor and is the component which is different from the synchronous machines. The rotor consists of a segmented steel core laminations in the form of a wheel on a shaft. The core provides cavities parallel to the shaft which surrounds conductors made of aluminum or copper. The conductors are connected at each of the two ends of the rotor by the end ring. This provides a conductive path for electrons. rotor of an induction machine

Figure 47

The big difference between synchronous and induction machines is the manner in which current is supplied to the rotor. There is no need for an external power supply in the induction machine. Induction is is a natural phenomena which occurs when a conductor (aluminum or copper bars in the case of a rotor, is moved through an existing magnetic field or when a magnetic field is moved past a conductor. - How voltage is induced in the rotor, resulting in current flow in the rotor

Figure 48

conductors

69

In either case, the relative motion of the two causes an electric current to flow in the conductor. This is referred to as "induced" current flow. In other words, in an induction motor the current flow in the rotor is not caused by any direct connection of the conductors to a voltage source, but rather by the influence of the rotor conductors cutting across the lines of flux produced by the stator magnetic fields. The induced current which is produced in the rotor results in a magnetic field around the rotor conductors. This magnetic field around each rotor conductor will cause each rotor conductor to act as a magnet. As the magnetic field of the stator rotates, due to the effect of the threephase AC power supply, the induced magnetic field of the rotor will be attracted and will follow the rotation. The rotor is connected to the motor shaft, so the shaft will rotate and drive the connection load. TYPICAL SPEED - TORQUE CURVE

SWITCHED RELUCTANCE OPERATION One of the oldest motor topologies, SR motors utilize concentrated stator windings and contain no magnets. The rotor is a very simple construction of soft iron laminates with no coils. Since the rotor cannot generate its own magnetic field, there is no reactive torque (magnet to magnet) in an SR machine. Instead, both rotor and stator poles demonstrate salient protrusions (doubly salient design) where the flux length is made to vary as a function of angle. This results in the magnetic reluctance also changing as a function of angle, which gives rise to saliency torque. This is the only torque producing mechanism in an SR motor, which tends to result in high torque ripple. However, due to their simple design, SR motors are very economical to build, and are perhaps the most robust motor available. Unfortunately, the high torque ripple also gives rise to audible noise during operation, which has limited the application of SR motors in many applications. Manufacturers are working to make this motor ev friendly. It may be come avaible to the masses in the near future.

Switched reluctance machine

70

MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS Understanding motor types and characteristics allow one to have a better understanding of what to look for on the nameplate and manufacturers data sheet when looking for a motor to power your electric vehicle. Rated voltage Motors are designed to yield optimal performance when operating at a specific voltage level, or a combination of voltage levels in the case of dual-voltage or tri-voltage motors. This value is known as the nameplate voltage. In recognition of the fact that voltage changes on your power distribution system occur due to changing load conditions within your facility and on the utility supply that feeds your facility, motors are designed with a 10% tolerance for voltage above and below the rated nameplate value. Thus, a motor with a rated nameplate voltage of 46V should be expected to operate successfully between 41V and 50V. Voltage can also be AC or DC. Motor Type Induction, Synchronous, Shunt, Series Rated full-load amperage As the torque load on a motor increases, the amperage required to power the motor also increases. When the full-load torque and horsepower is reached, the corresponding amperage is known as the full-load amperage (FLA). This value is determined by laboratory tests; the value is usually rounded up slightly and recorded as the nameplate value. Rounding up allows for manufacturing variations that can occur and some normal voltage variations that might increase the full-load amps of the motor. The nameplate FLA is used to select the correct wire size, motor starter, and overload protection devices necessary to serve and protect the motor. Field Voltage - Voltage needed to fully power field on DC Motors. Field Amperage - Amperage of Field on DC Motors when full voltage is applied. Frequency To operate successfully, the motor frequency must match the power system (supply) frequency. In North America, this frequency is 60 Hz (cycles). In other parts of the world, the frequency may be 50 or 60 Hz. Phase This concept is fairly simple in the United States. You either have a single-phase or 3-phase motor. Rated full-load speed This is the motor's approximate speed under full-load conditions, when voltage and frequency are at the rated values. A somewhat lower value than the actual laboratory test result figures is usually stamped on the nameplate because this value can change slightly due to factors like manufacturing tolerances, motor temperature, and voltage variations. On standard induction motors, the full-load speed is typically 96% to 99% of the no-load speed. Insulation class and rated ambient temperature A critical element in motor life is the maximum temperature that occurs at the hottest spot in the motor. The temperature that occurs at that spot is a combination of motor design (temperature rise) and the ambient (surrounding) temperature. The standard way of indicating these components is by showing the allowable maximum ambient temperature, usually 40C (104F), and the class of insulation used in the design of the motor. Available classes are B, F, and H.

71

Rated horsepower Horsepower is the measure of how much work a motor can be expected to do. This value is based on the motor's full-load torque and full-load speed ratings and is calculated as follows: Horsepower (hp)=[Motor SpeedTorque (lb-ft)]5,250 -The standardized NEMA table of motor horsepower ratings runs from 1 hp to 450 hp. If a load's actual horsepower requirement falls between two standard horsepower ratings, you should generally select the larger size motor for your application. Peak power -- Power capability with reduced duty cycle. Time rating Standard motors are rated for continuous duty (24/7) at their rated load and maximum ambient temperature. Specialized motors can be designed for short-time requirements where intermittent duty is all that's needed. These motors can carry a short-time rating from 5 minutes to 60 minutes. The NEMA definition for short-time motors is as follows: All short-time ratings are based upon corresponding short-time load tests, which shall commence only when the windings and other parts of the motor are within 5C of the ambient temperature at the time of the test. By using short-time ratings, it's possible to reduce the size, weight, and cost of the motor required for certain applications. For example, you may choose to install an induction motor with a 15-minute rating to power a pre-operation oil pump used to pre-lube a gas turbine unit because it would be unusual for this type of motor to be operated for more than 15 minutes at a time. Locked-rotor code letter When AC motors are started with full voltage applied, they create an inrush current that's usually many times greater than the value of the full-load current. The value of this high current can be important on some installations because it can cause a voltage dip that might affect other equipment. There are two ways to find the value of this current. Look it up in the motor performance data sheets as provided by the manufacturer. It will be noted as the locked-rotor current. Use the locked-rotor code letter that defines an inrush current a motor requires when starting it. Manufacturer's name and address Most manufacturers include their name and address on the motor nameplate. Optional nameplate data. In addition to the required items noted above, more information is typically included on a motor nameplate. Frame size Under the NEMA system, most motor dimensions are standardized and categorized by a frame size number and letter designation. In fractional horsepower motors the frame sizes are two digits and represent the shaft height of the motor from the bottom of the base in sixteenths of an inch. For example, a 56-frame motor would have a shaft height (D dimension) of 56/16 of an inch, or 3.5 inches. On larger 3-digit frame size motors, 143T through 449T, a slightly different system is used where the first two digits represent the shaft height in quarters of an inch. For example, a 326T frame would have a D dimension of 32 one-quarter inches, or 8 inches. Although no direct inch measurement relates to it, the third digit of three-digit frame sizes, in this case a 6, is an indication of the motor body's length. The longer the motor body, the longer the distance between mounting bolt holes in the base (i.e. greater F dimension). For example, a 145T frame has a larger F dimension than does a 143T frame. When working with metric motors (IEC type), the concept is the same as noted above with one exception the shaft height above the base is now noted in millimeters rather than inches. The frame size is the shaft height in millimeters.

72

NEMA design letter Certain types of machinery may require motors with specialized performance characteristics. For example, cranes and hoists that have to start with full loads imposed may require motors with operating characteristics much different from what is required for pumps and blowers. Motor performance characteristics can be altered by design changes in lamination, winding, rotor, or any combination of these three items. Service factor Service factor (SF) is an indication of how much overload a motor can withstand when operating normally within the correct voltage tolerances. For example, the standard SF for open drip-proof (ODP) motors is 1.15. This means that a 10-hp motor with a 1.15 SF could provide 11.5 hp when required for short-term use. Some fractional horsepower motors have higher service factors, such as 1.25, 1.35, and even 1.50. In general, it's not a good practice to size motors to operate continuously above rated load in the service factor area. Motors may not provide adequate starting and pull-out torques, and incorrect starter/overload sizing is possible. Traditionally, totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) motors had an SF of 1.0, but most manufacturers now offer TEFC motors with service factors of 1.15, the same as on ODP motors. Most hazardous location motors are made with an SF of 1.0, but some specialized units are available for Class I applications with a service factor of 1.15. Full-load efficiency As energy costs have increased, conservation efforts have become more important to commercial and industrial operations. As a result, it's become important to have full-load efficiency information readily available on motor nameplates. The efficiency is given as a percentage and indicates how well the motor converts electrical power into mechanical power. The closer this value is to 100%, the lower the electricity consumption cost is going to be. Generally, larger motors will be more efficient than smaller motors. Today's premium efficiency 3-phase motors have efficiencies ranging from 86.5% at 1 hp to 95.8% at 300 hp. The efficiency value that appears on the nameplate is the nominal full-load efficiency as determined using a very accurate dynamometer and a procedure described by IEEE Standard 112, Method B. The nominal value is what the average would be if a substantial number of identical motors were tested and the average of the batch were determined. Some motors might have a higher value and others might be lower, but the average of all units tested is shown as the nominal nameplate value. Guaranteed minimum is another efficiency that's sometimes noted on a nameplate. This value is determined from a mathematical relationship that assumes that the worst efficiency of any motor in the batch used to determine the average (nominal) value could have losses as much as 20% higher than the average. As a result, each nominal efficiency value would have a corresponding minimum efficiency value. You can view these values in Table 12-8 in NEMA MG-1. Power factor Power factor is the ratio of motor load watts divided by volt-amps at the full-load condition. Power factor for a motor changes with its load. Power factor is minimum at no load and increases as additional load is applied to the motor. Power factor usually reaches a peak at or near full load on the motor. Much of this section was excerpted from By Ed Cowern, P.E., Baldor Electric Co. Electric Construction and Maintenance Magazine. Understanding Induction Motor Nameplate Information May 1, 2004, ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON MOTORS

73

The above information is provided to answer basic questions for ev racer builders looking to specify off the shelf available motors. Additional research into various motor designs and engineering theory should be done by those who are considering using motor designs not covered in the discussion or who want to become more versed in motor engineering principles. Here are some sources to get you started. http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/overview.jsp?code=DRMTROVRVU10 http://www.reliance.com/mtr/mtrthrmn.htm.

74

CHAPTER 11 MOTOR CONTROLLER The motor controller is the brain of the electric propulsion system in an electric vehicle. The controller is connected in the power circuit between the batteries and the motor and is responsible to meter and condition power to the motor in response to the demands of the driver. The driver demands for the propulsion drive includes run/stop, forward/reverse, fast/slow and regenerate. In addition to controlling the motor, modern controllers can provide a means to operate and control gauges and auxiliary functions, operational information and troubleshooting codes. We will concentrate our study on the propulsion drive functions. Run/stop is typically a signal from an on/off switch similar to an ignition switch in a conventional car. The signal tells the controller to turn on and be prepared to start the motor. Forward/reverse is typically a signal from an on/off switch that tells the controller or in some cases an external contactor circuit to cause the motor to produce a forward rotation or a reverse rotation. Fast/Slow or speed control is a response to the accelerator pedal position. The pedal is typically connected to a potentiometer (variable resistor). This potentiometer provides a positive signal when activated that tells the controller to supply power to the motor to produce forward torque. The controller can deliver zero power (when the racer is stopped), full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal), or any power level in between. In this mode, the battery is being discharged and supplies electric power to the motor. Regenerate is typically a response to a potentiometer connected to the brake pedal; though some drivers prefer a hand control. Regeneration may also be programmed to create an engine like braking action when the driver lifts from the accelerator. When activated the regeneration signal tells the controller to remove power from the motor and coast and if desired produce a negative torque to slow the vehicle. In the regeneration mode, the controller causes the motor to take mechanical power from the moving vehicle which slows it down and produce electrical power which charges the battery. This action improves electric vehicle efficiency by recovering energy which is normally wasted when friction brakes are applied. Controllers can be relatively simple or complex, depending on the type of motor to be controlled. For purposes of our study controllers will be grouped as those used to operate mechanically communtated motors (DC) and those that are used to operate electronically communtated motors (AC). DC MOTOR CONTROLLERS Because of its simplicity and ease of control, the DC motor was the first to become practical as a traction motor. From our study of DC motors we know that the communtator provides a timing means that inverts the DC power from the battery into AC used to create a magnetic field in the armature. Because of this there is no need for a DC motor controller to provide communtation. In our motor study we also find that DC motor torque and speed are controlled by the current and voltage supplied to them.

75

CONTACTOR AS A CONTROLLER The very simplest DC controller is a big on/off switch or a contactor (solenoid) wired between the motor and the battery. This is exactly the control used to run a cranking motor to start a combustion engine. When the switch is closed, the motor is connected to the battery and runs at full power and speed.

Engine Starter Circuit

starter motor

When this strategy is used to control an electric traction application, the contactor is connected to the accelerator pedal. When you push the pedal, it turns on the switch and when you take your foot off the pedal, the switch is turned off. You may have experienced this type control if you took a ride on the bumper cars at an amusement park. Maximum speed is a function of gearing and load, which for the bumper car, is typically slower than the rider wants to go.

Figure 49

bumper cars

76

In high power electric vehicles an on/off control would not be desirable for a direct drive since the vehicle cannot be operated at maximum speed at all times. As the driver, you would have to push and release the accelerator to pulse the motor on and off to maintain a given speed. Obviously, that approach would work but it would be a pain to drive and put undue strain on mechanical parts. Some electric vehicles can use this approach if equipped with mechanical or fluid transmissions which provide the variable speed function to improve drivability. Contactors are typically used in high powered vehicles as master on off controls between controllers and batteries and in forward and reverse controls for DC motors. Contactor operation is covered in a later section of this writing.

RESISTOR SPEED CONTROL Prior to electronic speed controls, the DC speed controller consisted of a number of resistors and contactors placed in series with the motor. The first contactor would have the highest resistance. The remaining contractors are connected to lower resistors and would be sequenced by pushing the accelerator pedal. The motor power output would be a function of the amount of resistance provided by the controller. This is a relatively low cost control system that has worked for many years. Its disadvantage is that the resistors waste power as heat and the need for maintenance of contactors.

Resistive DC controller for series motor


Figure 50

FIELD SPEED CONTROL In the DC motor section we found that employing a field weakening strategy can increase DC motor speed. The simplest version of this is by shunting a resistor across the field of a series motor or placing it in series with the field of a shunt motor. Employing a field strengthening strategy by over exciting the field can increase speed. Permanent magnet fields cannot be 77

Field weakening circuit for a series motor.

electronically field weakened. Designers have come up with novel mechanical means to do field weakening in these motors.

ELECTRONIC DC SPEED CONTROL. Early electronic DC speed controllers employed vacuum tubes and later silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR) to replace resistors to meter the flow of electrons between the battery and the motor. Modern solid state controllers use efficient power transistors (Mosfets or IGBTs) for this purpose. In the simplest DC control one transistor can provide the means to rapidly turn power on and off to the motor. In high power drives transistors can be added in parallel to carry the load. IGBTs are favored in high voltage drives (above 200 volts) and MOSFETS for lower voltage drives (below 200 volts) though there are exceptions. A speed control circuit or computer inside the controller housing is sent a voltage signal which equates to the position of the potentiometer actuated by the accelerator pedal. The control circuit responds by pulsing the power transistor to regulate the power accordingly. When the accelerator is pushed halfway down, the controller reads that setting from the potentiometer and rapidly switches the power to the motor on and off so that it is on half the time and off half the time (50%). The motor responds by producing approximately half power. If you have the accelerator pedal 25 percent of the way down, the controller pulses the power so it is on 25 percent of the time and off 75 percent of the time. Most controllers pulse the power at more than 15,000 times per second, in order to keep the pulsation outside the range of human hearing. The pulsed current causes the motor housing to vibrate at that frequency, so by pulsing at more than 15,000 cycles per second, the controller and motor are silent to human ears. At 100% power, the transistor remains on continuously. Some electric vehicle control designers will add a contactor to bypass the transistor when the motor is being operating above 95% power. This reduces noise, increases efficiency and allows the use of a lower rated transistor. The designer may also employ a field control approach to regulate the motor speed at high power. When the transistor is full on.

Solid Figure 51

state control for a DC motor

78

FORWARD AND REVERSE CONTROL In mechanically communtated motors, rotation reverse is accomplished by changing the polarity of either the field or armature but not both. In all but the shunt field motor, this is typically done using four high current contactors. Because of their size of these and to make them easily replaceable they are usually separated from the speed controller. The field of a shunt motor uses a lower current so some designers choose to use a lower cost double pole double throw relay to reverse the field instead of the armature. Some manufacturers of DC speed controllers have this feature built in using solid state relays or transistors configured in an H bridge. H bridges can also be controlled to provide speed control.

Contactors or relays used for forward and reverse in armature circuits


Figure 52

H Bridge reverse circuit

DC CONTROLLER WIRING DIAGRAM Below is a typical wiring diagram of an electric vehicle with a DC motor controller. Note the reverse relay circuit and the position of the series field and the armature of the motor. As drawn this will reverse the polarity of the power to the series field while always supplying current to the armature in the same direction. This circuit also features a bypass contactor connected to the B + and the M- terminal of the controller. This is used at full power to minimize losses through the controller. Main contactor should always be provided to remove all power to the controller. Pot box is connected to the accelerator peddle.

79

DC CONTROLLER SPECIFICATIONS Understanding what a controller needs to do to control the motor you select will allow one to have a better understanding of what to look for on the nameplate and manufacturers data sheet when looking for a controller for your electric vehicle. Voltage- Input nominal operating voltage capability. Some controllers have a wide range of operating voltages. As an example 36 48 volt is not uncommon. (see chart below). Choose a controller that will operate within the range of your battery pack. If the rating is to high, the controller may shut off as the battery pack is drained. Too low and the controller can be damaged during regeneration when the voltage exceeds the specified nominal. Current- Usually quoted as the current capability of the device for sales purposes, it is not the continuous rating. Typically this is its short duration (30 seconds or less) peak capability to carry an overload or provide a burst for acceleration. Manufacturers will provide a range based on duty cycle or time rating. This is usually a result of the cooling capability of the device. Be sure to determine your average draw for the time period you expect to use the controller. As an example if a race is less than an hour you can base your average on the one hour rating. Below is a typical amp rating chart for a DC controller.

Duty cycle Usually a function of the current or power capability over a specified time period. See Current description above for more detai. Power- Power is a function of the voltage and current capabilities. As an example a 24 volt 400 amp controller would have a 9600 watt peak power output. Efficiency This is many times left out of a specification sheet since the operating conditions dictate the efficiency. This may be available from the engineering department of the manufacturer. The voltage drop gives you some clue as to the efficiency. Look for controllers with lowest voltage drop. As an example the chart above shows a 24-36 volt controller with a .25 volt drop at a 100 amp. If you operated this at 150 amp average, the drop would be 1.5 times larger than the specified drop at 100, or in this case .375 volt. This would produce a loss of 56.3 watts. If the controller was running at a nominal 36 volts, if would be controlling 5400 watts. In this example the calculated efficiency would be 56.3/5400=.01 or 99%. The most accurate way to measure efficiency would be on the test bench by comparing input to output power while operating your motor at a fixed load. Field voltage and current - For shunt motor control, this feature provides for energizing and control of the shunt field. Some controllers will provide a reverse function with this option. If running a shunt motor, be sure the controller can supply the necessary current for your motor.

80

Throttle input -This is the requirement of the driver interface signal to make the controller respond. These can be 0-5000 or 0-10,000 ohm potentiometers, voltage signals such as 0-5 volt, 4-20 ma current signals or in some cases digital numbers carried on a local area network Frequency- This is the base operating frequency of the electronic power control circuit. By turning the solid state control on and off at a very fast rate typically 15,000 hertz, the controller will be reasonably quiet in operation. Low frequency may be somewhat more efficient, but create a buzz like sound in operation. DC MOTOR CONTROLLER KITS Suppliers of DC motors and controllers have developed kits with matching motors and controllers

.
Figure 53 Figure 54

AC MOTOR CONTROLLER (INVERTER) Prior to the development of low cost power transistors, the AC motor was relegated to constant speed duty in industry. This is because the speed of AC motors is dependent on the frequency of the alternations in the current produced by the power source. Commercial AC power in the United States is generated at a frequency of 60 cycles per second, also known as 60 hertz (hertz is the unit name for frequency) A four pole AC synchronous motor connected to a 60 hertz power source will run at 1800 rpm an asynchronous motor will run slightly below this at approximately 1750 rpm. Voltage and current affects the torque that is produced. When an AC motor is used in an electric vehicle powered from a DC source such as a battery, the process of making AC from DC is referred to as inversion and is where the AC inverter gets its name. Most AC motors used for electric vehicles are of the three phase variety. They require the inverter to create three synthesized-AC waves. The three waves must be produced 120 degrees out of phase with one another. 3 phase sine wave

81

The wave shape can be optimized for the particular motor being used. Induction motor inverters produce waves closely resembling a sine wave. Power for brushless motors is generally trapezoidal (modified sine), but some of these motors can use sine waves. Trapezoidal-powered motors develop about 10% more torque than those on sine-wave power. Sinusoidal-powered motors, exhibit less torque ripple and operate smoother at low speed. Reluctance motors use square waves.

To produce an AC wave from DC battery current, transistors inside the inverter are turned on and off (pulsed) at a very fast rate, typically from 2000 to 15,000 times per second. The higher the frequency the quieter the drive will be. As the transistors are pulsed, the on time of each pulse is varied following a mathematic formula for the wave that is to be produced. Holding the transistor on for a longer time increases the voltage of the pulse, conversely shutting it off sooner decreases the pulse voltage. Increasing the voltage from zero to maximum and back to zero, then changing the polarity of the flow through the motor coil during each half cycle, causes the motor to rotate in relation to the number of poles designed into the motor. If this process is speeded up, the motor will go synthesized AC wave faster. High frequency inverters can generate sign waves well above 400 cycles per second. At 400 hertz a 4 pole AC motors will run at 12,000 rpm!! Three phase motors require three power leads which are connected internally to three separate windings. Three phase inverter power sections consist of six solid state switches, there are three positive and three negative switches. Each switch consists of one or more transistors in parallel with a diode. (high current inverters may use multiple transistors to carry larger loads. One of the positive transistors and one of the negative transistors are connected to each motor phase. In operation, the six transistors are pulsed in a sequence to generate three AC waves 120 degrees apart.

82

Inverter with six solid state switches using 12 IGBT transistors

Figure 55

When choosing a controller, you must look for a controller that not only compliments your motor, but your batteries as well. There is some flexibility of choice for the designer, but you must be knowledgeable as to the limitations of deviating from manufacturers recommendations. Most inverters are microprocessor controlled and also allow for software reconfiguration to match the motor and application requirements. If the motor is a special Two pairing will lead to type of AC motor, it must have that type of AC control. Impropertransistors per switchmalfunction or worse, damage to one of the components. Remember that the controller should be at least rated to handle the maximum voltage that the batteries will see during regeneration, not the nominal voltage of the battery. The controller must also be sized to the amount of current the motor requires to generate its rated torque. Operating voltage is selected based on where you want the power to peak on the speed torque curve of the motor. Duty cycle is related to electrical current requirement plays into the selection also. Average current equates to full load rating for electric vehicle service. Check the manufacturers peak load specification. Inverters can typically deliver several times full rated output for a reduced time period which provides for short acceleration bursts. A 72V motor should be paired with a 72V controller, which should be paired with a battery pack supplying 72V. This same rating applies to max currents as well. Many electronics are only meant to handle certain amperage's and will overheat if overloaded. Consult the manufacturers rating and pairing recommendations. Most suppliers will recommend motors or controllers to pair with their components or supply both the inverter and motor as a package.

AC MOTOR CONTROLLER KITS Suppliers of AC motors and controllers have developed kits with matching motors and controllers. Many such kits also include harness, encoder and instrumentation. 83

ENCODER The encoder is a device that is typically used on AC drive systems but may also be found on DC motor drives. The encoder is mounted on the motor shaft and provides position and velocity feedback to the motor controller. This improves drivability by keeping the motor and drive in synchronization. Encoders use either photo or magnetic sensors to produce a code that can be interpreted by the control program in the motor controller which can adjust the voltage current and frequency to optimize performance.

AC CONTROLLER WIRING DIAGRAM Below is a typical wiring diagram of an electric vehicle with a AC motor controller. There is no need for reversing Encoder contactors. Reversing is provided electronically by sequencing the appropriate power transistors. Main contactor should always be provided to remove all power to the controller. Pot box is connected to the accelerator peddle. Also shown is the speed encoder which provides feedback as to motor position. This is a microprocessor controlled unit which also provides the ability to operate other devices in response to input signals. In this case the diagram shows auxiliary switches and drivers (outputs) connected to valves. This could have been used for a fork lift control. The unit also provides information via a serial port and can operate a display for the vehicle operatior.

84

AC CONTROLLER SPECIFICATIONS Understanding what a controller needs to do to control the motor you select will allow one to have a better understanding of what to look for on the nameplate and manufacturers data sheet when looking for a controller for your electric vehicle. Voltage- Input nominal operating voltage capability. Some controllers have a wide range of operating voltages. As an example 36 48 volt is not uncommon. (see chart below). Choose a controller that will operate within the range of your battery pack. If the rating is to high, the controller may shut off as the battery pack is drained. Too low and the controller can be damaged during regeneration when the voltage exceeds the specified nominal. Current- Usually quoted as the current capability of the device for sales purposes, it is not the continuous rating. Typically this is its short duration (2 minutes or less on this chart) peak capability to carry an overload or provide a burst for acceleration. For AC controllers the current is rated as supplied to the motor as RMS (root mean square) current. Manufacturers may also provide a range based on duty cycle or time rating. This is usually a result of the cooling capability of the device. Be sure to determine your average draw for the time period you expect to use the controller. Below is a typical amp rating chart for a AC controller.

85

Duty cycle Usually a function of the current or power capability over a specified time period. See Current description above for more detai. Power- Power is a function of the voltage and current at unity power factor. Its more important that the drive be rated for voltage and current which accounts for nonunity situations. For this AC drive manufacturer provides this as a KVA (volt amp) rating. (see chart above) Efficiency This is many times left out of a specification sheet since the operating conditions dictate the efficiency. This may be available from the engineering department of the manufacturer. Throttle input -This is the requirement of the driver interface signal to make the controller respond. These can be 0-5000 or 0-10,000 ohm potentiometers, voltage signals such as 0-5 volt, 4-20 ma current signals or in some cases digital numbers carried on a local area network Base Frequency- This is the operating frequency of the electronic power control circuit. By turning the solid state control on and off at a very fast rate typically 15,000 hertz, the controller will be reasonably quiet in operation. Low frequency may be somewhat more efficient, but create a buzz like sound in operation. Stator Frequency - This is the speed that the drive generates sine waves for the motor. Measured in Hertz (cycles per second) the typical AC drive can operate up to 300 hertz. Special purpose drives can produce speeds with much higher frequencies. Additional Information on Conrollers http://www.railway-technical.com/tract-01.shtml Kissell, Thomas E. Industrial Electronics, Second Edition, Prentice Hall Copyright: 2000 ISBN: 0-13-012697-7 Publish Date: Sep 6, 2006

86

http://www.plcdev.com/the_black_and_white_of_gray_code Additional Information on Conrollers http://www.railway-technical.com/tract-01.shtml

Kissell, Thomas E. Industrial Electronics, Second Edition, Prentice Hall Copyright: 2000 ISBN: 0-13-012697-7 Publish Date: Sep 6, 2006

http://www.plcdev.com/the_black_and_white_of_gray_code

87

CHAPTER 12 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS &WIRING A critical element in the build of an electric vehicle is the sound design and implementation of the electrical system. This chapter provides fundamental information on recommended wiring practices and physical layout of the electric circuits. A sound design requires forethought and careful consideration of component and conductor layout, termination, protection, and loading. Of particular importance is the documentation of the electrical system in the form of detailed circuit (or wiring) diagrams, component datasheets, and load calculations.

WIRING DIAGRAM Wiring diagrams are required to pass technical inspection and are important in building and troubleshooting your electric racer. Figure 62 below is an example wiring diagram of an evGrandPrix entry. Wiring diagrams specify how components are electrically connected and may not represent the true physical layout. Schematics on the other hand often show the relative position or layout of components in addition to the electrical connections. Generally speaking a wiring diagram and schematic can be used interchangeably. The value of a circuit diagram is improved by the addition of specific details including: wire numbers and/or colors, wire gauge, wire grouping as in cable or conduit, use of plugs and receptacles, voltage and current levels, and component part numbers. The wiring diagram should contain a title block indicating at a minimum: drawing number and/or title, designers name, creation date, version number, revision date, and page number. The use of industry standard symbols and drawing layout is encouraged. Today there is good electronic CAD software available for free or low cost to generate professional-like wiring diagrams. Electric vehicle circuits are broadly separated into power circuits (high current and voltage) and auxiliary circuits (low current and voltage). Auxiliary circuits encompass control, instrumentation, data acquisition, and safety wiring. It is often better to draw the power and auxiliary circuits separately, where appropriate, to avoid page clutter and loss of detail. Furthermore, it is also helpful to create multiple diagrams showing various level of scope versus a single large and highly detailed one. That is, a diagram may show the power circuit at a high level with the major components shown as blocks, such as the traction battery. A separate drawing, referenced to the high level drawing, would show the traction battery detail consisting of the particular cells, packs, connectors, etc. In this way a collection of diagrams documents the system with large scope and little detail to narrow scope and high detail. This systems approach allows one to easily drill down to more and more detail as is required.

88

Figure 56

CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Some of the major elements of the racers power and auxiliary circuits are discussed below. Those not , appear in other sections of the handbook, such as the battery, motor, and motor controller. CONTACTOR The contactor is an electrically operated switch for making and breaking high currents in the main power circuit. The contactor is used to isolate the battery pack (or other energy source) from the electric circuit for increased safety when the drive system is off. The contactor can also be used as a last resort to forcibly shut down a run away controller failure by opening the contacts under heavy current. A contactor is similar to the common electromechanical relay used for signals and low current circuits, but is designed to handle significantly larger currents. In both the relay and contactor a low power electromagnet is energized to cause motion of a movable core made of iron or other ferrous material to which an electrical contact is mechanically affixed. When energized, this movable contact 89

is forced against a fixed contact in the housing to complete an electrical path. Once the electromagnet is deenergized, the core returns to its unenergized position, generally under spring tension or gravity, and the contacts open breaking the circuit. The electromagnet is energized by allowing current to flow through an inductive coil in which a magnetic field is produced. In a typical contactor, the magnetic field interacts with a steel plunger through solenoid action to rapidly and firmly pull together the electrical contacts. Initially, the coil current is high as the magnetic field develops and the plunger begins to move. This is referred to as the pull-in current. Once the plunger is fully pulled in, the coil current required to maintain this position is much lower, and is referred to as the holding current. Some contactors are designed with a special coil economizer circuit to reduce the coil current once the contacts are closed. Because the contactor coil is almost purely inductive, a transient high voltage spike can develop across the coil when the coil current is interrupted, that is, the contactor is switched off. To prevent this transient voltage from potentially affecting sensitive low voltage circuits, it is common to place a free-wheeling (or flyback) diode in parallel with the coil, in addition to other techniques. The flyback diode provides a path for current to continue to flow as a result of the coils stored energy in the magnetic field. With diode protection the coil voltage becomes polarity sensitive and care should be taken to ensure that the diode is not accidentally forward-biased, as a short circuit will result. Contactors (as well as relays) are typically rated by the voltage and current capacity of the power contacts and also of the coil. In most cases the rated coil voltage is significantly lower than that of the high current contacts and the coil power almost negligible by comparison. Nominal coil voltages of 12, 24, 36, and 48 are common. Ratings of the power contacts can be several hundred volts with continuous currents in the hundreds of amperes. Most power contactors for EVs have a double-make contact arrangement referred to as normally open single-pole single-throw abbreviated as SPST-NO-DM. Some contactors have an additional auxiliary contact that provides a positive indication of contactor state. Consult the manufacturers datasheet for the particular contactor in use to find valuable rating information and application details. A good example of a high quality contactor for use in electric drive systems is the KILOVAC LEV200 Series Contactor by Tyco Electronics, and is pictured in Fig. X. It is designed to be a low cost, hermetically sealed (and instrinsically safe) contactor rated for continuous currents up to 500A and breaking currents of up to 2000A with a DC voltage operating range from 12 to 900V. Breaking (or interrupting) current refers to the magnitude of current that flows just prior to the opening of the power contacts. The electromechanical nature of contactors (and likewise relays) imposes a limit to the number and speed of mechanical operations during its useful life. The LEV200 is good for about 100,000 mechanical cycles with a maximum (and impractical) operating frequency of about 25 Hz. In most cases, the electrical performance of the contactor determines the practical number of life cycles which is highly dependent on the switching load. Higher switching currents degrade the contact surfaces more and shorten the contact life. In some cases if the switching load is too high the contacts can become welded together because of arcing. This is especially true during contact closure (or make) with highly capacitive circuits, such as with motor controllers that have significant DC bus capacitance. For example, repeated make-currents of a capacitive circuit pre-charged to only 80% of a 320V bus limits the electrical life of the LEV200 to about 50 cycles. And, a make-current of 650A or more will likely result in welded contacts. In most applications the useful life of the contactor will be on the order of thousands of cycles. 90

Additionally, unlike a power transistor (or semiconductor switch), the contactor provides complete galvanic isolation across its open contacts in the unenergized state with no leakage current. And, the contactors effective contact resistance is significantly lower than that of the transistor resulting in substantially higher efficiency. For more information read the document ENG_SS_Definitions_Relays_0411.pdf at http://documents.tycoelectronics.com/commerce/DocumentDelivery/DDEController?Action=srchrtrv&DocNm=D efinitions_Relays&DocType=SS&DocLang=EN. HIGH-CURRENT FUSE A fuse is a sacrificial series-connected overcurrent protection device designed to fail opencircuited under specified conditions of excess current. The fuse is simple, low cost, and highly reliable. At its core is a conductive wire (or strip) that melts at a determined temperature coinciding with a rated current and time interval. The self-heating of the conductive strip is insufficient to cause melting at or below the rated current. Fuses come in a variety of packages and physical sizes and are generally one of two types, fast-blow or slow-blow. Fast-blow fuses are designed to open very shortly after the rated current has been exceeded. Slow-blow fuses on the other hand allow the current to exceed the rating for some time interval before the fuse opens. This type of fuse is useful for circuits that experience intermittent overcurrent conditions as a matter of design, such as with high startup current in some motors. A fuse is rated not only for the designed current but also voltage. Be sure to select a fuse with a voltage rating that meets or exceeds the nominal system voltage. It is important to refer to manufacturers specification sheet to determine the magnitude and duration of current necessary to blow a fuse of a specified rating. A 100A fast-acting fuse for example may be designed to quickly blow only once the current exceeds 200A, a 100% overload of its rating. Contrary to popular thought the fuse is selected to protect the circuit wiring and not the load. LOW-CURRENT FUSE Fuse protection is also required in the low power auxiliary systems. Most fuses will be rated at 10 amps or less and are wired in series with the load as close to the positive voltage source as possible. The fuse (or fuses) will likely be specified by the device manufacturer as well as recommended wire size. Again, the fuse is designed to protect the wiring. EMERGENCY-STOP SWITCH The primary safety circuit of the racer opens the main contactor and isolates the energy source (battery) from the drive system. When one of at least two emergency stop switches is depressed, the contactor coil current is interrupted to open the power contacts and effectively disable the contactor. The emergency stop (e-stop) switch is a normally closed, maintained push button that is wired in series with the contactor coil. Additionally, an indicator lamp (or LED) is wired such that it illuminates when the contactor coil is energized. An example safety circuit is shown below.

91

POWER AND ENERGY MONITOR (PEM) DEVICE Traction drive power and energy will be limited to maximums set forth in the racer specifications. An electronic instrument will be vehicle mounted to indicate, at a minimum, instantaneous power from the traction battery and the accumulated energy delivered, referred to as the Power and Energy Monitor (PEM). The purpose of the PEM is to accurately measure and record the power and energy delivered by the traction battery of each racer during event competitions. Electric power from the battery is calculated from the instantaneous voltage multiplied by the instantaneous current, expressed in watts. Energy consumed from the battery is the power integrated over time, expressed in watt-hours. During a racing event, a penalty will be assessed to racers that exceed a defined peak power limit. And, at the conclusion of an event, the total energy consumed by the racer will be noted by a race official. The objective of the PEM is to encourage electric drive innovation by removing restrictions on specified configurations and components, such as motors and controllers, in favor of a maximum performance envelope. This open formula fosters team competition and design variety but yet preserves tight wheel-to-wheel racing throughout the field, vital to spectator enthusiasm. Each team is responsible for wiring the PEM harness prior to technical inspection of a sanctioned event. The wiring diagram and installation instructions will be provided to race teams. At an event, the technical inspector will verify the signal connections before attaching the PEM to the racer.

WIRING As you begin to wire the racer focus on the following good practices: shorter power wires are more efficient, keep in mind the following goals: the goal is to have the shortest wire runs possible while still having easy and safe access to all of the terminals on any component. Neatness and wire labeling is critical.

POWER CIRCUIT The propulsion system cable carries heavy current. Incorrectly wiring can damage individual components. Connecting cabling between the fixed circuit components of your power circuit is typically done with round conductors equipped with properly sized crimped or soldered terminal ends. Technical inspectors will become suspicious of freyed or unconditioned ends stuck into a bolted lug. Using properly sized cables taking into account the duty cycle and average current optimizes the circuit without adding excess weight. The insulation jacket of the cable used must also meet the specification for voltage and be protected from abrasion and fluids that would compromise its integrity. For information referring to gage of wire refer to national electric code gage charts. Follow the wiring diagram, use the correctly sized conductor route the cable to the positive side of the battery pack to the positive terminal of the controller and the same for the negative side. Remember that the main power circuit also contains a large fuse and contactor. These are wired in series in between the positive side of the battery pack and controller. All electric motors have leads coming out to attach cabling. In most cases these leads are marked and orientation is given. Refer to data sheets on your product to understand which leads are which. Depending on 92

the motor type, connect the appropriate motor negative line from the motor to the motor negative line of the controller. Do this also with the positive line. The positive line in many cases is attached to the battery positive line of the controller. For more complex motors with multiple lines, refer to individual product wiring diagrams. All wiring must be neat and secure. Wire loom is recommended. If you are considering using fabricated straps as cell interconnects in your pack, you will need to determine the cross sectional area and compare that to the circular mils and area of a comparable solid round wire. Your calculations and drawings should be available at technical inspection in the case you are asked to provide proof of design.

Figure 57

Connections to battery packs should be done with high current, polarity keyed disconnects. Anderson Power Products disconnects are a preferred product in industry and allow easy and safe disconnection of packs for charging and service. Refer to http://www.andersonpower.com/ for more information.

Reference to EVGrand Prix rule below: 2.6.7 Wiring All wires must be rated to handle the voltage and amperage load that can be applied through the circuit. For clarification please consult the wire size chart located in the National Electrical Code Article 400 Table 400.5(B). In all cases, manufacturer data will supersede the general information from the NEC. Wiring must be well insulated and securely attached to the vehicle. All wiring must be kept free from moving parts and protected from chafing. Wires that pass through a hole with sharp edges or through sheet metal must be protected by an insulating grommet or other suitable device. Terminals must be secured and protected so they will not come loose or short out during competition. No electrical terminals may be exposed. No part of the electrical system may use the vehicle frame as a conductor and the frame must remain ungrounded. The vehicle will be checked for maximum frame to electrical leakage during Technical Inspection. Maximum voltage allowed is 5 volts measured from the most positive and the most negative of battery pack to frame with vehicle in run position. Voltage must dissipate to net zero upon application of a 10,000 ohm resistance. See Appendix F-1 for procedures. 93

Belden Hook-Up and Lead Wire Catalog, http://www.belden.com

CONTROL CIRCUIT Wiring of controls and data acquisition requires care and precision. Signals can be compromised by shorts, grounds and magnetic fields.

INSTRUMENTATION/DATA ACQUISITION The auxiliary power system consists of everything outside the main power circuit. Consideration should be taken to the safety circuit as it is a requirement to race and enable safety.

ELECTRICAL LEAKAGE T EST The power circuit must be electrically isolated from the vehicle chassis as required in the racer specifications. No part of the electrical system may use the vehicle frame as a conductor and the frame must remain ungrounded. Unintentional grounding can be a safety hazard and may result from electrolyte leakage or mechanical defect of the battery, wiring or battery enclosure. To minimize this hazard the vehicle will be checked for electrical leakage to the frame during Technical Inspection by measuring for voltage potential across the battery terminals and the chassis. Maximum voltage allowed is 5 volts, under a 94

1000 ohm load, measured from battery pack most-positive and most-negative to the frame with the vehicle in the energized and un-energized states. To accommodate this test access to battery most-positive and most-negative terminals is required during technical inspection. The electrical leakage test will be conducted using the following procedures: A. With the traction drive un-energized, use a digital voltmeter to: Step 1. Measure across the most-positive battery terminal and the metallic battery box (if applicable). Step 2. Measure across the most-positive battery terminal and an unpainted, exposed section of the frame. Step 3. Measure across the most-negative battery terminal and the metallic battery box (if applicable). Step 4. Measure across the most-negative battery terminal and an unpainted, exposed section of the frame. B. With the traction drive energized, use a digital voltmeter to: Repeat Step 1 through Step 4 in A. C. Results 1. If the measurement at any step is 5V or higher, repeat the measurement with a 1000 Ohm ( W or larger) resistor between one of the probe tips and the measurement surface. Use caution to avoid the risk of electric shock with exposed conductors. It is advisable to fabricate an insulated housing for the resistor with appropriate probe connectors. 2. With the resistor, a reading above 5V indicates test failure. The maximum permitted leakage current is 5 milliamps (0.005 amps) through the 1000 ohm resistor load. According to Ohms Law, voltage (in volts) divided by resistance (in ohms) equals current (in amperes). 3. In the event of test failure, the racer is disqualified until the cause of the problem is eliminated and the leakage test is passed. MOUNTING PLATE It is recommended to mount most of the electrical and electronics components in a centralized area. Not only is it easier to access and service, but it also allows for more effective safety inspection. In the past teams have designed mounting plates that were placed above the rear axle as well as below the steering assembly. Also, the use of enclosures to protect components and connections from the environment and unintended short circuits is highly recommended. The enclosures are generally metallic or plastic/composite and offer a variety of levels of environmental protection Component placement is open to designers and no particular layout will be enforced. Figure 65 below is an example rear axle mounting plate

95

Simple Axle Mounting plate

Figure 58

96

CHAPTER 13 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT HELMET Basic Helmet

Figure 59

The rules state that the driver must wear a helmet while operating the racer. The helmet must be full-faced and have a Snell rating of at least 2005. Snell ratings are in 3 categories. SA stands for sports application and they are designed for auto racing and extreme sports. M stands for motorcycle and K stands for racering. A K certified helmet would be best for use in this race. Snell Safety Sticker

Racing Suit with Certification

97

Each driver is required to wear a racing suit that meets or exceeds the SFI 3.2 AI suit. You can find more information about SFI ratings at their website.

NECK BRACE Proper Neck Brace

All drivers are required to wear a neck brace during the brace. Seat Belts Seat belts play an important role in keeping the driver safe. The rules state that the driver restraint system should include lap and shoulder belts. All of the belts should be securely attached to the main frame. We suggest that each team uses SFI rated restraints. RACING GLOVES All drivers are required to wear gloves made out of heavyweight leather or vinyl material. Racing gloves are recommended.

Safety Glasses The rules state that everyone within the track enclosure must be wearing safety glasses. This is to ensure the safety of the team members, track workers, and officials. It is also advised that teams wear safety glasses whenever building the racer in their shop or labs. See safety supplemental on shop / lab safety.

98

CHAPTER 14 FABRICATION MATERIALS ALUMINUM Aluminum is a useful material because it is strong but also lightweight. It can be used for the roll cage but should not be used for the base frames because aluminum base frames will not be allowed in the 2011 event. Aluminum used in your racer can be 1" OD by .125 wall thickness seam welded or seamless round 6061-T6 Aluminum tubing, or 1.125" OD by .083 wall thickness welded or seamless round 6061-T6 Aluminum tubing. You may also use 18 gauge or heavier sheet aluminum. Any other aluminum use must have a prior written approval by the inspection team. Also Aluminum (16-24 gauge) is one material allowed for use as fairings, cowlings, and shields and must not present a hazard. STEEL Steel will be needed in the construction of your racer. While heavier than aluminum it is needed in places for its strength. Steel should be used for nerf bars, Motor Mount plate. Steel used in your racer can be 1" OD by .083 wall thickness seam welded or seamless round steel tubing, or Unbent 1" by .083 wall thickness radius corner square seamed welded or seamless steel tubing.

CHAPTER 15 ROLL CAGE

Roll cage is typically a fabricated part. Its design is left open to individual teams. ROLL CAGE MOUNT To mount the roll cage place it over the racer. There are 3 mounting points, 2 in the rear and 1 in the front. The tabs on the roll cage have holes in them that line up with tabs on the racer. Place grade 8 bolts through both holes and add a distorted nut onto the end. Tighten well so it doesnt shake during use. Repeat this for other side of rear attachment. For the front you will need a longer bolt with a spacer. The spacer will be a cut piece of steel or aluminum tubing. Put the spacer between the roll cage and the attachment point on the front bumper. Insert a long grade 8 bolt through the roll cage, spacer, and front bumper mounting bracket, and tighten a distorted nut onto the bolt. That is all there is to mounting a roll cage.

BODY PANELS Body panels are an optional component for your racer. They can be used as a surface to display sponsors decals or your team name. These are commercially available. Make sure that the body panels are strong enough to withstand impact. They can also be used to limit impact to other softer components. Using a bumper or plastic piece can reduce weight and still protect an impact zone

99

CHAPTER 16 RACE PREPARATION & RACE

PRACTICE RACING By now your team should have already found one or two tracks to test your racer. Now it is time for the driver to strap in and practice racing the racer. The idea here is to become comfortable with the feel of the racer. Take corners at various speeds to find the best speed to take the turns. If possible, try to practice with a few other racers on the track. This gives you a feel for how to maneuver around other racers and how to anticipate other drivers actions. Make sure a safety plan, equipment and safety personnel are in place when testing. PRACTICE PITS The pit crew should learn everything there is to know about your racer. The pit crew should be prepared to make quick repairs. Another responsibility of the pit crew is swapping batteries. Make sure you are fast and efficient at removing the batteries because time in the pits equates to time lost on the track. SAFETY TRAINING Prior to the race, you will receive information about a mandatory safety training put on by Purdue evGrandPrix Safety. This course will provide and overview for general safety practices and to keep you safe on the track. ACQUIRE RADIOS Teams who wish to use a radio system are required to register their radios with the EV Grand Prix race coordinators. Frequencies will be allotted and teams may only use their allotted frequency(s). This is to ensure that there will be no interference between other teams, race officials, and emergency response personnel. DEVELOP RACE STRATEGY Now that you have your racer ready to race, your driver has practiced countless hours, and your pit crew is efficient at pit stops, your team should consider their strategy for the race. Determine how many pit stops will be required for changing batteries and/or minor repairs. Try to time these so that you maximize your time on the track and minimize your time in the pits. For more advanced driving skills, search online for racering strategy. Have an extra front bumper ready to change in case of contact. Part of the race strategy comes from understanding the track to be raced on. Try to take practice laps on the official race track, when this is not available, teams should work with their drivers to develop strategies off the track. Getting the driver in a confident state of mind is the first step towards victory

100

GLOSSARY Ackermann Steering.-Ackermann steering uses the angle of the stub axle arms (and often an offset on the steering column) to make the inner wheel on a corner turn more than the outside wheel. Battery Pack - Relaxed Conditions: Conditions at which a battery or battery pack must be subjected to in order to make standard, consistent measurements: open-circuit (no current flow), ambient room temperature, and having enough time elapse such that the measured voltage does not change with time (on the order of hours). Battery Pack: A collection of batteries connected in series and/or parallel depending on the desired total capacity and voltage. Battery: A collection of cells connected in parallel, typically contained in a single case with a single positive/negative terminal pair. Bus Bar: A highly conductive material (typically copper) used to connect batteries together to create a battery pack. Small applications may simply use thin wire while automotive applications use thick copper plates. Camber - The tilt of the tire as viewed from the front of the car. Camber Angle - This is the inclination inwards at the top of the king pin towards the center of the kart, and it is aimed at counter-acting the jacking effect of the castor: at the same time it helps to produce a stronger joint, which will be able to withstand higher shearing forces. Capacity: The amount of energy that can be stored in a single battery or set of batteries (such as a pack), typically measured in mAhr (Milliamp-Hour) or Ahr (Amp-Hour). Caster - This is the angle of the kingpin, which is the point around which the stub axles rotate. This is one of the most important settings for inducing wheel lift during cornering. Cell: The smallest unit of a battery capable of storing energy that consists of a single anode/cathode pair. Constant Current charging (CC) supplies a constant flow of current to the pack. It regulates the voltage of the charger. Constant Voltage charging (CV) maintains the potential across the pack terminals, regulating the supplied current to do so. The response of the battery voltage is dynamic based on the power drawn or supplied, but as the batterys true stable voltage approaches the one applied by the charger the current supplied will rapidly drop off. C-Rate: Defines the charging or discharge rate relative to the battery capacity. Example: A battery with a capacity of 2Ah is charging/discharging at 1C when the current is 2A. To calculate the C-rate, divide the current by the battery capacity. A high C-rate corresponds to a high, relative current. Duty cycle Usually a function of the current or power capability over a specified time period. See Current description above for more detai. Efficiency This is many times left out of a specification sheet since the operating conditions dictate the efficiency. This may be available from the engineering department of the manufacturer. The voltage drop gives you some clue as to the efficiency. Look for controllers with lowest voltage drop. As an example the chart above shows a 24-36 volt controller with a .25 volt drop at a 100 amp. If you operated this at 150 amp average, the drop would be 1.5 times larger than the specified drop at 100, or in this case .375 volt. This would produce a loss of 56.3 watts. If the controller was running at a nominal 36 volts, if would be controlling 5400 watts. In this example the calculated efficiency would be 56.3/5400=.01 or 99%. The most accurate way to measure efficiency would be on the test bench by comparing input to output power while operating your motor at a fixed load. Field Amperage - Amperage of Field on DC Motors when full voltage is applied. 101

Field Voltage - Voltage needed to fully power field on DC Motors. Field voltage and current - For shunt motor control, this feature provides for energizing and control of the shunt field. Some controllers will provide a reverse function with this option. If running a shunt motor, be sure the controller can supply the necessary current for your motor. Frame size Under the NEMA system, most motor dimensions are standardized and categorized by a frame size number and letter designation. In fractional horsepower motors the frame sizes are two digits and represent the shaft height of the motor from the bottom of the base in sixteenths of an inch. For example, a 56-frame motor would have a shaft height (D dimension) of 56/16 of an inch, or 3.5 inches. Frequency- This is the base operating frequency of the electronic power control circuit. By turning the solid state control on and off at a very fast rate typically 15,000 hertz, the controller will be reasonably quiet in operation. Low frequency may be somewhat more efficient, but create a buzz like sound in operation. Frequency To operate successfully, the motor frequency must match the power system (supply) frequency. In North America, this frequency is 60 Hz (cycles). In other parts of the world, the frequency may be 50 or 60 Hz. Full-load efficiency As energy costs have increased, conservation efforts have become more important to commercial and industrial operations. Insulation class and rated ambient temperature A critical element in motor life is the maximum temperature that occurs at the hottest spot in the motor. The temperature that occurs at that spot is a combination of motor design (temperature rise) and the ambient (surrounding) temperature. The standard way of indicating these components is by showing the allowable maximum ambient temperature, usually 40C (104F), and the class of insulation used in the design of the motor. Available classes are B, F, and H. King Pin Inclination-This is the inward lean of the kingpin, and it modifies the amount of camber change caused by the caster when steering. Locked-rotor code letter When AC motors are started with full voltage applied, they create an inrush current that's usually many times greater than the value of the full-load current. The value of this high current can be important on some installations because it can cause a voltage dip that might affect other equipment. There are two ways to find the value of this current. Look it up in the motor performance data sheets as provided by the manufacturer. It will be noted as the locked-rotor current. Use the locked-rotor code letter that defines an inrush current a motor requires when starting it. Manufacturer's name and address Most manufacturers include their name and address on the motor nameplate. Motor Type Induction, Synchronous, Shunt, Series Nameplate Capacity: The energy storage limit of a new battery as designed and produced by the manufacturer. NEMA design letter Certain types of machinery may require motors with specialized performance characteristics. Nominal Capacity - The nameplate capacity multiplied by the State of Health (SOH). This is the actual, usable capacity of the battery or battery pack i.e. the new nameplate capacity. Optional nameplate data. In addition to the required items noted above, more information is typically included on a motor nameplate. Peak power -- Power capability with reduced duty cycle. Phase This concept is fairly simple in the United States. You either have a single-phase or 3-phase motor. Power- Power is a function of the voltage and current capabilities. As an example a 24 volt 400 amp controller would have a 9600 watt peak power output. 102

Rated full-load amperage As the torque load on a motor increases, the amperage required to power the motor also increases. When the full-load torque and horsepower is reached, the corresponding amperage is known as the full-load amperage (FLA). This value is determined by laboratory tests; the value is usually rounded up slightly and recorded as the nameplate value. Rounding up allows for manufacturing variations that can occur and some normal voltage variations that might increase the full-load amps of the motor. The nameplate FLA is used to select the correct wire size, motor starter, and overload protection devices necessary to serve and protect the motor. Rated full-load speed This is the motor's approximate speed under full-load conditions, when voltage and frequency are at the rated values. A somewhat lower value than the actual laboratory test result figures is usually stamped on the nameplate because this value can change slightly due to factors like manufacturing tolerances, motor temperature, and voltage variations. On standard induction motors, the full-load speed is typically 96% to 99% of the no-load speed. Rated horsepower Horsepower is the measure of how much work a motor can be expected to do. This value is based on the motor's full-load torque and full-load speed ratings and is calculated as follows: Horsepower (hp)=[Motor SpeedTorque (lb-ft)]5,250 -The standardized NEMA table of motor horsepower ratings runs from 1 hp to 450 hp. If a load's actual horsepower requirement falls between two standard horsepower ratings, you should generally select the larger size motor for your application. Rated voltage Motors are designed to yield optimal performance when operating at a specific voltage level, or a combination of voltage levels in the case of dual-voltage or tri-voltage motors. This value is known as the nameplate voltage. In recognition of the fact that voltage changes on your power distribution system occur due to changing load conditions within your facility and on the utility supply that feeds your facility, motors are designed with a 10% tolerance for voltage above and below the rated nameplate value. Thus, a motor with a rated nameplate voltage of 46V should be expected to operate successfully between 41V and 50V. Voltage can also be AC or DC. Scrub Radius-This is distance from the center of the tire to the point where a line down the kingpin axis intersects the ground. State of Charge: The relative amount (% or fraction) of remaining capacity stored in the battery or battery pack, as compared to the nominal capacity, under relaxed conditions. State of Discharge: The relative amount (% or fraction) of used capacity as the result of discharge in the battery or battery pack, as compared to the nominal capacity, under relaxed conditions. State of Health: The relative amount (% or fraction) of remaining capacity that can be utilized for energy storage, as compared to the nameplate capacity, under relaxed conditions. Example: A 60Ah battery that can only hold 55Ah of energy has a State of Health of 0.917 or 91.7%. Typically, a state of health exceeding 80% constitutes a functioning battery. Throttle input -This is the requirement of the driver interface signal to make the controller respond. These can be 0-5000 or 0-10,000 ohm potentiometers, voltage signals such as 0-5 volt, 4-20 ma current signals or in some cases digital numbers carried on a local area network

103

Time rating Standard motors are rated for continuous duty (24/7) at their rated load and maximum ambient temperature. Specialized motors can be designed for short-time requirements where intermittent duty is all that's needed. These motors can carry a short-time rating from 5 minutes to 60 minutes. The NEMA definition for short-time motors is as follows: All short-time ratings are based upon corresponding short-time load tests, which shall commence only when the windings and other parts of the motor are within 5C of the ambient temperature at the time of the test. By using short-time ratings, it's possible to reduce the size, weight, and cost of the motor required for certain applications. For example, you may choose to install an induction motor with a 15-minute rating to power a pre-operation oil pump used to pre-lube a gas turbine unit because it would be unusual for this type of motor to be operated for more than 15 minutes at a time. Timed charging applies any of the above three profiles for a set amount of time. Often the last portion of a charge cycle contains timer cutoff to prevent inadvertent overcharge if, for example, the battery has experienced some damage. Toe In/Out.-This is the angle at which the front wheels either point in towards each other, or away from each other. Trickle charging supplies a very small amount of current for as long as the battery is plugged into the charger once it has reached its fully charged state. This method is popular with NiMH chemistries in order to counter their self-discharge, but it is not recommended for lithium ion-based chemistries because they can easily be overcharged.

104

BIBLIOGRAPHY Dhameja, Sandeep, 2002, Electric Vehcile Battery Systems Lowry, John; Larmine, James, 2003, Electric Vehicle Technology Explained Leitman, Seth and Brant, Bob , 1994, Build your own Electric Vehicle Buchman, Isidor, Batteries in a Portable World - A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-Engineers 3rd addition, ISBN 978-0-9682118-3-0, 2011. Electric motors, rex miller, mark miller 2004 The winning solar car a design guide for solar race car temas, Douglas r carrol, sae international 2003

105

APPENDIX APPENDIX A - ANATOMY OF A RACING TEAM Owners - Involvement varies from team to team but Owners typically have the final say on the big team decisions that have the potential of steering the direction of the company. Mostly the verdict of these larger decisions will be unanimous between the Owner and Senior Managers but if not, the owner mostly has the right to Veto. The owner will also frequently travel to meet with and entertain sponsors and he plays a big part in sponsor liaisons with both current and perspective sponsors. At Panther the owner also has a big part to play in discussions about race strategy leading up to and during the race. Promotions Director:The promotions director is a co-owner and works closely with the event planners, merchandise vendors and marketing team and has the final say on what we purchase and use for promotional material plus anything that has to do with Panther branding. She also travels to the races and is a chef in the teams hospitality unit. Chief Financial Officer / Chief Executive Officer: The structure of the team dictates what responsibilities lay with the Senior Managers but in general, they will make the day to day decisions for the team as a whole. A large team may have 3 or 4 Senior Managers who are responsible for the departments of their expertise while other smaller teams that only run 1 car for example, may only have one senior manager because the decisions are more obvious and one car is far less complicated than running two. At Panther Racing we have only one Senior Manager. The responsibilities for this role mostly include financial decisions based on the teams income levels. The CFO frequently meets with the Department Managers to discuss daily outgoings as well as short and long term budgets. When wearing the CEO hat he will manage the office employees and meet regularly with the department managers to discuss schedules, plans, projects and human resource issues that may arise. The CEO has VETO power over everyone in the organization except for the Owners. At Panther Racing, this position is shop based and he mostly does not travel to the races. Department Managers Department managers are in charge of their own area within the team and Panther has designated a manager for each department so there is a go to guy for communication and someone that can ensure all of his employees are accountable within his domain. Team Manager: The team Manager at Panther is responsible for most of the decisions outside of the front office regarding the actual Race Team. It is his responsibility to employ and manage the race team and shop based personnel including the usual ancillaries associated with the personnel such as time off, job descriptions, pay scale, accountability etc. He will create and enforce a strict chain of communication between departments and he will develop the travel and work schedule for the team. He is the central communication hub for all decisions made within each department ensuring all parties who will be directly affected by those decisions are notified. The team manager will decide and calculate what will be required financially to run the race team during the season and frequently meet with the owner and CFO to discuss those decisions. He will also have the final say on all things outside of the front office however can be vetoed by the Owner or the CEO. This position does require extensive experience so often he will deal with all departments as a consultant when the need arises. Engineering Manager / Chief Engineer: The engineering manager is responsible for the engineering staff and his main objective is to coordinate his group of engineers to focus on the cars development schedule. This department should be constantly focused on coming up with new innovative ideas to make the cars go faster, last longer and be more efficient. The Chief Engineer is also responsible for understanding and coaching the driver to ensure he is 106

driving the car properly and that the drivers focus, feedback and physical condition is always kept in tip top shape. In the pit lane it is the Chief Engineers responsibility to make the correct changes to the car in conjunction with the driver to ensure every adjustment on the car is at its optimum setting and he typically plays a leading role in strategizing for and during the race. Crew Chief: The crew chiefs role is mostly car and mechanic related. He is responsible for the race car build from the ground up as well as the mechanics and over the wall crew. The crew chief will also keep the part history and mileage in check as well as determine if he thinks anything the engineers are asking for anything that could be unreliable, unsafe or illegal. During the race weekends he will be relaying the changes from the engineers to the appropriate mechanics and ensuring all changes are done in a timely, efficient, safe manner. Shop Manager: The shop manager is responsible for the general planning and upkeep of the workshop and the workshop based stay at home employees on the shop floor as well as general health and safety for the premises. He is responsible for the build schedule of the cars that are in rotation at the shop while the race crew are away at the races, and the progress, set-up and quality of the spare car build plus all the employees that are on the shop floor while the race team is racing will all be his responsibility until the crew chief returns. The departments under the control of the Shop Manager while the Race crew is away are the Carbon shop, Sub Assembly, Machine shop, Paint shop and build shop. VP of sales and business development: Is responsible for growing the companys business, attracting new sponsors, and developing business to business relationships between Panthers sponsors and associates. He is also on the constant look out for new opportunities that would suit new sponsors to get them involved in one way or another with the team. This position must also come up with creative ways to keep sponsors active and enthusiastic about their program. Hospitality / Marketing Manager: The role for this position is to ensure that all of the teams sponsors and guests have what they need at the track, are well informed about what is happening throughout the weekend and to ensure their experience is top notch. He will also create business to business opportunities with existing sponsors and look for new opportunities that would suit new sponsors to get them involved in one way or another with the team. This position must also come up with creative ways to keep sponsors active and enthusiastic about their program and he will give tours of the teams garage and equipment numerous times throughout the weekend. VP of sales and business development: Is responsible for growing the companys business, attracting new sponsors, and developing business to business relationships between Panthers sponsors and associates. He is also on the constant look out for new opportunities that would suit new sponsors to get them involved in one way or another with the team. This position must also come up with creative ways to keep sponsors active and enthusiastic about their program. Public Relation Manager: The main objective for the public relations manager is to ensure everyone outside of the team is kept aware of its progress. He will constantly be blogging, tweeting, face booking and issuing press releases about the weekend, how the team is doing and providing information to the teams Sponsors, fans and employees. He is also responsible for ensuring he can organize as many driver and team personnel appearances as possible without interfering with the performance of the team and he will plan out the drivers schedule for each minute while he is at the track to ensure the driver is where he needs to be at all times during the race weekend. A journalistic background for this position is essential as what he is releasing to the press will be published in numerous national and international press agencies media each weekend.

107

Front Office: The front office at Panther consists of the owner, CFO/CEO, promotions director, marketing / hospitality manager, public relations manager, VP of sales and business development, the accounts department, and the receptionist. The descriptions for the positions that have not yet been described for the office are listed below. Accountant: Works closely with the CEO to ensure all books are in order and bills are paid on time. She is also a go to person for any special requests employees have that require information from historic transactions or vendors. Receptionist: Signs in and out guests, arranges all of the teams travel, organizes employee appointments, handles the teams DOT regulations and commitments and is a general go to person if you need something done that you cant do yourself. Promotions and Graphics: Works with the Public Relations Manager and is in charge of most company graphics and brochures. He handles all of the companies photo shoots and takes all of the pictures and video throughout the course of the weekend. He is also Panthers main IT guy and updates Panthers website with all the multimedia requirements. Engineers: Each engineer has a specific task or job description however they will often come up with ideas, concepts and projects to make the car faster in a group environment. We have found this is the best way to take ideas from conception to the finished product, the process in a group tends to happen faster and the finished project is more refined when you combine intelligent minds. The individual descriptions are broken down as follows: Engineering Manager / Chief Engineer: See above. Research and development engineer: The research and development engineer is responsible for Panthers CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) program and any other special projects that require research and development prior to being fitted to the car. This position will take an idea and do a feasibility study to see if it will be worth the time and money invested when compared to its simulated performance gain. Basically he will get the project to the first steps of reality prior to handing it over to the designers. Assistant engineer: The main task of the Assistant Engineer is to work closely and efficiently with his Race or Chief Engineer using a vast array of sophisticated tools, software and sensors to ensure the engineer is fully aware of any handling or driving characteristics that may be affecting the cars performance. The Assistant Engineer will report to the Race or Chief Engineer and work in conjunction with the Wiring Engineers to ensure the car and equipment is electronically reliable. Electronics engineer: The main task of the Wiring Engineer is to work closely with the Race and Assistant Engineer to ensure all sensors, data loggers and looms are calibrated and working efficiently. The Wiring Engineer will report to the Race or assistant Engineer and work in conjunction with them to ensure the car and equipment is electronically reliable. Basically anything that has a current running from it, to it or through it is his responsibility. Damper engineer: The Damper Engineer is responsible for all damping aspects of the car. He will ensure the cars dampers are reliable, perform to the highest standards and set up in accordance to the instruction from the Race Engineer. He works in conjunction with the Race Engineer and Assistant Engineer on the teams simulation program and continuously develop the dampers to improve the chassis handling characteristics.

108

Mechanics: In general the term mechanic is self explanatory however in racing it is much more that a person who removes and replaces broken or worn out parts. The descriptions below explain how they differ from your normal grease monkey. Crew Chief: See above. Assistant Crew Chief: As we have already explained the role of crew chief the assistant is the guy in charge of the crew when the crew chief is in his office or meetings with the other department heads. He is also responsible for ensuring the other mechanics stick to deadlines and schedules by working alongside them and encouraging them when necessary to speed things up or slow things down and take a more thorough approach. Typically experience for this position will demand at least 5 years in the IRL and the rest of the crew typically will rely on his experience for guidance and instruction, he coordinates the set ups and is also very much hand on with the cars build schedule. He will frequently meet with the crew chief to discuss progress, schedules and deadlines. In Panther Racings format our assistant crew chief also operates the air-jack during the pit stops. Rear End Mechanic: The rear end mechanic concentrates mainly on the rear end of the car from the seat back. At Panther we have two people in this position and the main tasks in this position is to build the car, take part in the set-up of the car, strip the car, change engines, crack check components, rebuild components, maintain the complicated fuel cell and work to a life cycle for the components, generally make sure the car is reliable and working to it maximum mechanical ability. At Panther these two employees also go over the wall as tire changers. The experience level for the rear end is roughly 5 years, and he answers to the Crew Chief. Front End Mechanic: The front end mechanic concentrates mainly on the front end of the car from the front of the back of the seat forward. We have one employee in this position and the main tasks in this position is to build the car, take part in the set-up of the car, strip the car, crack check components, rebuild components, work to a life cycle for the components, ensure the driver fit and associated controls are optimum for the drivers comfort and generally make sure the car is reliable and working to it maximum mechanical ability. The front end mechanic also goes over the wall in pit stops and answers to the crew chief. The experience level for this employee is roughly 1-2 years in racing with a previous background in a mechanical profession. Gearbox Mechanic: The gearbox mechanics main job is maintaining the gearbox. The gearbox assemblies consist of hundreds of separate parts which more resemble the intricacies of a large watch than a gearbox when compared to the modern day road car. The gearbox mechanics main function is to ensure all these parts have been assembled to their tight tolerances and keep a keen eye out for unusual wear marks or pattern that could be the first sign of a catastrophic failure. When he isnt working on gearboxes he is assembling other race car parts that require a similar finesse. Bodywork Mechanic: The bodywork mechanic concentrates mainly on the wings and bodywork for the car. This is a very labor intensive job that requires exceptional attention to detail and experience with carbon fiber techniques for repairs and manufacturing of small components. The tasks for this position are mainly to take apart the bodywork, inspect for cracks or damage, repair what is necessary, keep record of the components weight and reassemble using jigs. Most often this position is an entry position with no actual racing experience required however experience with Carbon Fiber is a benefit. This position answers to the Crew Chief and is a reserve tire changer at Panther. Logistics: At Panther the logistic department is more than just being a truck driver, it is their responsibility to load the teams cars and equipment into the transporter, drive the truck to the track meeting all DOT regulations, set-up the 109

awning or garage, set up the teams equipment in the pit lane, keep the truck and equipment clean and functional during the weekend, ensure all of the teams race car tires are broken down into car sets based on the engineers requirements and make sure that none of the teams expensive equipment fails or gets damaged in any way. Once the race is over they do it all again in reverse and then the same happens again when they get back to the shop. As most of the teams expensive equipment travels in the truck, it is imperative the person in this position is extremely responsible and trustworthy. You need a class a drivers license for this position and most often there are 2 employees issued to this position for each race car driver. Shop Based Crew: The shop based crew consists of a shop manager, sub assembly mechanic, carbon repair and body fit guy, chassis mechanic, machinist, fabricator, paint shop, research and development engineer, electronic engineer and shop maintenance. The descriptions for the positions that have not yet been described are below. Shop Manager: See above.

Sub Assembly Mechanic: The sub assembly mechanic is in charge of assembling and maintaining race car parts that are made up of individual components assembled together to make larger units that can be bolted on the car without the need for further assembly. These parts mostly have bearings to allow rotation and therefore it is critical they are built with minimum drag for performance but also built to a high standard using proven guidelines for reliability. At panther he is also in charge of rebuilding certain parts when they are flagged on the mileage / maintenance schedule. Carbon repair / body fit guy:The carbon repair and body fit guy tends to also be a mechanic but splits his talents as required by the schedule. While working on the Carbon and body fit side of his description, he will be expected to make minor repairs to carbon fiber parts that were damaged or worn out at the last event or make small add on parts mostly for the cars aerodynamics. The body fit is more or less assembling the car as a shell and making a perfectly smooth transition from one panel to the next, this process involves many steps and can take up to one week to complete. Chassis Mechanic: The chassis mechanic will more or less have the same responsibilities as the race crew mechanics but stays at home to prepare cars for the next event rather than travel to each event as the race crew does. His main objective is to have the next events cars as completed as possible before the race crew returns so when the cars are handed over to the race crew all the basic assembly has been completed. Machinist and Fabricator: The machinist and fabricator positions at Panther are very similar to how they would be in an industrial setting. Basically they are given drawings for parts that have to be manufactured and they make them. The biggest differences are that the tolerances are slightly less and there are far more one and two piece runs than you would ever get in a production machine and fabrication shop. It is for that reason that having your own shop is far cheaper than it would be to have a production company do one or two piece runs on their machines. This department can machine, fabricate and weld most things dreamt up from the engineering department from pit equipment to highly sophisticated car parts. Paint Shop: Most paint shops are totally self sufficient in that it can perform every step of the painting process in house from stripping to the final polish after clear coat. We chose to perform this entire process in house so we can manage the amount of paint that goes on the car (the more the heavier the car will weigh) and so we can have it done on our schedule. Sometimes the paint crew will work around the clock for 36 hours to get a car painted if there is no other way to meet a sudden deadline. This is also an advantage for our sponsors as it enables us to do a last minute livery change and always keep the appearance of our cars and their name in tip top shape. 110

Shop Maintenance: When you are in a 70,000 square foot building a shop maintenance guy is essential to keeping everything running smoothly and operating as it should, he also keeps the appearance of the shop in showroom condition by painting and decorating where necessary. Panthers shop maintenance guy works closely with the shop manager to adhere to a scheduled maintenance program on all of the shop based equipment.

111

APPENDIX B - BOLT CHART Mechanical Properties Head Marking Grade and Material Nominal Size Range (inches)

Proof Load
(psi)

Min. Yield Strength


(psi)

Min. Tensile Strength


(psi)

US BOLTS
1/4 thru 3/4 55,000 57,000 74,000

Grade 2
Low or medium carbon steel Over 3/4 thru 1-1/2 33,000 36,000

Grade 5
Medium Carbon Steel, Quenched and Tempered

1/4 thru 1

85,000

92,000

120,000

3 Radial Lines

Over 1 thru 11/2

74,000

81,000

105,000

Grade 8
1/4 thru 1-1/2 6 Radial Lines Medium Carbon Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered 120,000 130,000 150,000

1/4 thru 5/8

18-8 Stainless
Stainless markings vary. Most stainless is non-magnetic Steel alloy with 17-19% Chromium and 8-13% Nickel 3/4 thru 1

40,000 Min. 80,000 90,000 Typical

100,000 125,000 Typical

40,000 Min. 45,000 70,000

100,000 Typical

112

Typical Above 1

80,000 90,000 Typical

Mechanical Properties Head Marking Class and Material Nominal Size Range (mm)

Proof Load
(MPa)

Min. Yield Strength


(MPa)

Min. Tensile Strength


(MPa)

METRIC BOLTS
All Sizes below 16mm

Class 8.8
Medium Carbon Steel, Quenched and Tempered

580

640

800

8.8

16mm 72mm

600

660

830

Class 10.9
Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered

5mm 100mm

830

940

1040

10.9

Class 12.9
12.9 Stainless markings vary. Most stainless is nonmagnetic. Usually stamped A-2 Alloy Steel, Quenched and Tempered 1.6mm 100mm 970 1100 1220

A-2 Stainless
Steel alloy with 1719% Chromium and 813% Nickel All Sizes thru 20mm 210 Min. 450 Typical 500 Min. 700 Typical

Tensile Strength: The maximum load in tension (pulling apart) which a material can withstand before breaking or fracturing. Yield Strength: The maximum load at which a material exhibits a specific permanent deformation

113

Proof Load: An axial tensile load which the product must withstand without evidence of any permanent set. 1MPa = 1N/mm2 = 145 pounds/inch2

114

115

116