Question 1: Explain why a dynometer wattmeter would indicate the average power when measuring power in a single phase
A.C circuit Answer: On an A.C circuit the deflection is proportional to the average power, since the moving pointer cannot follow the rapid variations in torque because of its momentum. Question 2: A) Show how one wattmeter is connected to measure power in a three phase three wire load. B) Show how two wattmeter are connected to measure power in a three phase star connected load Answer: A) One wattmeter method is used to measure power in a three phase, three wire load.
Total Power = 3×wattmeter B) Two wattmeter method used to measure power in a three phase star connected load.
PT= sum of wattmeter reading PT=P1+P2
Question 3: Explain with the aid of diagram how the power factor in a single phase circuit can be determined using the voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter method. Answer:
Dividing the true power (W) by apparent power (VA), one can arrive at the power factor cos ф. Because the wattmeter will give the true power, we can connect a voltmeter, an ammeter and wattmeter in the circuit. Use the results to obtained the apparent power from the voltmeter and ammeter, and the true power from the wattmeter and so work out the power factor, using P=VIcos ф. Question 4: Explain with the aid of a diagram how a power factor meter is connected to determine the power factor across a single phase load. Answer:
The most common type is the crossed coil power factor meter. It consist two coils, mounted on the same shaft but at right angles to each other. The moving coil rotates in the magnetic field provided by the field coil that carries the line current. One coil of the moveable element is connected in series with an inductor across the lines. Since no control springs are used, the balance position of the moveable element depends on the resulting torque developed by the two crossed coils. When the moveable element is in a balanced position, the contribution to the total torque by each element must be equal but of opposite signs. The torque developed; Tdev in each coil is a function of the current through the coil and therefore depends on the impedance of that coil circuit. The torque is also proportional to the mutual inductance between the crossed coil and the stationary field coil. This mutual inductance depends on the angular position of the angular position of the crossed coil elements with respect to the position of the stationary field coil. When the moveable element is at balance, it can be easily shown that its angular displacement is a function of the phase angle between the line current (field coil) and line voltage (crossed coil). The indication of the pointer which is connected to the moveable element is calibrated directly in terms of the phase angle or power pactor. Question 5: Explain the use of an insulation resistance tester used to measure insulation resistance of a cable and state typical acceptable values. Answer: An insulation resistance tester is used to measure the insulation resistance of a cable so as to make sure there is no possibility of leakage current flowing between insulated conductor and also to make sure that there are no leakage of current between the conductor of the installation and the general mass of earth. Typical values range from 1MΩ to 5MΩ
Question 6: Describe how earth electrode resistance may be measured with the aid of a diagram. Answer:
The resistance area of an earth electrode is the area of the soil around the electrode within which the voltage gradient measurable with commercial instruments exists. In the diagram X is the earth electrode under test, and Y is an auxillary earth electrode positioned so that the two resistance areas do not overlap. Z is a secondary auxillary electrode placed halfway between X and Y. An alternating current of steady value is passed through the earth path from X and Y. This is measured by an ammeter. On the assumption that X and Y are similar electrodes in similar circumstances, the voltage drop from X to the circumference of the resistance area should be half the total voltage drop. The other half of the voltage drop would be in Y and its resistance area. Between the resistance areas X and Y there would be negligible resistance and thus negligible voltage drop.
Question 7: Sketch a complete earth fault loop path of a single phase installation supplied from a three phase transformer. Answer:
Question 8: A) State three metering requirements for a small three phase industrial installation. B) State the units measured by each of the meters Answer: A) Three metering requirements for a small three phase industrial installation the wattmeter, ammeter and voltmeter. B) The units of each meter are (i) Wattmeter unit is Watt (W) and measure power (ii) Voltmeter unit is Volts (V) and measure voltage and (iii) Ammeter units is the amperes (A) measure current.
Question 9: Sketch a diagram of an energy induction meter connected across a single phase A.C circuit and explains its operation. Answer:
The above shows an induction meter which consists of a voltage and current coils. The voltage coil is wound on a laminated iron ore forming a nearly closed magnetic circuit making the circuit highly inductive and the current in the coil lags about 85% behind the voltage. The current coil is wound on an open magnetic circuit which has very little inductance. A light aluminium disc is mounted in front of the magnet so that its rim will pass between the two pairs of poles. Each pair of poles sets up eddy currents in the disc. These eddy currents react on each other, causing the disc to move. Damping is provided by means of a permanent magnets which sets up retarding eddy currents in the disc during movement. Question 10: Two wattmeters are connected across a 3ɸ star connected load and one wattmeter gives a negative reading. A) State the significance of negative reading. B) State how to determine the total power consumed by the load. Answer: A) The negative reading indicates that the load power factor is less than 0.5 lagging and the load phase angle, ф is greater than 60o. B) The total power consumed by the load can be determine by using the equation PT=P1-P2.
Question 11: Explain with the aid of diagrams how current transformers and voltage transformers are used to extend the range of ammeters and voltmeters. Answer: Extending the range of a voltmeter
A voltage transformer is used to extend the range of a voltmeter. A voltage transformer is a step down transformer which reduces a large voltage into a smaller voltage. The reading on the meter multiplied by the scale reading indicates the actual voltage measured in the circuit.
A current transformer is a step up transformer which reduces a large current into a small current. The reading on the meter multiplied by the scale reading indicates the actual current measured in the circuit.