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Q1.

Give scientific reasons:-

1. Energy flow is unidirectional (or)


At each trophic level from base to apex, the energy goes on
decreasing in biomass pyramid.
Ans.
1. In the biosphere the energy from the sun is trapped by the green plants.
2. The energy from the green plants in the form of food flows from one
trophic level to the other trophic level.
3. AT every trophic level, a considerable amount of energy lost to the
surrounding in the form of heat.
4. But this heat energy never returns to the sun. Therefore, energy flow is
unidirectional.

2. At every trophic level there is decrease in biomass.


Ans.
1. All the biomass produced by the green plants is not converted to biomass
of the herbivorous.
2. As a rule, only 5% to 20% of the biomass at any trophic level can passed
to the next one.
3. This is because a part of biomass is used for growth and maintenance at
various trophic levels and a part is lost to the surrounding in the form of
heat energy.
4. This shows that at every trophic level there is decrease in biomass.

3. The existence of life on the earth depends on the sun


Ans.
1. Only the green plants (autotrophs) have the capacity to produce food with
the help of solar energy during the process of photosynthesis.
2. Thus without solar energy food cannot be produced and without food
organisms life cannot exist on the earth, therefore the existence of life on
the earth depends on the sun.

4. Grasshopper is called first order consumer.


Ans. Grasshopper is called first order consumer because
1. It is herbivore, which depends upon grass for its food.
2. Since it depends upon product directly, it is a primary consumer.

Q2. Define

1. Biosphere:- The lithosphere, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere along with
the life forms existing on the earth is called biosphere.
2. Autotrophs:-Self – feeding organisms are called autotrophs. Autotrophs
consume the food prepared by them. For e.g. Green plants.
3. Heterotrophs:- Non – green plants, animals and most of the microbes which
obtain their food either from green plants of from dead and decaying organic
matter are called heterotrophs
4. Producers:- Green plants of the biosphere, which prepare food with the help
of solar energy are called producers.
5. Consumers:- Animals, which consume green plants and some animals are
called consumers.
6. Decomposers:- Microbes such as fungi, bacteria, protozoan which brings
about the decomposition of dead bodies and their waste matter, are called
decomposers.
7. Food chain :- Food chain is defined as transfer of food i.e. energy from one
organisms to the other.
8. Food web:- Food web is defined as interconnections among different food
chain at different trophic levels forming a network.
9. Trophic level:- Trophic level means feeding level. Each organisms of a food
chain represents a trophic level.
10. Biomass:- Biomass is defined as increase in dry weight of organic matter of
all organisms combined together at any trophic level.

Q3. Distinguish between

1. Producers and Decomposers.

Producers Decomposers
1. Producers are autotrophs. 1. Decomposers are heterotrophs.
2. Producers use the food, which is 2. Decomposers use dead bodies of
produced by them. plant and animals as their food.
3. Producers cannot bring about the 3. Decomposers bring about the
decomposition of dead bodies and decomposition of dead bodies and
waster matter. waste matter.

2. Consumers and Decomposers.


Consumers Decomposers
1. Consumers use the food produced 1. Decomposers use dead bodies of
by producers. plant and animals as their food.
2. Consumers cannot bring about the 2. Decomposers bring about the
decomposition of dead bodies and decomposition of dead bodies and
waster matter. waste matter.

3. Abiotic component and Biotic component.

Abiotic component Biotic component


1. The abiotic component of the 1. The biotic component of the
biosphere includes factors like light, biosphere are plants, animals and
humidity, temperature, soil, minerals, micro – organisms.
water and atmospheric pressure. 2. The biotic components are living
2. The abiotic components are non components.
living components.

4. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs.

Autotrophs Heterotrophs
1. Self feeding plants are called 1. Plants, animals which obtain their
autotrophs. food either from autotrophs or from
2. Autotrophs are green in colour due dead and decaying organic matter are
to the presence of chlorophyll. called heterotrophs.
2. Heterotrophs are non green colour
due to the absence of chlorophyll.

5. Producers and Consumers

Producers Consumers
1. Producers are autotrophs. 1. Consumers are heterotrophs.
2. Producers use the food, which is 2. Consumers use food produced by
produced by them. the producers.
3. All green plants of the biosphere are 3. All animals of the biosphere are
producers. consumers.

6. Photosynthesis and Respiration.


Photosynthesis Respiration
1. Photosynthesis is a constructive 1. Respiration is a destructive process
process in which glucose is in which glucose is broken down into
synthesized from CO2 and H2O. CO2 and H2O.
2. Photosynthesis is a light dependent 2. Respiration is independent of light.
process. 3. In this, energy is released from
3. In this, energy is stored in organic organic compounds.
compounds

Q4. Answer the following:-

1. In which of the following food chain man get more energy? Why?
i. Maize --------- Man
ii. Maize ------ Goat ------ Man
Ans. Man gets more energy from the first food chain.
This is because, shorter the food chain, lesser is loss of energy. The
second food chain being larger, there is more loss of energy.

2. In the following example which is a part of the food chain:


Frog ------ Snake ----- Hawk , if the snake population declines, what will
happen to 1. Population of frog, 2. Population of Hawk.
Ans. The population of frog will increase and population of hawk will decrease.
This is because snake consume frog and hawk consume snake.

3. What is a food web? Describe the important aspects of food web.


Ans. Food web is defined as interconnections among different food chains at
different trophic level forming a network.
Important aspects of food web are:
1. It starts from an autotroph i.e. Producer. i.e. Producer.
2. It has many connecting food chains.
3. The number of links in the chain are variable.
Decomposers can operate at any level. They are dead plant materials, dead
bodies of herbivores and carnivores as the source of energy.

4. Name the tropic level represented by the larvae of mosquitoes in the


food chain from a pond. Give reason.
Ans.
1. The larvae of mosquitoes represent primary consumers in the food chain from
a pond.
2. This is because, they feed on algae of the pond, which trap the solar energy
and make it available to the larvae of mosquitoes.

5. What is photosynthesis? State its importance.


Ans. The process by which green plants synthesize carbohydrate from carbon
dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight is called photosynthesis.
Importance of photosynthesis.
a. The green plants absorb the solar energy during photosynthesis and
convert this radiant energy into chemical energy.
b. The energy required for different life activities comes from oxidation of
sugars produced during photosynthesis.

6. What will happen if all the number of frogs becomes less in nature?
Ans.
1. If the number of frogs becomes less the number of grasshoppers will increase
with corresponding decrease in the number of snakes.
2. This is because frogs consume grasshoppers, while snake consume frogs.

7. What will happen if all the green plants disappear from the earth?
Ans.
1. If all the green plants disappear from the earth there will be no food
preparation by the process of photosynthesis.
2. In absence of photosynthesis neither the food nor the oxygen will be available
to other living organisms.
3. In absence of good and oxygen, life will not exist on the earth.

8. What is the role of producers in the biosphere?


Ans. The producers play the following roles in the biosphere:
1. The producers provide food to different organisms of the biosphere.
2. The producers provide energy to the different organisms of the biosphere.

9. The graph of biomass is called energy pyramid.


Ans.
1. When plotted on the graph paper, the biomass at various trophic levels forms a
pyramid.
2. As the biomass contains energy in the form of organic molecules. Hence, the
graph of biomass is called energy pyramid.

Q5. Draw the following graphic representation:

1. The food web involving at least three food chains.


2. A food web with the help of following organism, grass, shrub, deer,
sheep, rabbit, wolf, lion man.
3. The food chain is aquatic surroundings.
4. Draw a neat labeled diagram of energy flow.
5. Give the schematic representation of different trophic level.