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I.

Define the following

1. Atmosphere: The envelope of gasses surrounding the earth is called the


atmosphere. It extends up to a height of about 40 km from the surface of
the earth.
2. Acid rain: Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide present in air react with
the moisture present in the air and form nitric acid and sulphuric acid,
respectively. These acids come down along with rain water. It is called
acid rain.
3. Pollutant: The solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in such a large
concentration, that it is injurious to the environment and hazardous to life
is called pollutant.
4. Pollution: The act of releasing a pollutant is called pollution.
5. Particulate pollutants: Solid pollutants in the form of fine particles
suspended in air are called as particulate pollutants. E.g. Fine particles of
asbestos, carbon, etc.
6. Natural Pollutants: Pollen grains, spores and microbes present in excess
are called natural pollutants.
7. Radioactive pollutants: The radioactive harmful substances produced
during nuclear testing, nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons
are called radioactive pollutants.
8. Noise: Sound undesired by recipient is called noise.
9. Sound pollution: The continuous production of sound which is
undesirable to its recipient is called sound pollution.
10. Smog: The mixture of smoke and fog is called smog. It is fog carrying fine
carbon particles.
11. Decibel: The unit of sound intensity is decibel.
II. Give scientific reasons:

1. The chimneys of the factories should be sufficiently tall.


Ans.
i. Toxic (poisonous, deadly) gases are discharged from the factories through
the chimneys into the atmosphere.
ii. The functions of a chimney are to discharge the pollutants at a high
altitude.
iii. So that they can disperse well and do not accumulate. Hence, the
chimneys of the factories should be sufficiently tall.

2. Radioactive pollutants are the most dangerous.


Ans.
i. Radioactive pollutants mix with the atmosphere and remain in the
atmosphere for a long time.
ii. They effect human chromosomes and bring about permanent hereditary
disorders. Hence, radioactive pollutants are most dangerous.

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3. Air pollution is regarded as the most dangerous pollution.
OR
What are the most dangerous pollutants? Why?
Ans.
i. Man requires clean air for breathing. He cannot control the air he
breathes.
ii. Hence, if polluted air goes inside the body and affects the body adversely.
Hence, air pollution is regarded as most dangerous.

4. Smog causes large number of road accidents.


i. Smog is a mixture of smoke and fog. It is actually fog containing carbon
particles.
ii. It effects visibility and therefore causes large number of road accidents.

5. Ozone blanket is extremely important.


Ans.
i. The ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun is highly harmful to man.
ii. The ozone layer absorbs the ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun.
iii. It does not allow them to reach the earth surface. Hence Ozone blanket is
extremely important.

6. Automobiles should be checked regularly.


Ans.
i. When the efficiency of automobile engine decreases, there is an
incomplete combustion of the fuel.
ii. It produces hydro – carbons and carbon monoxide. These are harmful
pollutants.
iii. Hence, automobiles should be checked regularly to examine the efficiency
of their engines.

7. Trees act as bio – monitor for the problem of pollution.


Ans.
i. Green plants by photosynthesis produce food and release oxygen into air.
ii. These plants also keep the atmosphere most by transpiration, which
causes rainfall.
iii. Their roots keep soil compact. Their growth helps to reduce pollution.
iv. Hence, trees act as bio – monitor for the problem of pollution.

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III. Answer the following questions in short.

1. What are the effects of sound pollution on human health?


Ans. Continuous loud sound affects human health as follows.
i. Damage to hearing, which may lead to permanent loss of hearing.
ii. Increase in the rate of heartbeats.
iii. Dilation of the pupils of the eyes.
iv. Increasing the digestive spasms.
v. Bad effects on the brain, liver and heart.
vi. Emotional disturbances.

2. What are the sources of sound pollution? OR


Write four causes of sound pollution.
Ans. The sources of sound pollution are
i. Household appliances like mixer, grinder, vacuum cleaner, washing
machines, etc are responsible for sound of about 87 dB.
ii. Loudly played radios and stereos, hi – fi loud speakers and T.V sets are
other sources of sound pollution.
iii. Quarreling neighbors, shouting children, continuous ringing of bells and
barking dogs also add to sound pollution.
iv. Printing press, small industries produce sound of about 98dB.
v. Vehicles like auto, trucks, motor – cycles, cars, trains and aero – planes
(150 dB) equally contribute to sound pollution.

3. What is pollution? What are basic types of pollution?


Ans.
i. The act of releasing pollutant is called pollution.
ii. Fundamentally, there are three types of pollutions, they are
a. Air pollution,
b. Water pollution &
c. Soil pollution.

4. What are photochemical oxidants or Secondary pollutants? Name


two of them. OR
Write a short note on Photochemical oxidants.
Ans. The compounds formed by the reaction of nitrogen dioxide with
hydrocarbons in air in
the presence of light are called photochemical oxidants or secondary
pollutant.
The examples of photochemical oxidants are
a. Ozone &
b. PAN
They are responsible for irritation of eyes, coughing, tired feeling and odema.

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5. Name any three pollutants of the atmosphere?

Ans. The particulate pollutants of the atmosphere are


Silica particles, Asbestos particles, Fibres.

6. What are radioactive pollutants? What are their sources OR


Write a short note on radioactive pollutants.

Ans. The harmful radioactive substances produced in nuclear explosions, nuclear


testing and testing of nuclear weapons are called radioactive pollutants.
Sources: Radioactive pollutants are produced in nuclear explosions, explosion of
a nuclear reactor, nuclear tests and testing of nuclear weapons.
Example: Strontium – 90, a by – product of nuclear tests.

7. What is the percentage of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in Air.


Ans. The percentage of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in air are
Particulars %
Nitrogen 78.084
Oxygen 20.946
Carbon Dioxide 0.033

8. What is ozone layer? OR Write a short note on Ozone Layer.


Ans.
i. The layer of air between 16km to 23km from the surface of the earth in
which there is a high proportion of ozone is called the ozone layer.
ii. At about 16 km from the surface of the earth, the oxygen in the
atmosphere is converted into ozone by the action of sunlight.
iii. The proportion of ozone thus increases from about 16km to about 23km
from the earth surface of the earth.

9. What is acid rain?


Ans. Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide present in air react with the moisture
present in the air and form nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively. These
acids come down along with rain water. It is called acid rains
10. With the help of one example, explain the effect of acid rains.

Ans. Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide present in air react with the moisture
present in the air and form nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively. These
acids come down along with rainwater. It is called acid rains
Example:- Gaseous pollutants released from Mathura refineries near Agra are
responsible for such acid rains. They have affected the famous Taj Mahal
causing itching, this act is known as pitting.

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IV. Answer the following in briefly:
1. What are the control measures for air pollution?
Ans. Following are the control measures for air pollution.
1. Tall Chimneys of factories help to discharge pollutants at the highest
altitudes.
2. Automobiles should be checked regularly to control the level of poisonous
gases released from the vehicle.
3. Green vegetation around the industry seems to be a good solution to
reduce pollution. As trees act as bio monitor for the problem of pollution.
4. If use of a raw material produces more pollution, it should be replaced by
a suitable one. For example, use of a fuel containing less percentage of
sulphur.
5. Equipment in industry should be suitably modified to reduce or eliminate
the pollution.

2. What are the health hazards of air pollution?


Ans. health hazards of air pollution are
1. When sulphur dioxide is, present in air in excess it causes irritation of
eyes, throat, bronchitis and other respiratory disorders.
2. Ozone and PAN are responsible for irritation of eyes, coughing, tired
feeling, odema etc.
3. Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin and reduces oxygen
carrying capacity of the blood, which causes headache, dizziness, cardiac
and pulmonary disorders.
4. Particulate pollutants are responsible for respiratory disorders like asthma
and bronchitis. They cause skin diseases and allergic disorders.
5. Silica and asbestos particles cause fibrosis and are responsible for lung
cancer.
6. Smog effects visibility, which causes a large number of road accidents.

3. List the causes of air pollution OR


Find out the causes of air pollution in your surrounding.
Ans. Causes of air pollution are:
1. Combustion of fossil fuels release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen.
2. Petroleum refineries release sulphur dioxide.
3. Power generators release nitrogen oxides.
4. Fertilizers and cold storage systems release ammonia.,
5. Spraying and dusting on agricultural fields release organic phosphates
and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
6. Fine Silica Particles, Asbestos Particles, Cotton fibres etc. present in air
are some of the particulate pollutants.
7. Fine carbon particles are present in smoke and fog in air.
8. Pollen grains and spores present in air are natural pollutants.

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4. What are the control measures for sound pollution?

Ans. The control measures for sound pollution are

1. Household appliances should be properly maintained.


2. Use of sound absorbing materials.
3. Vegetation buffer zones act as sound absorbing system.
4. Sound limit should be prescribed for vehicles.
5. There should be ban on honking horns.
6. Silence zones should be declared near residential areas and schools as
well as hospitals.
7. People should be educated through various media like newspapers,
radios, T.V & Inter net as regards to noise pollution.
8. Workers in the factories should use earplugs and muffs.

5. State the important constituents of atmosphere and mention their


percentage
Proportion.

Ans. AT the earth’s surface the atmosphere consists mainly of nitrogen and
oxygen. In addition to these gases small amount of carbon dioxide, water
vapour, dust particles and rare gases are also present.
Following tables gives the composition of the stable constituents in the
atmosphere
at the surface of the earth.

Particulars %
Nitrogen 78.084
Oxygen 20.946
Argon 0.934
Carbon dioxide 0.033

Besides these gases, the atmosphere also contains neon, helium, methane
krypton, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, xenon, water vapour and dust.