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# S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.

C
CURRENT ELCTRICITY “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
QI. Define the following.

1. One coulomb : It is the unit of electric charge. If two like point charges of equal
magnitude are placed in a vacuum at a distance of one meter from each other and if
they repel each other with a force of 9 x 109 Newton, then each charge is called one
coulomb.
2. One Volt : It is the unit of potential difference. The potential difference between two
points is said to be one volt if one joule of work is done to carry a charge of one
coulomb from one point to another.
3. One Ampere : It is the unit of electric current. If a charge of one coulomb passes
across any section of the conductor in one second, then the current in the conductor is
said to be one ampere.
4. Electromotive force (E.M.F) : The work done by a cell to send a unit charge once
around the complete circuit is called a electric motive force.
5. Potential difference : The work done in sending a unit charge through the external
resistance is called the potential difference.
6. Right hand rule: Imagine the conductor to be held in the right hand with the
fingers curled round it and the thumb stretched along its length. If the thumb
points in the direction of the current then the curled fingers denote the direction of
the magnetic field.

## 1. Metals are good conductors of electricity. Or An electric current can flow

through silver wire.
Ans.
1. Metals contain a large number of free electrons.
2. When potential difference is applied to the ends of the wire the free electrons move
from low potential to high potential.
3. This gives rise to a flow of electric current in the wire. Hence metals are good
conductor of electricity.

2. When electric current is passed through a wore, it gets heated after some times.
Ans.
1. When Potential difference is applied to ends of wire the electrons start moving.
2. The electrons collide with atoms of the wire.
3. Due to these collisions the kinetic energy of atoms increase and the thermal energy
also increases. Hence, the wire gets heated after some times.

## 3In an electric bulb, a thin filament of tungsten is used.

Ans.
1. Tungsten filament has a high melting point.
2. When current passed through the filament, it gets heated to a high temperature and
emits light. Hence, thin filament of tungsten is used in an electric bulb.

## 4. Water must not be used to extinguish the electric fire.

Ans.
1. Tap water is impure.
2. It conducts electricity.

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
CURRENT ELCTRICITY “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
3. If water is used to extinguish the fire then electric current will flow. Therefore, Water
must not be used to extinguish the electric fire.

## 5. Wire carrying current is always insulated.

Ans.
1. If a metal wire carrying current is not insulated, it may cause a fatal shock to the
person toughing it.
2. When live and neutral wire come in contact with each other, it may cause fire.
3. When a bare wire carrying a current comes in contact with wet wall, the current starts
flowing through the wall. If a person touches the wall, he gets a severe shock, hence,
wire carrying current is always insulated.

## 6. Three Pin plug is preferred in place of two pin plug.

Ans.
1. In two pin plug, there is no provision for earthing. Hence, the person using electrical
appliances like an electric iron, heater, etc. may get shock if the body of the appliance
becomes live due to the leakage of electric current.
2. In a three pin plug, the third wire is connected to the metal body of the appliance and
to the earthing wire with the help of the socket.
3. Hence, the person handling the appliance does not get shock even if the live wire
comes in contact with the metal body of the appliance. Therefore, a three pin plug
should be used instead of two pin plug.

## 7. An electric fuse is used in domestic supply.

Ans.
1. An electric fuse is used to protect electrical appliances and instruments from damage.
2. An electric current up to a certain maximum value can pass through it.
3. If the current exceeds this value, the wire melts due to the heat produced in it by the
current. As soon as the wire melts the circuit is broken and hence the current stops
flowing.
4. An excessive current does not flows through the electrical appliances connected in the
circuit. Hence, an electric fuse is used in domestic supply.

8. The potential difference of cell is always less than the E.M.F of the cells.
Ans.
1. E.M.F of a cell is the total energy required to over come both the internal resistance of
the cell and the external resistance in the circuit.
2. Potential difference is the energy required to over come only the external resistance in
the circuit.
3. Hence, the potential difference of cell is always less than the E.M.F of the cells.

## 9. What are the general precautions while handling electrical devices?

Ans.
1. Keep your hands dry while handling electrical devices
2. Rubber soled footwear should be weared while handling electrical device.
3. Before cleaning an electrical device, switch off the current and remove the plug from the
socket.
4. Beware of live wire whether bare or insulated.
5. Do not remove the plug by pulling the cord.
6. Incase of a fire caused by electric sparks, switch off the mains and use a fire extinguisher
like Co of dry sand. Do not use water to extinguish electric current.

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
CURRENT ELCTRICITY “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
10. Describe the working of an electric bell with a neat labeled diagram.
Ans.
1. The electric bell consists of an
electromagnet gong, armature
(i.e.) soft iron rod, contact screw
and spring.
2. When current is passed through
the circuit, the Electromagnet
acquires magnetism and attracts
the iron rod as a result of which the
gong is struck by the hammer and
the bell rings.
3. At the same time the contact
between the contact screw and
iron rod is lost and circuit is broken.
When the current stops the
electromagnet losses its magnetisms
and the soft iron rod goes to its
original position.
4. As the iron rod touches the
contact screw, the circuit is complete
the procedure is repeated and the
gong is struck again. The bell goes on
ringing as long as the switch is closed.

## 11. What accidents can occur due to bad insulation?

Ans.
1. A person may touch the bare wire and get a shock.
2. If live and neutral wire comes in contact, it may give rise to sparks causing fire.
3. If the exposed part of a wire comes in contact with a wet wall, electric current begins, to
flow through the wall. The person touching such a wall may get severe shock.

Ans.
1. When an electric current flows through
a conductor, magnetic field is produced
around the conductor.
2. This magnetic field is present only as
long as the current flows through the
wire.
3.In this case, large number of turns
or insulated copper wire are wounded
around a rod of soft iron.
4. When two ends of a wire are
connected to a cell, the rod becomes
magnet, which is called as
electromagnet.
5. If the ends of the magnet is dipped
into iron filling it clings (attached) to
magnet. If the current is stopped

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
CURRENT ELCTRICITY “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
electromagnet losses magnetism.
Iron fillings drop the magnet.

## 1. Series combination and Parallel combination

Series combination Parallel combination
1. In series combination number of resistance 1. In parallel combination number of
are connected one after another. resistance are connected between two points.
2. The same current flow through each 2. The current passing through each
resistance. resistance is different.
3. Potential difference across each resistance 3. Potential difference across each resistance
is different. is same.
4. The equivalent resistance of the series 4. The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance
combination is equal to the sum of the of the parallel combination is equal to the
individual resistance. sum of the reciprocal of individual resistance.
5. This combination is used to decrease the
5. This combination is used to increase the overall resistance of the circuit.
overall resistance of the circuit.

Ammeter Voltmeter
1. An ammeter is used to measure the current 1. A voltmeter is used to measure the
flowing through a circuit. potential difference between two points.
2. An ammeter is connected in series with the 2. A voltmeter is connected in parallel to the
conductor through which the current flowing conductor across which the potential
is to be measured. difference is to be measured.