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Q.

1 Define
1. Under nutrition: - Intake of insufficient food is called under nutrition. Under
nutrition is very common among the poorer sections of the society. Under
nourished people are prone to diseases like rickets, anemia, cold, cough
and fever.
2. Over nutrition:- Intake of excessive food is called over nutrition. Over
nutrition is seen among the richer section of the society. Over nourished
people become obese and overweight. They become prone to diseases like
diabetes, arthritis, hyper tension and other cardio – vascular diseases.
3. Malnutrition:- Malnutrition means disordered nutrition which is due to lack
of sufficient food or excessive intake of food.
4. Night blindness:- Night blindness is a deficiency disease of the eye
caused due to the deficiency of vitamin A in diet.
5. Beriberi: - Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of
Vitamin B1 .
6. Rickets: Rickets is a disease caused by the deficiency of calcium,
phosphorus and vitamin D.
7. Marasmus:- Marasmus is a disease caused by the deficiency of energy,
proteins and other nutrients.
8. Pellagra:- Pellagra is a disease caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B3
(niacin)
9. Scurvy:- Scurvy is a disease caused due to deficiency of Vitamin C
(Ascorbic acid). It is very common in infants.
10. Anemia: - Anemia is a disease caused by the deficiency of iron.
11. Kwashiorkor: Kwashiorkor is a disease caused by the deficiency of
protein. It occurs when babies are taken away from protein rich breast milk
to other foods, which are not rich in proteins and energy.

Q 2 .Give reasons

1. Malnutrition is hazardous.
Ans. malnutrition is hazardous because.
1. It effects the physical and physiological well – being of an individual.
2. The physical, mental and social performance of a malnourished individual
becomes abnormal.
3. Malnourished children become prone to diseases like marasmus, rickets and
anemia.

2. In India, there are high incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases


among the poorer section of the society.
Ans.
1. In India among the poorer sections of the society even the intake of basic
calorie requirement is not fulfilled.
2. Proteins, vitamins and minerals are not consumed at desired levels. Therefore,
there is high incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases among the poorer
section of the society.
3. Babies should not be weaned from breast milk to other diets deficient in
proteins and energy.
Ans.
1. Breast milk contains carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which can be easily
digested and absorbed.
2. If proteins are not provided in sufficient quantities, the baby may suffer from
protein energy malnutrition leading to Kwashiorker and marasmus. Therefore,
babied should not be weaned from breast milk to other diets deficient in protein
and energy.

4. Rickets is common among those children who are deprived of sunlight.


Ans.
1. Rickets is caused by the deficiency of vitamin D.
2. Vitamin D is synthesized by the body, if the skin is exposed to morning sun.
Therefore, rickets is common among those children who are deprived of sunlight.

5. Goitre is more prevalent among the people who reside in mountainous


regions.
Ans.
1. In mountainous regions iodine content of the soil and water is low.
2. This leads to deficiency of iodine, which causes goitre. Therefore, goitre is
more prevalent among the people who reside in mountainous regions.

6. Pellagra occurs in people living on a maize diet.


Ans.
1. Pellagra is due to the deficiency of vitamin B3 (niacin)
2. Maize does not contain niacin. Hence, pellagra occurs in people living on a
maize diet.

7. Beriberi is observed mainly amongst people who eat polished rice.


Ans.
1. Beriberi is caused due to the absence of Vitamin B1 . (Thiamine)
2. Polished rice lacks B1 . (Thiamine). So Beriberi is observed mainly amongst
people who eat polished rice.

8. Scurvy is observed among the people whose diet is deficient in fresh


fruits.
Ans.
1. Scurvy is due to gross deficiency of vitamin C.
2. Fruits contain vitamin C. Therefore, scurvy is observed among the people
whose diet is deficient in fresh fruits.
Q 3 .Answer the following questions.

1. Mention the hazards of Malnutrition (TB) OR


What are the general effects of physical and physiological well being of a
under nourished and over nourished person.
Ans.
Undernourished person:
1. Weight and height is below the standard value.
2. Physical, mental and social performance is below normal.
3. The under nourished person is susceptible to infection due to low
resistance of the body.
4. The under nourished person becomes prone to diseases like
rickets, anemia infectious diseases like cold, sough, fever etc.
Over nourished person:
1. An over nourished person becomes over weight and obese.
2. The over nourished person becomes prone to diseases like diabetes,
arthritis, cardio – vascular disorder etc.

2. What is night blindness? What are its symptoms?

Ans. Night blindness is a deficiency disease of the eye caused due to the
deficiency of
vitamin A in diet.
Symptoms of night blindness:

1. Unable to see in dim light particularly after exposure to bright light.


2. Xeroderma (dry and scaly skin)

3. What is beriberi? What are its symptoms?


Ans. Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of vitamin B1 .
Symptoms of beriberi_
1. Loss of apatite.
2. Muscle weakness
3. degeneration of nerve tissues
4. Some times odema is observed
5. Mental alertness decreases
6. Memory may become faulty.
7. Concentration becomes poor.
8. Person becomes unstable emotionally.

4. What is rickets? What are its symptoms?


Ans.
1. Rickets:- Rickets is a deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of calcium,
phosphorus and vitamin D.
2. Symptoms of rickets:- 1. Faulty mineralization of bones and teeth. 2. Skeletal
malformation resulting into twisted bones. 3. Late eruption of teeth.
5. What is scurvy? State its symptoms.
Ans.
1. Scurvy :- Scurvy is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of
vitamin C (Ascorbic acid ) in diet.
2. Symptoms of scurvy :- 1. Swelling and bleeding of gums. 2. Reduction in
resistance of the body to infections. 3. Poor healing of wounds. 4. Subcutaneous
haemorrhage. 5. Irritability.

6. What is pellagra? Give the important symptoms of pellagra.


Ans.
1. Pellagra:- Pellagra is the deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of
vitamin B3 (Niacin) in the diet.
2. Symptoms of pellagra:- 1. Rough, scaly and ulcerated skin. 2. Darkening of
complexion due to hyper pigmentation. 3. Soreness of mouth. 4. Diarrhoea and
fatigue. 5. Listlessness and depression. 6. Headache and backache.

7. What is marasmus? What are its symptoms?


Ans.
Marasmus:-1. Marasmus is a malnutrition disease characterised by the stunted
growth of a child.
2. Marasmus occurs due to the deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in
the diet of infants.
Symptoms of marasmus are:
1. The child is reduced to skin and bones owing to wasting of muscles.
2. The skin becomes shrunken.
3. Eyes become large in size.
4. The ribs of marasmic child look very prominent.
5. Dehydration occurs in the body due to watery Diarrhoea and vomiting.

8. Give the important symptoms of anaemia. (or) What is anaemia? How is


it caused? (or) What is the causes of anaemia? What are its symptoms?
(or) State the disease caused due to the deficiency of iron. Give its two
symptoms?
Ans.
Anaemia:- Anaemia is a deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of iron in
the diet. In anaemia, the haemoglobin content of the blood goes down.

Symptoms of anaemia:-
1. Pale appearance of the skin, fingernails and mucous membrane.
2. Frequent headache.
3. Breathlessness and palpitation.
4. Constant feeling of tiredness and giddiness.
5. Insomnia.

9. What is Kwashiorker? What are its symptoms?


Ans. Kwashiorker is a disease caused by the deficiency of protein. It occurs
when babies are taken away from protein rich breast milk to other foods, which
are not rich in proteins and energy.
Symptoms of Kwashiorker:-
1. The child becomes listless and miserable.
2. Child becomes apathetic with no interest in his surroundings.
3. Cheerless with no apetite.
4. Weight and height is below normal.
5. Oedema occurs due to loss of nitrogen, which leads to full round face
called moon face.
6. Circumference of upper arm is reduced due to muscle wasting.
7. Abdomen swells and liver enlarges causing potbelly.
8. There is discoloration, redness, sparseness and easy pluckability of
hair.
9. Skin cracks and becomes scaly, inflamed and reddish.

10. Give the effect of deficiency of Vitamin B complex.


Ans. The effect of deficiency of Vitamin B complex are
1. Retarded growth
2. Mental disorder
3. Beri – Beri
4. Pellagra

11. State the reasons for mal nourishment or under nutrition.


Ans. The reasons for malnourishment are
1. Ignorance about food.
2. Poverty.
3. Environmental factors
4. Faulty food processing practices.
5. Habits.
6. Natural calamities.
7. Faulty distribution of food and traditions.

12. Explain the term PEM


Ans. Deficiency of protein, Carbohydrate and fat results in Protein – Energy –
Malnutrition (PEM). It is the most important nutritional disorder – affecting
children, particularly in the age period of 1 to 5 years.

13. Explain how food is enriched with nutrients.


Ans.
1. Hydrogenated fat is fortified with Vitamin A and D.
2. Common salt is enriched with iodine.
3. Flour is fortified with vitamin mineral premix.
4. Breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin and minerals.
5. Milk products and infant food are fortified with vitamin A, B, C and D and
minerals like calcium and iron.
14. Write a short note on Goitre.
Ans.
1. Goitre is abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland and it is an endemic
nutritional deficiency disease.
2. It is commonly observed in hilly regions where the iodine content of the soil
and water is low. It is known as “Goitre Belt” region.
3. In many parts of our country, particularly in sub Himalayan regions from
Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh people are affected by this disease.
4. Addinh iodine salts such as potassium iodate to common salt, on to the
drinking water supply helps to provide iodine to the needy people.
5. Now a days, iodine enriched salt is also available everywhere. One should use
it in daily diet to control goitre.

15. Baskar has brittle and weak bones. State the disease he is suffering
from. Name the deficient vitamin. Suggest measures on it.
Ans.
1. Baskar is suffering from rickets, which is due to the deficiency of vitamin D.
2. Baskar should expose his body to morning sun. Besides he should take egg,
fish liver oils and butter in his daily food.

16. The following report is observed in the school health inspection. Name
the diseases.
a. Vasu cannot see in dim light.
b. Bleeding gums of pritesh. (March 2001)
Ans. a. Night blindness
b. Scurvy

17. Which deficiency in food is responsible for the following diseases.

Ans.
Marasmus -------- Protein, energy and other nutrients.
Pellagra -------- Niacin (B3)
Anaemia -------- Iron
Rickets -------- Calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D
Night Blindness -------- Vitamin A
Q4. Distinguish between.

1. Kwashiorker and Marasmus


Kwashiorker Marasmus
1. It is a disease of children caused by 1. It is a disease of children caused by
the deficiency of protein in the diet. the deficiency of proteins, energy and
2. In this, there is Oedema on the body other nutrients in the diet.
of the child. 2. There is no oedema on the body of
3. The circumference of the upper arm the child.
of the child is reduced due to muscle 3. The child is reduced to mere skin
wasting. and bone due to muscle wasting.
4. The skin of the child cracks and 4. The skin becomes shrunken.
becomes scaly. 5. The face looks like an old person
5. The face looks like a moon. face.

2. Healthy child and Undernourished child Based on the following points.


Healthy child Undernourished child
1. Hair
Lustrous and strong 1. Dry and easily falling
2. Face
Happy look 2. Miserable look, Swollen
3. Eyes 3. Dry, inflamed, sticky and sensitive to
Healthy, bright, moist and luster look light.
4. Skin 4. Dry with cracks, loose, rough,
Lustrous, smooth and intact. pigmented and scaly skin.
5. Tongue 5. Ulcers and exacts on tongue,
Moist and pinkish magenta red colour and loss of taste.
6. Posture
Good 6. Bad
7. Structure
Well built 7. Bad
8. Weight and Height
Normal 8. Below the standard.