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Q1.

Give scientific reasons:

1. Immature grains should not be harvested.


Ans. Immature grains should not be harvested because
1. They deteriorate quickly as enzymes are still active in them.
2. The grains also have high proportion of moisture in them which is favourable
condition for enzyme reaction.

2. Wet grains should not be dried in the hot sun.


Ans.
1. Drying of wet grains in the sun results in their cracking leading to increased
infestation by insects.
2. Hence, wet grains should not be dried in the hot sun.

3. Grapes should not be handled by untrained labourers.


Ans.
1. Untrained labourers handle grapes roughly during harvesting and packing.
2. Owing to this grapes get spoilt completely.
3. Hence, grapes should not be handled by untrained labourers.

4. Jaggery should not be packed in gunny bags during rainy season.


Ans.
1. Jaggery should not be packed in gunny bags during rainy season, because it
results in both qualitative and quantitative loss of the commodity.
2. Moreover, the commodity becomes unacceptable in the market because of its
contamination by both live and dead insects and their excreta.

5. Potatoes should not be stored for a long time.


Ans. Potatoes should not be stored for along time, because
1. Potatoes sprout during storage.
2. Sprouting leads to qualitative and quantitative losses of their nutritive values.

6. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than nonperishable


foodstuffs.
Ans.
1. Perishable foodstuffs have a short shelf – life as compared to non perishable
food stuffs.
2. Therefore, losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non perishable
foodstuffs.

7. Grapes get spoiled during packing.


Ans.
1. Grapes get spoilt if packed in rigid wooden boxes.
2. Therefore, grapes get spoiled during packing.

8. Due to defective mode of distribution more wastage of food takes plac.e


Ans.
1. Improper packaging, marketing and transport arrangements for distribution of
food are responsible for wastage of food.
2. Therefore, due to defective mode of distribution more wastage of food takes
place.

9. Over ripening of fruits should be avoided.


Ans.
1. Over ripening of fruits get spoiled due to enzymatic action.
2. Therefore, over ripening of fruits should be avoided.

10. Buffet system of food serving should be followed at public places.


Ans.
1. Buffet system of food serving is useful in minimizing the wastage of food.
2. Therefore, buffet system of food serving should be followed at public places.

11. Overcooking of food should be avoided.


Ans. Overcooking of food should be avoided, because:
1. Overcooking disintegrates the food.
2. Owing to this, the colour and flavour of food is lost.
3. Therefore, overcooking of food should be avoided.

12. Cooking of food in an open pan should be avoided.


Ans.
1. Cooking of food in an open pan results in losses of vitamins.
2. Therefore, cooking of food in an open pan should be avoided.

13. Chopped vegetables should not be washed.


Ans.
1. Washing of chopped vegetables results in loss of nutritive quality.
2. Therefore, chopped vegetables should not be washed.

14. Bananas should not be kept in a refrigerator.


Ans. Bananas turn black if they are stored at low temperature. Hence, bananas
should not be kept in a refrigerator.

Q2. Answer the following

1. Explain how production of food has increased in our country. (or)


How is the production of food being increased?
Ans. The production of food has increased in our country, because of the
following reasons.
1. New scientific methods and efficient technologies of cultivation.
2. Green revolution for producing more crops and white revolution for producing
more milk. Both these revolutions were the results of the programs implemented
by the Government of India.
2. What are the two lines of action which government has taken to meet the
food requirements of our country?
Ans. The two lines of action which government has taken to meet the food
requirements of our country are as follows.
1. Control of population growth.
2. Increase in food production and reduction in losses of food.

3. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non – perishable food


stuffs. Why?
Ans. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non – perishable foodstuffs
due to the following reasons:-
1. Perishable foodstuffs have a short – self life as compared to anon – perishable
foodstuffs. Therefore there is a considerable loss in perishable foodstuffs.
2. In perishable foodstuffs enzymes are more active than in non – perishable
foodstuffs. Therefore they deteriorate more quickly resulting into heavy losses.
3. In perishable foodstuffs, there is natural losses due to endogenous respiration
and wilting due to transpiration. In non – perishable foodstuffs, there is neither
endogenous respiration non wilting due to transpiration.
4. Perishable foodstuffs have heavy losses due to decay caused buy micro –
organism as compared to that of non – perishable foodstuffs.

4. Suggest measures for controlling quantitative loss of foodstuffs.


Ans. The measure for controlling quantitative loss of foodstuffs are:
1. Adequate measure must be adopted for proper distribution of foodstuffs to all
the sections of society.
2. A care must be taken at each and every step to avoid wastage and spoilage of
food. Good transportation facilities must be provided.
3. Proper distribution of foodstuffs can be achieved by implementing ration
system.
4. At home, proper serving of prepared food to all family members should be
practiced.
5. Buffet system at public places such as hostels, boarding will be useful to
minimize the wastage.
Scientific methods of post harvesting practices and storage.
1. After harvesting, transportation and storage facilities must be adequate and
proper safe storage go-downs should be built according to the nature of
foodstuffs.
2. There must be proper arrangements of temperature and moisture control.
3. Godowns must be well ventilated and protected from pests.
4. Before storage, grains should be properly dried and cleared off from infected
and spoiled materials and other impurities.
5. Periodical checking and pest control treatments are necessary to increase the
self – life of foods.
6. Adaptation of new technologies for harvesting and storage, training for proper
handling to the food handlers are some of the solution to minimize the losses of
food stuffs.
5. List the causes of food wastage
Ans. Causes of food wastage are
1. Defective post harvest practices.
2. Improper handling of foodstuffs.
3. Losses during transport and milling of foodstuffs.
4. Defective modes of storage and distribution of food.
5. Losses due to traditional custom.

6. What will happen if the food is not handled properly?


Ans. Effects of improper handling of food are as follows.
1. Rough handling by untrained labours is a major cause of food wastage.
2. Losses are more in perishable foodstuffs, particularly during harvesting,
packing, transporting, etc.
3. Delicate grapes if roughly harvested and packed in rigid wooden boxes, will
get spoil completely.
4. Careless digging of sweet potatoes, causes injury to them.

7. Explain how qualitative loss of nutritive nature of food takes place due to
faulty pre – marketing process.
Ans. The following faulty pre – marketing processes can lead to qualitative loss
of food:
1. Improper time of harvesting crop.
2. Wrong judgment of time required for foodstuffs to reach the market.
3. Damage to perishable goods during harvesting.
4. Wrong judgment of the likely time gap between production and marketing.
5. Lack of knowledge of available modes of packaging, storage, transport,
distribution etc.

8. Enlist the faulty cooking methods.


Ans. Faulty cooking results in the loss of certain nutrients.
1. Over cooking may disintegrate food or may lose its colour, flavour etc.
2. Cooking with water in open pan results in greater losses of vitamins.
3. The water from cooked food if thrown away, protein, minerals and vitamins get
lost.
4. Washing fruits or vegetables after cutting affects the nutritive quality of the
food besides its acceptability.

9. Explain why harvesting of crops must be done at proper time?


Ans.
1. If immature crops are harvested they will deteriorate more quickly than mature
grains, as the enzymes are still active.
2. If the grain remains in the field after maturity, occasionally it becomes wet due
to rain and drying of such grains in the hot sun may cause grains to crack, thus
increasing the likelihood of infestation by insects.

10. Write a note on white revolution.


Ans.
1. Increase in production of milk by high yielding varieties of animals is called
white revolution.
2. In 1970 Government of India, in collaboration with Denmark, New Zealand and
other countries started improving Indian breeds of cows and buffaloes.
3. As a result high yielding varieties of cows and buffaloes were developed
leading to white revolution.
4. Aarey dairy at Mumbai, Amul dairy at Anand in Gujarat and Warna dairy at
Kolhapur have contributed to white revolution.

11. Write a note on green revolution.


Ans.
1. Increase in the production of food grains by developing high yielding varieties
of crop plants with the help of new scientific methods and technologies is called
green revolution.
2. The population explosion in India, after independence created increasing
demands for food supply.
3. To meet the ever – increasing demands for food, efforts were made to increase
the production of food grains.
4. In 1960’s scientists realized the importance of high yielding varieties of crop
plants for increasing the production of food grains.
5. Many hybrid varieties of crop seeds were used which led to tremendous
increase in food production.

Q3. Write short notes on

1. Losses of food during farm level operation:


1. It includes various process such as threshing and drying grains, bagging or
placing threshed grain in other containers, grading or sorting of fruits, bundling of
leafy vegetables, transport from field to storage, mill or market etc.
2. Losses of non – perishable foodstuffs occur due to their post harvest quality
and threshing and shelling by using hand brake method or by use of animals.
3. Losses of perishable foodstuffs due to their short – self life.

2. Losses of food during transport.


1. It is due to transport from field to storage place or to processing place.
2. During this transits, loss may occur due to continued deterioration of
perishable food or spoilage of bagged grains exposed to rain, or spoilage due to
defective or damaged containers etc.
3. The use of hooks to handle sacks of grains in port is also one of the examples
of poor handling, causing loss.

3. Loss of food due to the defective modes of storage:-


1. Food losses during storage are quite high.
2. Variation in temperature, humidity and moisture are responsible for damage
during storage.
3. In hot damp conditions, the deterioration of food takes place due to the rapid
growth of micro – organism and insect population.
4. Unsuitable container used for the storage of food materials also plays sub role
in loss of food.

4. Loss of food due to defective modes of distribution:-


1. Improper packaging, marketing and transport arrangements for distribution are
responsible for food wastage.
2. The percentage of wastage is more among perishable foods, especially during
summer or rainy seasons.
3. Rough handling or vibration in overloaded trucks on poor roads causes
physical damage to the delicate perishable foodstuffs like vegetables, fruits, fish
etc.

5. Loss of food due to traditional customs:-


1. A considerable amount of food materials are lost in many houses due to
wasteful and inefficient management.
2. Many a times more than required quantity of food is purchased, especially by
privileged section of the society.
3. Some amount of food is also wasted due to may customs and practices.
4. For example, a considerable amount of food prepared for feast during social
and religious functions is wasted due to improper management.
5. The wastage of good also occurs due to faulty serving methods.
6. Even in hotels, boarding, hostels, etc a large amount of food is wasted.