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Q1.

Give Scientific reasons:-

1. Albino persons cannot synthesize the pigment melanin.


Ans. Albino persons cannot synthesize the pigment melanin because.
1. It is hereditary disease in which there is no pigmentation of hair, eyes and
colour of the skin.
2. The gene, which controls the synthesis of the pigment melanin, undergoes
mutation in them.

2. In take of saturated fat should be avoided.


Ans. Intake of saturated fat should be avoided because
1. Saturated fat contains cholesterol and triglycerides in them.
2. Excess intake of saturated fats leads to deposition of these fats on the inner
walls of the arteries causing arteriosclerosis.
3. It also increases the chance of heart attack.

3. In India, the causes of heat attacks are increasing.


Ans. In India, the cause of heart attacks are increasing due to increased mental
and physical stress and strain on the people.
Both mental and physical stress and strain have adverse effects on the heart
causing heart attacks.

4. There is oedema on the body during kidney failure.


Ans. There is oedema on the body during kidney failure because
1. Kidney failure is the malfunctioning of kidneys.
2. There is accumulation of poisonous substance and water in body.
3. Accumulation of water in the tissues leads to swelling called oedema.

5. The people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS.


Ans. The people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS because they are
the leading cause of mortality in developed countries.

6. Cancer cannot be diagnosed in its early stage.


Ans.
1. Cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality in developed countries.
2. There is no early warning symptoms such as pain or fever. Hence, cancer
cannot be diagnosed in its early stage.

7. Vehicle drivers are tested for colour blindness before issuing license.
Ans.
1. Colour blindness is a hereditary disease.
2. Colour – blind persons cannot distinguish between different colours.
3. Most common colour blindness is for red and green colour.
4. This defect is usually observed in males. Hence, vehicle drivers are tested for
colour blindness before issuing license.
8. Blood sugar level increases in diabetes.
Ans.
1. Diabetes may be due to metabolic disorder as well as organic failure and its
can be hereditary.
2. It is the defective functioning of the beta cells of islets of Langerhans in
pancreas which secrets the hormone insulin.
3. In absence of this hormone, the tissues, especially liver tissues fail to utilize
glucose. This, results increased blood sugar level in diabetes.

Q2. Define

1. Communicable disease :- Diseases that are caused due to pathogens and


are transmitted from one person to another are called communicable diseases.
Diseases such as influenza, cholera, tuberculosis are communicable diseases.

2. Non – communicable disease:- Diseases that are caused due to factors


other than pathogens and are not transmitted from one person to another are
called non – communicable diseases. Diseases such as cancer and diabetes are
non – communicable diseases.

Q3. Answer the following in short:-

1. List the carcinogenic factor (or) Name the factor which increases the risk
of caner. Suggest the treatment of cancer.
Ans. Factors such as smoking, exposure of radiation, some chemicals, food
stuffs and dyes may increase the risk of caner. These factors are called
carcinogenic factors as they cause cancer.
The Treatment of caner are
1. Radiotherapy. 2. Chemotherapy. 3. Surgery.

2. Write a note on kidney failure.


Ans.
1. Malfunctioning or defective functioning of the kidney is called kidney failure.
2. It is due to infection of physiological disorders.
3. It leads to accumulation of poisonous substances in the tissues causing
oedema.
4. Urea in the blood increases, which leads to uremia.

3. What are the four types of heart diseases?


Ans. The four types of heart diseases are as follows.
1. Congenital defect
2. Rheumatic fever.
3. Coronary diseases.
4. Excessive strain on the heart.
4. Name the hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. Write down three
affects due to excess secretion.
Ans. 1.The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland is thyroxine.
2. Effects due to excess secretion of thyroxine is increased metabolic rate,
hyperactivity, loss of weight and protruding eyeballs.

5. Write the symptoms of diabetes


Ans. They symptoms of diabetes are as follows.
1. Excess of throat.
2. Hunger
3. Frequent urination
4. Loss of weight with general weakness

6. Suggest any four measures to control diabetes.


Ans. The four control measures to control diabetes are as follows.
1. Restriction of sugar intake.
2. Injections of insulin
3. Consumption of hypoglycemic substances
4. Regular exercise can control diabetes.

7. Name any four diseases caused by polluted water.


Ans.
1. Jaundice
2. Cholera
3. Typhoid
4. Gastroenteritis

Q4. State the effect of the following

1. Effect of X – rays on health:- They show adverse affects on cell growth and
interfere with the genetic constitution and metabolic activities.

2. Effect of air pollutants on human health :- They cause lung disorders. They
also cause headache, irritation of eyes and nose, coughing, breathlessness,
chest pain and bronchial asthma.

3. Effect of water pollutants on health:- Water pollutants cause disease like


jaundice, cholera, typhoid and gastro – enteritis.

4. Effect of deficiency of iodine on health :- Deficiency of iodine causes goiter


i.e. enlargement of the thyroid gland.

5. Effect of mental and physical strain on health:- Mental and Physical strain
cause mechanical strain on the heart, resulting into heart diseases.
6. Effect pf consumption of saturated fats on health:- Consumption of
saturated fats causes arteriosclerosis, which results in heart attack.

Q5. Describe the following heart diseases:-

1. Congenital heart diseases:-


1. The congenital heat diseases are mostly due to malfunctioning of the valves in
the heart.
2. Congenital heart diseases may also be due to the presence of a hole in the
septal wall of the heart which causes the mixing of oxygenated and de –
oxygenated blood in the heart.
3. The main causes of congenital heart diseases are as follows:-
i. Infections like German measles in the pregnant mother.
ii. Administration of pregnancy.
iii. Exposure to radiations like X – rays which may affect the embryo.

2. Rheumatic fever:-
1. Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease caused by the infection by a strain
of streptococcus.
2. Rheumatic fever affects the heart.
3. Rheumatic fever is usually seen in the population living in cold and humid
climate in overcrowded areas where the condition are unhygienic.

3. Coronary diseases:-
1. Coronary diseases of heart and caused by the intake of fats, especially
saturated fats in the diet.
2. The cholesterol from the fats gets deposited on the wall of the artery supplying
blood to the heart.
3. Owing to the deposition of cholesterol on the wall of the artery, its lumen
becomes narrow resulting into less supply of blood to the heart. This disease is
called arteriosclerosis.
4. Arteriosclerosis may cause heart attack.
5. Coronary diseases are observed in the people able the age of 45 years.
6. Males are more prone to coronary diseases.

Q 6. Explain the following:-

1. Health:-
1. Health literally means sound condition of the body.
2. It is a state of physical, mental and social well – being and not merely the
absence of disease.

2. Disease:-
1. The word disease (dis – ease) means uneasiness. i.e. departure from a state
of normal health.
2. Disease is a condition in which the normal state of mind, body and well – being
person is impaired.
3. A disease is diagnosed from the symptoms which it produces.

3. Haemophilia:-
1. Haemophilia is a hereditary disease caused by mutation of the gene which
controls the clotting blood.
2. In Haemophilia the blood does not clot. Therefore, a person suffering from
Haemophilia may bleed to death when injured.
3. Haemophilia is usually found in males. It is rarely seen in females.

4. Albinism:-
1. Albinism is a hereditary disease.
2. A person suffering from albinism cannot synthesize the pigment melanin.
Therefore, his skin, iris of the eyes, eyelashes and hairs on the body appear
white.
3. Albinism is caused by the mutation in the gene which controls the formation of
the pigment melanin in the body.
4. A person showing albinism is known as albino.
5. Albinos develop rashes on their skin in bright light. Their eyes are sensitive to
bright light.

5. Uremia :-
1. When the amount of urea increases in the blood, it leads to disease, called
uremia.
2. Uremia is caused by the malfunctioning of the kidney.
3. Dialysis and kidney transplantation are remedial measures for uremia.

6. Silicosis:-
1. Silicosis is a respiratory diseases caused by the inhalation of silica dust.
2. Workers working in stone quarries and coal mines usually suffer from silicosis.
3. Silicosis is an occupational disease.

7. Cretinism:-
1. Cretinism is caused by under secretion of thyroxine hormone secreted by
thyroid gland.
2. In a child suffering from cretinism, the growth is stunted.
3. Cretinism also makes a child mentally retarded.

8. Diabetes:-
1. Diabetes is the defective functioning of the beta cells of islets of Langerhans in
pancreas which secrete the hormone insulin.
2. Owing to the lack of insulin, the cells of the body, especially, the liver cells fail
to utilize glucose.
3. As a result of this, the level of sugar in the blood increases.
4. In diabetes, there is excretion of glucose in urine.
9. Arteriosclerosis:-
1. Arteriosclerosis is caused by excessive intake of fats, especially saturated fats
in the diet.
2. In this disease, the cholesterol present in fats gets deposited in the arteries as
a result of which their lumens become narrow.
3. Owing to this, there is less supply of blood to the heart which causes heart
attack.

Q 7. Suggest the treatment for the following:-

1. Kidney disorders :- Kidney disorders can be treated by dialysis and kidney


transplantation.

2. Cancer:- Cancer can be treated by surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

3. Cretinism:- Cretinism can be treated by the harmone thyroxine.

4. Diabetes:- Diabetes can be treated by restriction of sugar intake, injections of


insulin, consumption of hypoglycemic substances and regular exercise can
control diabetes.

Q7. Distinguish between

1. Cretinism and Dwarfism

Cretinism Dwarfism
1. It is caused due to under secretion of 1. It is caused due to under secretion of
thyroxine hormone. growth hormone.
2. Mental development is not normal. 2. Mental development is normal.
3. Body proportions are not normal. 3. Body proportions are normal
4. Face is without expression. 4. Face is with expression.

2. Gigantism and Dwarfism

Gigantism Dwarfism
1. It is caused due to over secretion of 1. It is caused due to under secretion of
growth harmone. growth hormone.
2. Individual grows to a height of 7 to 8 2. Individual grows to a height of only 3
feet. to 4 feet.
3. Skin, tongue, lips and ears become 3. There is no thickening of skin,
thick. tongue, lips etc.

3. Communicable and non – communicable diseases

Communicable Diseases Non – communicable diseases


1. Diseases that are caused due to 1. Diseases that are caused due to
pathogens and are transmitted from factors other than pathogens are called
one person to another are called non communicable disease.
communicable disease. 2. It does not spread.
2. It spreads through air, water, contact 3. It is not caused by micro –
or animals. organisms.
3. It is caused by micro – organisms
such as virus, bacteria, fungi or
protozoan.

4. Thyroid gland and Pituitary gland.

Thyroid gland Pituitary gland


1. Thyroid gland is situated in the lower 1. Pituitary gland is situated in the
part of the neck. posterior and lower part of the
2. Thyroid gland secretes the hormone cerebrum.
thyroxine. 2. Pituitary gland secretes the growth
3. Under secretion of the hormone hormones.
thyroxine from the thyroid gland leads 3. Under secretion of the growth
to stunted growth called cretinism. hormone by the pituitary gland leads to
dwarfism.

5. Air pollutants and Water pollutants


Air pollutants Water pollutants
1. Pollutants that pollute air are called Pollutants that pollute water are called
air pollutants. water pollutants.
2. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 2. Chemical wastes from factories,
sulphur dioxide, etc. are air pollutants. chemical fertilizers and pesticides, etc.
3. Air pollutants are known to cause are water pollutants.
airborne diseases like asthma, chest 3. Water pollutants are known to cause
pain, common cold, tuberculosis, water borne diseases like jaundice,
pneumonia, etc. cholera, typhoid, gastroenteritis, etc.