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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.

C
HYGIENE “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
QI. Define
1. Hygiene:- Hygiene is the science of maintaining good health. Sanitary habits practiced by
an individual lead to healthy life. It should be observed at personal and community level.
2. Prophylaxis:- Prophylaxis means preventive treatment of diseases. It includes
observances of rules that are necessary for the prevention of a diseases.
For eg. During epidemics of cholera and typhoid, immunization is done to prevent the
spread of disease. Therefore, immunization is a prophylactic measure.
3. Immunization: The process of making immune from a disease by injecting disease
causing germs or their poisons is called immunization.
4. Narcotic drugs: The drugs that produce stupor or sleep are called narcotic drugs.
For eg. Morphine , L.S.D (Lysergic acid diethylamide) are narcotic drugs.

QII. Give scientific reasons:

1. Addictives are harmful to the human beings (TB)


Ans. Addictives are harmful to the human beings because
1. Tobacco causes bronchitis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and increases the chances of heart
diseases and lung cancer.
2. Tobacco smoking or chewing leads to oral cancer.
3. Alcohol affects the nervous systems and it causes cirrhosis in the liver.
4. Narcotic drugs are hazardous to health.

2. Immunization be done during childhood?


Ans.
1. During childhood, a child is likely to suffer from diseases like diphtheria, whooping, cough,
tetanus, polio tuberculosis and measles.
2. These diseases can be prevented by immunizing a child.
3. Therefore, immunization is done during childhood to protect the children from the above
mentioned diseases.

3. Water hyacinth should be planted in the water which contains effluents.


Ans.
1. Factory effluents which contain a number of chemical pollutants are released in water.
2. Water hyacinth which grows in water has the capacity to absorb the chemical pollutants.
3. Therefore, water hyacinth should be planted in water which contains factory effluents.

4. One should hold a handkerchief to cover the nose and mouth during sneezing
and coughing.
Ans.
1. Holding a handkerchief to cover the nose and mouth prevents the spread of a
communicable disease.
2. Therefore, one should hold a handkerchief to cover the nose and mouth during sneezing
and coughing.

5. One should avoid uncovered roadside eatables.


Ans.
1. Road side eatables may be contaminated by flies, dust and microbes.
2. Therefore, one should avoid uncovered roadside eatables.

6. Regular moderate exercise is very essential


Ans.
1. Regular moderate exercise keeps a person fit, active and cheerful.
2. Therefore, regular moderate exercise is very essential.

7. A daily bath is essential. or


A daily bath with hot or cold water is essential.
Ans.
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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
HYGIENE “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
1. Bath removes the sweat and dust from the surface of the skin, thus making it clean.
2. Bath increases the circulation of blood in the body.
3. therefore, a daily bath with hot or cold water is essential.

8. During summer, white or light coloured cotton clothes should be used.


Ans.
1. White or light coloured cotton clothes protect the body from heat and absorb the sweat.
2. Therefore, during summer white or light coloured cotton clothes should be used.

9. In winter dark coloured, preferably woolen clothes, should be used.


Ans.
1. Dark coloured, preferably woolen clothes protect the body from cold.
2. Therefore, in winter dark coloured clothes, preferably woolen clothes, should be used.

10. A healthy individual possesses the ability to combat diseases.


Ans.
1. A healthy individual possesses a good resistance power which helps him combating
diseases.
2. Therefore, a healthy individual possesses the ability to combat diseases.

11. Good hobbies and trips make human beings happy. Or


Hobbies and trips are useful.
Ans.
1. Hobbies and trips make life happy and cheerful.
2. Therefore, hobbies and trips make human beings happy. In other words, hobbies and trips
are useful.

12. Dustbin should be kept clean by periodical removal of garbage.


Ans.
1. Waste materials in the form of garbage are dumped in dustbins.
2. Therefore, dustbin should be kept clean by periodical removal or garbage.

13. It is desirable to drink boiled water during an epidemic.


Ans.
1. Epidemic diseases like cholera and typhoid spread through contaminated water containing
the germs of these diseases.
2. Therefore, it is desirable to drink boiled water during an epidemic.

14. Rehabilitation of a drug addict is essential.


Ans.
1. Rehabilitation helps to avoid the addiction to the drug again.
2. Therefore, rehabilitation of drug addict is essential.

15. Tobacco should not be consumed in excess.


Ans.
1. The consumption of tobacco causes bronchitis, gastric and duodenal ulcer and increases
the chances of heart diseases, lung cancer and oral cancer.
2. Therefore, tobacco should not be consumed in excess.

16. Common sources of drinking water should be maintained clean.


Ans.
1. Drinking water gets contaminated by washing clothes, utensils, cattle’s and faucal matter.
2. Therefore, addiction to tobacco should be avoided.

17. Tobacco used in excess is poisonous.


Ans.

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
HYGIENE “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
1. Excessive use of tobacco is poisonous. It causes bronchitis and ulcers and increases the
chances of heart diseases.
2. Therefore, tobacco used in excess is poisonous.

18. Addiction of alcohol is not good.


Ans.
1. Alcohol affects the nervous system.
2. Alcohol causes cirrhosis of the liver and reduces blood sugar level which is harmful to the
brain.
Therefore, addiction to alcohol is not good.

19. Smoking is injurious to health.


Ans.
1. Smoking causes oral cancer.
2. therefore, smoking is injurious to health.

20. The people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS


Ans.
1. Cancer and AIDS are fatal diseases.
2. therefore, the people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS.

21. Automobile vehicle should be checked periodically.


Ans.
1. Periodical checking of automobile is necessary for controlling the level of poisonous gases
which otherwise causes pollution.
2. Therefore, automobile vehicle should be checked periodically.

QIII. Answer the following in briefly.

1. Write any three essential habits for personal cleanliness. OR


Write essential habits for personal cleanliness. OR
Write any four essential habits for personal cleanliness.
Ans. The habits which are essential for personal cleanliness are as follows:
1. One should go to bed early in the night.
2. One should get up early in the morning.
3. After getting up one should go to the toilet.
4. One should wash his hands and feet with soap after visiting the toilet.
5. One should clean the teeth in the morning.
6. One should take a bath daily.
7. One should hold a handkerchief to cover the nose and the mouth while sneezing or
coughing.
8. One should do regular moderate exercise to keep himself fit, active and cheerful.
9. One should avoid uncovered roadside food.
10. One should take balanced diet.
11. One should go for regular health check – up.
12. One should clean the teeth in the night before going bed.

2. What is community hygiene? Write three good habits to maintain community


hygiene.
Ans.
1. Community hygiene: The science 1concerned with the maintenance of health of a
community is called community hygiene.
2. Three good habits to maintain community hygiene:
1. One should avoid spitting in public places.
2. Waste material should be put in dustbins. The dustbins should be kept clean by periodical
removal of garbage.

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
HYGIENE “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
3. Sources of drinking water should be maintained clean and should be protected from
contamination.

3. Name the preventable diseases commonly observed among the children. OR


Name the preventable diseases of children which are controlled by
immunization.
Ans.
1. The preventable diseases commonly observed in children are diphtheria, whooping cough,
tetanus, polio tuberculosis and measles.
2. Since diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio tuberculosis and measles can be
-controlled by immunization, they are called preventable diseases.

4. Describe ‘AIDS’ with the following points:


i. write the full form of ‘AIDS’
ii. Name the virus
iii. Spreading
iv. Prevention.

Ans.
i. Full form of AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
ii. Name of the virus: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS.
iii. Spreading : AIDS is spread fro one person to other by any one of the following routes.
1. Unprotected sex.
2. Transfusion of HIV positive blood.
3. From addicted pregnant mother to her child.
4. Use of un sterilized injection needles, blades and razors of an infected person.
iv. Prevention: AIDS can be prevented by adopting the following preventive measures:
1. Protected sex.
2. Blood transfusion after HIV test only.
3. Avoiding sharing of contaminated needles, razors, blades, toothbrushes, etc.

5. Which two characters should be possessed by a person to keep him away


from the addiction.
Ans. The following two characters should be possessed by person to keep him away from the
addiction are_
1. Strong will power
2. Sound and positive attitude towards life.

6. Chewing of tobacco is harmful to health. Explain


Ans. Chewing of tobacco is harmful to health, because of the following reasons.
1. Chewing of tobacco causes oral cancer.
2. Chewing of tobacco causes gastric and duodenal ulcers.
3. Chewing of tobacco increases the chances of heart diseases.

7. State the importance of health education.


Ans. the importance of health education are_
1. The importance of cleanliness, balanced diet and immunization is emphasised in health
education.
2. Education of care to be taken during pregnancy, maternal health and baby care help to
reduce infant mortality.
3. Sex education at the proper age helps in avoiding AIDS and other diseases.
4. Health education is of great importance in rehabilitation of a drug addict.

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