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Sr.no Cha pter s Name Page No
1. Composi tion of Atmospher e 4

2. Phosphor us 9

3. Sulphur , Hy dr ogen Sulphide, Sulphur dio xide 13

4. Metal s And Non-Metal s 20

5. Carbon and Carbon Compound s 25

6. Study o f some compounds 30

7. Hygiene 36

8. Nutrien ts in f oods 42

9. Dieta r y Deficienc y Disease s 45

IN DEX

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SCIENCE I & II

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COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERE I. Define the following

1. Atmosphere: The envelope of gasses surrounding the earth is called the atmosphere.
It extends up to a height of about 40 km from the surface of the earth.
2. Acid rain: Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide present in air react with the
moisture present in the air and form nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively.
These acids come down along with rain water. It is called acid rain.
3. Pollutant: The solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in such a large
concentration, that it is injurious to the environment and hazardous to life is called
pollutant.
4. Pollution: The act of releasing a pollutant is called pollution.
5. Particulate pollutants: Solid pollutants in the form of fine particles suspended in air
are called as particulate pollutants. E.g. Fine particles of asbestos, carbon, etc.
6. Natural Pollutants: Pollen grains, spores and microbes present in excess are called
natural pollutants.
7. Radioactive pollutants: The radioactive harmful substances produced during
nuclear testing, nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons are called
radioactive pollutants.
8. Noise: Sound undesired by recipient is called noise.
9. Sound pollution: The continuous production of sound which is undesirable to its
recipient is called sound pollution.
10. Smog: The mixture of smoke and fog is called smog. It is fog carrying fine carbon
particles.
11. Decibel: The unit of sound intensity is decibel.
II. Give scientific reasons:

1. The chimneys of the factories should be sufficiently tall.


Ans.
i. Toxic (poisonous, deadly) gases are discharged from the factories through the
chimneys into the atmosphere.
ii. The functions of a chimney are to discharge the pollutants at a high altitude.
iii. So that they can disperse well and do not accumulate. Hence, the chimneys of the
factories should be sufficiently tall.

2. Radioactive pollutants are the most dangerous.


Ans.
i. Radioactive pollutants mix with the atmosphere and remain in the atmosphere for a
long time.
ii. They effect human chromosomes and bring about permanent hereditary disorders.
Hence, radioactive pollutants are most dangerous.

3. Air pollution is regarded as the most dangerous pollution. OR


What are the most dangerous pollutants? Why?
Ans.
i. Man requires clean air for breathing. He cannot control the air he breathes.
ii. Hence, if polluted air goes inside the body and affects the body adversely. Hence, air
pollution is regarded as most dangerous.

4. Smog causes large number of road accidents.


i. Smog is a mixture of smoke and fog. It is actually fog containing carbon particles.
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ii. It effects visibility and therefore causes large number of road accidents.
COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERE
5. Ozone blanket is extremely important.
Ans.
i. The ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun is highly harmful to man.
ii. The ozone layer absorbs the ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun.
iii. It does not allow them to reach the earth surface. Hence Ozone blanket is extremely
important.

6. Automobiles should be checked regularly.


Ans.
i. When the efficiency of automobile engine decreases, there is an incomplete
combustion of the fuel.
ii. It produces hydro – carbons and carbon monoxide. These are harmful pollutants.
iii. Hence, automobiles should be checked regularly to examine the efficiency of their
engines.

7. Trees act as bio – monitor for the problem of pollution.


Ans.
i. Green plants by photosynthesis produce food and release oxygen into air.
ii. These plants also keep the atmosphere most by transpiration, which causes rainfall.
iii. Their roots keep soil compact. Their growth helps to reduce pollution.
iv. Hence, trees act as bio – monitor for the problem of pollution.
III. Answer the following questions in short.

1. What are the effects of sound pollution on human health?


Ans. Continuous loud sound affects human health as follows.
i. Damage to hearing, which may lead to permanent loss of hearing.
ii. Increase in the rate of heartbeats.
iii. Dilation of the pupils of the eyes.
iv. Increasing the digestive spasms.
v. Bad effects on the brain, liver and heart.
vi. Emotional disturbances.

2. What are the sources of sound pollution? OR


Write four causes of sound pollution.
Ans. The sources of sound pollution are
i. Household appliances like mixer, grinder, vacuum cleaner, washing machines, etc are
responsible for sound of about 87 dB.
ii. Loudly played radios and stereos, hi – fi loud speakers and T.V sets are other sources
of sound pollution.
iii. Quarreling neighborus, shouting children, continuous ringing of bells and barking
dogs also add to sound pollution.
iv. Printing press, small industries produce sound of about 98dB.
v. Vehicles like auto, trucks, motor – cycles, cars, trains and aero – planes (150 dB)
equally contribute to sound pollution.

3. What is pollution? What are basic types of pollution?


Ans.
i. The act of releasing pollutant is called pollution.

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ii. Fundamentally, there are three types of pollutions, they are
a. Air pollution,
b. Water pollution &
c. Soil pollution.
COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERE
4. What are photochemical oxidants or Secondary pollutants? Name two of them.
OR
Write a short note on Photochemical oxidants.
Ans. The compounds formed by the reaction of nitrogen dioxide with hydrocarbons in air in
the presence of light are called photochemical oxidants or secondary pollutant.
The examples of photochemical oxidants are
a. Ozone &
b. PAN
They are responsible for irritation of eyes, coughing, tired feeling and odema.

5. Name any three pollutants of the atmosphere?

Ans. The particulate pollutants of the atmosphere are


Silica particles, Asbestos particles, Fibres.

6. What are radioactive pollutants? What are their sources OR


Write a short note on radioactive pollutants.

Ans. The harmful radioactive substances produced in nuclear explosions, nuclear testing and
testing of nuclear weapons are called radioactive pollutants.
Sources: Radioactive pollutants are produced in nuclear explosions, explosion of a nuclear
reactor, nuclear tests and testing of nuclear weapons.
Example: Strontium – 90, a by – product of nuclear tests.

7. What is the percentage of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in Air.


Ans. The percentage of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in air are
Particulars %
Nitrogen 78.084
Oxygen 20.946
Carbon Dioxide 0.033

8. What is ozone layer? OR Write a short note on Ozone Layer.


Ans.
i. The layer of air between 16km to 23km from the surface of the earth in which there
is a high proportion of ozone is called the ozone layer.
ii. At about 16 km from the surface of the earth, the oxygen in the atmosphere is
converted into ozone by the action of sunlight.
iii. The proportion of ozone thus increases from about 16km to about 23km from the
earth surface of the earth.

9. What is acid rain?


Ans. Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide present in air react with the moisture present in
the air and form nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively. These acids come down along
with rain water. It is called acid rains
10. With the help of one example, explain the effect of acid rains.

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Ans. Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide present in air react with the moisture present in
the air and form nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively. These acids come down along
with rainwater. It is called acid rains
Example:- Gaseous pollutants released from Mathura refineries near Agra are responsible
for such acid rains. They have affected the famous Taj Mahal causing itching, This act is
known as pitting.

COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERE IV. Answer the following in briefly:


1. What are the control measures for air pollution?
Ans. Following are the control measures for air pollution.
1. Tall Chimneys of factories help to discharge pollutants at the highest altitudes.
2. Automobiles should be checked regularly to control the level of poisonous gases
released from the vehicle.
3. Green vegetation around the industry seems to be a good solution to reduce
pollution. As trees act as bio monitor for the problem of pollution.
4. If use of a raw material produces more pollution, it should be replaced by a suitable
one. For example, use of a fuel containing less percentage of sulphur.
5. Equipment in industry should be suitably modified to reduce or eliminate the
pollution.

2. What are the health hazards of air pollution?


Ans. health hazards of air pollution are
1. When sulphur dioxide is, present in air in excess it causes irritation of eyes, throat,
bronchitis and other respiratory disorders.
2. Ozone and PAN are responsible for irritation of eyes, coughing, tired feeling, odema
etc.
3. Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin and reduces oxygen carrying capacity
of the blood, which causes headache, dizziness, cardiac and pulmonary disorders.
4. Particulate pollutants are responsible for respiratory disorders like asthma and
bronchitis. They cause skin diseases and allergic disorders.
5. Silica and asbestos particles cause fibrosis and are responsible for lung cancer.
6. Smog effects visibility, which causes a large number of road accidents.

3. List the causes of air pollution OR


Find out the causes of air pollution in your surrounding.
Ans. Causes of air pollution are:
1. Combustion of fossil fuels release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen.
2. Petroleum refineries release sulphur dioxide.
3. Power generators release nitrogen oxides.
4. Fertilizers and cold storage systems release ammonia.,
5. Spraying and dusting on agricultural fields release organic phosphates and
chlorinated hydrocarbons.
6. Fine Silica Particles, Asbestos Particles, Cotton fibres etc. present in air are some of
the particulate pollutants.
7. Fine carbon particles are present in smoke and fog in air.
8. Pollen grains and spores present in air are natural pollutants.

4. What are the control measures for sound pollution?

Ans. The control measures for sound pollution are

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1. Household appliances should be properly maintained.
2. Use of sound absorbing materials.
3. Vegetation buffer zones act as sound absorbing system.
4. Sound limit should be prescribed for vehicles.
5. There should be ban on honking horns.
6. Silence zones should be declared near residential areas and schools as well as
hospitals.
7. People should be educated through various media like newspapers, radios, T.V &
Inter net as regards to noise pollution.
8. Workers in the factories should use earplugs and muffs.
COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERE
5. State the important constituents of atmosphere and mention their percentage
Proportion.

Ans. AT the earth’s surface the atmosphere consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. In
addition to these gases small amount of carbon dioxide, water vapour, dust particles and
rare gases are also present.
Following tables gives the composition of the stable constituents in the atmosphere
at the surface of the earth.

Particulars %
Nitrogen 78.084
Oxygen 20.946
Argon 0.934
Carbon dioxide 0.033

Besides these gases, the atmosphere also contains neon, helium, methane krypton, hydrogen,
nitrous oxide, xenon, water vapour and dust.

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PHOSPHORUS I. Give scientific reasons:

1. Yellow phosphorus shows phosphorescence.


Ans.
1. Yellow phosphorus when exposed to air undergoes slow oxidation.
2. In this reaction, light is produced. Due to this light, yellow phosphorus glows when it
kept in the dark.
3. This property is called phosphorescence. Hence, yellow phosphorus shows
phosphorescence.

2. Bones of dead animals are often used to extract phosphorus.


Ans.
1. Bones of animals contain about 60% of calcium phosphate.
2. A considerable amount of phosphorus can be extracted from them by simple process.
Hence, bones of dead animals are often used to extract phosphorus.

3. Yellow Phosphorus is kept under water.


Ans.
1. Yellow phosphorus has low ignition temperature of 300 C and catches fire even at
room temperature.
2. It is heavier than water, does not react with water and does not dissolve in it. Hence,
yellow phosphorus is kept under water.

4. It is dangerous to handle yellow phosphorus.


Ans.
1. It is dangerous to handle yellow phosphorus because the ignition temperature of
yellow phosphorus is 300 C.
2. While our normal body temperature is 370 C, hence when it comes in contact with
the body, it causes painful wounds.

5. Red phosphorus is kept in airtight bottles.


Ans.
1. Red phosphorus is hygroscopic.
2. If it is kept exposed to air, it absorbs the moisture in air and becomes wet. Hence, red
phosphorus is kept in airtight bottles.

6. Yellow phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorus.


Ans.
1. The molecules of yellow phosphorus are loosely held by weak forces while red
phosphorus is a covalent crystal lattice consisting of infinite chains of phosphorus.
2. It is easy to break the bonds between the molecules of yellow phosphorus. Hence,
yellow phosphorus is more reactive than red phosphorus.

II. Answer the following in short.

1. Describe the position of phosphorus in the periodic table.

Ans. The atomic number of phosphorus is 15 and its electronic configuration is 2,8,5. The
atom phosphorus contains 5 electronic in its outer most shell. Hence it is placed in VA group
and Third period of the modern periodic table below nitrogen.
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2. Name important minerals containing phosphorus.


PHOSPHORUS

Ans. The important minerals containing phosphorus are:


1. Phosphorite
2. Fluorapatite
3. Chlorapatite
4. Wavellite
3. How is phosphorus purified? OR
Write short notes on refining of phosphorus.
Ans.
1. Crude phosphorus obtained from the furnace during extraction contains some
impurities.
2. It is purified by melting under water, followed by treatment with potassium
dichromate and dilutes sulphuric acid.
3. The impurities are oxidised, but phosphorus remains unaffected. In this way, yellow
phosphorus is refined or purified.
4. What do you mean by phosphorescence? (Or) Define phosphorescence.

Ans. The phenomenon of yellow phosphorus to glow in the dark due to slow oxidation
process is called phosphorescence.
5. Give uses of phosphorus.

Ans. The important uses of phosphorus are


1. It is used in match industry.
2. It is used for making hard and none rusting alloy phosphor bronze.
3. It is used in the manufacture of smoke bombs, fie works etc.
4. It is used in the preparation of zinc phosphide, which is used as a rat poison.
5. It is used in the preparation of phosphate fertilizers.
6. Give the physical properties of red phosphorus.
Ans. Physical properties of red phosphorus are
1. It is reddish brown solid.
2. It is amorphous.
3. It is odourless, non – poisonous and hygroscopic solid.
4. It is insoluble in water and in carbon disulphide.
5. Its ignition temperature is 2600 C and it melts at 5900 C, under pressure.
7. Give the physical properties of yellow phosphorus.
Ans. Physical properties of yellow phosphorus are
1. It is a soft wax like solid, which can be cut with a knife.
2. It is white when pure, but becomes pale yellow when exposed to light.
3. It smells like garlic.
4. It is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulphide, chloroform, benzene etc.
5. It ignites at 300 C in air and it melts at 440 C under water.
8. Define Allotropy.
Ans. The phenomenon of existence of two or more forms of an element which exhibit
different properties is called allotropy.

IV. Answer the following briefly; PHOSPHORUS

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1. Distinguish between yellow phosphorus and red phosphorus.

Yellow Phosphorus Red Phosphorus.


1. It is outwardly yellow inwardly 1. It is reddish brown in colour.
white.
2. Melting point is 440 C under 2. Melting point is 5900 C under
water. pressure.
3. It is poisonous. 3. It is non - Poisonous.
4. Ignition temperature is 300 C 4. Ignition temperature is 2600 C.
5. It has garlic odour. 5. It is odourless
6. It is not used in safety matches 6. It is used in safety matches
7. It is soluble in carbon disulphide. 7. Insoluble in carbon disulphide.
8. Reacts with sodium hydroxide to 8. No reaction with sodium
give phosphine gas. hydroxide.
9. Density of yellow phosphorus =
1.8 gm / cm 3 9. Density of Red phosphorus = 2.35
gm/cm 3

III. Write short notes on


Cold flame:

Take some water in hard glass test tube. Introduce a few pieces of yellow phosphorus
into it. Fit the mouth of the test tube with a rubber stopper. Fit a glass tube with a small jet
into the stopper. Make the room dark and gently heat the test tube. Phosphorus vaporizes as
a result of heat. Vapours of phosphorus begin to be slowly oxidised in air and flame appears
at the nozzle known as cold flame. Hold a matchstick in the flame. It does not catch fire.

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IV Answer the followings

1. What are the allotropes of phosphorus? Explain molecular structure of allotropes.

Ans. Phosphorus exhibits two main allotropic forms yellow phosphorus and red phosphorus.
1. Molecular structure of yellow phosphorus: - The molecule of yellow phosphorus
is tetrahedron. In solid yellow phosphorus, these P4 molecules are loosely held
together by weak forces.

2. Molecular structure of red phosphorus: - Its structure is different from yellow


phosphorus. In yellow phosphorus, the molecules are loosely held but in red
phosphorus, they are strongly held by covalent bond. Red phosphorus is a covalent
crystal lattice consisting of infinite chains of phosphorus atoms. Hence, it is less
reactive than yellow phosphorus.

2. Explain with a labeled diagram the extraction of phosphorus from bone ash
(Phosphorite).
Ans.
1. A mixture of calcium phosphate (bone ash) and silica (Sand) and coke id heated in a
electric furnace at a temperature of 14000 To 15000 C.
2. Calcium phosphate first reacts with sand (Silica) to form calcium silicate and
Vapours of phosphorus pent oxide.
3. Phosphorus pent oxide is then reduced by coke to form vapors of phosphorus and
carbon monoxide. Calcium silicate is collected at the bottom in the form of slag.
4. Vapours of phosphorus and carbon monoxide are made to pass through the water.
5. Carbon monoxide being insoluble in water escapes out and vapours of phosphorus
condenses into solid.
6. Phosphorus is further purified by melting under water and by treatment with
potassium dichromate and dilute sulphuric acid.

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SULPHUR, HYDOGEN SULPHIDE I. Give scientific reasons

1. Powdered sulphur is dusted on fruit trees.


1. Sulphur is fungicide as well as insecticide.
2. Hence for killing bacteria, fungi and other germs on the fruit trees, powdered sulphur is
dusted over them.

2. Sulphur exists in two crystalline forms.


1. The most stable form of sulphur is rhombic sulphur.
2. The molecules of rhombic sulphur are closely packed.
3. Above 95.50 C., the intermolecular attraction weakens and they rearrange to form new
crystalline allotrope of sulphur monoclinic sulphur.Hence, sulphur exists in two crystalline
forms.

3. An ignited magnesium wire continues to burn in jar or sulphur dioxide. (T.B)


Ans.
1. Magnesium is a strong reducing agent.
2. It burns in sulphur dioxide and reduces it to yellow particles, which are left behind.
3. It is an exothermic reaction. Hence, an ignited magnesium wire continues to burn in a jar
of sulphur dioxide.
2Mg + SO2 2 MgO + S

4. Sulphur dioxide is used in sugar industry.


Sulphur dioxide is used to bleach silk and woolen clothes.
Ans.
1. Sulphur dioxide is a mild bleaching agent.
2. It is harmless and not so poisonous.
3. It releases nascent hydrogen when dissolved in water, which bleaches sugar by reduction.
Hence, sulphur dioxide is used in sugar industry. (or) Sulphur dioxide is used to bleach silk
and woolen clothes.

5. When hydrogen Sulphide gas is passed through acidified solution of sulphate, a


black precipitate is formed.
Ans. When hydrogen Sulphide gas is passed through acidified solution of copper sulphate, a
black precipitate is formed due to the formation of black insoluble precipitate of copper
Sulphide.
CuSO4 + H2S CuS + H2SO4

6. Acidified potassium dichromate solution turns green when hydrogen Sulphide gas is
passed through it.

Ans. When hydrogen Sulphide gas is passed through acidified solution of potassium
dichromate, it reduces to potassium sulphate and chromium sulphate. Potassium sulphate is
colourless, while chromium sulphate is green in colour.
K2Cr2O7 + 3H2SO4 + 3H2S K2SO4 + Cr (SO4)3 + 7H2O + 3S

7. Acidified of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution turns colourless when


hydrogen Sulphide gas is passed through it.

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Ans. When hydrogen Sulphide gas is passed through acidified solution of potassium
permanganate the purple solution turns colourless due to the formation of potassium
sulphate and manganese sulphate.
2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 + 5H2S K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 8H2O + 5S

8. A lump of sulphur when rubbed against dry hand or wool attracts scraps of paper.
Ans. 1. When a lump of sulphur is rubbed against dry hand or wool, its surface becomes
electro statically charted. Hence, it attracts scraps of paper.

9. Vulcanised rubber is used to make tubes and tyres of vehicles.


Ans.
1. Raw natural rubber is soft and sticky.
2. In the vulcanisation, this rubber is heated with sulphur.
3. Vulcanised rubber is hard and tough,
Hence vulcanised rubber is used to make tubes and tyres of vehicles.

10. It is dangerous to smell sulphur dioxide.


Ans.
1. Sulphur dioxide gas has an extremely pungent and strongly suffocating odour.
2. It is poisonous and causes inflammation of lungs.
Hence, it is dangerous to smell sulphur dioxide.
II. Answer the following short:

1. Name the ores of Sulphur.


Ans. The ores of sulphur are:
1. Cinnabar {Hgs} 2. Zincblende {Zns}
3. Iron Pyrites {FeS2} 4. Galena (PbS)
5. Copper Pyrites {CuFeS2} 6. Gypsum {CaSO4. 2H2O}
7. Kieserite {MgSO4. H2O} 8. Anglesite (PbSO4)

2. Explain the position of sulphur in the periodic table.


Ans. The atomic number of sulphur is 16. Its electronic configuration is 2,8,6. It has 6
electrons in its outer orbit. Hence sulphur is placed in VI – A group and third period of the
modern periodic table below the oxygen.

3. Explain the effect of heat on sulphur at different temperatures.

At the following temperature, state the changes in the condition of sulphur.


i. 119.2oC ii. 160 oC iii. 300 oC iv. 444 oC
Ans. When sulphur is heated, the following changes are observed.
1. The yellow solid melts at 119.2 oC and a clear amber coloured, free flowing liquid is
formed.
2. When the temperature rises, the liquid progressively darkens. At about 160 oC , it becomes
almost black and highly viscous. It does not flow out even when the test rube is inverted.
3. On heating further, at about 300 oC, Sulphur gradually becomes less viscous and starts
flowing freely. Its colour is dark reddish brown.
4. At 444 oC, Sulphur boils, giving out light orange coloured sulphur vapour.

4. What is vulcanisation of rubber?


Ans.

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1. The process of heating raw rubber with sulphur at a definite temperature for a definite
time is called vulcanisation.
2. It is used to convert soft, sticky mass of rubber into hard, tough mass i.e., in the
manufacture of tyres.

5. Give the uses of sulphur in agriculture.


Ans.
1. Sulphur dust is sprayed on fruit trees and grape vines to destroy insects and fungi harmful
to these plants.
2. Sulphur is used in the preparation of various insecticides and pesticides.

6. Give the uses of sulphur in medicines.


Ans.
1. Sulphur is used in skin ointments for skin diseases.
2. Metal Sulphide are used as medicines.
3. Sulpha drugs contain sulphur.
4. Sulphur in the form of minute particles is used in oral medicines.

7. Give the important uses of sulphur {OR}


Write the uses of sulphur in

1. Chemical industry. 2. Agricultural 3.


Vulcanisation
Ans. Uses of sulphur are_
1. In chemical Industry: It is used in the manufacture of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid,
carbon disulphide and metal Sulphide.
2. Vulcanisation:- The process of heating raw rubber with sulphur at a definite temperature
for a definite time is called vulcanisation. It is used to convert soft, sticky mass of rubber
into hard, tough mass i.e., in the manufacture of tyres.

3. In agriculture: It is used as an insecticide and fungicide and sprayed on fruit trees and
grape vines.
4. In medicine: It is used in skin ointments.
5. It is used as an ingredient of gunpowder.

8. What are the components of gunpowder?

Ans. Gun powder contains sulphur, Charcoal and nitre (Potassium Nitrate)

9. State the uses of sulphur (or) Sulphur in Chemical industries.

Ans. The uses of sulphur as follows:

1. It is used in preparing sulphuric acid.


2. It is used to produce sulphur dioxide, which is used in bleaching straw and wool.
3. Sulphur produces carbon disulphide, which is used as an industrial solvent.

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4. It is used in gunpowder as an ingredient. Gunpowder contains sulphur, Charcoal and nitre
(Potassium Nitrate).
5. It is used in fire works.
6. It is used in Crackers.
7. It is used as in insecticide for fruit trees.
8. It is used to prepare different pesticides.
9. It is used in ointments for skin diseases.
10. It is used in the process of vulcanisation to give toughness to rubber.
11. It is used in prepare different Sulphide.

10. State the physical properties of Sulphur.

Ans. The physical properties of sulphur are as follows.


1. Sulphur is a hard, yellow, brittle solid.
2. Its melting point is 119.2 oC
3. It is tasteless and odourless.
4. It is insoluble in water, liberally soluble in alcohol and ether and easily soluble in carbon
disulphide and carbon tetrachloride.
5. It is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
6. A lump of sulphur when rubbed against dry hand or against wool becomes electro
statically charged and attracts scraps of paper.

11. State the physical properties and uses of hydrogen Sulphide.

Ans. The physical properties hydrogen Sulphide are as follows_


1. It is colourless gas.
2. It has an odour of rotten egg.
3. It is heavier than air and moderately soluble in water.
The uses of hydrogen Sulphide are as follows.
1. It is used as a laboratory reagent to detect the basic radicals of the salts.
2. It is used as a reducing agent.

12. Explain the bleaching action of sulphur dioxide. (T.B)

Ans. When Sulphur dioxide id dissolved in water produces sulphuric acid and nascent
hydrogen. Nascent hydrogen bleaches colouring matter. Thus, sulphur dioxide acts as a
bleaching agent.
SO2 + H2O H2SO3 (Sulphuric acid)
H2SO3 + H2O H2SO4 + 2H (Nascent)
Colouring matter + 2H (Nascent) Colourless matter.

13. Give the physical properties of Sulphur dioxide.

Ans. The physical properties of sulphur dioxide are as follows.


1. It is a colourless gas.
2. It has a strong suffocating odour.
3. It is fairly soluble in water but escapes on warming the solution.
4. It is poisonous and harmful to plants.
5. At ordinary temperature it can be liquefied at a pressure of three atmosphere.

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6. It is about 2.2 times as heavy as air.

14. Give the uses of Sulphur dioxide.

Ans. The uses of sulphur dioxide are as follows.


1. It is used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
2. It is used for bleaching sugar, synthetic fibres etc.
3. It is used in the manufacture of compounds like calcium bisulphate, which is useful in
paper industry.
4. Liquid sulphur dioxide is used in purifying petroleum and as a solvent.
5. It is used as a disinfectant.
6. It is used as a preservative for dried fruits.
7. It is used in household refrigerators.

15. Sulphur is used in explosive

Ans. Sulphur forms an explosive mixture with potassium chlorate. It detonates when heated
or struck. Hence, sulphur is used in explosives.

16. The effect of heat on sulphur is reversible.

Ans.
1. Rhombic sulphur is the most stable form of sulphur.
2. When it is heated, gradually different structural changes take place.
3. The changes occur in the reverse order when boiling sulphur is cooled.
Hence, the effect of heat on sulphur is reversible.

17. A moistened coloured flower turns colourless in a jar containing sulphur dioxide.
OR. Explain the bleaching action of sulphur dioxide on flowers.
Ans.
1. When a coloured flower is introduced in a gas jar containing sulphur dioxide, the gas
reacts with water present in the flower itself producing nascent hydrogen.
2. This hydrogen reduces the colouring matter in the flower to colourless substances.
Hence, the flower losses its colour in the gas jar.

18. Sulphur dioxide is used for bleaching woolen and silk garments.

Ans. Sulphur dioxide is a mild bleaching agent.


1. Sulphur dioxide reacts with water producing nascent hydrogen.
2. Nascent hydrogen reduces the colouring matter.
3. This bleaching action is a mild action.
4. As wool and silk fibres are synthetic fibres and are quite delicate, stronger reducing agents
like chlorine affects the strength of the fibres and make it weak.
Hence, for their bleaching sulphur dioxide is used.

19. Sulphur dioxide gas is used extensively in textile and paper industries.

Ans. Sulphur dioxide is a mild bleaching agent.


1. Sulphur dioxide reacts with water producing nascent hydrogen.
2. Nascent hydrogen reduces the colouring matter.

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3. This bleaching action is a mild action.
4. In textile and paper industries sulphur dioxide is used to decolourise the fabric and paper
pulp, respectively. Hence, sulphur dioxide is used extensively in textile and paper
industries.

20. Sulphur dioxide is used in sugar industry.

Ans. Sulphur dioxide is a mild bleaching agent.


1. Sulphur dioxide reacts with water producing nascent hydrogen.
2. Nascent hydrogen reduces the colouring matter.
3. This bleaching action is a mild action.
4. Moreover, it is not so poisonous like chlorine, which is also a bleaching agent.
5. For bleaching sugar extract, a mild and harmless bleaching agent is required.
Hence, sulphur dioxide is used to bleach sugar solution in sugar industry.

21. Acidified potassium permanganate solution becomes colourless when sulphur


dioxide is passed through it.
Ans.
1. Sulphur dioxide is a reducing agent.
2. Potassium permanganate is violet in colour.
3. When sulphur dioxide is passed through an acidified solution of potassium permanganate,
the latter is reduced to colourless potassium sulphate and colourless manganese sulphate.
Hence, the solution becomes colourless.

22. Acidified potassium dichromate solution turns green when sulphur dioxide is
passed through it.
Ans.
1. Sulphur dioxide is a reducing agent.
2. Potassium dichromate is orange in colour.
3. When sulphur dioxide is passed through an acidified solution of potassium dichromate,
the latter is reduced to colourless potassium sulphate and green chromium sulphate.
Hence, the solution turns green.

III. Preparation of gases.

1. In the preparation of hydrogen Sulphide gas in the laboratory. (T.B)

i. State the chemical used.


ii. Give balanced chemical equation for the preparation.
iii. Name the methods of collection of gas.
Ans.
1. Iron Sulphide and dilute sulphuric acid or dilute hydrochloric acid are the chemicals used.
2. FeS + H2SO4 FeSO4 + H2S
FeS + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2S

3. Hydrogen Sulphide is collected by upward displacement of air.

2. In the preparation of sulphur dioxide gas


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i. State the chemicals used.


ii. Give Balanced Chemical equations.
iii. State the method of collection.
Ans.
1. Copper turnings and concentrated sulphuric acid are the chemicals used.
2. Cu + 2 H2SO4 heat CuSO4 + 2H2O SO2
3. Sulphur dioxide is collected by
Upward displacement of air.

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IV. Distinguish between

1. Rhombic sulphur and Monoclinic sulphur.

Rhombic sulphur Monoclinic Sulphur


1. The crystals of rhombic sulphur are 1. The crystals of monoclinic sulphur are
rhombic. monoclinic or needle shaped.
2. It is the most stable allotrope of sulphur at 2. It is stable only above 95.50C
normal temperature.
3. It is opaque. 3. It is transparent.
4. It is converted into monoclinic sulphur 4. It is converted into rhombic sulphur when
when heated above 95.50C cooled below 95.50C.

2. Rhombic sulphur and Plastic Sulphur.

Rhombic sulphur Plastic sulphur


1. Rhombic sulphur is a crystalline allotrope 1. Plastic sulphur is an amorphous allotrope
of sulphur. of sulphur.
2. The crystals of rhombic sulphur are 2. Plastic sulphur has no specific shape.
rhombic.
3. It is not plastic. It is brittle. 3. It is plastic and sticky.
4. It is pale yellow. 4. It is brown – Black.
5. It is the most stable allotrope of sulphur. 5. It is unstable and at room temperature, it is
slowly converted into rhombic sulphur.
6. It is soluble in carbon disulphide. 6. It is insoluble in carbon disulphide.

3. Monoclinic sulphur and Plastic sulphur.

Monoclinic sulphur Plastic sulphur


1. Monoclinic sulphur is a crystalline 1. Plastic sulphur is an amorphous allotrope
allotrope of sulphur. of sulphur.
2. The crystals of monoclinic sulphur are 2. Plastic sulphur has no specific shape.
needle – shaped.
3. It is not plastic. It is brittle. 3. It is plastic.
4. It is pale yellow. 4. It is brown – black.
5. It is soluble in carbon disulphide. 5. It is insoluble in carbon disulphide.
6. It is stable only above 95.50C 6. It is slowly converted into rhombic sulphur
at a normal temperature.

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METAL AND NON METAL I. Define

1. Metal: - The element which can form positive ions by the loss of electrons is called metal.
Iron and copper are metals.
2. Non metals: - The element which can form negative ions by the gain of electrons is called
non-metal. Phosphorus and sulphur are non-metals.
3. Metalloid: - The element, which shows the properties of metals as well as those of non-
metals, is called a metalloid. Silicon, germanium are metalloids.
4. Mineral: - The natural material in the earth in which a metal or its compounds occur is
Called mineral.
5. Ore: - The mineral from which a metal may be extracted profitably is called an ore.
6. Gangue: - The unwanted material present in an ore is called Gangue.
7. Reduction: - The process of obtaining a metal from its oxide is called reduction.
8. Refining: - The purification of a metal is called refining. In this process, the impurities
present in the metal are removed.
9. Metallurgy:- The process of extraction of metals from their ores and refining them is
called metallurgy.

II. Give Reasons:-

1. All ores are minerals, but all minerals are not ores. Explain
Ans.
1. The natural material in the earth in which metal or its compounds occur is called mineral.
2. The mineral from which a metal may be extracted profitably is called an ore.
Hence, all ores are minerals, but all minerals are not ores.

2. German silver is used in making heaters and resistors.


Ans. German silver is used in making heaters and resistors because
1. It is an alloy of 50% copper, 25% nickel and 25% Zinc.
2. Due to this combination the alloy has high electrical resistance.

3. Metals are good conductors while non – metals are bad conductors of electricity.
OR
Metals are good conductors of electricity.
Ans.
1. The electrons in the outermost orbit of the atoms are free to move thought the metal.
2. In the case of a metal wire, these electrons move from one end to the other end of the
wire.
3. When the potential difference is applied on one end of the metal wire the movement of the
electrons constitute electric current.
4. Hence, metals are good conductors of electricity.
5. Non – metals do not possess such free electrons. Hence, non – metals are poor conductors
of electricity.

4. Metals are good reducing agents.

Ans.
1. When an element losses electrons, it acts as a reducing agent.
2. The atoms of metals have less than four electrons in their outermost orbit.
3. They can form positive ions by losing these electrons.
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Hence, metals are good reducing agents.

5. Non – metals are good oxidising agents.


Ans.
1. When an element gains electrons, it acts as an oxidising agent.
2. The atoms of non – metals have more than four electrons in their outermost orbit.
3. They can form negative ions by gaining these electrons.
Hence, non – metals are good oxidising agents.

6. Calcium is more reactive than aluminium


Ans.
1. Reactivity of a metal depends on number of electrons in their outermost orbit.
2. Less the number of electrons, more is the reactivity.
3. Calcium has two electrons in the outermost orbit, while aluminium has three electrons in
the outermost orbit.
Hence, calcium is more reactive than aluminium.

7. Sodium is more reactive than aluminium.


Ans.
1. Reactivity of a metal depends on number of electrons in the outermost orbit.
2. Less the number of electrons, more is the reactivity.
3. Sodium has one electron in the outermost orbit, while aluminium has three electrons in
the
outermost orbit. Hence, Sodium is more reactive than aluminium.

8. Chlorine is more reactive than phosphorus.


Ans.
1. Reactivity of non metals depends on number of electrons in the outer most orbit.
2. More the number of electrons, more is the reactivity.
3. Chlorine has seven electrons in the outermost orbit, while phosphorus has five electrons in
the outermost orbit. Hence, chlorine is more reactive than phosphorus.

9. Metals are malleable and ductile.


Ans.
1. Metals occur in the solid state.
2. The atoms of metals have an ability to cling together.
3. They have high tensile strength and has the ability to withstand high force and pressure.
Hence, metals are malleable and ductile.

10. Duralumin and Magnalium are used to make aircrafts.


Ans.
1. Duralumin and Magnalium are light and strong.
2. They resist corrosion and have load bearing strength.
Hence, Duralumin and Magnalium are used to make aircrafts.

11. The graphite rods used in the electrolytic extraction of aluminium need frequent
replacement.
Ans.

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1. In the electrolytic extraction of aluminium from alumina, graphite rods are used as the
anode. At the anode, oxygen is liberated during the electrolysis.

2. The oxygen reacts with the graphite rods and forms carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Thus, the graphite rods are continuously eroded. Hence, the graphite rods need frequent
replacement.

12. Duralumin and Magnalium are used to prepare parts of aircrafts.


Ans.
1. Duralumin and Magnalium are light in weight, but are strong.
2. They have high load bearing strength. Hence, duralumin and Magnalium are used to
prepare parts of aircraft.

III. Answer the following in short.

1. Write the main ore of iron, aluminium and copper


Ans.
Iron
1. Haematite (Fe2O3) 2. Limonite (2Fe2O3. 3H2O)
3. Magnetite (Fe3O4) 4. Iron Pyrites (FeS2)

Aluminium
1. Bauxite (Al2O3. 2H2O) 2. Cryolite (Na3AlF6)
3. Feldspar (KAlSi3O8)

Copper
1. Cuprite (Al2O3. 2H2O) 2. Copper Pyrites (CuFeS2)
3. Copper glance or Chalcosite (Cu2S)

2. How is blister copper purified?


Ans.
1. Blister copper is purified by electrolytically.
2. In this process pure copper plate is a cathode and impure copper is used as an anode.
3. Acidified copper sulphate solution is used as an electrolyte.
4. Impurities from anode plate go in to solution.
5. Pure copper deposits on cathode plat. The impurities settle down.

3. What is tempering of steel?


Ans. The desired degree of hardness and electricity can be obtained by heating it to a
particular temperature and then cooling it in different ways. This operation is known as
tempering of steel.

4. Give the stages in the extraction of copper from copper ore. (T.B)
Ans. The extraction of copper from the copper ore consists of following stages.
1. Concentration
2. Roasting
3. Melting
4. Purification
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5. What is copper matte?


Ans. The mixture of mainly cuprous Sulphide with a small of ferrous Sulphide obtained
from the smelting of copper ore is called copper matte.

6. What are the different methods used for removing gangue from ores? OR
Write the four methods of concentration of ores.
Ans. The four methods used for removing gangue from ores are_
1. Washing 2. Froth floatation 3. Magnetic separation 4. Chemical separation.

IV. Write short notes on

1. Steel: - The alloy of iron containing about 0.02 – 1.5 % carbon is called steel. Steel is
malleable and has high tensile strength. It melts between 12000 – 15000 C. It can be welded.
Types of steels
Mild steel, Structural steel and tool steel are the different types of steel.
Uses of steels
Mild steel is used to prepare chains, anchors, wires, etc.
Structural steel is used to for the construction of bridges, buildings, etc.
Tool steel is used for making cutting tools, razor blades, springs, etc.

2. Iron alloy: - Iron alloys are as follows.

1. Stainless steel:-
Composition: It is an alloy of iron, which contains 73% iron, 18% chromium, 1% carbon
and 8% nickel.
Properties: It has typical luster and it resists corrosion.
Uses: It is used to make cutlery, utensils, tools, dairy equipment, cycle, and automobile
parts.

2. Tungsten Steel:-
Composition: It is an alloy of iron, which contains 94%iron, 5% tungsten and 1% carbon.
Properties: It is hard.
Uses: It is used to prepare high-speed cutting tools.

3. Manganese steel:-
Composition: It is an alloy of iron containing a considerable amount of manganese.
Properties: It is very hard
Uses: it is used to prepare rock drills.

4. Chrome steel:-
Composition: It is an alloy of iron containing chromium.
Properties. It is hard and tough.
Uses: It is used to prepare ball bearings, roller bearings, spares of automobiles and head of
rock drillers.

3. Aluminium alloys: Aluminium alloys are as follows.

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1. Duralumin:-
Composition: Duralumin contains about 95% aluminium, 4% copper, 1% magnesium and
manganese.
Properties: It is light and strong. It is shock resistant and fatigue resistance.
Uses: It is used to prepare bodies and parts of aircraft, buses and tube trains. It is used to
prepare castings and kitchenwares.

2. Magnalium:
Composition: Magnalium contains 90% aluminium and 10% magnesium.
Properties: It is light, strong and corrosion resistant.
Uses: It is used to prepare beams of scientific balances, household appliances and parts of
aircraft.

3. Aluminium bronze:

Composition: Aluminium bronze contains about 88 – 96.1 % copper and 10.5 – 2.3%
aluminium. It also contains minute quantities of iron and tin.
Properties: It is hard, shock resistant and resistant to many chemicals and seawater.
Uses: It is used as a pigment in paints and inks.

4. Alnico alloy:
Composition: Alnico alloy contains mainly aluminium, nickel and cobalt.
Properties: It is a magnetic alloy
Uses: It is used to prepare permanent magnets.

V. Distinguish between:

1. Reducing agent and Oxidizing agent.

Reducing Agent Oxidizing Agent


1. The substance that gives electrons is called 1. The substance that accepts electrons is
a reducing agent. called an oxidizing agent.
2. Metals are reducing agents. 2. Non - metals are oxidizing agents.

2. Cast iron (pig iron) and Soft iron (Wrought iron)

Cast iron (pig iron) Soft iron(Wrought iron)


1. The iron obtained directly from the blast 1. The iron obtained by removing impurities
furnace is called cast iron. like carbon, sulphur, silicon and phosphorus
2. It contains 0.5 – 4.2 % carbon. is called soft iron.
3. It is brittle. 2. It contains negligible amount of carbon.
3. It is not brittle.

3. Cast iron (pig iron) and Steel.

Cast Iron (Pig iron) Steel


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1. The iron obtained from the blast furnace is 1. Steel is an alloy of iron containing
called cast iron requisite amount of carbon.
2. It contains. 0.5 – 4.2 % carbon. 2. It contains 0.02 – 1.5% carbon.
3. It is brittle. 3. It is not brittle. It has high tensile strength.

4. Soft iron (Wrought iron) and Steel

Soft iron (Wrought iron) Steel.


1. The iron obtained by removing impurities 1. Steel is an alloy of iron containing
like carbon, sulphur, silicon and phosphorus requisite amount of carbon.
is called soft iron. 2. It contains 0.02 – 1.5% carbon.
2. It contains negligible amount of carbon.

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CARBON AND CARBON COMPOUNDS Define:

1. Carbon Compounds: - The Compounds Containing Covalently bonded carbon atoms


are collectively called carbon Compounds or organic Compounds.
2. Catenation: - The Property of direct bonding between atoms of the same element to
form chains is called Catenation.
3. Alkynes: - The Hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds are called
alkynes.
4. Polymerisation: - A reaction in which many molecules of the reactant combine
together to form a large molecule of the product is called Polymerisation.
5. Petroleum: - The dark coloured viscous liquid, which is found deep in the earth’s
crust in porous rocks is called Petroleum.
6. Hydrocarbons: - The compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only are called
Hydrocarbons.
7. Natural Gas: - The gas which occurs along with petroleum in porous rocks deep in
the earth’s crust is called natural gas.
8. Alkenes or olefins: - The hydrocarbons that contains carbon-carbon double bonds are
called alkenes or olefins.
9. Petrochemical:-The Products that are derived from petroleum and natural gas are
called Petrochemical. Ex. Phenol and acetic anhydride.
10. Aliphatic Hydro Carbons: - The Hydro Carbons which have open chain of carbon
atoms are called Aliphatic Hydro Carbons.

Answer the Following in short

1. What are the chief Constituents of Petroleum?


A. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with small quantities of many other
active organic compounds that are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and
traces of metallic elements.

2. Write a note on Petrochemicals?


a. The Products that are derived from Petroleum and natural gas are called
Petrochemicals, phenols and acetic anhydrides are Petrochemicals.
b. About 95% of total organic chemical products are manufactured from petroleum and
natural gas.
c. A large number of useful products such plastics, synthetic rubbers, fibres, fertilizers,
detergents, solvent etc. are manufactured from petrochemicals.

3. Give four Characteristic of Organic Compounds?


The following are then characteristics of organic Compounds.
1. Organic Compounds are generally found in plants and animals.
2. They have low melting and boiling points.
3. They are generally insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents.
4. They decompose on strong heating.
5. They have non ionic character and are covalently bond.

Give Industrial Importance of:


1. Methane (CH4)
a. Methane is an excellent fuel for domestic cooking.
b. It is used for making illuminant.
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c. It is used as fuel for power plants.
d. It is used it prepare hydrogen.
e. It is used prepare various organic compounds.
2. Methanol (CH3OH)
a. It is used as fuel in spirit lamps.
b. It is used as solvent for wood polish.
c. It is used as solvent for paints and Varnishes.
d. It is used in the Preparation of perfumes and synthetic fibres.

3. Ethylene (C2H4)
a. It is used to prepare plastics, fibres, bags, plastic cloth, pipes, cables cans, water cans,
etc.
b. It is used to prepare various organic compounds.
c. It is used for producing oxy-ethylene flame, which is used for cutting and welding of
metals.
d. It is used for artificial ripening of fruits.

4. Freon (CF2CL2)
a. It is used as a chemical refrigerant.
b. It is used to prepare aerosols, such as insecticide aerosols.

5. Acetaldehyde
a. It is used in the manufacture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride.
b. It is used to prepare chloral, which is used to manufacture insecticide DDT.
c. It is used to prepare chloroform, Easters, alcohol’s, etc.

6. Acetic acid
a. Acetic acid is used to prepare acetates, Ex. Vinyl acetate.
b. It is used to prepare cellulose acetate, which is used as a fibres or plastic.
c. It is used as a solvent.
d. The dilute solution (4%) of acetic is known as vinegar which is used as preservative in
ketchup, sauce, pickles and other products.

Distinguish between

1. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons


1. They are open chain compounds. 1. They are closed chain compounds.
2. They are odour less. 2. They have a peculiar odour.
3. They burn with non-sooty flame. 3. They burn with sooty flame.
Eg. Ethane. Eg. Benzene

2. open chain Closed chain


1. The chain of carbon atoms, which is 1. The chain of carbon atoms, which is
straight, is called open chain. cyclic related to benzene, is called
closed chain.
2. All aliphatic Hydrocarbons contain 2. All aromatic Hydrocarbons contain
open chain. closed chain.

3. Saturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated Hydrocarbons


1. All four valencies of carbons atoms 1. The Valencies of carbon atoms are
are satisfied by single covalent bond. unsatisfied.
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2. All four bonds are single covalent 2. They have Carbon-carbon double
bond. bonds or triple bonds.
3. They are less reactive. 3. They are more reactive.
4. Substitution reaction is a 4. Addition reaction is a characteristic
characteristic property. Property.

4. Alkanes Alkenes
1. All bonds are single covalent bonds 1. They have carbon – carbon double
bonds
2. They have general formula CnH2n+2 2. They have general formula CnH2n

5 Alkanes Alkynes
1. All bonds are single covalent bonds 1. They have carbon – carbon triple bonds.
2. They have general formula CnH2n – 2
2. They have general formula CnH2n+2

6 Alkenes Alkynes
1. They have carbon – carbon double 1. They have carbon – carbon triple bonds.
bonds 2. They have general formula CnH2n – 2
2. They have general formula CnH2n

Answer the following in briefly

1. What are hydrocarbons? Explain the classification of organic compounds. (T.B)


Ans. Hydrocarbons: The compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon are called
hydrocarbons.
1. They are mainly of two types: Aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons.
2. All aliphatic compounds are open chain compounds while aromatic compounds are cyclic
compounds related to benzene.
3. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are further classified into saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
4. A hydrocarbons which contain double or triple bond are known as unsaturated
hydrocarbons.
5. Unsaturated hydrocarbons can be alkenes containing double bonds like ethylene (C2H2).

Give scientific reasons

1. Carbon atoms are capable of forming an almost unlimited number of compounds.


Ans.
1. The atom of carbon has 4 electrons in its valence shell.
2. Carbon can share these 4 valence electrons with elements like hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus, etc.
3. But in addition carbon atoms possess an unusual capability of bonding to other carbon
atoms.
4. Two or more can share some of their valence electrons.
Hence, carbon atoms are capable of forming an almost unlimited number of
compounds.

2. Methane is responsible for the ‘green house effect’


Ans. The trapping of the heat radiated from the earth is called ‘ green house effect’
2. Methane has capacity to trap the heat.
3. It traps 20 times the heat trapped by the molecule of CO2.
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Hence, Methane is responsible for the ‘green house effect’

3. Methane is called Marsh gas.


Ans.
1. Methane is found in marshy areas.
2. Methane is formed due to decomposition of plant and animal matter in stagnant water.
Hence, methane is called marsh gas.

4. Ethylene undergoes addition reaction (T.B)


Ans.
1. Ethylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
2. It is deficient in hydrogen and has a carbon – carbon double bond.
Hence, ethylene undergoes addition reaction.

5. Aromatic hydrocarbons burn with a sooty flame.


Ans. Aromatic hydrocarbons burn with a sooty flame because
1. It has hydrogen atoms less than the carbon atoms.
2. They undergo incomplete oxidation during combustion.
3. As a result, carbon particles are set free in the form of soot.

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STUDY OF SOME COMPOUNDS Define:
1. Efflorescence: - The Phenomenon of giving up water of crystallisation is called efflorescence.

2. Burnt Alum: - When alum is heated, it melts at 92 c. on further heating; water of crystallisation
evaporates and swells. The swollen mass is called burnt alum.

Give scientific reasons:


1. Carbon dioxide is acidic.

a. Carbon dioxide is an oxide of carbon, which is a non-metal.


b. When Carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid.
c. Carbonic acid turns blue litmus red.
d. It reacts with alkalies forming corresponding carbonate and bicarbonate salts hence, carbon
dioxide is acidic.

2. A magnesium ribbon continues to burn brilliantly in a gas jar containing carbon dioxide.

a. Magnesium is a strong reducing agent.


b. When the burning magnesium ribbon introduced in a gas jar containing carbon dioxide,
magnesium reduces carbon dioxide to carbon.
c. This reaction is exothermic. hence, a magnesium ribbon continues to burn brilliantly in a gas
jar containing carbon dioxide.
2mg + CO2 heat 2MgO + C

3. Baking powder is used in the preparation of Bread and Cakes.

a. Baking powder contains Sodium bicarbonate and acid.


b. In this reaction between sodium bicarbonate and acid, carbon dioxide gas is produced.
c. Because of this, breads and cakes rise and become soft and fluffy. Hence, baking powder is
used in the preparation of bread and cakes.

4. Carbon dioxide is used as a fire Extinguisher.

a. Carbon dioxide is not combustible and does not support combustion.


b. It is non-poisonous and heavier than air.
c. When it is blown on burning object, it covers the object and separates it from air thus, the fire
is extinguished. Hence, carbon dioxide is used as a fire extinguisher.

5. We get a typical, strong odour at public urinals and cattle sheds.

a. The urine of human beings and animal contains many nitrogenous compounds.
b. The Bacterial decomposition of these nitrogenous compounds produces ammonia.
c. Ammonia has a strong, pungent and irritating odour. Hence, we get a typical odour.

6. Bordeaux mixture is spread on fruit trees.

a. Bordeaux mixture contains copper sulphate.


b. Copper Sulphate is a pesticide and insecticide.
c. It kills the harmful insects and pests on fruit trees.
Hence, Bordeaux mixture is spread on fruit trees

7. Ferrous sulphate crystals are light green, but anhydrous ferrous sulphate is white.

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a. Due to the presence of water of crystallisation, ferrous sulphate crystals are green in
colour.
b. Anhydrous ferrous sulphate does not contain water of crystallisation. Hence anhydrous
ferrous sulphate is white
8. Copper sulphate crystals on heating turn to a white powder.

a. Due to the presence of water of crystallisation, copper sulphate crystals are blue in
colour.
b. But when it is heated, the water crystallisation is given out forming anhydrous copper
sulphate, which is white amorphous powder. Hence, Copper sulphate crystals on
heating turn to a white powder

9. Alum is used to arrest or stop bleeding

a. Blood is a colloidal solution.


b. Alum is used as a co-agulant
c. When alum comes in contact with blood, all the colloidal particles settle down
and blood clot it formed. Hence, alum is used to arrest bleeding.

10. When carbon dioxide is passes through lime water, it first turns milky and then
turns colourless.

a. When carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, first white insoluble calcium
carbonate is formed, hence lime water turns milky.

II. Questions and Answers

1. Where does CO2 occur in nature?


Ans. Carbon dioxide occurs in atmospheric air, in caves and in some mineral springs.

2. through which reaction CO2 released in the atmosphere.


Ans. Carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere through combustion, respiration and
fermentation.

3. Write four sources of carbon dioxide.


Ans. Sources of carbon dioxide_
1. Carbon dioxide is present in air, in caves and some mineral springs.
2. It is produced in combustion.
3. It is produced in respiration and fermentation.
4. It is present in carbonates like calcium carbonate.

4. How is CO2 collected in the laboratory and why?


How is carbon dioxide gas collected? (March 98, 99, October 99, 2000)
Ans. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air. Hence, it is collected in a gas jar buy the upward
displacement in air.

5. How is ammonia gas collected?


Ans. Ammonia gas is lighter than air. Hence, it is collected in a gas jar by the downward
displacement of air.

6. How is ammonia gas dried?


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Ans. Ammonia gas is dried by passing it through a lime tower (CaO).

7. What is dry ice? How is it prepared? What are all its uses?
Ans. Solid carbon dioxide is called dry ice.
Preparation: It is prepared by applying pressure on carbon dioxide.
Uses : Dry ice is used as a coolant in storage and transport of articles of food.
8. What properties of carbon dioxide are used in a fire extinguisher? Write a balanced
Chemical equations.
Ans. The following properties of carbon dioxide are used in a fire extinguisher_
1. It is not combustible.
2. It does not support combustion.
3. It is heavier than air.
Balanced chemical equation_
NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + H2O + CO2

9. What is photosynthesis?
Ans. The synthesis of carbohydrates in green plants from the carbon dioxide in air and water
in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight is called photosynthesis.

10. Give a test to identify the presence of ammonia.


Ans. Moist turmeric paper turns red in the presence of ammonia.

11. Give a test to identify the presence of carbon dioxide.


Ans. Fresh lime water turns milky in the presence of carbon dioxide.

12. Give the physical properties of carbon dioxide.


Ans. Physical properties of carbon dioxide are_
1. Carbon dioxide is colourless and odourless gas.
2. It is heavier than air.
3. It is fairly soluble in water and more soluble in water under pressure.
4. It can be liquefied and solidified.

13. Give the chemical properties of carbon dioxide.


Ans. The chemical properties of carbon dioxide are _
1. Carbon dioxide is acidic in nature. It dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.
2. It reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium carbonate.
3. It reacts with excess of lime water and makes it milky.
4. It reacts with red hot coke to form carbon monoxide.

14. Give the uses of carbon dioxide.


Ans. The uses of carbon dioxide are:
1. It is used in the manufacture of washing soda and baking soda.
2. It is used in the manufacture of aerated waters.
3. It is used as a fire extinguisher.
4. It is used in the form of solid carbon dioxide as a coolant for storage and transport of
articles of food.

15. Give the physical properties of ammonia.


Ans. The physical properties of ammonia are as follows.
1. It is a colour less gas.
2. It has a sharp, pungent and irritating odour.

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3. It is lighter than air.
4. It is highly soluble in water ( ammonia fountain)
5. It can be easily liquefied by cooling and compressing.

16. Give the chemical properties of Ammonia.


Ans. The chemical properties of ammonia are
1. Ammonia gas is basic in nature.
2. It freely dissolved in water and forms alkali, NH4 OH.
3. It burns in the atmosphere of oxygen, with a yellow flame.
4. It combines with oxygen in the presence of catalyst to form nitric oxide.
5. It combines with HCl to form ammonium chloride.
6. It reacts with acids to form ammonium salts.

17. Give the uses of ammonia.


Ans. The uses of ammonia are:
1. It is used in the manufacturing of washing soda, sodium bicarbonate, nitric acid, etc.
2. It is used in the manufacture of fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, urea etc.
3. It is used as a refrigerant in the manufacture of ice.
4. Solution of ammonia water is used as a laboratory reagent.
5. Liquid ammonia is used as a solvent.
6. Ammonia is used in medicine.

18. Give the properties and used of baking soda ( Sodium bicarbonate)
Ans. Properties of baking soda:
1. It is white amorphous powder.
2. It is soluble in water
Uses of Baking soda:
1. It is used in the preparation of baking powder, which is used in bread and cakes.
2. It is used in the fire extinguisher.

19. Give the properties and used of washing soda ( Sodium Carbonate)

Ans. Properties of washing soda.


1. It is white crystalline substance.
2. It is soluble is water.
3. When it is heated, it loses its water of crystallisation and forms a white amorphous
powder.
4. It is alkaline.
Uses of Washing soda:
1. It is used as a cleansing agent for domestic purposes.
2. It is used for softening water.
3. It is used in the manufacture of many useful chemicals like borax, caustic soda, glass and
water glass.
4. It is used as a constituent of washing soaps and soap powder.

20. Give the properties and uses of limestone (Calcium carbonate)

Ans. Properties of limestone:


1. It is white amorphous solid.
2. It is insoluble in water.
Uses of Limestone:

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1. It is used in the manufacture of lime, cement, glass and washing soda.
2. It is used in metallurgical operations.
3. It is used in the form of marble in the construction of building, floorings and in carving
sculptures.
4. It is used in the preparation of carbon dioxide in the laboratories.
5. It is used in the form of precipitated chalk in paints, tooth powder and toothpastes.

21. Give the properties and used of green vitriol (Ferrous sulphate)

Ans. Properties of green vitriol:


1. It is light green crystalline compound.
2. Anhydrous ferrous sulphate is white.
3. It is efflorescent.
Uses of green vitriol:

1. It is used as a mordant in dyeing.


2. It is used as an insecticide in agriculture.
3. It is used in the laboratory as reducing agent.
4. It is used in preparing ink.
5. It is used in tanning.

22. Give the properties and uses of blue vitriol (copper sulphate)
Ans.
Properties of blue vitriol:
1. Copper sulphate is blue crystalline substance.
2. It is poisonous.
3. It is soluble in water.
Uses of blue vitriol:
1. It is used as an insecticide and pesticide.
2. It is used in electrolytic refining of copper and electroplating.
3. It is used as a mordant.
4. Its solution is used in Daniel cell.
5. It is used for the preparation of compounds of copper.
6. It is a constituent of the reagent of Fehling’s solution of Benedict’s solution. Which is
used to determine percentage of glucose in the urine or a diabetic person.

23. Give the properties and uses of alum.


Ans.
Properties of Alum:
1. It is double salt made up of potassium sulphate and aluminium sulphate.
2. It is crystalline solid having an astringent taste.
3. It is soluble in water. Its solution in water is acidic.
Uses of Alum:
1. It is used as a mordant in tanning industry.
2. It is used in medicine.
3. It is used in paper industry for sizing the paper.
4. It is used to arrest bleeding.
5. It is used in the purification of drinking water by removing suspended particles.

24. Give the properties and uses of plaster or Paris.

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Ans. Properties of plaster of paris.
1. It has a peculiar property of hardening when mixed with proper quantity of water.
2. As it hardens it expands slightly.
Uses of Plaster of Paris.
1. It is used in laboratories for sealing the gaps, where airtight arrangements is required.
2. It is used for making casts for statues.
3. It is used in case of bone – fractures to maintain bones in a fixed position.

25. Give the used of bleaching powder.

Ans. Uses of bleaching powder are


1. It is used for bleaching clothes.
2. It is used in paper and textile industries.
3. It is used for disinfecting water.

26. Explain the phenomenon of efflorescence with example.


1. When sodium carbonate (washing soda) is heated or exposed to air lose water and turn
into white amorphous powder. Such an action that is giving of water of crystallisation is
termed as efflorescence.

27. Explain why marble tiles are not used in kitchen.


Ans. Marble is form of calcium carbonate. Acidic substance like lemon juice, tamarind,
buttermilk, etc. are used in a kitchen can react with marble tiles. Due to this reaction the
marble tiles gat eroded and spoiled. Therefore, marble tiles are not used in kitchen.

28. Write the scientific name and the molecular formula of alum.
Ans. Scientific name : Potassium aluminium sulphate
Molecular formula: K2SO4. Al2(SO4).24H2O

29. Write the scientific name and the molecular formula of plaster of paris.
Ans. Scientific name : Calcium sulphate anhydride
Molecular Formula: (CaSO4). H2O

30. Write short note of bleaching powder. (TB)


Ans. Bleaching power is prepared by passing chlorine over slaked lime. When exposed to
air, it gives off chlorine. It is commonly used for bleaching clothes, in paper and textile
industries and also for disinfecting water.

Answer the following briefly.

1. How is carbon dioxide is prepared in the laboratory? (TB)


Ans.
1. Carbon dioxide is prepared in the laboratory by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on
calcium carbonate.
2. Calcium carbonate in the form of marble chips is introduced in a flat-bottomed flask.
3. The flask is fitted with a thistle funnel and a delivery tube.
4. Water is poured through the funnel until it covers the chalk.
5. Then concentrated hydrochloric acid is added until carbon dioxide evolved steadily.

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6. The gas is allowed to escape for a while, as it is the air from the apparatus displaced by
carbon dioxide.
7. The gas is collected in the jar by the upward displacement of air.

CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

2. Give the method of preparation of ammonia. (TB)


Ans.
1. A mixture of ammonium chloride and slaked lime in the ratio 3:2 is introduced in a test
Tube.
2. A cork with a delivery tube is fixed to the test tube.
3. The delivery tube is attached to the lower end of a quick lime tower.
4. The test tube is heater. After some time ammonia, gas comes out through the delivery tube
and passes through the lime tower, where it is dried.
5. As the gas is lighter than air the gas jar is inverted over the delivery tube of the lime tower
and the gas is collected by downward displacement of air.

2NH4Cl + Ca (OH) 2 CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3

3. Draw a neat and labeled diagram


a. Ammonia fountain b. fire extinguisher. .

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HYGIENE I. Define
1. Hygiene: - Hygiene is the science of maintaining good health. Sanitary habits practiced
by an individual lead to healthy life. It should be observed at personal and community
level.
2. Prophylaxis: - Prophylaxis means preventive treatment of diseases. It includes
observances of rules that are necessary for the prevention of a disease.
For eg. During epidemics of cholera and typhoid, immunization is done to prevent the
spread of disease. Therefore, immunization is a prophylactic measure.
3. Immunization: The process of making immune from a disease by injecting disease
causing germs or their poisons is called immunization.
4. Narcotic drugs: The drugs that produce stupor or sleep are called narcotic drugs.
For eg. Morphine, L.S.D (Lysergic acid diethylamide) are narcotic drugs.

II. Give scientific reasons:

1. Addictives are harmful to the human beings (TB)

Ans. Addictives are harmful to the human beings because


1. Tobacco causes bronchitis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and increases the chances of heart
diseases and lung cancer.
2. Tobacco smoking or chewing leads to oral cancer.
3. Alcohol affects the nervous systems and it causes cirrhosis in the liver.
4. Narcotic drugs are hazardous to health.

2. Immunization is done during childhood.


Ans.
1. During childhood, a child is likely to suffer from diseases like diphtheria, whooping,
cough, tetanus, polio tuberculosis and measles.
2. These diseases can be prevented by immunizing a child.
3. Therefore, immunization is done during childhood to protect the children from the above
mentioned diseases.

3. Water hyacinth should be planted in the water, which contains effluents.


Ans.
1. Factory effluents which contain a number of chemical pollutants are released in water.
2. Water hyacinth which grows in water has the capacity to absorb the chemical pollutants.
3. Therefore, water hyacinth should be planted in water which contains factory effluents.

5. One should hold a handkerchief to cover the nose and mouth during sneezing and
coughing.
Ans.
1. Holding a handkerchief to cover the nose and mouth prevents the spread of a
communicable disease.
2. Therefore, one should hold a handkerchief to cover the nose and mouth during sneezing
and coughing.

6. One should avoid uncovered roadside eatables.


Ans.
1. Road side eatables may be contaminated by flies, dust and microbes.
2. Therefore, one should avoid uncovered roadside eatables.

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7. Regular moderate exercise is very essential
Ans.
1. Regular moderate exercise keeps a person fit, active and cheerful.
2. Therefore, regular moderate exercise is very essential.
7. A daily bath is essential. Or
A daily bath with hot or cold water is essential.
Ans.
1. Bath removes the sweat and dust from the surface of the skin, thus making it clean.
2. Bath increases the circulation of blood in the body.
3. Therefore, a daily bath with hot or cold water is essential.

8. During summer, white or light coloured cotton clothes should be used.


Ans.
1. White or light coloured cotton clothes protect the body from heat and absorb the sweat.
2. Therefore, during summer white or light coloured cotton clothes should be used.

9. In winter dark coloured, preferably woolen clothes, should be used.


Ans.
1. Dark coloured, preferably, woolen clothes protect the body from cold.
2. Therefore, in winter dark coloured clothes, preferably woolen clothes should be used.

10. A healthy individual possesses the ability to combat diseases.


Ans.
1. A healthy individual possesses a good resistance power which helps him combating
diseases.
2. Therefore, a healthy individual possesses the ability to combat diseases.

11. Good hobbies and trips make human beings happy. Or


Hobbies and trips are useful.
Ans.
1. Hobbies and trips make life happy and cheerful.
2. Healthy mind is healthy body.
3. We need some interesting activity to keep proper mental hygiene.
Therefore, hobbies and trips make human beings happy. In other words, hobbies and trips
are useful.

12. Dustbin should be kept clean by periodical removal of garbage.


Ans.
1. Waste materials in the form of garbage are dumped in dustbins.
2. Therefore, dustbin should be kept clean by periodical removal or garbage.

13. It is desirable to drink boiled water during an epidemic.


Ans.
1. Epidemic diseases like cholera and typhoid spread through contaminated water containing
the germs of these diseases.
2. Therefore, it is desirable to drink boiled water during an epidemic.

14. Rehabilitation of a drug addict is essential.

Ans.
1. Rehabilitation helps to avoid the addiction to the drug again.

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2. It helps to built up self – confidence in the person.
3. It helps to make him face the problem in life.
4. It helps him to lead a normal and happy life.
Therefore, rehabilitation of drug addict is essential.

15. Tobacco should not be consumed in excess.

Ans.
1. The consumption of tobacco causes bronchitis, gastric and duodenal ulcer and increases
the chances of heart diseases, lung cancer and oral cancer.
2. Therefore, tobacco should not be consumed in excess.

16. Common sources of drinking water should be maintained clean.


Ans.
1. Drinking water gets contaminated by washing clothes, utensils, cattle’s and faucal matter.
2. Therefore, addiction to tobacco should be avoided.

17. Tobacco used in excess is poisonous.


Ans.
1. Excessive use of tobacco is poisonous. It causes bronchitis, ulcers, and increases the
chances of heart diseases.
2. Therefore, tobacco used in excess is poisonous.

18. Addiction of alcohol is not good.


Ans.
1. Alcohol affects the nervous system.
2. Alcohol causes cirrhosis of the liver and reduces blood sugar level which is harmful to the
brain.
Therefore, addiction to alcohol is not good.

19. Smoking is injurious to health.


Ans.
1. Smoking causes oral cancer.
2. therefore, smoking is injurious to health.

20. The people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS


Ans.
1. Cancer and AIDS are fatal diseases.
2. therefore, the people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS.

21. Automobile vehicle should be checked periodically.


Ans.
1. Periodical checking of automobile is necessary for controlling the level of poisonous
gases which otherwise causes pollution.
2. The poisonous gases are mainly carbon monoxide.
Therefore, automobile vehicle should be checked periodically.

22. Regular health checkup should be done.


Ans. Regular health check up should be done because.

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1. It helps in early diagnosis of diseases.
2. Early diagnosis of disease helps in early treatment, which helps to arrest the disease in the
initial stage.
3. It helps to prevent the spread of diseases.

III. Answer the following in briefly.

1. Write any three essential habits for personal cleanliness. OR


Write essential habits for personal cleanliness. OR
Write any four essential habits for personal cleanliness.

Ans. The habits which are essential for personal cleanliness are as follows:
1. One should go to bed early in the night.
2. One should get up early in the morning.
3. After getting up one should go to the toilet.
4. One should wash his hands and feet with soap after visiting the toilet.
5. One should clean the teeth in the morning.
6. One should take a bath daily.
7. One should hold a handkerchief to cover the nose and the mouth while sneezing or
coughing.
8. One should do regular moderate exercise to keep himself fit, active and cheerful.
9. One should avoid uncovered roadside food.
10. One should take balanced diet.
11. One should go for regular health check – up.
12. One should clean the teeth in the night before going bed.

2. What is community hygiene? Write three good habits to maintain community


hygiene.
Ans.
1. Community hygiene: The science concerned with the maintenance of health of a
community is called community hygiene.
2. Three good habits to maintain community hygiene:
a. One should avoid spitting in public places.
b. Waste material should be put in dustbins. The dustbins should be kept clean by periodical
removal of garbage.
c. Sources of drinking water should be maintained clean and should be protected from
contamination.

3. Name the preventable diseases commonly observed among the children. OR


Name the preventable diseases of children which are controlled by immunization.
OR
State any four diseases in children, which are controlled by immunization launched by
World Health Organisation (WHO)
Ans.
1. The preventable diseases commonly observed in children are diphtheria, whooping cough,
tetanus, polio tuberculosis and measles.

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2. Since diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio tuberculosis and measles can be
-controlled by immunization, they are called preventable diseases.

4. Describe ‘AIDS’ with the following points:

i. write the full form of ‘AIDS’


ii. Name the virus
iii. Spreading
iv. Prevention.
Ans.
i. Full form of AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
ii. Name of the virus: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS.
iii. Spreading: AIDS is spread fro one person to other by any one of the following routes.
1. Unprotected sex.
2. Transfusion of HIV positive blood.
3. from addicted pregnant mother to her child.
4. Use of UN sterilized injection needles, blades and razors of an infected person.
iv. Prevention: AIDS can be prevented by adopting the following preventive measures:
1. Protected sex.
2. Blood transfusion after HIV test only.
3. Avoiding sharing of contaminated needles, razors, blades, toothbrushes, etc.
5. Which two characters should be possessed by a person to keep him away from the
addiction.

Ans. The following two characters should be possessed by person to keep him away from
the
Addiction are_
1. Strong will power
2. Sound and positive attitude towards life.

6. Chewing of tobacco is harmful to health. Explain

Ans. Chewing of tobacco is harmful to health, because of the following reasons.


1. Chewing of tobacco causes oral cancer.
2. Chewing of tobacco causes gastric and duodenal ulcers.
3. Chewing of tobacco increases the chances of heart diseases.

7. State the importance of health education.

Ans. The importance of health education are_


1. The importance of cleanliness, balanced diet and immunization is emphasised in health
education.
2. Education of care to be taken during pregnancy, maternal health and baby care help to
reduce infant mortality.
3. Sex education at the proper age helps in avoiding AIDS and other diseases.
4. Health education is of great importance in rehabilitation of a drug addict.

8. Prevention is better than cure (TB) Commend

Ans. Prevention is better than cure because_

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1. Diseases like diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis and measles can be
prevented by immunizing the children.
2. But it is very difficult to cure them.

9. Which are the habits, which spoil community environment?


Ans. The habits, which spoil community environment are_
1. Spitting at public places.
2. Throwing waste material at public places.
3. Making the drinking water impure by washing clothes, utensils, cattle’s etc. neat it.

10. Write the uses of the water hyacinth. (TB)


Explain the role of water hyacinth in controlling environment pollution.
Ans. The uses of water hyacinth are_
1. It has the capacity to accumulate heavy metals and even radioactive substances.
2. It absorbs nitrogen, phosphorus and other chemical pollutants.
3. It makes the water 75% to 95% free of pollutant.

11. Justify the statement “Health is Wealth”


Ans.
1. Health is not the aim of life but is the means of life.
2. Without health very little can be achieved in the life.
3. A healthy individual possesses ability to combat diseases.
Hence, it is rightly said, “Health is Wealth”.

State the effects of the following:


1. Narcotic drugs (T.B) : Drug means narcotic drugs or psychotyphic drugs. The addictions
of drugs like morphine, coraine, heroin, L.S.D. etc, are hazardous to health.

2. Alcohol (TB):- Alcohol is rapidly absorbed in the blood stream. It affects the nervous
system. Excess consumption of alcohol leads to fat storage in the liver causing cirrhosis.
Alcohol reduces the blood sugar level, which is harmful to brain.

3. Daily bath (TB):- Daily bathing is good for health. Water cleans the skin. Use of warm
water increases blood circulation. Bathing helps the removal of sweat and dust.

4. Immunization(TB):- Immunization is a prophylactic, which means the prevention of a


disease. Therefore disease like diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio tuberculosis and
measles can be prevented by immunizing the children.

5. Health education (T.B): Health education should be the integrated part of formal
education. The media like television and radio should be used effectively in educating the
masses. The importance of cleanliness, balanced diet and immunization should be
emphasized in population education. Education of care to be taken during pregnancy,
maternal health and baby care will definitely help to reduce the infant mortality. Sex
education should be given at the proper age to avoid AIDS and other diseases.

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6. Smoking (TB):- Smoking of tobacco causes bronchitis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and
increases the chances of heart diseases and lung cancer. Tobacco smoking leads to oral
cancer.

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NUTRIENTS IN FOOD Define:

1. Nutrients: - Nutrients are chemical substances present in foods which when consumed
in adequate amount fulfils all the functions of the body.
2. Nutrition: - The science, which deals with the study of nutrients is called nutrition.
3. Vitamins:- Vitamins are vital organic substances occurring in different natural foods and
are essential in minute quantities for growth, development and maintenance of good
health.

Answer the following


1. What are the functions of Dietary Carbohydrates?
1. Supply of energy: - Carbohydrates are oxidised in every living cell of the body to
release energy. This energy is utilized for different life processes. one gram of
Carbohydrates are the cheapest source of energy.
2. Protein-sparing action: - If are taken in sufficient amount to meet the energy needs
of the body proteins are spared for the chief function, i.e. body building.
3. Regulation of fat-metabolism: - Some minimum amount of Carbohydrates is
required for proper utilization of fat in the body.

2. What are the functions of dietary proteins?


1. Growth and maintenance: - Proteins are the chief constituents of the all the body
tissues. They are required for building new body tissues, and for then replacement of
worn out tissues. A regular supply of dietary proteins is required for growth and
maintenance. Hence, protein requirement increases during growth, maintenance ,
lactation and convalescent period.
2. Regulation of body process: - All the chemical reactions in the body are controlled
by enzymes. these enzymes are proteins. Hormones regulate growth and development.
Some of these hormones are proteins.
3. Protection: - Antibodies produces against infections are also proteins.

3. Define Vitamins and how are they classified?’

Vitamins are vital organic substances occurring in different natural foods and are
essential in minute quantities for growth, development and maintenance of good
health. Vitamins are two types;
Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E and K
Water soluble vitamins: - Vitamin B-Complex and Vitamin C

4. What are the functions of Water?


1. Major constituent of our body: - Our body contains approximately 65 % water.
Infants have a higher percentage of 75 Percent of water. It serves as the major and
important constituent of all cells and tissues. All body fluids like blood, saliva, sweat,
digestive juices, and urine have water as an important major constituent.

2. Universal Solvent: - Water dissolves a variety of substances including all the


products of digestion and transports the various nutrients to various parts of the body.
It acts as a vehicle for the removal of waste products from the body.

3. Regulation of body temperature: - Water regulates the body temperature through


evaporation of water from the lungs and skin.

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4. Lubricant and prevents friction: - Water lubricates the joints and prevents friction
between the moving parts.

5. State the names of two food substances used during fast, which are rich in
Carbohydrates.
1. Sago
2. Groundnuts

6. What nutrients will be supplied from the following food items:


(a) Ragi b) Ghee (c) Green Gram (d) Amla

Food Items Nutrients supplied


1. Ragi 1. Carbohydrates
2. Ghee 2. Fats
3. Green gram 3. Green gram
4. Amla 4. Vitamin C

7. State the sources of water.

1. Drinking water: We should consume atleast 1 to 2 liters of water everyday.


2. Water contributed by food: All foods contain water in varying amounts. Water
content of fruits and vegetables is 70 to 90 per cent.
3. Water contributed by beverages: Beverages like tea, coffee, aerated drinks, juices
etc.
4. Water used in food preparations : Curries, soups, dals, kober, rice also contribute
to the water intake by the body.
5. Metabolic Water: Chemical reactions involved in metabolism produce water in the
body.

8. What are the functions of dietary fats?


Ans.
1. Supply of Energy: Fat is a rich source of energy. Each gram of fat provided
approximately 9 kilocalories.
2. Source of essential fatty acids: Human body cannot prepare certain essential fatty
acids. they are needed for good health. Dietary fats provide these fatty acids.
3. Source of fat soluble vitamins: Fats serve as a source of fat soluble vitamins into the
body and helps in their absorption and utilization.
4. Insulation and padding: Layers of stored fat under the skin act as an insulator. It helps
in maintaining the body temperature. Vital organs like liver and kidney have a thin layer
or fat around them which serves as a padding and protects them from shocks and
physical injury.
5. Palatability and satiety value: Fat improves palatability of food and increases satiety
value of food.

9. Vitamins plays a vital role in the life of organisms, explain.


Ans. Role of vitamins in the life of organisms is as follows.
1. Vitamin A is important for skeletal and tissue growth.
2. Vitamin B12 helps in the maturation of cells.
3. Vitamin D is important for growth and development of bones.
4. Vitamin E is necessary for normal production.

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5. Vitamin K helps in the formation of protein called prothrombin which is necessary for
blood clotting.

10. Give the sources and function of Vitamin C (TB)


Ans. The sources of vitamin C are_
1. Plant source: Guava, orange, lemon, amla, tomato, capsicum, cabbage, etc.
2. Animal source: Animal foods contain very little or no vitamin C.
Functions of Vitamin C are_
1. It is necessary for the formation of collagen, which help in healing of wound and injuries.
2. It helps with physical and mental tension by realizing hormones.
3. It increases the absorption of calcium and iron in the body.

10. Ascorbic acid is the most unstable vitamin. Explain.


Ans. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C ) is the most unstable vitamin because of the following
reasons.
1. Ascorbic acid is easily destroyed by heat, ageing, drying, storing and oxidation.
2. Ascorbic acid is highly soluble in water. Therefore, when chopped vegetables are washed
or when cooking water is discarded, the ascorbic acid is lost.

Give scientific reasons.


1. Protein requirement increases during growth and pregnancy.
Ans.
1. Proteins are required for growth and maintenance.
2. They are necessary for building all the body tissues and replacing worn out cells.
Hence, protein requirement increases during growth and pregnancy.

2. Glucose is used by players.


Ans.
1. Glucose is the simplest carbohydrates, which is directly assimilated.
2. It is readily oxidised and it is an instant source of energy.
Hence, players use glucose.

3. Vegetables should not be washed after cutting.


Ans. If the vegetables are washed after cutting some amounts of water-soluble vitamins B
and C are washed away. Hence, vegetables should not be washed after cutting.

4. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are called proximate principles of food.


Ans.
1. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are major constituent of our diet.
2. They are oxidised in the body to release energy required for various life activities
Hence, carbohydrates, proteins and fats are called proximate principles of food.

5. Cellulose is useful in movement of bowels.


Ans.
1. Cellulose is carbohydrate, which cannot be digested by the human body.
2. Cellulose forms fibres called roughage, which has the capacity to retain water.
3. Due to retention of water, the waste matter remains semi – solid and can be easily
excreted.
4. Roughage helps in bowel movements and avoid constipation. Hence, cellulose is useful in
movement of bowels.

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6. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting.
Ans.
1. Vitamin K helps in the formation of protein called prothrombin.
2. This protein helps in co – agulation of blood.
Hence, vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting.

7. We should avoid eating polished rice.


Ans. Vitamins belonging to B – Complex group are lost during polishing of rice. Hence, we
should avoid eating polished rice.

8. Vitamin C helps in healing wounds.


Ans.
1. Vitamin C is essential in the formation of protein called collagen.
2. Collagen is the cementing material useful in the healing of wounds and injuries.
Hence, vitamin C helps in healing of wounds.

9. Calcium and phosphorus are essential during growth.


Ans.
1. Calcium and phosphorus gives rigidity and fitness to bones.
2. They are also necessary for teeth development. Hence, calcium and phosphorus are
essential during growth.

10. Proteins are essential for regulation of body process.


Ans.
1. Enzymes control all chemical reactions in the body and these enzymes are proteins.
2. Hormones regulate growth and development and some of these hormones are proteins.
Hence, proteins are essential for regulation of body process.

11. Proteins are used during growth and convalescence.


Ans.
1. Tissues are made up of proteins.
2. Proteins are required for building new body tissues.
3. For replacement of worn out tissues.
4. A regular supply of dietary proteins is required for growth and maintenance.
Hence, proteins are used during growth and convalescence.

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DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES
Define
1. Under nutrition :- Intake of insufficient food is called under nutrition. Under
nutrition is very common among the poorer sections of the society. Under nourished
people are prone to diseases like rickets, anemia, cold, cough and fever.
2. Over nutrition:- Intake of excessive food is called over nutrition. Over nutrition is
seen among the richer section of the society. Over nourished people become obese and
overweight. They become prone to diseases like diabetes, arthritis, hyper tension and
other cardio – vascular diseases.
3. Malnutrition:- Malnutrition means disordered nutrition which is due to lack of
sufficient food or excessive intake of food.
4. Night blindness:- Night blindness is a deficiency disease of the eye caused due to the
deficiency of vitamin A in diet.
5. Beriberi: - Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of Vitamin B 1
.
6. Rickets: Rickets is a disease caused by the deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and
vitamin D.
7. Marasmus:- Marasmus is a disease caused by the deficiency of energy, proteins and
other nutrients.
8. Pellagra:- Pellagra is a disease caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B3 (niacin)
9. Scurvy:- Scurvy is a disease caused due to deficiency of Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). It
is very common in infants.
10. Anemia: - Anemia is a disease caused by the deficiency of iron.
11. Kwashiorker: Kwashiorker is a disease caused by the deficiency of protein. It occurs
when babies are taken away from protein rich breast milk to other foods, which are not
rich in proteins and energy.

Give reasons

1. Malnutrition is hazardous.
Ans. malnutrition is hazardous because.
1. It effects the physical and physiological well – being of an individual.
2. The physical, mental and social performance of a malnourished individual becomes
abnormal.
3. Malnourished children become prone to diseases like marasmus, rickets and anemia.

2. In India, there are high incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases among the poorer
section of the society.
Ans.
1. In India among the poorer sections of the society even the intake of basic calorie
requirement is not fulfilled.
2. Proteins, vitamins and minerals are not consumed at desired levels. Therefore, there is
high incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases among the poorer section of the society.

3. Babies should not be weaned from breast milk to other diets deficient in proteins and
energy.
Ans.
1. Breast milk contains carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which can be easily digested and
absorbed.

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2. If proteins are not provided in sufficient quantities, the baby may suffer from protein
energy malnutrition leading to Kwashiorker and marasmus. Therefore, babied should not
be weaned from breast milk to other diets deficient in protein and energy.

4. Rickets is common among those children who are deprived of sunlight.


Ans.
1. Rickets is caused by the deficiency of vitamin D.
2. Vitamin D is synthesized by the body, if the skin is exposed to morning sun.
Therefore, rickets is common among those children who are deprived of sunlight.

5. Goitre is more prevalent among the people who reside in mountainous regions.
Ans.
1. In mountainous regions iodine content of the soil and water is low.
2. This leads to deficiency of iodine, which causes goitre. Therefore, goitre is more prevalent
among the people who reside in mountainous regions.

6. Pellagra occurs in people living on a maize diet.


Ans.
1. Pellagra is due to the deficiency of vitamin B3 (niacin)
2. Maize does not contain niacin. Hence, pellagra occurs in people living on a maize diet.

7. Beriberi is observed mainly amongst people who eat polished rice.


Ans.
1. Beriberi is caused due to the absence of Vitamin B1 . (Thiamine)
2. Polished rice lacks B1 . (Thiamine). So Beriberi is observed mainly amongst people who
eat polished rice.

8. Scurvy is observed among the people whose diet is deficient in fresh fruits.
Ans.
1. Scurvy is due to gross deficiency of vitamin C.
2. Fruits contain vitamin C. Therefore, scurvy is observed among the people whose diet is
deficient in fresh fruits.

Answer the following questions.


1. Mention the hazards of Malnutrition (TB) OR
What are the general effects of physical and physiological well being of a under
nourished and over nourished person.
Ans.
Undernourished person:
1. Weight and height is below the standard value.
2. Physical, mental and social performance is below normal.
3. The under nourished person is susceptible to infection due to low resistance
of the body.
4. The under nourished person becomes prone to diseases like rickets, anemia
infectious diseases like cold, sough, fever etc.
Over nourished person:
1. An over nourished person becomes over weight and obese.
2. The over nourished person becomes prone to diseases like diabetes, arthritis, cardio –
vascular disorder etc.

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2. What is night blindness? What are its symptoms?

Ans. Night blindness is a deficiency disease of the eye caused due to the deficiency of
vitamin A in diet.
Symptoms of night blindness:

1. Unable to see in dim light particularly after exposure to bright light.


2. Xeroderma (dry and scaly skin)

3. What is beriberi? What are its symptoms?


Ans. Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of vitamin B1 .
Symptoms of beriberi_
1. Loss of apatite.
2. Muscle weakness
3. degeneration of nerve tissues
4. Some times odema is observed
5. Mental alertness decreases
6. Memory may become faulty.
7. Concentration becomes poor.
8. Person becomes unstable emotionally.

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SCIENCE I

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I. Define the following.

1. One coulomb: It is the unit of electric charge. If two like point charges of equal
magnitude are placed in a vacuum at a distance of one meter from each other and if
they repel each other with a force of 9 x 109 Newton, then each charge is called one
coulomb.
2. One Volt: It is the unit of potential difference. The potential difference between two
points is said to be one volt if one joule of work is done to carry a charge of one
coulomb from one point to another.
3. One Ampere: It is the unit of electric current. If a charge of one coulomb passes
across any section of the conductor in one second, then the current in the conductor
is said to be one ampere.
4. Electromotive force (E.M.F) : The work done by a cell to send a unit charge once
around the complete circuit is called a electric motive force.
5. Potential difference: The work done in sending a unit charge through the external
resistance is called the potential difference.
6. Right hand rule: Imagine the conductor to be held in the right hand with the
fingers curled round it and the thumb stretched along its length. If the thumb
points in the direction of the current then the curled fingers denote the direction of
the magnetic field.

II. Give scientific reasons:

1. Metals are good conductors of electricity. Or An electric current can flow


through silver wire.
Ans.
1. Metals contain a large number of free electrons.
2. When potential difference is applied to the ends of the wire the free electrons move
from low potential to high potential.
3. This gives rise to a flow of electric current in the wire. Hence metals are good
conductor of electricity.

2. When electric current is passed through a wore, it gets heated after some times.
Ans.
1. When Potential difference is applied to ends of wire the electrons start moving.
2. The electrons collide with atoms of the wire.
3. Due to these collisions the kinetic energy of atoms increase and the thermal energy
also increases. Hence, the wire gets heated after some times.

4. In an electric bulb, a thin filament of tungsten is used.


Ans.
1. Tungsten filament has a high melting point.
2. When current passed through the filament, it gets heated to a high temperature and
emits light. Hence, thin filament of tungsten is used in an electric bulb.

5. Water must not be used to extinguish the electric fire.


Ans.
1. Tap water is impure.
2. It conducts electricity.

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3. If water is used to extinguish the fire then electric current will flow. Therefore, Water
must not be used to extinguish the electric fire.

6. Wire carrying current is always insulated.


Ans.
1. If a metal wire carrying current is not insulated, it may cause a fatal shock to the
person toughing it.
2. When live and neutral wire come in contact with each other, it may cause fire.
3. When a bare wire carrying a current comes in contact with wet wall, the current
starts flowing through the wall. If a person touches the wall, he gets a severe shock,
hence, wire carrying current is always insulated.

7. Three Pin plug is preferred in place of two-pin plug.


Ans.
1. In two pin plug, there is no provision for earthing. Hence, the person using electrical
appliances like an electric iron, heater, etc. may get shock if the body of the
appliance becomes live due to the leakage of electric current.
2. In a three pin plug, the third wire is connected to the metal body of the appliance and
to the earthing wire with the help of the socket.
3. Hence, the person handling the appliance does not get shock even if the live wire
comes in contact with the metal body of the appliance. Therefore, a three pin plug
should be used instead of two pin plug.

8. An electric fuse is used in domestic supply.


Ans.
1. An electric fuse is used to protect electrical appliances and instruments from damage.
2. An electric current up to a certain maximum value can pass through it.
3. If the current exceeds this value, the wire melts due to the heat produced in it by the
current. As soon as the wire melts the circuit is broken and hence the current stops
flowing.
4. An excessive current does not flows through the electrical appliances connected in
the circuit. Hence, an electric fuse is used in domestic supply.

9. The potential difference of cell is always less than the E.M.F of the cells.
Ans.
1. E.M.F of a cell is the total energy required to over come both the internal resistance
of the cell and the external resistance in the circuit.
2. Potential difference is the energy required to over come only the external resistance
in the circuit.
3. Hence, the potential difference of cell is always less than the E.M.F of the cells.

10. What are the general precautions while handling electrical devices?
Ans.
1. Keep your hands dry while handling electrical devices
2. Rubber soled footwear should be weared while handling electrical device.
3. Before cleaning an electrical device, switch off the current and remove the plug from the
socket.
4. Beware of live wire whether bare or insulated.
5. Do not remove the plug by pulling the cord.
6. Incase of a fire caused by electric sparks, switch off the mains and use a fire extinguisher
like Co of dry sand. Do not use water to extinguish electric current.

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11. Describe the working of an electric bell with a neat labeled diagram.
Ans.
1. The electric bell consists of an Electromagnet gong, armature (i.e.) soft iron rod, contact
screw and spring.
2. When current is passed through the circuit, the Electromagnet acquires magnetism and
attracts the iron rod as a result of which the gong is struck by the hammer and the bell
rings.
3. At the same time the contact between the contact screw and iron rod is lost and circuit is
broken. When the current stops the electromagnet losses its magnetisms and the soft
iron rod goes to its original position.
4. As the iron rod touches the contact screw, the circuit is complete the procedure is repeated
and the gong is struck again. The bell goes on ringing as long as the switch is closed.

11. What accidents can occur due to bad insulation?


Ans.
1. A person may touch the bare wire and get a shock.
2. If live and neutral wire comes in contact, it may give rise to sparks causing fire.
3. If the exposed part of a wire comes in contact with a wet wall, electric current begins, to
flow through the wall. The person touching such a wall may get severe shock.

12. Write about Electromagnet?


Ans.
1. When an electric current flows through
a conductor, magnetic field is produced
around the conductor.
2. This magnetic field is present only as
long as the current flows through the
wire.
3.In this case, large number of turns
or insulated copper wire are wounded
around a rod of soft iron.
4. When two ends of a wire are
connected to a cell, the rod becomes
magnet, which is called as
electromagnet.
5. If the ends of the magnet is dipped
into iron filling it clings (attached) to
magnet. If the current is stopped
electromagnet losses magnetism.
Iron fillings drop the magnet.

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III. Distinguish between

1. Series combination and Parallel combination

Series combination Parallel combination


1. In series combination number of 1. In parallel combination number of
resistance are connected one after resistance are connected between two points.
another.
2. The same current flow through each 2. The current passing through each
resistance. resistance is different.
3. Potential difference across each resistance
3. Potential difference across each resistance
is different. is same.
4. The equivalent resistance of the series 4. The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance
combination is equal to the sum of the of the parallel combination is equal to the
individual resistance. sum of the reciprocal of individual
resistance.
5. This combination is used to increase the 5. This combination is used to decrease the
overall resistance of the circuit. overall resistance of the circuit.

Ammeter Voltmeter
1. An ammeter is used to measure the current 1. A voltmeter is used to measure the
flowing through a circuit. potential difference between two points.
2. An ammeter is connected in series with 2. A voltmeter is connected in parallel to the
the conductor through which the current conductor across which the potential
flowing is to be measured. difference is to be measured.

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I. Define the following:

1. Solar cell: The device that converts incident solar energy into electrical energy is called
solar cell.
2. Solar energy: The energy that is continuously emitted by the sun in the form of heat and
light is called solar energy.
3. Bio – mass: The organic matter present in the bodies of living organisms is called
biomass (or ) the material contained in the bodies of plants and animals is called biomass.
4. Bio gas: The gaseous mixture obtained by the degradation of animal and plants wastes by
anaerobic respiration of microorganisms in the presence of water is called biogas.
5. Solar Dryer: The device, which uses solar energy to dry agricultural products is called
solar dryer.
6. Slurry: The mixture of animal dung with water, which is fed into the digester is called
slurry.
7. Photo Voltaic Cell:- A device, which converts incident solar energy into electric energy
is called Photovoltaic or solar cell.
8. Solar Panel: The panel on which many solar cells are suitably mounted is called solar
panel. It is used for operating T.V. Sets, Water pumps and street lighting.
9. Fossil fuels: Fossil fuels are formed over millions of years by the burial of plants and
animals. Fossil fuels are energy rich molecules of carbon compounds originally made by
plants. Examples. Coal, petroleum and natural gas.
10. Charcoal. Charcoal is obtained by burning wood in an insufficient supply of air.

II. Answer the following in briefly.


1. Describe solar water heater with neat and labeled diagram?
Ans.
A solar water heater consists of two parts_
i. An insulated storage tank.
ii. A flat plate collector.
The insulated storage water tank is connected to the flat plate collector with pipes. Cold
water in the storage tank enters the flat plate collector that is exposed to solar energy, where
it gets heated up. Once the water gets heated up it expands, and Become lighter and rises to
the top of the storage tank. Its place is taken by the coldwater from the bottom of the tank.
Hot water from the top of the tank is thus available for use. Whenever hot water is
withdrawn its
Place is taken by the cold water which enters the tank at its bottom.

2. Write about solar cooker with neat-labeled diagram.


Ans. A box type solar cooker consists of a
Rectangular metallic, double walled box.
Between the walls a thermally insulating
material such as glass or wool is filled.
The inner surface of the box is painted
black as black surface absorbs 98% of the
incident heat radiation. The outer surface
of the vessels is also painted black. It has a
glass cover at top. Food to be cooked is kept
in shallow vessels, which are placed in the
inner box. Sunlight is reflected on them using
plane mirrors. Thus, food is cooked in shallow
vessels with the help of reflected sunlight.

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3. Write a short notes on_
i. Solar Dryer:-
1. The device, which uses solar energy to dry agricultural products is called solar dryer.
2. Solar Dryer is used for drying agricultural products.
3. If drying is done by spreading a product on open ground, the process is slow and the
disadvantage is that dust and insects get mixed with the product.
4. In solar drying this is prevented and process of drying is quick.
5. Drying process removes moisture and helps in preservation of agricultural products.
6. Solar Drying is also used to prepare dry fruits.

ii. Photo Voltaic Cell:-


1. The device, which converts incident solar energy into electrical energy is called
photovoltaic or solar cell.
2. Solar cell is arranged in rows and columns and then suitably mounted on a panel.
3. It contains no moving parts hence needs any maintenance.
4. Solar cells works satisfactorily even in diffused radiation.
5. It is an eco – friendly device since it does not produce any pollution.

iii. Solar distillation:- In many small villages brackish or saline water is available instead of
fresh drinking water. Using solar energy brackish water can be converted into pure water by
solar distillation.

iv. Charcoal.
1. Charcoal is obtained by burning wood in an insufficient supply of air.
2. In this process the volatile material from wood is removed and charcoal is left behind.
3. It is a good solid fuel and mainly contains carbon.
4. It is better fuel than wood and burns without smoke.

4. Explain how solar energy is produced.


Ans.
1. Interior of the sun in extremely hot and its temperature is about 2 x 107 0 C.
2. It mainly contains hydrogen gas.
3. At this extremely high temperature four hydrogen nuclei combine to forma helium
nucleus by nuclear fusion.
4. However, the mass of helium nucleus is slightly less than the total mass of four hydrogen
nuclei.
5. this difference in mass is converted into energy. Thus solar energy is produced.

5. What are the advantages of uses of solar energy.


Ans.
1. Solar energy forms an extremely large and inexhaustible source of energy.
2. Solar energy is a clean source of energy and does not effect on environment.
3. Solar energy is freely available in sufficient quantities in all parts of the earth inhabited by
mankind.

6. What are the difficulties involved in the use of solar energy?


Ans. The difficulties involved in the use of solar energy are_
1. Solar energy is not a concentrated source of energy.
2. Due to rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the sun, the solar energy
available at a given place is never constant.
3. Therefore, it is necessary to store solar energy for its technical application.

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4. To obtain sufficient solar energy for technical application large collecting surfaces are
required which are highly expensive.
5. Above all the storage equipment used for storing solar energy are also very costly.
7. Explain space heating and space cooling?
Ans. Solar energy can be converted into electrical energy by solar panels. This electrical
energy is used to operate heaters and coolers to provide warm living conditions in winter and
cool living conditions in summer.

8. Explain how energy from flowing water is used to generate electrical energy.
Ans. Flowing water is used to generate hydroelectric power. The water of a river is stored in
a dam. It is then allowed to flow under gravity through the pipes. As it flows down its
Potential energy converted into Kinetic energy. The water falls down in turbine wheels
connected to electric generators, which generate electricity.

9. How is Ethanol prepared? Give its uses.


Ans. Ethanol is prepared by the fermentation of the carbohydrates from food grains the
crops like maize, sugarcane etc.
Uses of Ethanol:
1. Ethanol is a good liquid fuel.
2. Ethanol mixed with petrol is an efficient alternative fuel for automotive engines.

10. What are the advantages of biogas?


1. It burns without smoke and produces large amount of heat.
2. It is used for domestic purposes and street light.
3. It is used for operating engines.

11. Describe biogas plant with neat and labeled diagram.


1. Biogas plant consists of a well called digester.
2. It is divided into two equal compartments by a vertical wall.
3. The partition wall helps to direct the flow of slurry.
4. The digester has two pipes connected at its bottom.
5. Mixture of animal wastes and water in the form of slurry is fed in the digester through one
pipe where biogas is produced by anaerobic fermentation.
6. The biogas rises upwards and is collected in the dome, which floats on the slurry.
7. A valve connected to the dome is used as an outlet for the gas.
8. Sludge remaining in the digester is removed from the other pipe and can be used as a
fertilizer.
III. Distinguish between

1.
Solar energy Fossil Fuels
1. Solar energy is freely available on a large 1. Fossil fuels are not abundantly available.
scale.
2. It is pollution free source of energy. 2. Fossil fuels create pollution.
3. It is available every where on earth. 3. They are obtained at a particular place.
4. It is not a concentrated source of energy. 4. They are concentrated source of energy.

Wood Charcoal
1. Wood is one of the biomass. 1. Charcoal is a conversion of wood.
2. It consists of many volatile compounds. 2. It consists of mainly carbon.
3. Wood produces 17 KJ/g of heat. 3. It produces 33 KJ/ g of heat.
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4. Combustion of wood produces smoke. 4. Combustion of Charcoal is almost
smokeless.

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I. Define

1. Energy: The capacity of a body to perform work is called energy.


2. Mechanical Energy: The energy, which can be used to perform mechanical work, is
called Mechanical energy.
3. Kinetic Energy: The energy possessed by a body on account of its motion is called
Kinetic Energy of the body.
4. Potential Energy: The energy posses by a body on account of its position is called
Potential energy of the body.
5. Law of conservation of energy:- Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can be
converted from one form to another. The total amount of energy in the universe always
remains constant.

II. Answer the following question in short.

1. Define energy and its units?


Ans. The capacity of a body to perform work is called energy.
The unit of energy in C.G.S. System is Erg and M.K.S. or S.I. system is Joule.

2. Define Mechanical Energy? What are the different types of Mechanical energy?
Ans. The energy, which can be used to perform mechanical work, is called Mechanical
energy.
The two types of Mechanical energy are Kinetic energy and Potential energy.

3. Define Kinetic Energy and give some Examples?


Ans. The energy possessed by a body on account of its motion is called Kinetic Energy of
the body.
Example:-
1. A bullet fired from a gun possesses kinetic energy, When it strikes the target, it
uses this Kinetic energy to penetrate into the target.
2. Running water possesses Kinetic energy due to which it can move any object in its
path.

4. Define Potential Energy and give some Examples?


Ans. The energy possessed by a body on account of its position is called Potential Energy of
the body.
Example:-
1. The water stored in a reservoir of a dam possesses potential energy. At a
hydroelectric power station, this energy is used to rotate the turbines connected to
generators, so that electrical energy is produced.
2. A raised hammer possesses potential energy. When it is brought down on a nail,
the hammer uses this energy to perform the work of driving the nail in a wedge.

5. Explain why Energy and work have the same units?


Ans. Energy is defined as a capacity of a body to perform work. Energy is measured in terms
of work done by a body. Therefore, Energy and Work have the same units.

6. State the relation between the unit of energy in C.G.S. system and S.I. System?
Ans. One joule = 107 Ergs.

7. Explain how potential energy is converted into Kinetic Energy?

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Ans. Refer . Note

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Give scientific reason;
1. In order that a watch should work, we have to wind its spring
1. While winding the spring of a watch work is performed on he spring.
2. This is stored in the wound spring in the form of potent ional energy.
3. As the spring is stored itself, it uses this energy to perform work.

2. When a bullet fired from a gun strikes a target it becomes hot.


1. A bullet fired from a gun possesses kinetic energy.
2. When it strikes the target it uses its Kinetic energy to penetrate the target.
3. At this moment some part of kinetic energy is transformed into heat energy.
4. Hence, when a bullet fired from strikes a target it becomes hot.

3. The Kinetic energy is always positive.

1. Kinetic energy= 1/2mv2


2. The mass of the body is always positive and even if velocity is negative, its square is
positive. Therefore, the kinetic energy is always positive.

4. A Bicycle continues to move even after we stop pedaling.

1. A Bicycle while moving has Kinetic energy.


2. If we stop, pedaling the bicycle uses this Kinetic energy to perform work against the
frictional forces. Therefore, A Bicycle continues to move even after we stop
pedaling.

5. It is possible to create energy.


1. According to the law of conversation of energy, energy can neither be created nor be
destroyed.
2. It is true because when energy in one form appears an equal amount of energy in
some other form disappears.
3. Thus energy cannot be created but it can only be obtained from other forms of
energy.

6. To Keep clock going, it is necessary to wind its spring from time to time.

1. When we wind the spring of a clock we do work on the spring.


2. This work is stored in the form of potential energy in the system made up of the
spring, wheel, hands etc. when the spring unwinds the potential energy is converted
into Kinetic energy, hence the wheels and hands in the clock are set in motion.
3. After a few hours, the potent ional energy becomes zero and the clock stops.
Therefore, to keep clock going, it is necessary to wind its spring from time tom time.

7. When brakes are applied to a moving car, it does not stop immediately.
1. A car in motion has Kinetic energy.
2. When brakes are applied, it uses this Kinetic energy to perform work against
the retarding force applied by the brakes. Hence, brakes are applied to a
moving car, it does not stop immediately.

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POWER Define

1. Power: - Power is defined as the rate at which work is performed.


2. Watt: - Power used is one watt if work is done at the rate of one joule peer
second.
3. Work: - The work done by a force applied to a body is defined as the product of
the force and the displacement of the body in the direction of the force.

Answer the following

1. A man draws a bucket full of water from a well in 5 seconds and a boy does the same
work in 10 seconds. Whose power is greater and why/
Power is defined as the rate at which work is performed. as the boy and man do an
equal amount of work but man takes less time ( 5 seconds ) and the boy takes more
time ( 10 seconds ) therefore the power of man is more.

2. Distinguish between Energy and Power.

Energy Power
1. The capacity of a body to 1. Power is the rate at which work is
perform work is called as performed.
Energy.
2. The S.I unit of energy is joule 2. The S.I unit of power is joule/second
and C.G.S unit of energy is and C.G.S unit of power is
erg. Erg/Second

3. Show that the power is equal to the product of force and velocity.
Show the relationship between power and velocity.

Power is defined as the rate at which work is performed.


Power = Work
Time

P= W
T
But, work = Force * Displacement.( W=Fs)
P= F * S
T
But, S/T =V
Power is equal to the product of force and velocity.

4. What is the unit of power in SI System and d CGS System? How are they related to
Each other?

The SI unit of power is watt i.e. joule/second.


The CGS unit of power is Erg/Second.
1 Watt (W) =107 Erg Second
The industrial unit of power is horsepower.
1 Horsepower (Hp) = 746 watts.
1 Kilowatt = 1000 watts.
1 Megawatt = 106 watts.
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5. Power is a scalar Quantity.

1. Power is defined as the rate at which work is performed.


2. Work done and time both are scalar quantities. Hence, power is a scalar
quantity.

6. A road going up a steep hill is always winding and has a small slope.

1. If a straight road from the bottom to the top of the hill were to be constructed
the time required would be less.
2. Only those vehicles which are capable of developing very high power would be
able to reach the top.
3. Though a longer time is required to reach the top even a vehicle capable of
developing low power will be able to reach the top. Hence, a road going up a
steep hill is always winding and has a small slope.

7. A rocket must have a very high driving Power.

1. Power is defined as the product of the force and velocity.


2. a rocket has to take off vertically to attain a high altitude within a short time
therefore, a rocket must have a very high driving speed.

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