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CHAPTER NAME 1. FUELS 2. HEAT 3. MODERN PHYSISCS 1. DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES 2. DISEASES DUE TO OVERINTAKE OF SOME NUTRIENTS. 3. FOOD WASTAGE 4. FACTORS CAUSING FOOD SPOILAGE 5. HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES 6. BIOSPHERE 7. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 8. RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS

NO 3 16 21 28 36 40 46 53 61 66 78

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Q1. Define 1. Radioactivity:- The phenomenon of spontaneous and continuous emission of radiation from certain heavy element is called radioactivity. 2. Radioactive substance:- The substance, which spontaneously and continuously emits certain radiations is called a radioactive substance. 3. Fission products:- The products formed during a nuclear fission are called fission products. 4. Controlled chain reaction:- The process in which most of the neutrons liberated in the chain reaction are absorbed and only a few neutrons are allowed to carry on the reaction is called controlled chain reaction. 5. Un – controlled chain reaction:- The self accelerating chain reaction which takes place on its own around is called uncontrolled chain reaction. 6. Calorific value:- The quantity of heat produced by the complete combustion of unit mass of a fuel is called the calorific value of the fuel. 7. Disintegration of radioactive elements:- The process of continuous and spontaneous emission of radiation’s from a radioactive element to form a new element continues till a non – radioactive element is formed is called disintegration or decay of radioactive elements. 8. Nuclear wastes:- The harmful radioactive waste are produced by mining into enrichment and use in the nuclear reactors is known as nuclear wastes. Q2. Give scientific reasons:1. Boron steel or cadmium rods are used to control chain reaction Ans. 1. Boron steel or cadmium rods have a property of absorbing neutrons. 2. The rate of chain reaction can be reduced by absorbing some of neutrons which is generated, therefore boron steel or cadmium rods are used to control chain reaction. 2. The elements having atomic number greater than 82 are radioactive Ans. The nuclei of elements having atomic number greater than 82 are unstable. Hence, the elements having atomic number greater than 82 are radioactive. 3. Water gas is called blue gas. Ans. Water gas burns with bluish flame. Hence water gas is called blue gas. 4. Coal is fossil fuel. Ans. Coal is formed form the remains of plants and animals buried under the ground million of years back. Such remains are called fossils. Hence, coal is fossil fuel.

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5. A nuclear reactor has thicker cover. (or) A thick coat of radiation absorbent materials is used around the atomic reactor. Ans. 1. Nuclear energy production in an atomic reactor is accompanied by release of radioactive pollutants and harmful radiation’s 2. These pollutants also produce harmful radiation, which are highly penetrating. 3. This radiation’s cause irreparable damage to the body cells. They cause hereditary changes. 4. This radiation’s should be prevented from leaking out. Hence, a nuclear reactor has a thicker cover. 6. Coke produces more heat than coal. (or) Coke is a superior fuel than wood and coal. Ans. 1. The calorific value of a fuel depends upon its carbon content. 2. Coke contains about 90 – 95% carbon. 3. The main combustible components of wood is cellulose, which is a carbonaceous substance. 4. Coal contains 10 – 80% carbon depending upon the type of coal. Hence, coke produces more heat than coal. 7. Hydrogen is not used as domestic fuel, even though it has high calorific value. Ans. 1. Hydrogen gas us explosive. 2. It forms explosive mixture with air. It is very difficult to handle hydrogen. Hence, hydrogen is not used as domestic fuel, even though it has high calorific value. 8. In the manufacture of ammonia producer gas is used. Ans. 1. Ammonia is the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen in a suitable proportion. 2. In the producer gas, the percentage of nitrogen is 60%. Hence, the producer gas is used in manufacture of ammonia.

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9. Petroleum is a fossil fuel. Ans. 1. Petroleum is formed from the remains of micro – organisms living under the sea. 2. When these organisms die, they sunk to the bottom of the sea and are gradually covered by sand and clay. 3. Due to the action of heat, pressure and certain catalytic actions taking place over millions of years, these remains are converted into a mixture of hydrocarbons called petroleum. Such remains are called fossil fuels. Hence, petroleum is a fossil fuel. 10. Gaseous fuels are superior to the solid and liquid fuels. Ans. 1. They are extremely clean and convenient to use. 2. The burn almost instantaneously to provide heat energy. 3. The combustion of gaseous fuels can be easily controlled. 4. They have high calorific value. 5. They do not produce any solid waste products. 6. They can be transported easily and can be supplied through pipes at any distant place. Hence, Gaseous fuels are superior to the solid and liquid fuels. 11. Wood is a fuel. Ans. 1. A substance which on combustion produces heat, which can be used for various purposes, is called a fuel. 2. The main combustible component of wood is cellulose, which is a carbonaceous substance. 3. It burns in air forming carbon dioxide, water vapour and generate heat, hence, wood is a fuel. 12. Combustion of methane produces a large amount of heat. Ans. 1. Methane is a hydrocarbon. 2. The carbon atom in methane is bonded to four hydrogen atoms. 3. On combustion with oxygen in air, it forms carbon dioxide and water vapour and generate heat. Hence, wood is a fuel.

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13. L.P.G is an ideal fuel. Ans. 1. L.P.G is liquefied petroleum gas. It contains butane and isobutene. The mixture is liquefied and filled in cylinders. 2. Hence, it is easy to handle and transport. 3. When the valve of the cylinder is opened the gaseous state and can be burned in the stove. Thus the supply of the gas can be controlled. Hence, L.P>G is an ideal fuel. 14. Conservation of fuels is essential. Ans. 1. The energy obtained from fuels is used for cooking food, driving engines and vehicles, getting light, and for industries. In the world industrialization is advancing fast. The urbanization is also very fast. For big cities and for the industries large amounts of fuels are required. 2. Currently 80% of the energy consumed in the world is obtained by burning carbon fuels or fossil fuels. 3. The reserves of these fuels are limited and getting exhausted very fast. Hence, conservation of fuels is essential. 15. The calorific value of water gas is greater than that of producer gas. Ans. 1. Water gas contains carbon monoxide (45%), hydrogen (45%) and other gases (10%). Producer gas contains carbon monoxide (30%), nitrogen (60%), and other gases (10%). 2. In water gas both the components are combustible. 3. In producer gas carbon monoxide is combustible, but nitrogen is non – combustible. The percentage of carbon monoxide in producer gas is lower than that in water gas. Hence, the calorific value of water gas is greater than that of producer gas. 16. In future, factories may be run with nuclear energy. Ans. 1. All factories require fuels for various operations. 2. Presently about 80% of the energy consumed is obtained by burning fossil fuels. 3. The reserves of fossil fuels are limited. They are getting depleted very fast. 4. Atomic nuclei are vast store of energy. Nuclear fission produces a large amount of energy from a very small mass of U – 235. This energy can be converted into other suitable forms of energy like electricity. Thus, this source of energy can sustain for a much longer time. Hence, in future, factories may be run with nuclear energy.

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Q3. Answer the following:1. What is a fuel? Ans. The substance which on combustion produce energy in the form of heat, which can be used for various processes is called a fuel. 2. How are fuels classified? Explain with examples. Ans. Fuels are classified as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Solid fuels --------- Wood, coal, coke etc. Liquid fuels --------- Petrol, Kerosene, fuel oil etc. Gaseous fuels -------- Natural gas, petroleum gas, water gas etc. 3 Give characteristic of an ideal fuel. Ans. 1. Ideal fuels should have high calorific value. 2. It should have low content of non – combustible material. 3. It should have moderate rate of combustion. 4. It should have definite ignition temperature. 5. Absence of poisonous products on combustion. 6. It should be available in large quantities at a cheaper rate. 7. It should be easy to store, transport and handle. 4. Write short note on calorific value? Ans. 1. The quantity of heal produced by a unit mass of fuel after combustion is called calorific value of the fuel. 2. It is expressed in calories/ gm in C.G.S and Joule / Kg in S.I. units. 3. The calorific value of gaseous fuel is the quantity of heat produced by complete combustion of unit volume of the fuel. 4. Charcoal – 33 Kj/g, Kerosene – 48 Kj/ g, L.P.G – 55 Kj/ G and biogas 35 – 40 Kj/ g. 5. Outline the used of atomic energy. Ans. The uses of atomic energy are as follows. 1. Atomic energy is used to generate electricity. 2. It is used to power submarines. 3. It is used to make atom bombs.

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6. What are the effects of an explosion of an atom bomb? Ans. 1. The principle of uncontrolled chain reaction of U – 235 is used in atom bomb. 2. When it is exploded huge amount of energy and radiation s are emitted in short time. 3. AT place of explosions temperature shoots upto a few million – degree Celsius. 4. The energy produced under pressure is equal to several times atmospheric pressure. 5. The high temperature, high pressure and harmful intense radiation destroy all animals and plants in the surrounding area. 7. Write a brief account of emission, which is harmful to living organisms? Ans. Nuclear fission by – products are formed in nuclear explosions and in nuclear reactors. These by – products emit beta as well as more penetrating gamma radiations. When a human body is exposed to these radiations in a large dense, the body cells suffer irreparable damages. These radiations can induce some hereditary changes and thereby affect future generations too. 8. How is petroleum formed? Ans. 1. Petroleum is formed from the microorganisms living under the sea. 2. When these organisms die, they sink to the bottom and are gradually covered by sand and clay. 3. These remains are converted into hydrocarbons due to the action of heat, pressure and certain catalytic actions taking place over millions of years. 4. The resulting mixture of hydrocarbons rises through the porous rocks till it meets impermeable rocks. There it forms an oil trap. 9. How is petroleum obtained? Ans. 1. Petroleum reservoirs are located through a geological survey. 2. A hole is then drilled through the impervious rock, to the petroleum trap. 3. A pipe is introduced to the petroleum trap through this hole. Petroleum rises to the surface through this pipe. 10. What is L.P.G? From what source is L.P.G. obtained? Ans. L.P.G is liquefied petroleum gas. L.P.G is obtained by cooling natural gas and fractional distilling the liquid. It can also be obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum.

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11. What are the safety precautions to be taken while handling gaseous fuels? Why? Ans. 1. All gaseous fuels are readily combustible. 2. They may contain carbon monoxide, which is poisonous. 3. If a gaseous fuel contains hydrogen, we have to be very careful, as hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air. 4. An explosion may occur if such a gas leaks and there is an accidental sparking or lighting of a match. Hence, it is essential that there should not be any leakage of a gaseous fuel. When the gas is not required, it should be completely turned off. 12. What precautions one should take while handling L.P.G safely? Ans. While handling L.P.G following precautions should be taken 1. The gas should be turn off by closing the valve when the gas is not required. 2. If L.P.G leaks out of the cylinder no matchstick should be struck in the house or any spark is allowed to strike. 3. The cylinder should be kept away from heat in a secured place. 13. Why is energy liberated in a nuclear fission process? (Or) Write Einstein’s equations for the energy liberated in a nuclear fission and explain it (Or) Give the relation between mass lost and the energy liberated during a nuclear fission reaction. Explain the terms involved. Ans. In a nuclear fission process, the mass of the original nucleus is always greater than the total mass of the fission products. The difference in the mass is converted into energy, according to Einstein’s equations. E = mc2 Where E = energy released, m = Loss in mass, c = speed of light in vacuum.

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Q4. Write short notes on 1. Coal Ans. 1. Coal is fossil fuels. It has been formed over millions of years by the burial of plants. 2. Coal contains free amorphous carbon and complex carbon compounds formed from the parent plant matter. 3. Coal is classified into four types on the basis of its free carbon content. i. Peat (11%) ii. lignite (22%) iii. Bituminous(60%) iv. Anthracite (80%) 4. Destructive distillation of coal gives coke, coal, tar and coal gas. 2. Coke Ans. 1. Coke is obtained when coal is heated in the absence of air. 2. Coke contains about 90 -95% carbon. It does not contain any volatile matter. 3. It is hard and burns without producing smoke. It produces more heat than coal. 3. Petroleum Ans. 1. The dark oily liquid formed from the microorganism living under the sea and which occurs in the pores of sedimentary rocks is called petroleum. 2. It is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. 3. It is formed from the remains of microorganisms due to the action of high pressure, heat and certain catalytic action over a period of millions of years. 4. On fractional distillation, petroleum gives useful products like, fuel oil, diesel, kerosene, petrol and petroleum gas. 4. Natural gas Ans. 1. The gas, which is found in the form of underground reservoirs in the region of coal and petroleum oil is called natural gas. 2. It contains hydrocarbons: methane (80 – 90%), ethane (6 – 10%), Propane (3 – 5%) and butane ( 1 – 2%) 3. Butanes (L.P.G) and other gases can be separated by cooling the natural gas and fractionally distilling the liquid.

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5. L.P.G. Ans. 1. L.P.G is liquefied petroleum gas. 2. It mainly contains liquefied butane and isobutene. 3. It is obtained by cooling natural gas and fractionally distilling the liquid or by the fractional distillation of petroleum. 4. It is supplied in steel cylinders for cooking or industrial use. 6. Fossil fuels Ans. 1. Fossil fuels are formed over millions for years by the burial of plants and animals. 2. They contain energy rich molecules of carbon compounds originally made by plants. 3. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are examples of fossil fuels. About 80% of the energy consumed in the world is obtained by burning these fuels. 7. Fractional distillation of petroleum. Ans. 1. Petroleum or crude oil is brown black liquid. Petroleum is a mixture of several hydrocarbons. 2. When it is distilled, it separates into various fractions of hydrocarbons. 3. The compounds obtained from fractional distillation of petroleum which are useful as fuels are fuel oil, diesel, kerosene, petrol and petroleum gas. 8. Liquid fuels. Ans. 1. Liquid fuels are hydrocarbons. 2. Various hydrocarbons are present in petroleum. 3. When petroleum is fractionally distilled, it separates into various fractions of hydrocarbons. 4. The fractional distillation of petroleum yields three liquid fuels: gasoline or petrol, kerosene and fuel oil. Gasoline or petrol is used as motor fuel, kerosene as a domestic fuel and fuel oil is used for oil furnaces. 9. Water gas Ans. 1. Water gas is prepared by passing steam over while hot coke at about 14000 C. 2. It contains carbon monoxide (45%), hydrogen (45%) and other gases (10%) 3. It is used as a fuel and also a source of hydrogen.

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10. Producer gas. Ans. 1. Producer gas is prepared by blowing insufficient quantity of air through a layer of red hot coal. 2. It contains carbon monoxide (30%), nitrogen (60%) and other gases (10%). 3. It is used for glass and metallurgical furnaces. It is also used as a source of nitrogen for preparation of ammonia. 11. Nuclear fission. Ans. 1. The process of splitting of heavy nucleus into two or more nuclei of smaller mass is called nuclear fission. 2. When U - 235 is bombarded with slow neutrons, each nucleus of U – 235 is split into one nucleus each of Ba and Kr, and three neutrons are set free. The products formed in a nuclear fission are called fission products.

3. As the mass of the original nucleus is always greater than the total mass of the fission products, the difference in the mass is converted into energy. A large amount of energy is liberated in the process of nuclear fission. 4. In a nuclear fission is allowed to continue uninterrupted, extremely large amount of energy is liberated in a short time. It is called uncontrolled chain reaction, which is the basis of an atom bomb. If most of the neutrons in the reactions are absorbed, using boron steel or cadmium rods, and only a few neutrons are allowed to carry on the chain reaction, the reaction is called a controlled chain reaction. It is the principle of working of a nuclear reactor. 12. Nuclear energy Ans. 1. The energy released during a nuclear fission process is called nuclear energy. For example when uranium – 235 is bombarded with slow neutrons, a chain reaction starts and nuclear energy is liberated. 2. In a nuclear fission process, the mass of the original nucleus is always greater than the total mass of the fission products. The difference in the mass is converted into energy, according to Einstein’s equations. E = mc2 Where E = energy released, m = Loss in mass, c = speed of light in vacuum. 3. Using an atom bomb, the nuclear energy is used for destruction. In a nuclear reactor, the nuclear energy is used to generate electricity.

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13. Chain reaction Ans. 1. The self – multiplying process in which the neutrons ejected during the nuclear fission strike the neighbouring nuclei and bring about their fission is called chain reaction. 2. When U – 235 is bombarded with the neutrons, each nucleus of U – 235 splits into one nucleus each of Ba – 141 and Kr – 92, and three neutrons are set free. These neutrons bring about nuclear fission of three more U – 235 nuclei. 3. If a chain reaction is not controlled, a large amount of energy is liberated in an extremely short time. This principle is used in an atom bomb. 4. Using boron steel or cadmium rods, most of the neutrons liberated in the chain reactions are absorbed and only a few neutrons are allowed to carry on the reaction. It is called a controlled chair reaction. The working of a nuclear reactor is based on a controlled chain reaction. 14. Development of atomic energy in India. Ans. 1. The first nuclear reactors were erected at Bhaba Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in Mumbai, Currently Cirrus, Zerlina, Purnima and Dhurva reactors are in operations. There are mainly used for research and in the production of radioisotopes. 2. The first atomic power station was set up at Tarapore (Maharashtra) in 1969. It supplies electricity to the state of Maharashtra and Gujarat. 3. A few more atomic power stations have been set up in different part of the country. 15. Controlled chain reaction Ans. 1. The process in which most of the neutrons liberated in a chain reaction are absorbed and only a few neutrons are allowed to carry on the chain reaction is called a controlled chain reaction. 2. To control the chain reaction, boron steel or cadmium rods are used as they absorb neutrons. 3. The working of a nuclear reactor is based on a controlled chain reaction.

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16. Nuclear reactor. Ans. 1. Uranium – 235 is used as a fuel in a nuclear reactor. 2. The nuclear fission of U – 235 is carried out by bombarding it with slow neutrons. 3. Boron steel or cadmium rods control the nuclear chain reaction set in. Thus, the liberation of energy in the fission process is controlled. 4. The energy released is used to vaporize water and the steam formed is used to run turbines. Thus, electricity is generated. Useful radioactive isotopes are also produced in a nuclear reactor. Q5. Distinguish between 1. Controlled chain reaction and uncontrolled chain reaction. Controlled Chain Reaction 1. The chain reaction in which most of the neutrons are absorbed in called a controlled chain reaction. 2. In this reaction most of the neutrons are absorbed using boron steel or cadmium rods. 3. This reaction is used for peaceful purposes, like generating electricity. 2. Producer gas and Water gas Producer Gas 1. Producer gas is prepared by passing insufficient quantity of air through red hot coal. 2. It contains mainly CO and N2. 3. It is used as a fuel and as illuminating gas. Water Gas 1. Water gas is prepared over white hot coke at about 14000 C. 2. It contains CO and H2. 3. It is used as a fuel in glass furnace and metallurgical furnaces. Uncontrolled Chain Reaction 1. The self – accelerating chain reaction, which takes place on its own, is called an uncontrolled chain reaction. 2. In this reaction neutrons are not absorbed. 3. This reaction leads to an explosion and hence is used for destructive purposes.

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3. Solid Fuels and Gaseous Fuels. Solid fuels 1. The calorific value of solid fuels is lower than that of gaseous fuels. 2. These fuels are difficult to transport. 3. Solid fuels contain some amount of non – combustible material. 4. They do not burn quickly. 5. They produce solid waster products. Gaseous fuels 1. The calorific value of gaseous fuels is higher than solid fuels. 2. These fuels can be transported easily. 3. Gaseous fuels do not contain non – combustible material. 4. They burn instaneously and their combustion can be controlled easily. 5. They do not produce any solid products.

4. Coal and Coke Coal 1. Coal is a fossil fuel formed by the burial of plants. 2. It contains free amorphous carbon and complex carbon compounds. 3. It contains some volatile matter. 4. It burns with smoke. 5. It produces less heat than coke. Coke 1. Coke is obtained by the destructive distillation of coal. 2. It contains about 90 – 95% carbon. 3. It does not contain any volatile matter. 4. It burns without producing smoke. 5. It produces more heat than coal.

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Q1. Define the following 1. Kilocalorie:- Kilocalorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water through 10C. from 14.50C to 15.50C. 2. Specific Heat Capacity:- The specific heat capacity of substance is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance through 10C. 3. Dew Point:- The temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapour is called dew point. 4. Absolute humidity:- The mass of water vapour present in one cubic meter of air is called absolute humidity. 5. Principle of heat exchange:- If the system of two bodies is kept isolated from the surrounding so that no heat enters or leaves the systems, then Heat lost by hot body = Heat gained by cold body. 6. Relative humidity:- Relative humidity is the ratio of actual mass of water vapour present in a given volume of air to the mass of water vapour required to saturated the same volume at the same temperature. 7. Unit of specific heat capacity:- In M.K.S = K cal / kg 0C, in C.G.S = cal /g 0C. Q2. Give scientific reasons:1. If a piece of ice is dropped into a glass of water, it floats on the surface of the water. Ans. 1. Ice is the solid form of water but is density is much less than that of water. 2. We know as water – cools below 40 C its volume increases. 3. As a results density of ice is less that that of water and so it floats on the surface of the water. 2. In winter the pipeline carrying, water burst in cold countries. Ans. 1. In cold countries during winter, the temperature of the atmosphere fall below 00 C. 2. When the temperature of water falls below 40 C, it expands. Hence, the water in pipes freezes and expands. As there is no room for expansion, water exerts a large pressure on the pipes. Hence, the pipes sometimes burst.

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3. In cold countries during winter even through the lakes are frozen, fish and other aquatic animals and plants can survive in it. Ans. 1. In cold countries, during winter, the temperature of the atmosphere falls well below 00 C. 2. As the temperature decreases, the water at the surfaces of lakes and ponds starts contracting. 3. Hence, its density increases and it sinks to the bottom. This process continues till the temperature of all the water in the lake falls to 40 C. 4. As the water at the surface cools further, its temperature falls below 40 C, it starts expanding instead of contracting. 5. Therefore, its density decreases and it remains at the surface. The temperature of the water at the surface continues to fall to 00 C. 6. Finally, the water at the surface is converted into ice, but the water below the layer of ice is at 40 C. 7. Ice is a bad conductor of heat. Hence, the layer of the ice at the surface does not allow transfer of heat from the water to the atmosphere. 8. As the water below the layer of ice remains at 40 C, fish and other aquatic animals and plants can survive in it. Q 3 . Answer the following questions:1. What is ‘Anomalous behavior of water’? (OR) Describe its role in the survival of the aquatic plants and animals in cold countries. Ans. 1. Generally, liquids expands on heating and contract on cooling. Water, however shows an exceptional behaviors below 40C. 2. If water at room temperature is cooled continuously, it goes on contracting till its temperature falls to 40C. 3. But as its temperature falls below 40C, it starts expanding instead of contracting. 4. Similarly, if water is heated form 00 C to 40C, it contracts instead of expanding. 5. This exceptional behaviors of water is known as the anomalous behaviors of water. 6. In cold countries, during winter, the temperature of the atmosphere falls well below 00 C. 7. As the temperature decreases, the water at the surfaces of lakes and ponds starts contracting. 8. Hence, its density increases and it sinks to the bottom. This process continues till the temperature of all the water in the lake falls to 40 C.

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9. As the water at the surface cools further, its temperature falls below 40 C, it

starts expanding instead of contracting.
10. Therefore, its density decreases and it remains at the surface. The

temperature of the water at the surface continues to fall to 00 C. 11. Finally, the water at the surface is converted into ice, but the water below the layer of ice is at 40 C. 12. Ice is a bad conductor of heat. Hence, the layer of the ice at the surface does not allow transfer of heat from the water to the atmosphere. 13. As the water below the layer of ice remains at 40 C, fish and other aquatic animals and plants can survive in it. 2. Write the unit of heat in M.K.S and C.G.S system Ans. Unit of heat in M.K.S. system is Kilocalorie. C.G.S system is Calorie. 3. Explain the formation of dew and fog. Ans. During the day time the quantity of water vapour in air is not sufficient to saturate the air. During the cold night temperature may fall to dew point. At this temperature air becomes saturated with water vapour. As the temperature falls below the dew point, water vapour in air condenses on the surface of cold bodies and dew is formed. Sometimes condensation of water vapour occurs on the fine dust particles present in the atmosphere and this gives rise to the formation of fog or moist. 4. Explain Hope’s apparatus with the help of neat and labeled diagram.

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Ans.
1. Initially, the cylindrical vessel in Hope’s apparatus is filled with water at about 100C and the trough is filled with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. 2. Initially, both the thermometers show the same temperature. In a short time, the temperature shown by the lower thermometer starts decreasing, while the temperature shown by the upper thermometer remains almost unchanged. 3. This process continues till the temperature shown by the lower thermometer shown by the lower thermometer falls to 40C and remains constant thereafter. This shows that in the temperature range 10 0C to 40C, the density of the water in the central part of the vessel goes on increasing and hence the water sinks to the bottom. It means that water contracts as its temperature falls from 100C to 40C. 4. As the temperature of the water in the central part of the vessel becomes less than 40C, the temperature shown by the upper thermometer begins to fall rapidly to 0 0C. After some time, a thin layer of ice is formed at the surface of the water in the vessel. But the temperature shown by the lower thermometer remains constant (i.e. 40C) 5. In the temperature range 40C to 0 0C, the water moves upward. This shows that the density of water goes on decreasing in this range. It means that water expands as its temperature falls from 40C to 00C. 6. Thus the volume of a given mass of water is minimum at 40C, the density of water is maximum at 40C.

5. A piece of ice is melted by heating it, what will be the effects on its mass, volume, density and molecular structure. Ans. Mass Remains the same Volume Increases Density Decreases Molecular structure Regular arrangement of the molecule is broken and molecule are free to move inside the liquid. i.e. Ice is converted into (liquid) water. 6. Explain principle of heat exchange. Ans. Principle of heat exchange 1. When a hot body and a cold body are kept together, the temperature of hot body goes on decreasing while that cold body goes on increasing until both bodies attain the uniform temperature. 2. In this process the hot body losses heat and the cold body gains heat. If no heat enters or leaves the system then, Heat lost by hot body = Heat gained by cold body. Application :- Principle of heat exchange is used to determine specific heat capacity of any substance with the help of calorimeter.

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7. Give two examples of the anomalous behaviour of water with explanation. (or) State two effects of anomalous behaviour of water observed in nature. Ans. 1. Some times water enters into crevices of the rocks. When the temperature of the atmosphere falls below 40C, water expands. As there is no room for expansion, it exerts a tremendous pressure on the rocks, which breaks up into small pieces. 2. In cold countries, in winter, when the water of lakes freezes, the ice formed floats on the surface of water. Hence, the aquatic animals and plants in the water below the layer of ice are protected from being frozen to death.

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Q1. Define Radioactivity:- The property possessed by heavy elements like uranium, thorium, radium etc, of spontaneously emitting highly penetrating and invisible rays is called radioactivity. Q. 2 . Answer the following questions. 1. What is radioactive substance? Give two examples of radioactive substance. Ans. A substance possessing the property of spontaneously emitting highly penetrating and invisible rays (radiation) is called radioactive substance. Example : Uranium, Thorium, Radium etc. 2. Describe an experiment to show that the radiations emitted by a radioactive substance are of three types. Ans. 1. A radioactive substance is kept in the narrow cavity drilled in a thick lead block. 2. The lead absorbs all the radiation emitted by the substance, except those emerging through the cavity in the upward direction. 3. The radiation emerging from the cavity of the lead block pass through a strong electric field applied between plates P1 and P2 and then fall the photographic plate p. 4. The entire apparatus is enclosed in an evacuated chamber kept in a dark room. 5. When the photographic plate is developed after exposing it to the radiation for some time, three distinct spots are observed on the plate. 6. This shows that the radiations are split up into three parts in the presence of an electric field. 7. The radiation deflected towards the negative plate is called α – radiation. 8. The radiation deflected towards the positive plate is called β – radiation. 9. The radiation which is not deflected by the electric field, is called Y- radiation.

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3. State the nature of α – particle, β – particle and Y – radiation. Ans. 1. An α – particle is the nucleus of helium. 2. A β – particle is an electron. 3. Y – radiation consists of electromagnetic waves of very short wavelength of the order of 10-10m. 4. State the laws of radioactive transformation. Ans. Laws of radioactive transformation are: 1. When an atom of radioactive element emits an α – Particle, its mass number decreases by 4 and atomic number decreases by 2. 2. When an atom of radioactive element emits a β – Particle, its mass number remains the same but atomic number increases by 1. 3. When an atom of a radioactive element emits Y – radiation, its mass number and atomic number remain unchanged. 5. State the four properties of α – Particles. Ans. 1. An α – Particle is a positively charged particle. 2. It is the nucleus of helium. 3. α – Particle have velocities ranging from 1/10th to 1/100th of the velocity of light. 4. Their ionizing power is very high. 5. Their penetrating power is small. 6. They can only pass through very thin sheets of paper. 7. They effect photographic plates. 8. They produce fluorescence in florescent substance like zinc sulphide. 6. State the four properties of β – particles. Ans. 1. An β – particle is a negatively charged particle. 2. A β – particle is an electron. 3. β – particles have very high velocities. 4. Some β – particles have velocity equal to 99% of velocity of light. 5. Their ionizing power is small compared to that of α – particles. 6. Their penetrating power is greater that that of α – particles, 7. β – particles can pass through thin sheets of metals. 8. They effect photographic plates. 9. They produce fluorescence in fluorescent substance lime zinc sulphide.

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7. State the four properties of Y – radiations. Ans. 1. Y – Radiations are electromagnetic waves of very short wavelength of the order of 10-10m. 2. Being electromagnetic waves, their velocity is the same as the velocity of light. 3. Their ionizing power is very small compared to the other two particles. 4. Their penetrating power is very high compared to the other two particles. 5. They affect photographic plates. 6. They produce fluorescence in fluorescent substance like zinc sulphide. 8. State the four properties of cathode rays. Ans. 1. Cathode rays are emitted in a direction normal to the surface of the cathode and this direction is independent of the position of the anode. 2. They travel in a straight line. 3. They exert mechanical force on an object in their path. 4. They are deflected by a magnetic field. 5. They produce fluorescence in many substance like zinc sulphide. 6. When an obstacle stops them, X – rays are produced. 9. State the four properties of X – rays Ans. 1. X – rays are electromagnetic waves of very short wavelength of the order 10-6m. 2. They posses all properties of visible light such as rectilinear propagation, reflection, refraction etc. 3. Being electromagnetic waves they travel in air or vacuum with the speed of light. 4. They are not deflected by electric or magnetic field. 5. They posses very high energy. Hence, they can penetrate through dense material such as iron, lead etc. 10. State the uses of cathode rays. Ans. Uses of cathode rays are 1. Cathode rays are used to produce X – rays. 2. Cathode rays produce fluorescence in fluorescent substances. 3. Cathode rays are used in the picture tube of T.V. receiver.

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11. State the uses of X – rays Ans. Uses of X – rays are _ 1. To detect fracture of bones. 2. To detect the presence of foreign materials in a human body. 3. To detect diseases of lungs, kidneys etc. 4. To cure skin diseases and malignant tumor hidden deep within the body. 5. To distinguish real diamonds from artificial ones. 6. To detect explosives and drugs hidden in bags or packages. 7. To study the structure of crystals. 12. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays are emitted in a direction normal to the surface of the cathode and this direction is independent of the position of the anode. Ans. In a discharge tube, even if the anode is fitted on one side, the fluorescent spot is observed in front of the cathode as shown in the figure. This shows that cathode rays are emitted in a direction normal to the position of the anode.

13. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays travel in a straight line. Ans. If an object is placed in front of the cathode in a discharge tube, a sharp shadow of the object if formed in the fluorescent region of the tube as shown in figure. This shows that cathode rays travel in a straight line.

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14. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays exert mechanical force on an object in their path. Ans. A paddle wheel free to roll on horizontal rails is kept inside the discharge tube in such a way that the cathode rays are incident only on the upper part of the wheel. When tube is operated by switching on the D.C. supply, the cathode rays fall on the wheel and hence, the wheel rolls away from the cathode. This shows that cathode rays exert mechanical force on an object in their path.

15. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays are deflected in an electric field. Ans. A uniform electric field is produced in the region between the plated P1 and P2. When the cathode rays pass through the electric field, they are deflected towards the positive plate indicating that the cathode particles are negatively charged as shown in the figure.

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16. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays are effected in a magnetic field. Ans. The experimental arrangement used to study the effect of a magnetic field on cathode rays. A strong horse shoe magnet is used to produce a magnetic field at right angles to the plane of the paper and directed inward. When the cathode rays pass through the magnetic field, they are deflected downward. Hence, the fluorescent sport is displaced downward. The direction of the deflections shows that the cathode particles are negatively charged.

Q3. Give scientific reasons. 1. X – rays are used for detection of fracture of bones. Ans. X – rays can pass through skin and flesh, but they cannot pass through bones. Hence, X – rays photographs are used for detection of fracture of bones. 2. While using X – rays for curing skin diseases or other diseases, long exposure to the X- rays should be avoided. Ans. 1. X rays kill living cells. 2. They kill healthy tissues in the part exposed to X – rays. Hence, while using X – rays for curing skin diseases or other diseases, long exposure to X – rays should be avoided. 3. X – rays are invisible. Ans. 1. X – rays are electromagnetic waves having very short wavelengths of the order 10-6 meters. 2. The only difference between X – rays and visible light is that X – rays have short wavelengths. Therefore X – rays are invisible.

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4. X – rays are used to detect smuggling of gold and silver. Ans. 1. X – rays cannot penetrate through gold and silver. 2. X – rays photograph reveals the presence of hidden metal in bags and packages of the passengers. Hence, X- rays are used to detect smuggling of gold and silver. Q4. Distinguish between1. β – particles and Cathode rays. β – Particles Cathode rays 1. These are electrons emitted by a 1. These are also electrons that come from radioactive atom. cathode of an evacuated cathode ray tube. 2. When a tungsten plate stops β – 2. When a tungsten plate suddenly stops Particles we do not get X – rays. cathode rays, we get X – rays. 3. When β – Particles emitted, the 3. Cathode rays are free electrons emitted atomic number of the atom from the cathode. Hence, there is no increases by one unit. change in atomic number. 2. α – Particles and β – particles α – Particles β – Particles 1. The α – Particles consists of two 1. β – Particles are electrons. protons and two neutrons. Hence, we say 2. β – Particles have very high it the nucleus of Helium atom. velocity up to 99% of the velocity of 2. α – Particles have velocity ranging light. from 1/10th to 1/100th of that of light. 3. β – Particles can penetrate 100 3. α – particles have very low penetrating times more than α – particles. power. 4. β – Particles are deflected towards 4. α – Particles are deflected towards anode plate. negative plate. 5. When β – Particles are emitted 5. When a α – particles are emitted the atomic number increases by one atomic number decreases by two and unit; mass number does not change. atomic mass number decreases by four. 3. X – Rays and Y—Rays. X – rays Y - rays 1. These are electromagnetic rays of 1. These are also electromagnetic rays very short wave length produced when of very short wave length but emitted by the path of cathode rays are an atom the nucleus of an radioactive obstructed. atom. 2. When x – rays fall on a metal plate, 2. Y – rays do not knock out electrons the place emits electrons. from metal plate. 3. X – rays have the velocity of light. 3. Y – rays also has the velocity of light. 4. X – rays have the properties of light 4. Y – rays do not have all the properties rays; they can penetrate through of light but they can penetrate even muscles, tissues but not through bones. bones.
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Q. 1 Define 1. Under nutrition: - Intake of insufficient food is called under nutrition. Under nutrition is very common among the poorer sections of the society. Under nourished people are prone to diseases like rickets, anemia, cold, cough and fever. 2. Over nutrition:- Intake of excessive food is called over nutrition. Over nutrition is seen among the richer section of the society. Over nourished people become obese and overweight. They become prone to diseases like diabetes, arthritis, hyper tension and other cardio – vascular diseases. 3. Malnutrition:- Malnutrition means disordered nutrition which is due to lack of sufficient food or excessive intake of food. 4. Night blindness:- Night blindness is a deficiency disease of the eye caused due to the deficiency of vitamin A in diet. 5. Beriberi: - Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of Vitamin B1 . 6. Rickets: Rickets is a disease caused by the deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. 7. Marasmus:- Marasmus is a disease caused by the deficiency of energy, proteins and other nutrients. 8. Pellagra:- Pellagra is a disease caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B3 (niacin) 9. Scurvy:- Scurvy is a disease caused due to deficiency of Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). It is very common in infants. 10. Anemia: - Anemia is a disease caused by the deficiency of iron. 11. Kwashiorkor: Kwashiorkor is a disease caused by the deficiency of protein. It occurs when babies are taken away from protein rich breast milk to other foods, which are not rich in proteins and energy. Q 2 .Give reasons 1. Malnutrition is hazardous. Ans. malnutrition is hazardous because. 1. It effects the physical and physiological well – being of an individual. 2. The physical, mental and social performance of a malnourished individual becomes abnormal. 3. Malnourished children become prone to diseases like marasmus, rickets and anemia.

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2. In India, there are high incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases among the poorer section of the society. Ans. 1. In India among the poorer sections of the society even the intake of basic calorie requirement is not fulfilled. 2. Proteins, vitamins and minerals are not consumed at desired levels. Therefore, there is high incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases among the poorer section of the society. 3. Babies should not be weaned from breast milk to other diets deficient in proteins and energy. Ans. 1. Breast milk contains carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which can be easily digested and absorbed. 2. If proteins are not provided in sufficient quantities, the baby may suffer from protein energy malnutrition leading to Kwashiorker and marasmus. Therefore, babied should not be weaned from breast milk to other diets deficient in protein and energy.

4. Rickets is common among those children who are deprived of sunlight. Ans. 1. Rickets is caused by the deficiency of vitamin D. 2. Vitamin D is synthesized by the body, if the skin is exposed to morning sun. Therefore, rickets is common among those children who are deprived of sunlight. 5. Goitre is more prevalent among the people who reside in mountainous regions. Ans. 1. In mountainous regions iodine content of the soil and water is low. 2. This leads to deficiency of iodine, which causes goitre. Therefore, goitre is more prevalent among the people who reside in mountainous regions. 6. Pellagra occurs in people living on a maize diet. Ans. 1. Pellagra is due to the deficiency of vitamin B3 (niacin) 2. Maize does not contain niacin. Hence, pellagra occurs in people living on a maize diet.

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7. Beriberi is observed mainly amongst people who eat polished rice. Ans. 1. Beriberi is caused due to the absence of Vitamin B1 . (Thiamine) 2. Polished rice lacks B1 . (Thiamine). So Beriberi is observed mainly amongst people who eat polished rice. 8. Scurvy is observed among the people whose diet is deficient in fresh fruits. Ans. 1. Scurvy is due to gross deficiency of vitamin C. 2. Fruits contain vitamin C. Therefore, scurvy is observed among the people whose diet is deficient in fresh fruits. Q 3 .Answer the following questions. 1. Mention the hazards of Malnutrition (TB) OR What are the general effects of physical and physiological well being of a under nourished and over nourished person. Ans. Undernourished person: 1. Weight and height is below the standard value. 2. Physical, mental and social performance is below normal. 3. The under nourished person is susceptible to infection due to low resistance of the body. 4. The under nourished person becomes prone to diseases like rickets, anemia infectious diseases like cold, sough, fever etc. Over nourished person: 1. An over nourished person becomes over weight and obese. 2. The over nourished person becomes prone to diseases like diabetes, arthritis, cardio – vascular disorder etc. 2. What is night blindness? What are its symptoms? Ans. Night blindness is a deficiency disease of the eye caused due to the deficiency of vitamin A in diet. Symptoms of night blindness: 1. Unable to see in dim light particularly after exposure to bright light. 2. Xeroderma (dry and scaly skin)

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3. What is beriberi? What are its symptoms? Ans. Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of vitamin B1 . Symptoms of beriberi_ 1. Loss of apatite. 2. Muscle weakness 3. degeneration of nerve tissues 4. Some times odema is observed 5. Mental alertness decreases 6. Memory may become faulty. 7. Concentration becomes poor. 8. Person becomes unstable emotionally. 4. What is rickets? What are its symptoms? Ans. 1. Rickets:- Rickets is a deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. 2. Symptoms of rickets:- 1. Faulty mineralization of bones and teeth. 2. Skeletal malformation resulting into twisted bones. 3. Late eruption of teeth. 5. What is scurvy? State its symptoms. Ans. 1. Scurvy :- Scurvy is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid ) in diet. 2. Symptoms of scurvy :- 1. Swelling and bleeding of gums. 2. Reduction in resistance of the body to infections. 3. Poor healing of wounds. 4. Subcutaneous haemorrhage. 5. Irritability. 6. What is pellagra? Give the important symptoms of pellagra. Ans. 1. Pellagra:- Pellagra is the deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin B3 (Niacin) in the diet. 2. Symptoms of pellagra:- 1. Rough, scaly and ulcerated skin. 2. Darkening of complexion due to hyper pigmentation. 3. Soreness of mouth. 4. Diarrhoea and fatigue. 5. Listlessness and depression. 6. Headache and backache. 7. What is marasmus? What are its symptoms? Ans. Marasmus:-1. Marasmus is a malnutrition disease characterised by the stunted growth of a child. 2. Marasmus occurs due to the deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet of infants.

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Symptoms of marasmus are: 1. The child is reduced to skin and bones owing to wasting of muscles. 2. The skin becomes shrunken. 3. Eyes become large in size. 4. The ribs of marasmic child look very prominent. 5. Dehydration occurs in the body due to watery Diarrhoea and vomiting. 8. Give the important symptoms of anaemia. (or) What is anaemia? How is it caused? (or) What is the causes of anaemia? What are its symptoms? (or) State the disease caused due to the deficiency of iron. Give its two symptoms? Ans. Anaemia:- Anaemia is a deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of iron in the diet. In anaemia, the haemoglobin content of the blood goes down. Symptoms of anaemia:1. Pale appearance of the skin, fingernails and mucous membrane. 2. Frequent headache. 3. Breathlessness and palpitation. 4. Constant feeling of tiredness and giddiness. 5. Insomnia. 9. What is Kwashiorker? What are its symptoms? Ans. Kwashiorker is a disease caused by the deficiency of protein. It occurs when babies are taken away from protein rich breast milk to other foods, which are not rich in proteins and energy. Symptoms of Kwashiorker:1. The child becomes listless and miserable. 2. Child becomes apathetic with no interest in his surroundings. 3. Cheerless with no apetite. 4. Weight and height is below normal. 5. Oedema occurs due to loss of nitrogen, which leads to full round face called moon face. 6. Circumference of upper arm is reduced due to muscle wasting. 7. Abdomen swells and liver enlarges causing potbelly. 8. There is discoloration, redness, sparseness and easy pluckability of hair. 9. Skin cracks and becomes scaly, inflamed and reddish.

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10. Give the effect of deficiency of Vitamin B complex. Ans. The effect of deficiency of Vitamin B complex are 1. Retarded growth 2. Mental disorder 3. Beri – Beri 4. Pellagra 11. State the reasons for mal nourishment or under nutrition. Ans. The reasons for malnourishment are 1. Ignorance about food. 2. Poverty. 3. Environmental factors 4. Faulty food processing practices. 5. Habits. 6. Natural calamities. 7. Faulty distribution of food and traditions. 12. Explain the term PEM Ans. Deficiency of protein, Carbohydrate and fat results in Protein – Energy – Malnutrition (PEM). It is the most important nutritional disorder – affecting children, particularly in the age period of 1 to 5 years. 13. Explain how food is enriched with nutrients. Ans. 1. Hydrogenated fat is fortified with Vitamin A and D. 2. Common salt is enriched with iodine. 3. Flour is fortified with vitamin mineral premix. 4. Breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin and minerals. 5. Milk products and infant food are fortified with vitamin A, B, C and D and minerals like calcium and iron. 14. Write a short note on Goitre. Ans. 1. Goitre is abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland and it is an endemic nutritional deficiency disease. 2. It is commonly observed in hilly regions where the iodine content of the soil and water is low. It is known as “Goitre Belt” region. 3. In many parts of our country, particularly in sub Himalayan regions from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh people are affected by this disease. 4. Addinh iodine salts such as potassium iodate to common salt, on to the drinking water supply helps to provide iodine to the needy people. 5. Now a days, iodine enriched salt is also available everywhere. One should use it in daily diet to control goitre.
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15. Baskar has brittle and weak bones. State the disease he is suffering from. Name the deficient vitamin. Suggest measures on it. Ans. 1. Baskar is suffering from rickets, which is due to the deficiency of vitamin D. 2. Baskar should expose his body to morning sun. Besides he should take egg, fish liver oils and butter in his daily food. 16. The following report is observed in the school health inspection. Name the diseases. a. Vasu cannot see in dim light. b. Bleeding gums of pritesh. (March 2001) Ans. a. Night blindness b. Scurvy 17. Which deficiency in food is responsible for the following diseases. Ans. Marasmus -------- Protein, energy and other nutrients. Pellagra -------- Niacin (B3) Anaemia -------- Iron Rickets -------- Calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D Night Blindness -------- Vitamin A Q4. Distinguish between. 1. Kwashiorker and Marasmus Kwashiorker 1. It is a disease of children caused by the deficiency of protein in the diet. 2. In this, there is Oedema on the body of the child. 3. The circumference of the upper arm of the child is reduced due to muscle wasting. 4. The skin of the child cracks and becomes scaly. 5. The face looks like a moon. Marasmus 1. It is a disease of children caused by the deficiency of proteins, energy and other nutrients in the diet. 2. There is no oedema on the body of the child. 3. The child is reduced to mere skin and bone due to muscle wasting. 4. The skin becomes shrunken. 5. The face looks like an old person face.

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2. Healthy child and Undernourished child Based on the following points. Healthy child Undernourished child 1. Hair Lustrous and strong 1. Dry and easily falling 2. Face Happy look 2. Miserable look, Swollen 3. Eyes 3. Dry, inflamed, sticky and sensitive to Healthy, bright, moist and luster look light. 4. Skin 4. Dry with cracks, loose, rough, Lustrous, smooth and intact. pigmented and scaly skin. 5. Tongue 5. Ulcers and exacts on tongue, Moist and pinkish magenta red colour and loss of taste. 6. Posture Good 6. Bad 7. Structure Well built 7. Bad 8. Weight and Height Normal 8. Below the standard.

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Q1. Give scientific reasons:1. Excessive intake of water – soluble vitamins has no ill effects on the body. (or) Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored in the body. Ans. 1.These vitamins dissolve in water. 2. They are easily excreted out of the body along with urine. Hence, excessive intake of water – soluble vitamins has no ill effects on the body. 2. Excessive intake of fluorine should be avoided. Ans. 1. The over consumption of fluorine begins to discolour the teeth enamel. 2. It also leads to abnormal calcification of bones, known as “Bone Fluorosis” Hence, excessive intake of fluorine should be avoided. 3. Excessive intake of high calorie diet should be avoided. Ans. 1 The over consumption of high calorie diet leads to overweight and obesity. 2. Such people may suffer from hypertension, liver disorders, renal disorders and heart disorders. Hence, intake of high calorie diet should be avoided. 4. Excessive intake of synthetic vitamin A in children results in may complications. Ans. 1. It causes hyper vitaminosis of vitamin A. 2. It is a fat – soluble vitamin and therefore remains in the body and is not excreted out. 3. It results in itching of skin, painful swelling of legs and hands and enlargement of spleen. 5. Excessive intake of saturated fats in our diet should be avoided. Ans. 1. Fats give energy two times more than the amount of energy given by carbohydrates. 2. Some fat get deposited on the inner walls of the arteries causing arteriosclerosis and obesity. 3. It also leads to cardio – vascular diseases and other complication like hypertension, diabetes, etc. Hence, excessive intake of saturated fats in our diet should be avoided.

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Q2. Answer the following. 1. How high blood pressure is caused and how is it prevented? Ans. 1. High blood pressure is caused due to the excess of fats. 2. It can be controlled by prevention of obesity. 3. One should take required amount of saturated fats to control obesity. 4. Intake of salts should be restricted after the age of 35 years. 2. What is diabetes? How is it caused? How is it prevented? Ans. 1. Diabetes is the disease in which the level of glucose in blood increase beyond normal level and glucose is excreted through urine. 2. A hormone ‘insulin’ controls blood glucose level. 3. Obesity interferes the action of insulin and is one of the causes of diabetes. Which is caused in adults. 4. If obesity is reduced and controlled, diabetes will be automatically controlled. 3. Write the dietary caused through the following disorders:1. High blood pressure. 2 Inadequate blood supply. 3. Pitted teeth. 4. Dryness and itching skin. 5. Facial paralysis. Ans. 1. Dietary causes of high blood pressure. a. Excessive intake of saturated fats. b. Intake of salts in excess. 2. Dietary causes of inadequate blood supply. a. Excessive intake of fats. 3. Dietary causes of pitted teeth. a. Excessive intake of fluorine. 4. Dietary causes of dryness and itching skin a. Excessive intake of vitamin A. 5. Dietary causes of facial paralysis. a. Excessive intake of vitamin D.

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4. State the necessary precautions to avoid the following disorders. 1. Arteriosclerosis. 2. To control diabetes. 3. Obesity. Ans. 1. Arteriosclerosis:- Arteriosclerosis can be avoided by restricting he consumption of fat and fat rich nutrients. 2. To control diabetes:- It can be controlled by controlling the obesity and by controlling the diet. 3. Obesity:- It can be avoided by restricting he quantity of fats and carbohydrates in the diet. 5. What are the possible disorder due to the consumption of following. 1. High calorie diet. 2. Saturated fat. 3. Fluorine. 4. Vitamin A in children ‘s diet 5. Vitamin C Ans. 1. High calorie diet: The over consumption of high calorie diet leads to overweight and obesity. Such people may suffer from hypertension, liver disorders, renal disorders and heart disorders. 2. Saturated fat: The over consumption of saturated fat leads to blood pressure and arteriosclerosis, leading to heart disease, paralysis and gangrene. 3. Fluorine:- The over consumption of fluorine begins to discolour the teeth enamel. It also leads to abnormal calcification of bones, known as “Bone Fluorosis” 4. Vitamin A in children’s diet:- The over consumption of vitamin A in children’s diet results in dry itchy akin, painful swelling of legs and hands thickening of long bones and hyper irritability. 5. Vitamin C:- The over consumption of vitamin C has no ill effects on the body as they are easily extracted through urine. 6. Give the disadvantages of excessive intake of nutrients. Ans. The disadvantages of excessive intake of nutrients are: 1. Excessive intake of nutrients is wastage of nutrients. 2. Excessive intake of nutrients results in various disorders of the body leading to disability and pre matured death. 3. Excessive intake of nutrients leads to overweight and obesity.
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7. Explain hypervitaminosis. Ans. Disorders or diseases resulting from the over intake of vitamins is called hypervitaminosis. Hypervitaminosis is caused mainly due to excess consumption of fat soluble vitamins like vitamin A, Vitamin D, etc. 1. Hypervitaminosis of vitamin A occurs when concentrated from of synthetic vitamin A is administered for a larger period. Following symptoms are commonly observed in the children. Dry itchy skin, painful swelling of legs and hands thickening of long bones, occasional enlargement of spleen, hyper irritability. In adults, complaints such as fatigue, general weakness, insomnia, constipation, nail changes, bone and joint pains etc. are observed. 2. Hypervitaminosis of vitamin D causes nausea, fatigue, vomiting, drowsiness, hypertension, renal damage, calcium deposition in large blood vessels and in soft tissues, facial paralysis and anaemia etc. 8. What happens when an adult takes vitamin ‘A’ in excess? Ans. Excessive intake of vitamin A causes following disorders in adults. 1. Fatigue 2. General weakness 3. Insomnia 4. Constipation 5. Nail changes 6. Bone and joint pains.

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Q1. Give scientific reasons: 1. Immature grains should not be harvested. Ans. Immature grains should not be harvested because 1. They deteriorate quickly as enzymes are still active in them. 2. The grains also have high proportion of moisture in them which is favourable condition for enzyme reaction. 2. Wet grains should not be dried in the hot sun. Ans. 1. Drying of wet grains in the sun results in their cracking leading to increased infestation by insects. 2. Hence, wet grains should not be dried in the hot sun. 3. Grapes should not be handled by untrained labourers. Ans. 1. Untrained labourers handle grapes roughly during harvesting and packing. 2. Owing to this grapes get spoilt completely. 3. Hence, grapes should not be handled by untrained labourers. 4. Jaggery should not be packed in gunny bags during rainy season. Ans. 1. Jaggery should not be packed in gunny bags during rainy season, because it results in both qualitative and quantitative loss of the commodity. 2. Moreover, the commodity becomes unacceptable in the market because of its contamination by both live and dead insects and their excreta. 5. Potatoes should not be stored for a long time. Ans. Potatoes should not be stored for along time, because 1. Potatoes sprout during storage. 2. Sprouting leads to qualitative and quantitative losses of their nutritive values. 6. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than nonperishable foodstuffs. Ans. 1. Perishable foodstuffs have a short shelf – life as compared to non perishable food stuffs. 2. Therefore, losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non perishable foodstuffs. 7. Grapes get spoiled during packing. Ans. 1. Grapes get spoilt if packed in rigid wooden boxes. 2. Therefore, grapes get spoiled during packing.
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8. Due to defective mode of distribution more wastage of food takes place. Ans. 1. Improper packaging, marketing and transport arrangements for distribution of food are responsible for wastage of food. 2. Therefore, due to defective mode of distribution more wastage of food takes place. 9. Over ripening of fruits should be avoided. Ans. 1. Over ripening of fruits get spoiled due to enzymatic action. 2. Therefore, over ripening of fruits should be avoided. 10. Buffet system of food serving should be followed at public places. Ans. 1. Buffet system of food serving is useful in minimizing the wastage of food. 2. Therefore, buffet system of food serving should be followed at public places. 11. Overcooking of food should be avoided. Ans. Overcooking of food should be avoided, because: 1. Overcooking disintegrates the food. 2. Owing to this, the colour and flavour of food is lost. 3. Therefore, overcooking of food should be avoided. 12. Cooking of food in an open pan should be avoided. Ans. 1. Cooking of food in an open pan results in losses of vitamins. 2. Therefore, cooking of food in an open pan should be avoided. 13. Chopped vegetables should not be washed. Ans. 1. Washing of chopped vegetables results in loss of nutritive quality. 2. Therefore, chopped vegetables should not be washed. 14. Bananas should not be kept in a refrigerator. Ans. Bananas turn black if they are stored at low temperature. Hence, bananas should not be kept in a refrigerator.

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Q2. Answer the following 1. Explain how production of food has increased in our country. (or) How is the production of food being increased? Ans. The production of food has increased in our country, because of the following reasons. 1. New scientific methods and efficient technologies of cultivation. 2. Green revolution for producing more crops and white revolution for producing more milk. Both these revolutions were the results of the programs implemented by the Government of India. 2. What are the two lines of action which government has taken to meet the food requirements of our country? Ans. The two lines of action which government has taken to meet the food requirements of our country are as follows. 1. Control of population growth. 2. Increase in food production and reduction in losses of food. 3. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non – perishable food stuffs. Why? Ans. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non – perishable foodstuffs due to the following reasons:1. Perishable foodstuffs have a short – self life as compared to anon – perishable foodstuffs. Therefore there is a considerable loss in perishable foodstuffs. 2. In perishable foodstuffs enzymes are more active than in non – perishable foodstuffs. Therefore they deteriorate more quickly resulting into heavy losses. 3. In perishable foodstuffs, there is natural losses due to endogenous respiration and wilting due to transpiration. In non – perishable foodstuffs, there is neither endogenous respiration non wilting due to transpiration. 4. Perishable foodstuffs have heavy losses due to decay caused buy micro – organism as compared to that of non – perishable foodstuffs. 4. Suggest measures for controlling quantitative loss of foodstuffs. Ans. The measure for controlling quantitative loss of foodstuffs are: 1. Adequate measure must be adopted for proper distribution of foodstuffs to all the sections of society. 2. A care must be taken at each and every step to avoid wastage and spoilage of food. Good transportation facilities must be provided. 3. Proper distribution of foodstuffs can be achieved by implementing ration system. 4. At home, proper serving of prepared food to all family members should be practiced. 5. Buffet system at public places such as hostels, boarding will be useful to minimize the wastage.
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Scientific methods of post harvesting practices and storage. 1. After harvesting, transportation and storage facilities must be adequate and proper safe storage go-downs should be built according to the nature of foodstuffs. 2. There must be proper arrangements of temperature and moisture control. 3. Godowns must be well ventilated and protected from pests. 4. Before storage, grains should be properly dried and cleared off from infected and spoiled materials and other impurities. 5. Periodical checking and pest control treatments are necessary to increase the self – life of foods. 6. Adaptation of new technologies for harvesting and storage, training for proper handling to the food handlers are some of the solution to minimize the losses of food stuffs. 5. List the causes of food wastage Ans. Causes of food wastage are 1. Defective post harvest practices. 2. Improper handling of foodstuffs. 3. Losses during transport and milling of foodstuffs. 4. Defective modes of storage and distribution of food. 5. Losses due to traditional custom. 6. What will happen if the food is not handled properly? Ans. Effects of improper handling of food are as follows. 1. Rough handling by untrained labours is a major cause of food wastage. 2. Losses are more in perishable foodstuffs, particularly during harvesting, packing, transporting, etc. 3. Delicate grapes if roughly harvested and packed in rigid wooden boxes, will get spoil completely. 4. Careless digging of sweet potatoes, causes injury to them. 7. Explain how qualitative loss of nutritive nature of food takes place due to faulty pre – marketing process. Ans. The following faulty pre – marketing processes can lead to qualitative loss of food: 1. Improper time of harvesting crop. 2. Wrong judgment of time required for foodstuffs to reach the market. 3. Damage to perishable goods during harvesting. 4. Wrong judgment of the likely time gap between production and marketing. 5. Lack of knowledge of available modes of packaging, storage, transport, distribution etc.

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8. Enlist the faulty cooking methods. Ans. Faulty cooking results in the loss of certain nutrients. 1. Over cooking may disintegrate food or may lose its colour, flavour etc. 2. Cooking with water in open pan results in greater losses of vitamins. 3. The water from cooked food if thrown away, protein, minerals and vitamins get lost. 4. Washing fruits or vegetables after cutting affects the nutritive quality of the food besides its acceptability. 9. Explain why harvesting of crops must be done at proper time? Ans. 1. If immature crops are harvested they will deteriorate more quickly than mature grains, as the enzymes are still active. 2. If the grain remains in the field after maturity, occasionally it becomes wet due to rain and drying of such grains in the hot sun may cause grains to crack, thus increasing the likelihood of infestation by insects. 10. Write a note on white revolution. Ans. 1. Increase in production of milk by high yielding varieties of animals is called white revolution. 2. In 1970 Government of India, in collaboration with Denmark, New Zealand and other countries started improving Indian breeds of cows and buffaloes. 3. As a result high yielding varieties of cows and buffaloes were developed leading to white revolution. 4. Aarey dairy at Mumbai, Amul dairy at Anand in Gujarat and Warna dairy at Kolhapur have contributed to white revolution. 11. Write a note on green revolution. Ans. 1. Increase in the production of food grains by developing high yielding varieties of crop plants with the help of new scientific methods and technologies is called green revolution. 2. The population explosion in India, after independence created increasing demands for food supply. 3. To meet the ever – increasing demands for food, efforts were made to increase the production of food grains. 4. In 1960’s scientists realized the importance of high yielding varieties of crop plants for increasing the production of food grains. 5. Many hybrid varieties of crop seeds were used which led to tremendous increase in food production.

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Q3. Write short notes on 1. Losses of food during farm level operation: 1. It includes various process such as threshing and drying grains, bagging or placing threshed grain in other containers, grading or sorting of fruits, bundling of leafy vegetables, transport from field to storage, mill or market etc. 2. Losses of non – perishable foodstuffs occur due to their post harvest quality and threshing and shelling by using hand brake method or by use of animals. 3. Losses of perishable foodstuffs due to their short – self life. 2. Losses of food during transport. 1. It is due to transport from field to storage place or to processing place. 2. During this transits, loss may occur due to continued deterioration of perishable food or spoilage of bagged grains exposed to rain, or spoilage due to defective or damaged containers etc. 3. The use of hooks to handle sacks of grains in port is also one of the examples of poor handling, causing loss. 3. Loss of food due to the defective modes of storage:1. Food losses during storage are quite high. 2. Variation in temperature, humidity and moisture are responsible for damage during storage. 3. In hot damp conditions, the deterioration of food takes place due to the rapid growth of micro – organism and insect population. 4. Unsuitable container used for the storage of food materials also plays sub role in loss of food. 4. Loss of food due to defective modes of distribution:1. Improper packaging, marketing and transport arrangements for distribution are responsible for food wastage. 2. The percentage of wastage is more among perishable foods, especially during summer or rainy seasons. 3. Rough handling or vibration in overloaded trucks on poor roads causes physical
damage to the delicate perishable foodstuffs like vegetables, fruits, fish etc.

5. Loss of food due to traditional customs:1. A considerable amount of food materials are lost in many houses due to wasteful and inefficient management. 2. Many a times more than required quantity of food is purchased, especially by privileged section of the society. 3. Some amount of food is also wasted due to may customs and practices. 4. For example, a considerable amount of food prepared for feast during social and religious functions is wasted due to improper management. 5. The wastage of good also occurs due to faulty serving methods. 6. Even in hotels, boarding, hostels, etc a large amount of food is wasted.
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Q1. Define 1. Natural preservatives: - The naturally occurring food stuffs such as sugar, oil and apices which are used for preserving food are called natural preservatives. 2. Asepsis:- Keeping out microorganisms from food is called asepsis. 3. Food spoilage:- The undesirable change in food which makes it unfit for human consumption is called food spoilage. 4. Developed preservatives:- During certain processes, some products can be developed having a preservative effect. Such products are called developed preservatives. 5. Artificial preservatives:- The synthetic chemicals that are used for the preservation of food are called artificial preservatives. 6. Food poisoning:- An acute illness resulting from the ingestion of food containing poisonous substances are called food poisoning. Q2. Give scientific reasons:1. Packaging material for food should be selected properly. Ans. Packaging material for food should be selected properly because 1. The material should be non – reactive, non toxic and non corrosive so as to avoid spoilage of food. 2. To maintain the quality of food, it depends upon the packaging material used for its packing. 2. Potable water must be used for foodstuffs. Ans. Potable water must be used for food stuffs because 1. Potable water is free from micro – organisms. 2. It does not contaminate the food. 3. Potatoes are irradiated before storing. Ans. Potatoes are irradiated before storing because 1. Potatoes sprout during storage. 2. To avoid the potatoes from sprouting they are irradiated with gamma rays.

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4. A high standard of cleanliness must be maintained at food processing plants. (or) Food handlers should be hygienically clean. Ans. A high standard of cleanliness must be maintained at food processing plants because 1. Most of the diseases and contamination of food is brought due to unhygienic conditions of the food handlers. 2. Pathogens can be transmitted to other via the agency of food handlers. 3. Many communicable and contagious diseases are spread if food handlers do not maintain health and hygiene. 5. Fruits and vegetables should not get bruised. Ans. Fruits and vegetable should not get bruised because 1. Bruising facilitates the entry of micro – organisms. 2. They use the nutrients of food for their growth and activities there by decrease the nutritive value. 3. They also release toxins, which contaminates the fruits and vegetables. 6. Milk should be preserved at low temperature. Ans. Milk should be preserved at low temperature because 1. Low temperature treatment retards the chemical and enzymatic reactions. 2. It also slows down or stops the growth of micro – organisms. 3. Milk can remain fresh without contamination for a longer period if stored at low temperature. 7. Combinations of different preservative methods are used for preserving jams. Ans. Combinations of different preservative methods are used for preserving jams because. 1. Single method of preserving is not effective. 2. For preparing jam three methods are involved such as asepsis, use of high temperature and use of preservative i.e. sugar. 8. Use of high temperature is essential for food preservation. Ans. Use of high temperature is essential for food preservation because 1. The micro – organisms can be killed by using high temperature. 2. The enzymes present in food can also be inactivated by heating, boiling etc.

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9. Use of low temperature is a method of food preservation. Ans. Use of low temperature is a method of food preservation because. 1. Low temperature treatments are useful to retard chemical and enzymatic reactions. 2. They are also useful to slow down or stop growth and activity of micro – organisms. 10. Butter milk should not be kept in a brass vessel. Ans. Butter milk should not be kept in brass vessel because, 1. Butter milk contains an organic acid called as lactic acid. 2. The lactic acid present in the buttermilk reacts with the brass vessel. 3. The chemical reaction brings about spoilage of butter milk, which is unfit for consumption. 11. Cut meat should not be kept for long time. Ans. 1. After slaughtering killing animals certain chemical changes takes place. 2. Degradation of glycogen continues to form intermediate product specially lactic acid. 3. Lactic acid increases acidity of meat, which affects the nutritive value of the foodstuffs. Hence, cut meat should not kept for longer time. 12. Groundnuts are stored for a longer period. Ans. 1. They turn rancid and develop an undurable flavour in it. 2. This is due to chemical reaction in it. Hence, groundnuts are stored for a longer period.

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Q3. Answer the following in short. 1. List the extrinsic and intrinsic factors of spoilage in foodstuffs. Give one example each. Ans. Extrinsic factors:1. Physical damage due to improper handling. Example: If food is handled improperly while plucking, transporting, drying, preserving etc. it may cause bruising after the tissues of food. It facilitates the entry of micro organisms and insects in food. 2. Chemical reactions due to contact with metals. Example:- Butter milk gets spoilt if kept in a brass vessel. 3. Micro Organisms Example:- Yeast, bacteria etc. contaminate the food, which cause food poisoning. 4. Insects, rodents, birds and domestic animals. Example: Fruits, vegetables and food gains are largely destroyed by insects, rodents, birds and domestic animals. Such food becomes unfit for human consumption. Intrinsic Factors. 1. Enzymatic reactions:Example : Enzymes present in food starts degrading the food resulting into spoilage of food. 2. Chemical Reactions Examples:- Groundnuts stored for a longer period, they rancid and develop an undurable flavour in it. This is due to chemical reaction in it. 2. Explain briefly different methods of food preservation. Ans. The different methods of food preservation are as follows: 1. Asepsis or keeping out micro – organisms:- Foods are preserved by not allowing the micro – organisms to come in contact with food. This is done by keeping sanitation and hygiene related to food. 2. Removal of micro – organisms:- In this method micro – organisms are removed by washing, trimming, filtration etc. 3. Maintenance of anaerobic conditions. :- An anaerobic condition can be created by filling the container completely, evacuation of the unfilled space or the replacement of the air by an inert gas. E.g. Canning of food. 4. Use of high temperature:- The micro – organisms can be killed by using high temperature. The enzymes present in food can also be inactivated by high temperature.

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5. Use of Low temperature:- Low temperature is useful to retard chemical and enzymatic reactions. They are also useful to slow down or stop growth and activity of micro – organisms. E.g. use of refrigerator or cold storage for milk, fruits, vegetables, meat etc. 6. Drying:- Preservation of food by sun – drying has been practiced for centuries. It can also be done by using mechanical drier. 7. Use of chemical additives:- Some food stuffs are preserved by making use of certain natural chemicals such as sugar, salt, oil spices and synthetic chemicals such as sodium benzoate, citric acid, etc. During certain process some products can be developed which act as preservatives. E.g. Acid during fermentation. 8. Irradiation:- Radiations of various frequencies are used to preserve food stuffs, for example. To avoid sprouting of stored potatoes they are irradiated with gamma rays. Q3. Explain different ways of maintaining aseptic conditions of food preservation. Ans. The different ways of maintaining aseptic conditions of food preservation are: 1. Maintenance of clean environment:- A high standard of cleanliness should be maintained in the premises where food is harvested, stored, processed etc. 2. Cleanliness of food:- Foodstuffs may contain micro – organisms. Therefore, they should be cleaned properly with clean water to minimize their contamination. 3. Cleanliness of food handlers:- A person who handles the food must maintain a high standard of cleanliness. He should have the basic knowledge of the principle of sanitation and hygiene. 4. Packaging material:- Packaging material for food should be non – reactive, non – corrosive and non – toxic,, so that the food quality is maintained. 5. Cleanliness of equipments and utensils:- Equipments used in handling food like choppers, knives, tongs, etc. Should be washed with hot water or sterilized. 6. Use of potable water:- Impure water may be a major cause of a source of contamination, as it carries micro – organisms. Therefore clean water should be used. 7. Safe disposal of leftover food and food waste:- Left over food should be covered and stored in a cool dry place, preferably in a refrigerator. Food waste like peels, seeds, bones etc. should be disposed off in garbage cans with lids. The disposal of waste should be done with proper care.

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4. What are preservatives? Describe its types? Ans. Preservatives are chemical substances or food additives, which are added to foodstuffs to increase their shelf life. Preservative play an important role in food preservation inhabit the spoilage of food. Preservatives are classified into the following groups. 1. Natural preservative:- The naturally occurring foodstuffs such as sugar, salt, oil and spices which are used for preserving food are called natural preservatives. For example, sugar is used for the preservation of jams. 2. Developed preservatives:- During certain processes some products can be developed which act as preservatives. The products are called developed preservatives, for example during fermentation acid is produced in foods which act as a preservatives. 3. Artificial preservatives:- The synthetic chemicals that are used for the preservation of food are called artificial preservatives. For example sodium benzoate, citric acid are artificial preservatives. 5. Write the effects off consumption of spoilt foods. Ans. The effects of consumption of spoilt foods are:1. The intensity of effect will depend on the type and number of micro – organisms and consumer’s power. 2. It may also cause food poisoning which may cause certain disease due to ingestion of toxic substances produced by micro – organisms. 3. There may be an infection produced by pathogenic micro – organisms carried by the food. Sometimes this pathogenic micro – organisms may produce some toxins. 4. There may be gastro – intestinal disturbance. Such as nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea. Other symptoms are headache, fever or chills, muscular weakness, drowsiness etc. 5. Food poisoning may be a cause of death. 6. State how cleanliness of food handlers should be maintained. Ans. The cleanliness of food handlers should be maintained by the following ways. 1. Food handlers should be free from any communicable diseases. 2. They should maintain a high standard of personal hygiene. 3. They should undergo regular medical check up. 4. They should wear clean clothes. 5. They should avoid coughing, sneezing and spitting while at work. 6. They should avoid smoking or chewing of tobacco. 7. They should not touch his body parts such as hair, legs, feet while handling the food.
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7. Explain why food should not be exposed to moist air? Ans. 1. If food is exposed to moist air, number of micro – organisms contaminate it. 2. They start multiplying itself. 3. They decrease the nutritive value of food. 4. Micro – organisms release some toxic substances and make food unfit for consumption. Hence food should not be exposed to moist air. 8. Explain what happens when meat is overcooked with a pinch of sodium bicarbonate. Ans. When meat is overcooked with a pinch of sodium bicarbonate, vitamins of B complex and vitamin present tin meat get destroyed. As a result of this, the nutritive quality of the food is affected. The meat is disintegrated and loss its colour and flavour. 9. Explain, why fishes should not be used as food without salting? Ans. 1. Salting of fishes is done to prevent its spoilage. 2. Salting of fishes is also done for preservation for a longer time. 3. If fishes are kept for a longer time they become stale and get contaminated. 4. Use of such contaminated fishes is harmful. Therefore, fishes should not be used as food without salting.

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Q1. Give Scientific reasons:1. Albino persons cannot synthesize the pigment melanin. Ans. Albino persons cannot synthesize the pigment melanin because. 1. It is hereditary disease in which there is no pigmentation of hair, eyes and colour of the skin. 2. The gene, which controls the synthesis of the pigment melanin, undergoes mutation in them. 2. In take of saturated fat should be avoided. Ans. Intake of saturated fat should be avoided because 1. Saturated fat contains cholesterol and triglycerides in them. 2. Excess intake of saturated fats leads to deposition of these fats on the inner walls of the arteries causing arteriosclerosis. 3. It also increases the chance of heart attack. 3. In India, the causes of heat attacks are increasing. Ans. In India, the cause of heart attacks are increasing due to increased mental and physical stress and strain on the people. Both mental and physical stress and strain have adverse effects on the heart causing heart attacks. 4. There is oedema on the body during kidney failure. Ans. There is oedema on the body during kidney failure because 1. Kidney failure is the malfunctioning of kidneys. 2. There is accumulation of poisonous substance and water in body. 3. Accumulation of water in the tissues leads to swelling called oedema. 5. The people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS. Ans. The people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS because they are the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. 6. Cancer cannot be diagnosed in its early stage. Ans. 1. Cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. 2. There is no early warning symptoms such as pain or fever. Hence, cancer cannot be diagnosed in its early stage.

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7. Vehicle drivers are tested for colour blindness before issuing license. Ans. 1. Colour blindness is a hereditary disease. 2. Colour – blind persons cannot distinguish between different colours. 3. Most common colour blindness is for red and green colour. 4. This defect is usually observed in males. Hence, vehicle drivers are tested for colour blindness before issuing license. 8. Blood sugar level increases in diabetes. Ans. 1. Diabetes may be due to metabolic disorder as well as organic failure and its can be hereditary. 2. It is the defective functioning of the beta cells of islets of Langerhans in pancreas which secrets the hormone insulin. 3. In absence of this hormone, the tissues, especially liver tissues fail to utilize glucose. This, results increased blood sugar level in diabetes. Q2. Define 1. Communicable disease :- Diseases that are caused due to pathogens and are transmitted from one person to another are called communicable diseases. Diseases such as influenza, cholera, tuberculosis are communicable diseases. 2. Non – communicable disease:- Diseases that are caused due to factors other than pathogens and are not transmitted from one person to another are called non – communicable diseases. Diseases such as cancer and diabetes are non – communicable diseases. Q3. Answer the following in short:1. List the carcinogenic factor (or) Name the factor which increases the risk of caner. Suggest the treatment of cancer. Ans. Factors such as smoking, exposure of radiation, some chemicals, food stuffs and dyes may increase the risk of caner. These factors are called carcinogenic factors as they cause cancer. The Treatment of caner are 1. Radiotherapy. 2. Chemotherapy. 3. Surgery.

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2. Write a note on kidney failure. Ans. 1. Malfunctioning or defective functioning of the kidney is called kidney failure. 2. It is due to infection of physiological disorders. 3. It leads to accumulation of poisonous substances in the tissues causing oedema. 4. Urea in the blood increases, which leads to uremia. 3. What are the four types of heart diseases? Ans. The four types of heart diseases are as follows. 1. Congenital defect 2. Rheumatic fever. 3. Coronary diseases. 4. Excessive strain on the heart. 4. Name the hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. Write down three affects due to excess secretion. Ans. 1.The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland is thyroxine. 2. Effects due to excess secretion of thyroxine is increased metabolic rate, hyperactivity, loss of weight and protruding eyeballs. 5. Write the symptoms of diabetes Ans. They symptoms of diabetes are as follows. 1. Excess of throat. 2. Hunger 3. Frequent urination 4. Loss of weight with general weakness 6. Suggest any four measures to control diabetes. Ans. The four control measures to control diabetes are as follows. 1. Restriction of sugar intake. 2. Injections of insulin 3. Consumption of hypoglycemic substances 4. Regular exercise can control diabetes. 7. Name any four diseases caused by polluted water. Ans. 1. Jaundice 2. Cholera 3. Typhoid 4. Gastroenteritis

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Q4. State the effect of the following 1. Effect of X – rays on health:- They show adverse affects on cell growth and interfere with the genetic constitution and metabolic activities. 2. Effect of air pollutants on human health :- They cause lung disorders. They also cause headache, irritation of eyes and nose, coughing, breathlessness, chest pain and bronchial asthma. 3. Effect of water pollutants on health:- Water pollutants cause disease like jaundice, cholera, typhoid and gastro – enteritis. 4. Effect of deficiency of iodine on health :- Deficiency of iodine causes goiter i.e. enlargement of the thyroid gland. 5. Effect of mental and physical strain on health:- Mental and Physical strain cause mechanical strain on the heart, resulting into heart diseases. 6. Effect pf consumption of saturated fats on health:- Consumption of saturated fats causes arteriosclerosis, which results in heart attack. Q5. Describe the following heart diseases:1. Congenital heart diseases:1. The congenital heat diseases are mostly due to malfunctioning of the valves in the heart. 2. Congenital heart diseases may also be due to the presence of a hole in the septal wall of the heart which causes the mixing of oxygenated and de – oxygenated blood in the heart. 3. The main causes of congenital heart diseases are as follows:i. Infections like German measles in the pregnant mother. ii. Administration of pregnancy. iii. Exposure to radiations like X – rays which may affect the embryo. 2. Rheumatic fever:1. Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease caused by the infection by a strain of streptococcus. 2. Rheumatic fever affects the heart. 3. Rheumatic fever is usually seen in the population living in cold and humid climate in overcrowded areas where the condition are unhygienic.

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3. Coronary diseases:1. Coronary diseases of heart and caused by the intake of fats, especially saturated fats in the diet. 2. The cholesterol from the fats gets deposited on the wall of the artery supplying blood to the heart. 3. Owing to the deposition of cholesterol on the wall of the artery, its lumen becomes narrow resulting into less supply of blood to the heart. This disease is called arteriosclerosis. 4. Arteriosclerosis may cause heart attack. 5. Coronary diseases are observed in the people able the age of 45 years. 6. Males are more prone to coronary diseases. Q 6. Explain the following:1. Health:1. Health literally means sound condition of the body. 2. It is a state of physical, mental and social well – being and not merely the absence of disease. 2. Disease:1. The word disease (dis – ease) means uneasiness. i.e. departure from a state of normal health. 2. Disease is a condition in which the normal state of mind, body and well – being person is impaired. 3. A disease is diagnosed from the symptoms which it produces. 3. Haemophilia:1. Haemophilia is a hereditary disease caused by mutation of the gene which controls the clotting blood. 2. In Haemophilia the blood does not clot. Therefore, a person suffering from Haemophilia may bleed to death when injured. 3. Haemophilia is usually found in males. It is rarely seen in females. 4. Albinism:1. Albinism is a hereditary disease. 2. A person suffering from albinism cannot synthesize the pigment melanin. Therefore, his skin, iris of the eyes, eyelashes and hairs on the body appear white. 3. Albinism is caused by the mutation in the gene which controls the formation of the pigment melanin in the body. 4. A person showing albinism is known as albino. 5. Albinos develop rashes on their skin in bright light. Their eyes are sensitive to bright light.

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5. Uremia :1. When the amount of urea increases in the blood, it leads to disease, called uremia. 2. Uremia is caused by the malfunctioning of the kidney. 3. Dialysis and kidney transplantation are remedial measures for uremia. 6. Silicosis:1. Silicosis is a respiratory diseases caused by the inhalation of silica dust. 2. Workers working in stone quarries and coal mines usually suffer from silicosis. 3. Silicosis is an occupational disease. 7. Cretinism:1. Cretinism is caused by under secretion of thyroxine hormone secreted by thyroid gland. 2. In a child suffering from cretinism, the growth is stunted. 3. Cretinism also makes a child mentally retarded. 8. Diabetes:1. Diabetes is the defective functioning of the beta cells of islets of Langerhans in pancreas which secrete the hormone insulin. 2. Owing to the lack of insulin, the cells of the body, especially, the liver cells fail to utilize glucose. 3. As a result of this, the level of sugar in the blood increases. 4. In diabetes, there is excretion of glucose in urine. 9. Arteriosclerosis:1. Arteriosclerosis is caused by excessive intake of fats, especially saturated fats in the diet. 2. In this disease, the cholesterol present in fats gets deposited in the arteries as a result of which their lumens become narrow. 3. Owing to this, there is less supply of blood to the heart which causes heart attack. Q 7. Suggest the treatment for the following:1. Kidney disorders :- Kidney disorders can be treated by dialysis and kidney transplantation. 2. Cancer:- Cancer can be treated by surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. 3. Cretinism:- Cretinism can be treated by the harmone thyroxine. 4. Diabetes:- Diabetes can be treated by restriction of sugar intake, injections of insulin, consumption of hypoglycemic substances and regular exercise can control diabetes.
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Q8. Distinguish between 1. Cretinism and Dwarfism Cretinism 1. It is caused due to under secretion of thyroxine hormone. 2. Mental development is not normal. 3. Body proportions are not normal. 4. Face is without expression. 2. Gigantism and Dwarfism Dwarfism 1. It is caused due to under secretion of growth hormone. 2. Mental development is normal. 3. Body proportions are normal 4. Face is with expression.

Gigantism Dwarfism 1. It is caused due to over secretion of 1. It is caused due to under secretion of growth harmone. growth hormone. 2. Individual grows to a height of 7 to 8 2. Individual grows to a height of only 3 feet. to 4 feet. 3. Skin, tongue, lips and ears become 3. There is no thickening of skin, thick. tongue, lips etc. 3. Communicable and non – communicable diseases Communicable Diseases 1. Diseases that are caused due to pathogens and are transmitted from one person to another are called communicable disease. 2. It spreads through air, water, contact or animals. 3. It is caused by micro – organisms such as virus, bacteria, fungi or protozoan. 4. Thyroid gland and Pituitary gland. Thyroid gland 1. Thyroid gland is situated in the lower part of the neck. 2. Thyroid gland secretes the hormone thyroxine. 3. Under secretion of the hormone thyroxine from the thyroid gland leads to stunted growth called cretinism. Pituitary gland 1. Pituitary gland is situated in the posterior and lower part of the cerebrum. 2. Pituitary gland secretes the growth hormones. 3. Under secretion of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland leads to dwarfism. Non – communicable diseases 1. Diseases that are caused due to factors other than pathogens are called non communicable disease. 2. It does not spread. 3. It is not caused by micro – organisms.

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5. Air pollutants and Water pollutants Air pollutants 1. Pollutants that pollute air are called air pollutants. 2. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, etc. are air pollutants. 3. Air pollutants are known to cause airborne diseases like asthma, chest pain, common cold, tuberculosis, pneumonia, etc. Water pollutants Pollutants that pollute water are called water pollutants. 2. Chemical wastes from factories, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, etc. are water pollutants. 3. Water pollutants are known to cause water borne diseases like jaundice, cholera, typhoid, gastroenteritis, etc.

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Q1. Give scientific reasons:1. Energy flow is unidirectional (or) At each trophic level from base to apex, the energy goes on decreasing in biomass pyramid. Ans. 1. In the biosphere the energy from the sun is trapped by the green plants. 2. The energy from the green plants in the form of food flows from one trophic level to the other trophic level. 3. AT every trophic level, a considerable amount of energy lost to the surrounding in the form of heat. 4. But this heat energy never returns to the sun. Therefore, energy flow is unidirectional. 2. At every trophic level there is decrease in biomass. Ans. 1. All the biomass produced by the green plants is not converted to biomass of the herbivorous. 2. As a rule, only 5% to 20% of the biomass at any trophic level can passed to the next one. 3. This is because a part of biomass is used for growth and maintenance at various trophic levels and a part is lost to the surrounding in the form of heat energy. 4. This shows that at every trophic level there is decrease in biomass. 3. The existence of life on the earth depends on the sun Ans. 1. Only the green plants (autotrophs) have the capacity to produce food with the help of solar energy during the process of photosynthesis. 2. Thus without solar energy food cannot be produced and without food organisms life cannot exist on the earth, therefore the existence of life on the earth depends on the sun. 4. Grasshopper is called first order consumer. Ans. Grasshopper is called first order consumer because 1. It is herbivore, which depends upon grass for its food. 2. Since it depends upon product directly, it is a primary consumer. Q2. Define 1. Biosphere:- The lithosphere, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere along with the life forms existing on the earth is called biosphere. 2. Autotrophs:-Self – feeding organisms are called autotrophs. Autotrophs consume the food prepared by them. For e.g. Green plants.
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3. Heterotrophs:- Non – green plants, animals and most of the microbes which obtain their food either from green plants of from dead and decaying organic matter are called heterotrophs 4. Producers:- Green plants of the biosphere, which prepare food with the help of solar energy are called producers. 5. Consumers:- Animals, which consume green plants and some animals are called consumers. 6. Decomposers:- Microbes such as fungi, bacteria, protozoan which brings about the decomposition of dead bodies and their waste matter, are called decomposers. 7. Food chain :- Food chain is defined as transfer of food i.e. energy from one organisms to the other. 8. Food web:- Food web is defined as interconnections among different food chain at different trophic levels forming a network. 9. Trophic level:- Trophic level means feeding level. Each organisms of a food chain represents a trophic level. 10. Biomass:- Biomass is defined as increase in dry weight of organic matter of all organisms combined together at any trophic level. Q3. Distinguish between 1. Producers and Decomposers. Producers 1. Producers are autotrophs. 2. Producers use the food, which is produced by them. 3. Producers cannot bring about the decomposition of dead bodies and waster matter. 2. Consumers and Decomposers. Consumers 1. Consumers use the food produced by producers. 2. Consumers cannot bring about the decomposition of dead bodies and waster matter. Decomposers 1. Decomposers are heterotrophs. 2. Decomposers use dead bodies of plant and animals as their food. 3. Decomposers bring about the decomposition of dead bodies and waste matter. Decomposers 1. Decomposers use dead bodies of plant and animals as their food. 2. Decomposers bring about the decomposition of dead bodies and waste matter.

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3. Abiotic component and Biotic component. Abiotic component 1. The abiotic component of the biosphere includes factors like light, humidity, temperature, soil, minerals, water and atmospheric pressure. 2. The abiotic components are non living components. 4. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs. Autotrophs 1. Self feeding plants are called autotrophs. 2. Autotrophs are green in colour due to the presence of chlorophyll. Heterotrophs 1. Plants, animals which obtain their food either from autotrophs or from dead and decaying organic matter are called heterotrophs. 2. Heterotrophs are non green colour due to the absence of chlorophyll. Biotic component 1. The biotic component of the biosphere are plants, animals and micro – organisms. 2. The biotic components are living components.

5. Producers and Consumers Producers 1. Producers are autotrophs. 2. Producers use the food, which is produced by them. 3. All green plants of the biosphere are producers. 6. Photosynthesis and Respiration. Photosynthesis 1. Photosynthesis is a constructive process in which glucose is synthesized from CO2 and H2O. 2. Photosynthesis is a light dependent process. 3. In this, energy is stored in organic compounds Consumers 1. Consumers are heterotrophs. 2. Consumers use food produced by the producers. 3. All animals of the biosphere are consumers. Respiration 1. Respiration is a destructive process in which glucose is broken down into CO2 and H2O. 2. Respiration is independent of light. 3. In this, energy is released from organic compounds.

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Q4. Answer the following:1. In which of the following food chain man get more energy? Why? i. Maize --------- Man ii. Maize ------ Goat ------ Man Ans. Man gets more energy from the first food chain. This is because, shorter the food chain, lesser is loss of energy. The second food chain being larger, there is more loss of energy. 2. In the following example which is a part of the food chain: Frog ------ Snake ----- Hawk , if the snake population declines, what will happen to 1. Population of frog, 2. Population of Hawk. Ans. The population of frog will increase and population of hawk will decrease. This is because snake consume frog and hawk consume snake. 3. What is a food web? Describe the important aspects of food web. Ans. Food web is defined as interconnections among different food chains at different trophic level forming a network. Important aspects of food web are: 1. It starts from an autotroph i.e. Producer. i.e. Producer. 2. It has many connecting food chains. 3. The number of links in the chain are variable. Decomposers can operate at any level. They are dead plant materials, dead bodies of herbivores and carnivores as the source of energy. 4. Name the tropic level represented by the larvae of mosquitoes in the food chain from a pond. Give reason. Ans. 1. The larvae of mosquitoes represent primary consumers in the food chain from a pond. 2. This is because, they feed on algae of the pond, which trap the solar energy and make it available to the larvae of mosquitoes. 5. What is photosynthesis? State its importance. Ans. The process by which green plants synthesize carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight is called photosynthesis. Importance of photosynthesis. a. The green plants absorb the solar energy during photosynthesis and convert this radiant energy into chemical energy. b. The energy required for different life activities comes from oxidation of sugars produced during photosynthesis.

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6. What will happen if all the number of frogs becomes less in nature? Ans. 1. If the number of frogs becomes less the number of grasshoppers will increase with corresponding decrease in the number of snakes. 2. This is because frogs consume grasshoppers, while snake consume frogs. 7. What will happen if all the green plants disappear from the earth? Ans. 1. If all the green plants disappear from the earth there will be no food preparation by the process of photosynthesis. 2. In absence of photosynthesis neither the food nor the oxygen will be available to other living organisms. 3. In absence of good and oxygen, life will not exist on the earth. 8. What is the role of producers in the biosphere? Ans. The producers play the following roles in the biosphere: 1. The producers provide food to different organisms of the biosphere. 2. The producers provide energy to the different organisms of the biosphere. 9. The graph of biomass is called energy pyramid. Ans. 1. When plotted on the graph paper, the biomass at various trophic levels forms a pyramid. 2. As the biomass contains energy in the form of organic molecules. Hence, the graph of biomass is called energy pyramid. Q5. Draw the following graphic representation: 1. The food web involving at least three food chains. 2. A food web with the help of following organism, grass, shrub, deer, sheep, rabbit, wolf, lion man. 3. The food chain is aquatic surroundings. 4. Draw a neat labeled diagram of energy flow. 5. Give the schematic representation of different trophic level.

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Q1. Give the balanced chemical equation:1. Green plants form carbohydrates during photosynthesis. (or) Carbon dioxide reacts with water in presence of chlorophyll and sunlight. Ans. During photosynthesis, green plants synthesize carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. The overall chemical reactions involved during the process can be represented by the following equations.

2. Oxidation of carbohydrate during the aerobic respiration in a cell. Ans. During aerobic respiration in a cell, the carbohydrate undergoes oxidation and forms CO2 and H2O with the release of energy. The overall chemical reactions involved during the process can be represented by the following equation.

3. Dehydration synthesis in a plant cell. Ans. Removal of water molecule is called dehydration. During dehydration synthesis in a plant cell, small molecules get linked together to form large molecules by the elimination of water as shown below.

4. Fermentation of glucose solution Ans. During fermentation sugar such as glucose is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide and energy is released. The overall changes involved during fermentation can be represented by the following equations.

Q2. Give scientific reasons. 1. Oxygen is called a life supporting gas. Ans. Oxygen is called a life supporting gas because. 1. The atmosphere contains about 20% of oxygen. 2. All organisms require oxygen for respiration process during which food is oxidized in order to release energy. 3. The energy obtained from respiration process is utilized for performing various metabolic activities with out which life activity of an organism comes to an end.
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2. Bacteria like nitrosomonas and nitrobacter are called denitrifying bacteria. Ans. Bacteria like nitrosomonas and nitrobacter are called denitrifying bacteria because 1. The conversion of ammonia into nitrites and nitrates is called nitrification. 2. Nitrosomonas bring the conversion of ammonia into nitrites. 3. Nitrites are converted into nitrates by nitrobacter. 4. These bacteria help in nitrification. 3. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are called fossil fuels. Ans. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are called fossil fuels because 1. They are the dead remains of plants and animals of the remote past. 2. They are free from water and are rich in hydrocarbons. 3. They have been formed by the process of fossilization over a period of millions years. Q3. Define 1. Bio – geo chemical cycles:-The circular flow of nutrients from the environment to the living organisms back to the environment in a cyclic manner is called bio – geo chemical cycles. 2. Nutrients:- All kinds of ions and molecules taken up by the living organisms are called nutrients. 3. Anaerobes:- Microbes that do not require oxygen for their respiration are called anaerobes. 4. Aerobes:- Microbes that require oxygen for their respiration are called aerobes. 5. Fermentation:- Fermentation means conversion of the complex organic compounds into simpler organic ones by the activity of micro – organisms. 6. Ammonification :- The process in which nitrogenous compounds are converted into ammonia by the activity of micro – organisms is called ammonification. 7. Nitrification :- The process in which the ammonia gets converted to nitrites and then to nitrates is called nitrification. 8. De – nitrification :- Conversion of nitrates to molecular nitrogen by the activity of de – nitrifying bacteria is called de – nitrification. 9. Nitrogen fixation :- Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds is called nitrogen fixation.

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Q4. Write short notes on 1. Fossil Fuels:Ans. 1. Fossils are formed due to burial of plants and animals remains. 2. These animals and plants existed on the earth in the remote past. 3. Their remains accumulated slowly under the cover of sediments. 4. They got locked up and count not get decomposed, as oxygen was not available due to over lying sediments. 5. The pressure of the sediments squeezed out water. 6. These remains are carbon rich fossil fuels. 7. Fossilized forests have resulted in the formation of coal bed. Ex. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are fossil fuels. 2. Carbon in food. Ans. 1. Carbon forms the most important constituent of food. 2. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids are all carbon compounds. 3. They are used as the source of energy by all living organisms. 4. During respiration, food gets oxidized and energy is released. Ex. Glucose is oxidized during respiration. 3. Methods of Nitrogen fixation :- Nitrogen fixation occurs in two methods:1. The physical process:- During lightening, nitrogen in the atmosphere is oxidized to nitrogen oxide. It then gets dissolved in rainwater to form nitrous and nitric acid and is added to the soil. In the soil, they react with each other elements to forms nitrogen compounds. This process is called physical process of nitrogen fixation. 2. The biological process:- The conversion of molecular nitrogen to its compounds is carried out by prokaryotes, namely some bacterial and some blue green algae present in the soil. This process is called biological nitrogen fixation. 4. Global water cycle or Hydrological cycle:1. In global water cycle, the atmosphere contains water vapour due to evaporation mainly over the oceans. 2. This leads to cloud formation, which results in precipitation, which rains on the oceans as well as on the land. 3. The excess of precipitations results in the formation of surface and ground water system. 4. This water flows back to the sea. 5. This water cycle does not involve life forms and therefore it is called as global water cycle.
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5. Mineral cycle:1. Minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron are important for the life of the organisms. They are called nutrients. Nutrients are needed for the growth and development. 2. Minerals are present in the soil is dissolved state and also found in water. 3. They are absorbed by the plants and are incorporated in their body. 4. From plants, they are passed over to the body of animals through food chain and food web. 5. Minerals return to the soil or water through waste matter or dead bodies and animals. 6. Decomposition of dead bodies of plants or animals is carried out by bacterial and fungi. 7. They release enzymes that degrade organic matter back to inorganic compounds. 8. Thus minerals are released to the surroundings and are available for racing. 9. All the minerals thus eventually make their way back to the environment. 6. Flow of energy (or) Energy flow Ans. 1. Solar energy is captured by the green plants during photosynthesis. It is stored in the form of organic molecules that is food molecules. 2. In the food chain food molecules pass from plants to animals. 3. During, respiration, food molecules are oxidized to release stored solar energy. Much of the energy stored in the food molecules is simply lost as heat energy. 4. It escapes to the surrounding. This energy cannot be recaptured and reused by plants or animals. 5. It cannot return to the sun. Thus the flow of energy becomes unidirectional. This means energy cannot be recycled.

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Q5. Answer the following briefly: 1. Give graphic representation of oxygen cycle and describe.

Ans. The cyclic journey of oxygen from the atmosphere to living organisms and from living organisms back to the atmosphere is called oxygen cycle. 1. The atmosphere contains 20% oxygen. Aquatic plants and animals obtain oxygen from water. 2. Both plants and animals require oxygen for respiration. During respiration carbohydrates are oxidized with the help of atmospheric oxygen and energy is released. 3. Carbon dioxide, which is a bi – product released in this reaction, is used by plants for synthesis of food during the process of photosynthesis. 4. During the process of photosynthesis carbon dioxide is taken in and oxygen is given out. Thus photosynthesis is the only process by which oxygen is returned to the atmosphere.

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2. Give graphic representation of carbon cycle and describe.

Ans. The cyclic journey of carbon from the atmosphere to green plants from green plants to animals and from both these back to the atmosphere is called carbon cycle. 1. Carbon dioxide of the atmosphere is the main sources of carbon cycle. 2. Green plants during photosynthesis fix carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into carbohydrates. 3. Herbivorous use green plants as their food and which in turn are consumed by carnivorous. 4. Thus carbon passes from one organism to the other in the food chain. 5. Respiration of both, the green plants and animals bring about oxidation of carbohydrates, which gives carbon dioxide, and it returns to the atmospheres. 6. The decomposition of organic matter is carried out by the micro – organisms which release carbon dioxide and it also returns to the atmosphere. 7. Burning of wood, fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gasses and during the process of fermentation carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere.

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3. Give graphic representation of Nitrogen cycle and describe. Ans.

The cyclic journey of nitrogen from the atmosphere to soil, from soil to plants, from plants to animals and from both these back to the atmosphere is called nitrogen cycle. The nitrogen cycle is complete in the following phases:1. Nitrogen fixation:- Nitrogen fixation occurs in two methods:a. The physical process:- During lightening, nitrogen in the atmosphere is oxidized to nitrogen oxide. It then gets dissolved in rain water to form nitrous and nitric acid and is added to the soil. In the soil, they react with each other elements to forms nitrogenous compounds. This process is called physical process of nitrogen fixation. b. The biological process:- The conversion of molecular nitrogen to its compounds is carried out by prokaryotes, namely some bacteria and some blue green algae present in the soil. This process is called biological fixation. 2. Utilization of Nitrogenous compound by plants and animals:- Plants take up nitrogen compounds like nitrites and nitrates form the soil. They build up organic nitrogenous compounds like proteins and their derivatives. Herbivorous takes up proteins from the plant to form amino acids. From these amino acids, they build up their own body proteins. Carnivorous take up proteins from herbivorous.

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3. Conversion of organic nitrogenous compounds into inorganic state:- Excretory products of animals and dead bodies of plants and animals are added to the soil. A variety of micro – organisms act upon these nitrogenous compounds and convert them to inorganic state. Organic nitrogenous compounds at first are converted into ammonia. This process is called as ammonification. Ammonia thus formed gets converted into nitrite by nitrosomonas and nitrosococcus bacteria. The nitrite thus formed is finally converted into nitrate by nitrobacter by the process known as nitrification. The nitrates are finally converted into molecular nitrogen (N2 ) by denitrifying bacteria. This process is called de = nitrification. 4. Describe fermentation:Fermentation means enzymatic conversion of the complex organic compounds into simpler organic ones by the activity of micro – organisms. Fermentation is anaerobic respiration by which micro – organisms obtain energy required for their life processes. Baker’s yeast in the common fermenting microbe. It brings about the following reaction:

Carbon dioxide released during the process returns to the atmosphere. 5. What will happen to nitrogen cycle if all the bacterial disappear? Ans. Nitrogen cycle will not occur in nature because bacteria play a very important role in nitrogen cycle. 1. Nitrogen fixation:- Symbiotic bacteria like rhizobium and free living bacterial like azatobacter and clostridium fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into nitrites and nitrates. 2. Ammonification:- Certain bacterial decompose dead organic matter to release ammonia. 3. Nitrification:- Certain bacterial such as nitrosomonas and nitrosococcus convert ammonia into nitrites. Nitrobacter convert nitrites into nitrates. 4. Denitrification:- Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates into molecular nitrogen.

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6. Explain what happens, when solar energy is not available to bio – geo chemical cycle? Ans. 1. All biogeochemical cycles are regulated through solar energy. 2. Green plants play a key role in the entire process. 3. With the help of solar energy the green plants synthesize organic molecules. i.e. carbohydrates. 4. Herbivorous animals use green plants as their source of food, carnivorous animal consumes herbivorous animals. 5. Dead bodies of plants and animals are used as the source of energy by decomposers. 6. If there is no solar energy, there will be no green plants. 7. If there are no green plants there will be no animals and even there will be no decomposers. 7. Describe water cycle.

Ans. The cycle journey of water from soil to plants, from plants to atmosphere and from atmosphere back to the soil is called water cycle. Global water cycle:1. In global water cycle, the atmosphere contains water vapour due to evaporation mainly over the oceans. 2. This leads to cloud formation, which results in precipitation, which rains on the oceans as well as on the land.

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3. The excess of precipitation results in the formation of surface and ground water system. 4. This water flows back to the sea. 5. This water cycle does not involve life forms and therefore it is called as global water cycle. Water cycle including living organism:1. Plants absorb water from the soil. 2. They use it for photosynthesis and other life processes. 3. During transpiration, water evaporates from the aerial parts of the body and returns to the atmosphere. 4. Animals use water directly for drinking and indirectly through food molecules. 5. Through excretion, perspiration and respiration, water returns back to the surroundings. 6. During decomposition of dead organic matter, water is produced as the bi – product, which passes to the surrounding. 8. How biogeochemical cycle is regulated? Ans. 1. All biogeochemical cycles are regulated through solar energy. 2. Green plants play a key role in the entire process. They absorb water and minerals from the soil. Carbon is taken from the atmosphere. 3. With the help of solar energy the green plants synthesize organic molecules. i.e. Carbohydrates. Thus inorganic molecules are converted to organic ones by using solar energy. 4. Herbivorous animals use green plants as their source of food, carnivorous animal consumes herbivorous animals. Energy in form of food thus passes from one organism to the other. 5. Dead bodies of plants and animals are used as the source of energy by decomposers. Because of the decomposers, the organic matter is converted back to inorganic compounds. 9. Explain role of water in living organisms. Ans. Water play vital role in the life of organisms as follows:1. Life originated in water 2. Water is the medium in which a large number of plants and animals spend their life. These organisms are called as aquatic organisms. 3. Nearly 90% of the production of the cell is made up of water. As such it is the most important constituent of the living organisms. 4. It is the universal solvent, may substances get

dissolved in water readily.
5. It is used as transporting medium in both, plants and animals.
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6. Water is one of the raw material for photosynthesis and is a product of respiration. 7. In the cell, small molecules get linked together to form complex compounds. During such reaction water molecules are removed. This process is called dehydration synthesis. 8. Larger molecules split into their smaller units by the addition of water molecules. The reaction is called hydrolysis. Q6. Distinguish between nitrification and denitrification. Ans.

Nitrification
1. The process in which the ammonia gets converted to nitrites and then to nitrates is called nitrification. 2. In this, nitrogen is taken from the atmosphere.

Denitrification
1. The conversion of nitrates to molecular nitrogen by the activity of de – nitrifying bacteria is called de – nitrification. 2. In this, nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere.

Q7. Give graphic representation of the following: 1. Mineral Cycle

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2. Construct carbon cycle with the help of the following: Photosynthesis, Respiration, Animals, Decomposers, Atmosphere, Combustion.

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RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS
Q1. Give scientific reasons 1. Cow dung and crop residue should not be used as fuel. Ans. Cow dung and crop residue should not be used as fuel because 1. Agriculture wastes like crop residue and cow dung can be used as manures for crop. 2. Further, using these waste products, valuable biogas can be prepared. 3. These materials are not efficient fuels. 4. The burning of these material cause air pollution. 2. The present era is called the ‘Plastic age’ Ans. The present era is called the ‘Plastic age’ because 1. During the last few decades, a variety of plastics with different properties have been invented. 2. Thus the use of plastics in everyday life is increasing very fast. 3. Plastic items are replacing metal and wooden items. 3. It is beneficial to use compost fertilizers than chemical fertilizers for agriculture. Ans. 1. Compost manures are not acidic and therefore can be used for any type of soil. 2. They not only add nutrients but also improve its texture. 3. Composting reduces health hazard as pathogens are destroyed during composting. 4. It controls pollution due to wastes. Hence, it is beneficial to use compost fertilizers than chemical fertilizers for agriculture. Q2. Define 1. Recycling:- Recycling means use of the material over and over again. 2. Wastes:- The rejected materials are called wasters. 3. Biodegradation:- The process in which complex organic molecules are converted into simpler inorganic compounds due to some living beings, is called as biodegradation. 4. Non – degradable wastes:- The waste products, which cannot be degraded through biological activities, are called non – degradable waste. Metals, glass, plastics are non – degradable wastes.

78 “ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”

S.S.C SCIENCE PART I & II

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RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS
Q3. Answer the following:1. What are wastes? How are they classified according to their origin? Ans. The rejected materials are called wastes. Wastes are classified according to their origin as follows. 1. Human wastes:- Human urine and fasces. 2. Animal wastes:- Diary wastes include cow dung and urine. Slaughter house waste is a mixture of blood, urine, organ, etc. Sheep, goat poultry and fishery also contribute to wastes. 3. Urban wastes:- House hold garbage and kitchen wastes including paper, plastic items and metals articles. Besides, sewage is the main bulk of urban waste, which is poured in the large bodies of water. 4. Crop residue:- The crop residues include crop stubble, straw, wasted fodder, stick and weeds. 5. Industrial wastes:- Waste products of the industries are called as industrial effluents. Pulp mills, tanneries, textile mills, refineries and chemical fertilizers plants release complex organic compounds. 2. Explain the procedure of composting:Ans. Composting:- It is the process of decomposition of plants and animals remain, through microbial activity. Procedure:1. Pits of various dimensions are dug. 2. All sort of agricultural wastes, trash, dried leaves are spread in the pit as the layer of 6 to 8 cm. 3. This layer is t hen covered with the layer of dung of 3 to 4 cm thickness. 4. Water is sprinkled over these layers. 5. In this fashion, many alternate layer of plant and animal remains and dung are arranged in the pit. The pit then covered with soil. After some weeks, valuable manure is formed in the pit. 3. Explain recycling of waste materials help in ecological balance. Ans. 1. Due to various human activities, all sorts of wastes are generally thrown away in the random manner. 2. The wastes are composed of different organic substances, a large number of organisms are attracted towards such wastes. 3. Bacterial from soil and air start the process of decomposition odour. AS a result, insects are attracted towards the decomposing matter. 4. Insects like flies, cockroaches are responsible for the spread of contagious disease like cholera, typhoid, and dysentery. 5. These wastes products go on occupying more and more space. In this manner the ecological balance around us is disturbed. Hence, recycling of waste materials help us in the ecological balance.
79 “ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”

S.S.C SCIENCE PART I & II

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S.S.C NOTES

RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS
4. Explain the working of gobar – gas plant. Ans. 1. The process of fermentation of biomass takes place in a brick lined well called as digester. 2. The dung in the form of slurry is filled in the digester. 3. The digester is covered with a dome begins to rise and floats. 5. Through an opening on the top of the drum the gas carried to the kitchen by pipes. 6. Continuous gas production is possible by daily feeding the digester through a funnel. 7. The spent slurry over flows from the top and is collected in a pit. It is periodically transferred to the manure pit. 5. Explain “Recycling is a must” Ans. 1. All the resources of basic raw materials like ores, materials, fuels etc. are limited on the earth. 2. These resources cannot be replenished. 3. However, there has been a steady increase in the consumption and demand for all the basic raw materials. 4. Moreover, if all the non degradable waste products are haphazardly (randomly) dumped some where, they go on occupying more and more space. Hence, recycling of waste products is a must. 6. What are the advantages of bio – gas? Ans. The advantages of bio – gas are as follows 1. It burns with a bluish flame and does not produce smoke. 2. It burns without emitting foul odour. 3. It is an efficient fuel. 4. The slurry formed in the production of biogas is used as fertilizer. 7. Name the constituent of bio – gas and give their approximate percentages. Ans. The constituents of bio – gas and their approximate percentages are_ 1. Methane __________ 60% 2. Carbon dioxide _______ 30% 3. Hydrogen __________ 10%

80 “ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”

S.S.C SCIENCE PART I & II

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S.S.C NOTES

RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS
Q4. Distinguish between Biodegradable wastes and Non – degradable wastes. Biodegradable wastes 1. Waste materials, which can be decomposed through biological activity of micro – organisms, are called biodegradable waste. 2. This type of waste is degraded in nature. 3. This type of waste does not remain accumulated in nature. Non – degradable wastes 1. The waste products, which cannot be degraded through the biological activities, are called non – degradable wastes. 2. This type of waste is not degraded in nature. 3. This type of waste remains accumulated in nature.

Q5. Classify the following waste in to biodegradable and non degradable wastes. (Paper, Plastic bags, Food wastes, Dairy wastes, Slaughter house wastes, Worn out utensils, Broken glass vessels, Rusted iron wires, Used slippers, Cabbage leaves, Paper bags, Cattle waste, Animal excreta, Dead Plants, Insecticide, Industrial effluent, Nuclear waste, Metal, Dung, Glass) Biodegradable wastes 1. Paper 2. Food wastes 3. Dairy wastes 4. Slaughter house wastes 5. Cabbage leaves 6. Paper bags 7. Cattle waste 8. Animal excreta 9. Dead plants 10. Dung Non degradable wastes 1. Plastic bags 2. Worn out utensils 3. Broken glass vessels 4. Rusted iron wires 5. Used slippers 6. Insecticide 7. Industrial effluent 8. Nuclear waste 9. Metal 10. Glass

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81 “ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”