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S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

INDEX
CHAPTER NAME NO
1. FUELS 3
2. HEAT 16
3. MODERN PHYSISCS 21
1. DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES 28
2. DISEASES DUE TO OVERINTAKE OF SOME NUTRIENTS. 36
3. FOOD WASTAGE 40
4. FACTORS CAUSING FOOD SPOILAGE 46
5. HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES 53
6. BIOSPHERE 61
7. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 66
8. RECYCLING OF WASTE MATERIALS 78

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
Q1. Define

1. Radioactivity:- The phenomenon of spontaneous and continuous emission of


radiation from certain heavy element is called radioactivity.
2. Radioactive substance:- The substance, which spontaneously and
continuously emits certain radiations is called a radioactive substance.
3. Fission products:- The products formed during a nuclear fission are called
fission products.
4. Controlled chain reaction:- The process in which most of the neutrons
liberated in the chain reaction are absorbed and only a few neutrons are allowed
to carry on the reaction is called controlled chain reaction.
5. Un – controlled chain reaction:- The self accelerating chain reaction which
takes place on its own around is called uncontrolled chain reaction.
6. Calorific value:- The quantity of heat produced by the complete combustion
of unit mass of a fuel is called the calorific value of the fuel.
7. Disintegration of radioactive elements:- The process of continuous and
spontaneous emission of radiation’s from a radioactive element to form a new
element continues till a non – radioactive element is formed is called
disintegration or decay of radioactive elements.
8. Nuclear wastes:- The harmful radioactive waste are produced by mining into
enrichment and use in the nuclear reactors is known as nuclear wastes.

Q2. Give scientific reasons:-

1. Boron steel or cadmium rods are used to control chain reaction


Ans.
1. Boron steel or cadmium rods have a property of absorbing neutrons.
2. The rate of chain reaction can be reduced by absorbing some of neutrons
which is generated, therefore boron steel or cadmium rods are used to control
chain reaction.

2. The elements having atomic number greater than 82 are radioactive


Ans. The nuclei of elements having atomic number greater than 82 are unstable.
Hence, the elements having atomic number greater than 82 are radioactive.

3. Water gas is called blue gas.


Ans. Water gas burns with bluish flame. Hence water gas is called blue gas.

4. Coal is fossil fuel.


Ans. Coal is formed form the remains of plants and animals buried under the
ground million of years back. Such remains are called fossils. Hence, coal is
fossil fuel.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
5. A nuclear reactor has thicker cover. (or)
A thick coat of radiation absorbent materials is used around the
atomic reactor.
Ans.
1. Nuclear energy production in an atomic reactor is accompanied by release
of radioactive pollutants and harmful radiation’s
2. These pollutants also produce harmful radiation, which are highly
penetrating.
3. This radiation’s cause irreparable damage to the body cells. They cause
hereditary changes.
4. This radiation’s should be prevented from leaking out. Hence, a nuclear
reactor has a thicker cover.

6. Coke produces more heat than coal. (or)


Coke is a superior fuel than wood and coal.
Ans.
1. The calorific value of a fuel depends upon its carbon content.
2. Coke contains about 90 – 95% carbon.
3. The main combustible components of wood is cellulose, which is a
carbonaceous substance.
4. Coal contains 10 – 80% carbon depending upon the type of coal. Hence,
coke produces more heat than coal.

7. Hydrogen is not used as domestic fuel, even though it has high calorific
value.
Ans.
1. Hydrogen gas us explosive.
2. It forms explosive mixture with air. It is very difficult to handle hydrogen.
Hence, hydrogen is not used as domestic fuel, even though it has high calorific
value.

8. In the manufacture of ammonia producer gas is used.


Ans.
1. Ammonia is the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen in a suitable proportion.
2. In the producer gas, the percentage of nitrogen is 60%. Hence, the producer
gas is used in manufacture of ammonia.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
9. Petroleum is a fossil fuel.
Ans.
1. Petroleum is formed from the remains of micro – organisms living under the
sea.
2. When these organisms die, they sunk to the bottom of the sea and are
gradually covered by sand and clay.
3. Due to the action of heat, pressure and certain catalytic actions taking place
over millions of years, these remains are converted into a mixture of
hydrocarbons called petroleum. Such remains are called fossil fuels. Hence,
petroleum is a fossil fuel.

10. Gaseous fuels are superior to the solid and liquid fuels.
Ans.
1. They are extremely clean and convenient to use.
2. The burn almost instantaneously to provide heat energy.
3. The combustion of gaseous fuels can be easily controlled.
4. They have high calorific value.
5. They do not produce any solid waste products.
6. They can be transported easily and can be supplied through pipes at any
distant place. Hence, Gaseous fuels are superior to the solid and liquid fuels.

11. Wood is a fuel.


Ans.
1. A substance which on combustion produces heat, which can be used for
various purposes, is called a fuel.
2. The main combustible component of wood is cellulose, which is a
carbonaceous substance.
3. It burns in air forming carbon dioxide, water vapour and generate heat, hence,
wood is a fuel.

12. Combustion of methane produces a large amount of heat.


Ans.
1. Methane is a hydrocarbon.
2. The carbon atom in methane is bonded to four hydrogen atoms.
3. On combustion with oxygen in air, it forms carbon dioxide and water vapour
and generate heat. Hence, wood is a fuel.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
13. L.P.G is an ideal fuel.
Ans.
1. L.P.G is liquefied petroleum gas. It contains butane and isobutene. The mixture
is liquefied and filled in cylinders.
2. Hence, it is easy to handle and transport.
3. When the valve of the cylinder is opened the gaseous state and can be burned
in the stove. Thus the supply of the gas can be controlled. Hence, L.P>G is an
ideal fuel.

14. Conservation of fuels is essential.


Ans.
1. The energy obtained from fuels is used for cooking food, driving engines and
vehicles, getting light, and for industries. In the world industrialization is
advancing fast. The urbanization is also very fast. For big cities and for the
industries large amounts of fuels are required.
2. Currently 80% of the energy consumed in the world is obtained by burning
carbon fuels or fossil fuels.
3. The reserves of these fuels are limited and getting exhausted very fast. Hence,
conservation of fuels is essential.

15. The calorific value of water gas is greater than that of producer gas.
Ans.
1. Water gas contains carbon monoxide (45%), hydrogen (45%) and other gases
(10%). Producer gas contains carbon monoxide (30%), nitrogen (60%), and other
gases (10%).
2. In water gas both the components are combustible.
3. In producer gas carbon monoxide is combustible, but nitrogen is non –
combustible. The percentage of carbon monoxide in producer gas is lower than
that in water gas. Hence, the calorific value of water gas is greater than that of
producer gas.

16. In future, factories may be run with nuclear energy.


Ans.
1. All factories require fuels for various operations.
2. Presently about 80% of the energy consumed is obtained by burning fossil
fuels.
3. The reserves of fossil fuels are limited. They are getting depleted very fast.
4. Atomic nuclei are vast store of energy. Nuclear fission produces a large
amount of energy from a very small mass of U – 235. This energy can be
converted into other suitable forms of energy like electricity. Thus, this source of
energy can sustain for a much longer time. Hence, in future, factories may be run
with nuclear energy.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
Q3. Answer the following:-

1. What is a fuel?
Ans. The substance which on combustion produce energy in the form of heat,
which can be used for various processes is called a fuel.

2. How are fuels classified? Explain with examples.


Ans. Fuels are classified as solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.
Solid fuels --------- Wood, coal, coke etc.
Liquid fuels --------- Petrol, Kerosene, fuel oil etc.
Gaseous fuels -------- Natural gas, petroleum gas, water gas etc.

3 Give characteristic of an ideal fuel.


Ans.
1. Ideal fuels should have high calorific value.
2. It should have low content of non – combustible material.
3. It should have moderate rate of combustion.
4. It should have definite ignition temperature.
5. Absence of poisonous products on combustion.
6. It should be available in large quantities at a cheaper rate.
7. It should be easy to store, transport and handle.

4. Write short note on calorific value?


Ans.
1. The quantity of heal produced by a unit mass of fuel after combustion is
called calorific value of the fuel.
2. It is expressed in calories/ gm in C.G.S and Joule / Kg in S.I. units.
3. The calorific value of gaseous fuel is the quantity of heat produced by
complete combustion of unit volume of the fuel.
4. Charcoal – 33 Kj/g, Kerosene – 48 Kj/ g, L.P.G – 55 Kj/ G and biogas 35 –
40 Kj/ g.

5. Outline the used of atomic energy.


Ans. The uses of atomic energy are as follows.
1. Atomic energy is used to generate electricity.
2. It is used to power submarines.
3. It is used to make atom bombs.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
6. What are the effects of an explosion of an atom bomb?
Ans.
1. The principle of uncontrolled chain reaction of U – 235 is used in atom
bomb.
2. When it is exploded huge amount of energy and radiation s are emitted in
short time.
3. AT place of explosions temperature shoots upto a few million – degree
Celsius.
4. The energy produced under pressure is equal to several times
atmospheric pressure.
5. The high temperature, high pressure and harmful intense radiation destroy
all animals and plants in the surrounding area.

7. Write a brief account of emission, which is harmful to living organisms?


Ans. Nuclear fission by – products are formed in nuclear explosions and in
nuclear reactors. These by – products emit beta as well as more penetrating
gamma radiations. When a human body is exposed to these radiations in a large
dense, the body cells suffer irreparable damages. These radiations can induce
some hereditary changes and thereby affect future generations too.

8. How is petroleum formed?


Ans.
1. Petroleum is formed from the microorganisms living under the sea.
2. When these organisms die, they sink to the bottom and are gradually
covered by sand and clay.
3. These remains are converted into hydrocarbons due to the action of heat,
pressure and certain catalytic actions taking place over millions of years.
4. The resulting mixture of hydrocarbons rises through the porous rocks till it
meets impermeable rocks. There it forms an oil trap.

9. How is petroleum obtained?


Ans.
1. Petroleum reservoirs are located through a geological survey.
2. A hole is then drilled through the impervious rock, to the petroleum trap.
3. A pipe is introduced to the petroleum trap through this hole. Petroleum
rises to the surface through this pipe.

10. What is L.P.G? From what source is L.P.G. obtained?


Ans. L.P.G is liquefied petroleum gas. L.P.G is obtained by cooling natural gas
and fractional distilling the liquid. It can also be obtained by the fractional
distillation of petroleum.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
11. What are the safety precautions to be taken while handling gaseous
fuels? Why?
Ans.
1. All gaseous fuels are readily combustible.
2. They may contain carbon monoxide, which is poisonous.
3. If a gaseous fuel contains hydrogen, we have to be very careful, as
hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air.
4. An explosion may occur if such a gas leaks and there is an accidental
sparking or lighting of a match. Hence, it is essential that there should not
be any leakage of a gaseous fuel. When the gas is not required, it should
be completely turned off.

12. What precautions one should take while handling L.P.G safely?
Ans. While handling L.P.G following precautions should be taken
1. The gas should be turn off by closing the valve when the gas is not
required.
2. If L.P.G leaks out of the cylinder no matchstick should be struck in the
house or any spark is allowed to strike.
3. The cylinder should be kept away from heat in a secured place.

13. Why is energy liberated in a nuclear fission process? (Or)


Write Einstein’s equations for the energy liberated in a nuclear fission and
explain it (Or)
Give the relation between mass lost and the energy liberated during a
nuclear fission reaction. Explain the terms involved.
Ans. In a nuclear fission process, the mass of the original nucleus is always
greater than the total mass of the fission products. The difference in the mass is
converted into energy, according to Einstein’s equations.
E = mc2
Where E = energy released, m = Loss in mass, c = speed of light in vacuum.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
Q4. Write short notes on

1. Coal
Ans.
1. Coal is fossil fuels. It has been formed over millions of years by the burial
of plants.
2. Coal contains free amorphous carbon and complex carbon compounds
formed from the parent plant matter.
3. Coal is classified into four types on the basis of its free carbon content.
i. Peat (11%)
ii. lignite (22%)
iii. Bituminous(60%)
iv. Anthracite (80%)
4. Destructive distillation of coal gives coke, coal, tar and coal gas.

2. Coke
Ans.
1. Coke is obtained when coal is heated in the absence of air.
2. Coke contains about 90 -95% carbon. It does not contain any volatile
matter.
3. It is hard and burns without producing smoke. It produces more heat than
coal.

3. Petroleum
Ans.
1. The dark oily liquid formed from the microorganism living under the sea
and which occurs in the pores of sedimentary rocks is called petroleum.
2. It is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons.
3. It is formed from the remains of microorganisms due to the action of high
pressure, heat and certain catalytic action over a period of millions of
years.
4. On fractional distillation, petroleum gives useful products like, fuel oil,
diesel, kerosene, petrol and petroleum gas.

4. Natural gas
Ans.
1. The gas, which is found in the form of underground reservoirs in the
region of coal and petroleum oil is called natural gas.
2. It contains hydrocarbons: methane (80 – 90%), ethane (6 – 10%),
Propane (3 – 5%) and butane ( 1 – 2%)
3. Butanes (L.P.G) and other gases can be separated by cooling the natural
gas and fractionally distilling the liquid.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
5. L.P.G.
Ans.
1. L.P.G is liquefied petroleum gas.
2. It mainly contains liquefied butane and isobutene.
3. It is obtained by cooling natural gas and fractionally distilling the liquid or
by the fractional distillation of petroleum.
4. It is supplied in steel cylinders for cooking or industrial use.

6. Fossil fuels
Ans.
1. Fossil fuels are formed over millions for years by the burial of plants and
animals.
2. They contain energy rich molecules of carbon compounds originally made
by plants.
3. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are examples of fossil fuels. About 80%
of the energy consumed in the world is obtained by burning these fuels.

7. Fractional distillation of petroleum.


Ans.
1. Petroleum or crude oil is brown black liquid. Petroleum is a mixture of
several hydrocarbons.
2. When it is distilled, it separates into various fractions of hydrocarbons.
3. The compounds obtained from fractional distillation of petroleum which are
useful as fuels are fuel oil, diesel, kerosene, petrol and petroleum gas.

8. Liquid fuels.
Ans.
1. Liquid fuels are hydrocarbons.
2. Various hydrocarbons are present in petroleum.
3. When petroleum is fractionally distilled, it separates into various fractions
of hydrocarbons.
4. The fractional distillation of petroleum yields three liquid fuels: gasoline or
petrol, kerosene and fuel oil. Gasoline or petrol is used as motor fuel,
kerosene as a domestic fuel and fuel oil is used for oil furnaces.

9. Water gas
Ans.
1. Water gas is prepared by passing steam over while hot coke at about
14000 C.
2. It contains carbon monoxide (45%), hydrogen (45%) and other gases
(10%)
3. It is used as a fuel and also a source of hydrogen.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
10. Producer gas.
Ans.
1. Producer gas is prepared by blowing insufficient quantity of air through a
layer of red hot coal.
2. It contains carbon monoxide (30%), nitrogen (60%) and other gases
(10%).
3. It is used for glass and metallurgical furnaces. It is also used as a source
of nitrogen for preparation of ammonia.

11. Nuclear fission.


Ans.
1. The process of splitting of heavy nucleus into two or more nuclei of smaller
mass is called nuclear fission.
2. When U - 235 is bombarded with slow neutrons, each nucleus of U – 235 is
split into one nucleus each of Ba and Kr, and three neutrons are set free. The
products formed in a nuclear fission are called fission products.

3. As the mass of the original nucleus is always greater than the total mass of the
fission products, the difference in the mass is converted into energy. A large
amount of energy is liberated in the process of nuclear fission.
4. In a nuclear fission is allowed to continue uninterrupted, extremely large
amount of energy is liberated in a short time. It is called uncontrolled chain
reaction, which is the basis of an atom bomb. If most of the neutrons in the
reactions are absorbed, using boron steel or cadmium rods, and only a few
neutrons are allowed to carry on the chain reaction, the reaction is called a
controlled chain reaction. It is the principle of working of a nuclear reactor.

12. Nuclear energy


Ans.
1. The energy released during a nuclear fission process is called nuclear energy.
For example when uranium – 235 is bombarded with slow neutrons, a chain
reaction starts and nuclear energy is liberated.
2. In a nuclear fission process, the mass of the original nucleus is always greater
than the total mass of the fission products. The difference in the mass is
converted into energy, according to Einstein’s equations.
E = mc2
Where E = energy released, m = Loss in mass, c = speed of light in vacuum.
3. Using an atom bomb, the nuclear energy is used for destruction. In a nuclear
reactor, the nuclear energy is used to generate electricity.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
13. Chain reaction
Ans.
1. The self – multiplying process in which the neutrons ejected during the nuclear
fission strike the neighbouring nuclei and bring about their fission is called chain
reaction.
2. When U – 235 is bombarded with the neutrons, each nucleus of U – 235 splits
into one nucleus each of Ba – 141 and Kr – 92, and three neutrons are set free.
These neutrons bring about nuclear fission of three more U – 235 nuclei.
3. If a chain reaction is not controlled, a large amount of energy is liberated in an
extremely short time. This principle is used in an atom bomb.
4. Using boron steel or cadmium rods, most of the neutrons liberated in the chain
reactions are absorbed and only a few neutrons are allowed to carry on the
reaction. It is called a controlled chair reaction. The working of a nuclear reactor
is based on a controlled chain reaction.

14. Development of atomic energy in India.


Ans.
1. The first nuclear reactors were erected at Bhaba Atomic Research Centre
(BARC) in Mumbai, Currently Cirrus, Zerlina, Purnima and Dhurva reactors are in
operations. There are mainly used for research and in the production of
radioisotopes.
2. The first atomic power station was set up at Tarapore (Maharashtra) in 1969. It
supplies electricity to the state of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
3. A few more atomic power stations have been set up in different part of the
country.

15. Controlled chain reaction


Ans.
1. The process in which most of the neutrons liberated in a chain reaction are
absorbed and only a few neutrons are allowed to carry on the chain reaction is
called a controlled chain reaction.
2. To control the chain reaction, boron steel or cadmium rods are used as they
absorb neutrons.
3. The working of a nuclear reactor is based on a controlled chain reaction.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
16. Nuclear reactor.
Ans.
1. Uranium – 235 is used as a fuel in a nuclear reactor.
2. The nuclear fission of U – 235 is carried out by bombarding it with slow
neutrons.
3. Boron steel or cadmium rods control the nuclear chain reaction set in.
Thus, the liberation of energy in the fission process is controlled.
4. The energy released is used to vaporize water and the steam formed is
used to run turbines. Thus, electricity is generated. Useful radioactive
isotopes are also produced in a nuclear reactor.

Q5. Distinguish between


1. Controlled chain reaction and uncontrolled chain reaction.
Controlled Chain Reaction Uncontrolled Chain Reaction
1. The chain reaction in which most of 1. The self – accelerating chain reaction,
the neutrons are absorbed in called a which takes place on its own, is called an
controlled chain reaction. uncontrolled chain reaction.
2. In this reaction most of the 2. In this reaction neutrons are not
neutrons are absorbed using boron absorbed.
steel or cadmium rods. 3. This reaction leads to an explosion and
3. This reaction is used for peaceful hence is used for destructive purposes.
purposes, like generating electricity.

2. Producer gas and Water gas

Producer Gas Water Gas


1. Producer gas is prepared by passing 1. Water gas is prepared over white
insufficient quantity of air through red hot hot coke at about 14000 C.
coal. 2. It contains CO and H2.
2. It contains mainly CO and N2. 3. It is used as a fuel in glass
3. It is used as a fuel and as illuminating furnace and metallurgical furnaces.
gas.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FUELS
3. Solid Fuels and Gaseous Fuels.

Solid fuels Gaseous fuels


1. The calorific value of solid fuels is 1. The calorific value of gaseous fuels is
lower than that of gaseous fuels. higher than solid fuels.
2. These fuels are difficult to transport. 2. These fuels can be transported easily.
3. Solid fuels contain some amount of 3. Gaseous fuels do not contain non –
non – combustible material. combustible material.
4. They do not burn quickly. 4. They burn instaneously and their
5. They produce solid waster products. combustion can be controlled easily.
5. They do not produce any solid
products.

4. Coal and Coke

Coal Coke
1. Coal is a fossil fuel formed by the burial 1. Coke is obtained by the
of plants. destructive distillation of coal.
2. It contains free amorphous carbon and 2. It contains about 90 – 95%
complex carbon compounds. carbon.
3. It contains some volatile matter. 3. It does not contain any volatile
4. It burns with smoke. matter.
5. It produces less heat than coke. 4. It burns without producing smoke.
5. It produces more heat than coal.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

HEAT
Q1. Define the following

1. Kilocalorie:- Kilocalorie is the quantity of heat required to raise the


temperature of 1 kg of water through 10C. from 14.50C to 15.50C.
2. Specific Heat Capacity:- The specific heat capacity of substance is defined
as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the
substance through 10C.
3. Dew Point:- The temperature at which air becomes saturated with water
vapour is called dew point.
4. Absolute humidity:- The mass of water vapour present in one cubic meter of
air is called absolute humidity.
5. Principle of heat exchange:- If the system of two bodies is kept isolated
from the surrounding so that no heat enters or leaves the systems, then
Heat lost by hot body = Heat gained by cold body.
6. Relative humidity:- Relative humidity is the ratio of actual mass of water
vapour present in a given volume of air to the mass of water vapour required to
saturated the same volume at the same temperature.
7. Unit of specific heat capacity:- In M.K.S = K cal / kg 0C, in C.G.S = cal /g 0C.

Q2. Give scientific reasons:-

1. If a piece of ice is dropped into a glass of water, it floats on the surface of


the water.
Ans.
1. Ice is the solid form of water but is density is much less than that of water.
2. We know as water – cools below 40 C its volume increases.
3. As a results density of ice is less that that of water and so it floats on the
surface of the water.

2. In winter the pipeline carrying, water burst in cold countries.


Ans.
1. In cold countries during winter, the temperature of the atmosphere fall below 00
C.
2. When the temperature of water falls below 40 C, it expands. Hence, the water
in pipes freezes and expands. As there is no room for expansion, water exerts a
large pressure on the pipes. Hence, the pipes sometimes burst.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

HEAT
3. In cold countries during winter even through the lakes are frozen, fish
and other aquatic animals and plants can survive in it.
Ans.
1. In cold countries, during winter, the temperature of the atmosphere falls
well below 00 C.
2. As the temperature decreases, the water at the surfaces of lakes and
ponds starts contracting.
3. Hence, its density increases and it sinks to the bottom. This process
continues till the temperature of all the water in the lake falls to 40 C.
4. As the water at the surface cools further, its temperature falls below 40 C, it
starts expanding instead of contracting.
5. Therefore, its density decreases and it remains at the surface. The
temperature of the water at the surface continues to fall to 00 C.
6. Finally, the water at the surface is converted into ice, but the water below
the layer of ice is at 40 C.
7. Ice is a bad conductor of heat. Hence, the layer of the ice at the surface
does not allow transfer of heat from the water to the atmosphere.
8. As the water below the layer of ice remains at 40 C, fish and other aquatic
animals and plants can survive in it.

Q 3 . Answer the following questions:-

1. What is ‘Anomalous behavior of water’? (OR)


Describe its role in the survival of the aquatic plants and animals in
cold countries.
Ans.
1. Generally, liquids expands on heating and contract on cooling. Water,
however shows an exceptional behaviors below 40C.
2. If water at room temperature is cooled continuously, it goes on contracting
till its temperature falls to 40C.
3. But as its temperature falls below 40C, it starts expanding instead of
contracting.
4. Similarly, if water is heated form 00 C to 40C, it contracts instead of
expanding.
5. This exceptional behaviors of water is known as the anomalous behaviors
of water.
6. In cold countries, during winter, the temperature of the atmosphere falls
well below 00 C.
7. As the temperature decreases, the water at the surfaces of lakes and
ponds starts contracting.
8. Hence, its density increases and it sinks to the bottom. This process
continues till the temperature of all the water in the lake falls to 40 C.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

HEAT
9. As the water at the surface cools further, its temperature falls below 40 C, it
starts expanding instead of contracting.
10. Therefore, its density decreases and it remains at the surface. The
temperature of the water at the surface continues to fall to 00 C.
11. Finally, the water at the surface is converted into ice, but the water below
the layer of ice is at 40 C.
12. Ice is a bad conductor of heat. Hence, the layer of the ice at the surface
does not allow transfer of heat from the water to the atmosphere.
13. As the water below the layer of ice remains at 40 C, fish and other aquatic
animals and plants can survive in it.

2. Write the unit of heat in M.K.S and C.G.S system


Ans. Unit of heat in
M.K.S. system is Kilocalorie.
C.G.S system is Calorie.

3. Explain the formation of dew and fog.


Ans. During the day time the quantity of water vapour in air is not sufficient to
saturate the air. During the cold night temperature may fall to dew point. At this
temperature air becomes saturated with water vapour.
As the temperature falls below the dew point, water vapour in air condenses on
the surface of cold bodies and dew is formed. Sometimes condensation of water
vapour occurs on the fine dust particles present in the atmosphere and this gives
rise to the formation of fog or moist.

4. Explain Hope’s apparatus with the help of neat and labeled diagram.

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HEAT
Ans.
1. Initially, the cylindrical vessel in Hope’s apparatus is filled with water at about
100C and the trough is filled with a freezing mixture of ice and salt.
2. Initially, both the thermometers show the same temperature. In a short time, the
temperature shown by the lower thermometer starts decreasing, while the
temperature shown by the upper thermometer remains almost unchanged.
3. This process continues till the temperature shown by the lower thermometer
shown by the lower thermometer falls to 40C and remains constant thereafter.
This shows that in the temperature range 10 0C to 40C, the density of the water in
the central part of the vessel goes on increasing and hence the water sinks to the
bottom. It means that water contracts as its temperature falls from 100C to 40C.
4. As the temperature of the water in the central part of the vessel becomes less
than 40C, the temperature shown by the upper thermometer begins to fall rapidly
to 0 0C. After some time, a thin layer of ice is formed at the surface of the water in
the vessel. But the temperature shown by the lower thermometer remains
constant (i.e. 40C)
5. In the temperature range 40C to 0 0C, the water moves upward. This shows that
the density of water goes on decreasing in this range. It means that water
expands as its temperature falls from 40C to 00C.
6. Thus the volume of a given mass of water is minimum at 40C, the density of
water is maximum at 40C.

5. A piece of ice is melted by heating it, what will be the effects on its mass,
volume, density and molecular structure.
Ans.
Mass Remains the same
Volume Increases
Density Decreases
Molecular structure Regular arrangement of the molecule is broken
and molecule are free to move inside the liquid.
i.e. Ice is converted into (liquid) water.

6. Explain principle of heat exchange.


Ans. Principle of heat exchange
1. When a hot body and a cold body are kept together, the temperature of hot
body goes on decreasing while that cold body goes on increasing until both
bodies attain the uniform temperature.
2. In this process the hot body losses heat and the cold body gains heat. If no
heat enters or leaves the system then,
Heat lost by hot body = Heat gained by cold body.
Application :- Principle of heat exchange is used to determine specific heat
capacity of any substance with the help of calorimeter.

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SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

HEAT
7. Give two examples of the anomalous behaviour of water with
explanation. (or)
State two effects of anomalous behaviour of water observed in
nature.
Ans.
1. Some times water enters into crevices of the rocks. When the temperature of
the atmosphere falls below 40C, water expands. As there is no room for
expansion, it exerts a tremendous pressure on the rocks, which breaks up into
small pieces.
2. In cold countries, in winter, when the water of lakes freezes, the ice formed
floats on the surface of water. Hence, the aquatic animals and plants in the water
below the layer of ice are protected from being frozen to death.

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SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

MODERN PHYSICS
Q1. Define
Radioactivity:- The property possessed by heavy elements like uranium,
thorium, radium etc, of spontaneously emitting highly penetrating and invisible
rays is called radioactivity.

Q. 2 . Answer the following questions.

1. What is radioactive substance? Give two examples of radioactive


substance.
Ans. A substance possessing the property of spontaneously emitting highly
penetrating and invisible rays (radiation) is called radioactive substance.
Example : Uranium, Thorium, Radium etc.

2. Describe an experiment to show that the radiations emitted by a


radioactive substance are of three types.
Ans.
1. A radioactive substance is kept in the narrow cavity drilled in a thick lead block.
2. The lead absorbs all the radiation emitted by the substance, except those
emerging through the cavity in the upward direction.
3. The radiation emerging from the cavity of the lead block pass through a strong
electric field applied between plates P1 and P2 and then fall the photographic
plate p.
4. The entire apparatus is enclosed in an evacuated chamber kept in a dark
room.
5. When the photographic plate is developed after exposing it to the radiation for
some time, three distinct spots are observed on the plate.
6. This shows that the radiations are split up into three parts in the presence of
an electric field.
7. The radiation deflected towards the negative plate is called α – radiation.
8. The radiation deflected towards the positive plate is called β – radiation.
9. The radiation which is not deflected by the electric field, is called Y- radiation.

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MODERN PHYSICS
3. State the nature of α – particle, β – particle and Y – radiation.
Ans.
1. An α – particle is the nucleus of helium.
2. A β – particle is an electron.
3. Y – radiation consists of electromagnetic waves of very short wavelength of
the order of 10-10m.

4. State the laws of radioactive transformation.


Ans. Laws of radioactive transformation are:
1. When an atom of radioactive element emits an α – Particle, its mass number
decreases by 4 and atomic number decreases by 2.
2. When an atom of radioactive element emits a β – Particle, its mass number
remains the same but atomic number increases by 1.
3. When an atom of a radioactive element emits Y – radiation, its mass number
and atomic number remain unchanged.

5. State the four properties of α – Particles.


Ans.
1. An α – Particle is a positively charged particle.
2. It is the nucleus of helium.
3. α – Particle have velocities ranging from 1/10th to 1/100th of the velocity of
light.
4. Their ionizing power is very high.
5. Their penetrating power is small.
6. They can only pass through very thin sheets of paper.
7. They effect photographic plates.
8. They produce fluorescence in florescent substance like zinc sulphide.

6. State the four properties of β – particles.


Ans.
1. An β – particle is a negatively charged particle.
2. A β – particle is an electron.
3. β – particles have very high velocities.
4. Some β – particles have velocity equal to 99% of velocity of light.
5. Their ionizing power is small compared to that of α – particles.
6. Their penetrating power is greater that that of α – particles,
7. β – particles can pass through thin sheets of metals.
8. They effect photographic plates.
9. They produce fluorescence in fluorescent substance lime zinc sulphide.

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MODERN PHYSICS
7. State the four properties of Y – radiations.
Ans.
1. Y – Radiations are electromagnetic waves of very short wavelength of the
order of 10-10m.
2. Being electromagnetic waves, their velocity is the same as the velocity of light.
3. Their ionizing power is very small compared to the other two particles.
4. Their penetrating power is very high compared to the other two particles.
5. They affect photographic plates.
6. They produce fluorescence in fluorescent substance like zinc sulphide.

8. State the four properties of cathode rays.


Ans.
1. Cathode rays are emitted in a direction normal to the surface of the cathode
and this direction is independent of the position of the anode.
2. They travel in a straight line.
3. They exert mechanical force on an object in their path.
4. They are deflected by a magnetic field.
5. They produce fluorescence in many substance like zinc sulphide.
6. When an obstacle stops them, X – rays are produced.
9. State the four properties of X – rays
Ans.
1. X – rays are electromagnetic waves of very short wavelength of the order
10-6m.
2. They posses all properties of visible light such as rectilinear propagation,
reflection, refraction etc.
3. Being electromagnetic waves they travel in air or vacuum with the speed of
light.
4. They are not deflected by electric or magnetic field.
5. They posses very high energy. Hence, they can penetrate through dense
material such as iron, lead etc.

10. State the uses of cathode rays.


Ans. Uses of cathode rays are
1. Cathode rays are used to produce X – rays.
2. Cathode rays produce fluorescence in fluorescent substances.
3. Cathode rays are used in the picture tube of T.V. receiver.

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MODERN PHYSICS
11. State the uses of X – rays
Ans. Uses of X – rays are _
1. To detect fracture of bones.
2. To detect the presence of foreign materials in a human body.
3. To detect diseases of lungs, kidneys etc.
4. To cure skin diseases and malignant tumor hidden deep within the body.
5. To distinguish real diamonds from artificial ones.
6. To detect explosives and drugs hidden in bags or packages.
7. To study the structure of crystals.

12. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays are emitted
in a direction normal to the surface of the cathode and this direction is
independent of the position of the anode.

Ans. In a discharge tube, even if the anode is fitted on one side, the fluorescent
spot is observed in front of the cathode as shown in the figure. This shows that
cathode rays are emitted in a direction normal to the position of the anode.

13. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays travel in a
straight line.
Ans. If an object is placed in front of the cathode in a discharge tube, a sharp
shadow of the object if formed in the fluorescent region of the tube as shown in
figure. This shows that cathode rays travel in a straight line.

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MODERN PHYSICS
14. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays exert
mechanical force on an object in their path.
Ans. A paddle wheel free to roll on horizontal rails is kept inside the discharge
tube in such a way that the cathode rays are incident only on the upper part of
the wheel. When tube is operated by switching on the D.C. supply, the cathode
rays fall on the wheel and hence, the wheel rolls away from the cathode. This
shows that cathode rays exert mechanical force on an object in their path.

15. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays are deflected
in an electric field.
Ans. A uniform electric field is produced in the region between the plated P1 and
P2. When the cathode rays pass through the electric field, they are deflected
towards the positive plate indicating that the cathode particles are negatively
charged as shown in the figure.

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MODERN PHYSICS
16. Describe in brief the experiment to show that cathode rays are effected
in a magnetic field.
Ans. The experimental arrangement used to study the effect of a magnetic field
on cathode rays. A strong horse shoe magnet is used to produce a magnetic field
at right angles to the plane of the paper and directed inward. When the cathode
rays pass through the magnetic field, they are deflected downward. Hence, the
fluorescent sport is displaced downward. The direction of the deflections shows
that the cathode particles are negatively charged.

Q3. Give scientific reasons.


1. X – rays are used for detection of fracture of bones.
Ans. X – rays can pass through skin and flesh, but they cannot pass through
bones. Hence, X – rays photographs are used for detection of fracture of bones.

2. While using X – rays for curing skin diseases or other diseases, long
exposure to the X- rays should be avoided.
Ans.
1. X rays kill living cells.
2. They kill healthy tissues in the part exposed to X – rays. Hence, while using X
– rays for curing skin diseases or other diseases, long exposure to X – rays
should be avoided.

3. X – rays are invisible.


Ans.
1. X – rays are electromagnetic waves having very short wavelengths of the
order 10-6 meters.
2. The only difference between X – rays and visible light is that X – rays have
short wavelengths. Therefore X – rays are invisible.

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MODERN PHYSICS
4. X – rays are used to detect smuggling of gold and silver.
Ans.
1. X – rays cannot penetrate through gold and silver.
2. X – rays photograph reveals the presence of hidden metal in bags and
packages of the passengers. Hence, X- rays are used to detect smuggling of
gold and silver.

Q4. Distinguish between-


1. β – particles and Cathode rays.
β – Particles Cathode rays
1. These are electrons emitted by a 1. These are also electrons that come from
radioactive atom. cathode of an evacuated cathode ray tube.
2. When a tungsten plate stops β – 2. When a tungsten plate suddenly stops
Particles we do not get X – rays. cathode rays, we get X – rays.
3. When β – Particles emitted, the 3. Cathode rays are free electrons emitted
atomic number of the atom from the cathode. Hence, there is no
increases by one unit. change in atomic number.
2. α – Particles and β – particles
α – Particles β – Particles
1. The α – Particles consists of two 1. β – Particles are electrons.
protons and two neutrons. Hence, we say 2. β – Particles have very high
it the nucleus of Helium atom. velocity up to 99% of the velocity of
2. α – Particles have velocity ranging light.
from 1/10th to 1/100th of that of light. 3. β – Particles can penetrate 100
3. α – particles have very low penetrating times more than α – particles.
power. 4. β – Particles are deflected towards
4. α – Particles are deflected towards anode plate.
negative plate. 5. When β – Particles are emitted
5. When a α – particles are emitted the atomic number increases by one
atomic number decreases by two and unit; mass number does not change.
atomic mass number decreases by four.
3. X – Rays and Y—Rays.
X – rays Y - rays
1. These are electromagnetic rays of 1. These are also electromagnetic rays
very short wave length produced when of very short wave length but emitted by
the path of cathode rays are an atom the nucleus of an radioactive
obstructed. atom.
2. When x – rays fall on a metal plate, 2. Y – rays do not knock out electrons
the place emits electrons. from metal plate.
3. X – rays have the velocity of light. 3. Y – rays also has the velocity of light.
4. X – rays have the properties of light 4. Y – rays do not have all the properties
rays; they can penetrate through of light but they can penetrate even
muscles, tissues but not through bones.
bones.

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SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES


Q. 1 Define
1. Under nutrition: - Intake of insufficient food is called under nutrition. Under
nutrition is very common among the poorer sections of the society. Under
nourished people are prone to diseases like rickets, anemia, cold, cough
and fever.
2. Over nutrition:- Intake of excessive food is called over nutrition. Over
nutrition is seen among the richer section of the society. Over nourished
people become obese and overweight. They become prone to diseases like
diabetes, arthritis, hyper tension and other cardio – vascular diseases.
3. Malnutrition:- Malnutrition means disordered nutrition which is due to lack
of sufficient food or excessive intake of food.
4. Night blindness:- Night blindness is a deficiency disease of the eye
caused due to the deficiency of vitamin A in diet.
5. Beriberi: - Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of
Vitamin B1 .
6. Rickets: Rickets is a disease caused by the deficiency of calcium,
phosphorus and vitamin D.
7. Marasmus:- Marasmus is a disease caused by the deficiency of energy,
proteins and other nutrients.
8. Pellagra:- Pellagra is a disease caused by the deficiency of Vitamin B3
(niacin)
9. Scurvy:- Scurvy is a disease caused due to deficiency of Vitamin C
(Ascorbic acid). It is very common in infants.
10. Anemia: - Anemia is a disease caused by the deficiency of iron.
11. Kwashiorkor: Kwashiorkor is a disease caused by the deficiency of
protein. It occurs when babies are taken away from protein rich breast milk
to other foods, which are not rich in proteins and energy.

Q 2 .Give reasons

1. Malnutrition is hazardous.
Ans. malnutrition is hazardous because.
1. It effects the physical and physiological well – being of an individual.
2. The physical, mental and social performance of a malnourished individual
becomes abnormal.
3. Malnourished children become prone to diseases like marasmus, rickets and
anemia.

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2. In India, there are high incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases
among the poorer section of the society.
Ans.
1. In India among the poorer sections of the society even the intake of basic
calorie requirement is not fulfilled.
2. Proteins, vitamins and minerals are not consumed at desired levels. Therefore,
there is high incidence of nutritional deficiency diseases among the poorer
section of the society.

3. Babies should not be weaned from breast milk to other diets deficient in
proteins and energy.
Ans.
1. Breast milk contains carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which can be easily
digested and absorbed.
2. If proteins are not provided in sufficient quantities, the baby may suffer from
protein energy malnutrition leading to Kwashiorker and marasmus. Therefore,
babied should not be weaned from breast milk to other diets deficient in protein
and energy.

4. Rickets is common among those children who are deprived of sunlight.


Ans.
1. Rickets is caused by the deficiency of vitamin D.
2. Vitamin D is synthesized by the body, if the skin is exposed to morning sun.
Therefore, rickets is common among those children who are deprived of sunlight.

5. Goitre is more prevalent among the people who reside in mountainous


regions.
Ans.
1. In mountainous regions iodine content of the soil and water is low.
2. This leads to deficiency of iodine, which causes goitre. Therefore, goitre is
more prevalent among the people who reside in mountainous regions.

6. Pellagra occurs in people living on a maize diet.


Ans.
1. Pellagra is due to the deficiency of vitamin B3 (niacin)
2. Maize does not contain niacin. Hence, pellagra occurs in people living on a
maize diet.

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DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES


7. Beriberi is observed mainly amongst people who eat polished rice.
Ans.
1. Beriberi is caused due to the absence of Vitamin B1 . (Thiamine)
2. Polished rice lacks B1 . (Thiamine). So Beriberi is observed mainly amongst
people who eat polished rice.

8. Scurvy is observed among the people whose diet is deficient in fresh


fruits.
Ans.
1. Scurvy is due to gross deficiency of vitamin C.
2. Fruits contain vitamin C. Therefore, scurvy is observed among the people
whose diet is deficient in fresh fruits.

Q 3 .Answer the following questions.

1. Mention the hazards of Malnutrition (TB) OR


What are the general effects of physical and physiological well being of a
under nourished and over nourished person.
Ans.
Undernourished person:
1. Weight and height is below the standard value.
2. Physical, mental and social performance is below normal.
3. The under nourished person is susceptible to infection due to low
resistance of the body.
4. The under nourished person becomes prone to diseases like
rickets, anemia infectious diseases like cold, sough, fever etc.
Over nourished person:
1. An over nourished person becomes over weight and obese.
2. The over nourished person becomes prone to diseases like diabetes,
arthritis, cardio – vascular disorder etc.

2. What is night blindness? What are its symptoms?

Ans. Night blindness is a deficiency disease of the eye caused due to the
deficiency of
vitamin A in diet.
Symptoms of night blindness:

1. Unable to see in dim light particularly after exposure to bright light.


2. Xeroderma (dry and scaly skin)

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DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES


3. What is beriberi? What are its symptoms?
Ans. Beriberi is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of vitamin B1 .
Symptoms of beriberi_
1. Loss of apatite.
2. Muscle weakness
3. degeneration of nerve tissues
4. Some times odema is observed
5. Mental alertness decreases
6. Memory may become faulty.
7. Concentration becomes poor.
8. Person becomes unstable emotionally.

4. What is rickets? What are its symptoms?


Ans.
1. Rickets:- Rickets is a deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of calcium,
phosphorus and vitamin D.
2. Symptoms of rickets:- 1. Faulty mineralization of bones and teeth. 2. Skeletal
malformation resulting into twisted bones. 3. Late eruption of teeth.

5. What is scurvy? State its symptoms.


Ans.
1. Scurvy :- Scurvy is a deficiency disease caused due to the deficiency of
vitamin C (Ascorbic acid ) in diet.
2. Symptoms of scurvy :- 1. Swelling and bleeding of gums. 2. Reduction in
resistance of the body to infections. 3. Poor healing of wounds. 4. Subcutaneous
haemorrhage. 5. Irritability.

6. What is pellagra? Give the important symptoms of pellagra.


Ans.
1. Pellagra:- Pellagra is the deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of
vitamin B3 (Niacin) in the diet.
2. Symptoms of pellagra:- 1. Rough, scaly and ulcerated skin. 2. Darkening of
complexion due to hyper pigmentation. 3. Soreness of mouth. 4. Diarrhoea and
fatigue. 5. Listlessness and depression. 6. Headache and backache.

7. What is marasmus? What are its symptoms?


Ans.
Marasmus:-1. Marasmus is a malnutrition disease characterised by the stunted
growth of a child.
2. Marasmus occurs due to the deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in
the diet of infants.

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Symptoms of marasmus are:
1. The child is reduced to skin and bones owing to wasting of muscles.
2. The skin becomes shrunken.
3. Eyes become large in size.
4. The ribs of marasmic child look very prominent.
5. Dehydration occurs in the body due to watery Diarrhoea and vomiting.

8. Give the important symptoms of anaemia. (or) What is anaemia? How is


it caused? (or) What is the causes of anaemia? What are its symptoms?
(or) State the disease caused due to the deficiency of iron. Give its two
symptoms?
Ans.
Anaemia:- Anaemia is a deficiency disease caused by the deficiency of iron in
the diet. In anaemia, the haemoglobin content of the blood goes down.

Symptoms of anaemia:-
1. Pale appearance of the skin, fingernails and mucous membrane.
2. Frequent headache.
3. Breathlessness and palpitation.
4. Constant feeling of tiredness and giddiness.
5. Insomnia.

9. What is Kwashiorker? What are its symptoms?


Ans. Kwashiorker is a disease caused by the deficiency of protein. It occurs
when babies are taken away from protein rich breast milk to other foods, which
are not rich in proteins and energy.
Symptoms of Kwashiorker:-
1. The child becomes listless and miserable.
2. Child becomes apathetic with no interest in his surroundings.
3. Cheerless with no apetite.
4. Weight and height is below normal.
5. Oedema occurs due to loss of nitrogen, which leads to full round face
called moon face.
6. Circumference of upper arm is reduced due to muscle wasting.
7. Abdomen swells and liver enlarges causing potbelly.
8. There is discoloration, redness, sparseness and easy pluckability of
hair.
9. Skin cracks and becomes scaly, inflamed and reddish.

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DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES


10. Give the effect of deficiency of Vitamin B complex.
Ans. The effect of deficiency of Vitamin B complex are
1. Retarded growth
2. Mental disorder
3. Beri – Beri
4. Pellagra

11. State the reasons for mal nourishment or under nutrition.


Ans. The reasons for malnourishment are
1. Ignorance about food.
2. Poverty.
3. Environmental factors
4. Faulty food processing practices.
5. Habits.
6. Natural calamities.
7. Faulty distribution of food and traditions.

12. Explain the term PEM


Ans. Deficiency of protein, Carbohydrate and fat results in Protein – Energy –
Malnutrition (PEM). It is the most important nutritional disorder – affecting
children, particularly in the age period of 1 to 5 years.

13. Explain how food is enriched with nutrients.


Ans.
1. Hydrogenated fat is fortified with Vitamin A and D.
2. Common salt is enriched with iodine.
3. Flour is fortified with vitamin mineral premix.
4. Breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin and minerals.
5. Milk products and infant food are fortified with vitamin A, B, C and D and
minerals like calcium and iron.

14. Write a short note on Goitre.


Ans.
1. Goitre is abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland and it is an endemic
nutritional deficiency disease.
2. It is commonly observed in hilly regions where the iodine content of the soil
and water is low. It is known as “Goitre Belt” region.
3. In many parts of our country, particularly in sub Himalayan regions from
Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh people are affected by this disease.
4. Addinh iodine salts such as potassium iodate to common salt, on to the
drinking water supply helps to provide iodine to the needy people.
5. Now a days, iodine enriched salt is also available everywhere. One should use
it in daily diet to control goitre.

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DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES


15. Baskar has brittle and weak bones. State the disease he is suffering
from. Name the deficient vitamin. Suggest measures on it.
Ans.
1. Baskar is suffering from rickets, which is due to the deficiency of vitamin D.
2. Baskar should expose his body to morning sun. Besides he should take egg,
fish liver oils and butter in his daily food.

16. The following report is observed in the school health inspection. Name
the diseases.
a. Vasu cannot see in dim light.
b. Bleeding gums of pritesh. (March 2001)
Ans. a. Night blindness
b. Scurvy

17. Which deficiency in food is responsible for the following diseases.

Ans.
Marasmus -------- Protein, energy and other nutrients.
Pellagra -------- Niacin (B3)
Anaemia -------- Iron
Rickets -------- Calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D
Night Blindness -------- Vitamin A

Q4. Distinguish between.

1. Kwashiorker and Marasmus


Kwashiorker Marasmus
1. It is a disease of children caused by 1. It is a disease of children caused by
the deficiency of protein in the diet. the deficiency of proteins, energy and
2. In this, there is Oedema on the body other nutrients in the diet.
of the child. 2. There is no oedema on the body of
3. The circumference of the upper arm the child.
of the child is reduced due to muscle 3. The child is reduced to mere skin
wasting. and bone due to muscle wasting.
4. The skin of the child cracks and 4. The skin becomes shrunken.
becomes scaly. 5. The face looks like an old person
5. The face looks like a moon. face.

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SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

DIETARY DEFICIENCY DISEASES


2. Healthy child and Undernourished child Based on the following points.
Healthy child Undernourished child
1. Hair
Lustrous and strong 1. Dry and easily falling
2. Face
Happy look 2. Miserable look, Swollen
3. Eyes 3. Dry, inflamed, sticky and sensitive to
Healthy, bright, moist and luster look light.
4. Skin 4. Dry with cracks, loose, rough,
Lustrous, smooth and intact. pigmented and scaly skin.
5. Tongue 5. Ulcers and exacts on tongue,
Moist and pinkish magenta red colour and loss of taste.
6. Posture
Good 6. Bad
7. Structure
Well built 7. Bad
8. Weight and Height
Normal 8. Below the standard.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

DISEASES DUE TO OVERINTAKE OF


SOME NUTRIENTS
Q1. Give scientific reasons:-

1. Excessive intake of water – soluble vitamins has no ill effects on the


body. (or) Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored in the body.
Ans.
1.These vitamins dissolve in water.
2. They are easily excreted out of the body along with urine. Hence, excessive
intake of water – soluble vitamins has no ill effects on the body.

2. Excessive intake of fluorine should be avoided.


Ans.
1. The over consumption of fluorine begins to discolour the teeth enamel.
2. It also leads to abnormal calcification of bones, known as “Bone Fluorosis”
Hence, excessive intake of fluorine should be avoided.

3. Excessive intake of high calorie diet should be avoided.


Ans.
1 The over consumption of high calorie diet leads to overweight and obesity.
2. Such people may suffer from hypertension, liver disorders, renal disorders and
heart disorders. Hence, intake of high calorie diet should be avoided.

4. Excessive intake of synthetic vitamin A in children results in may


complications.
Ans.
1. It causes hyper vitaminosis of vitamin A.
2. It is a fat – soluble vitamin and therefore remains in the body and is not
excreted out.
3. It results in itching of skin, painful swelling of legs and hands and enlargement
of spleen.

5. Excessive intake of saturated fats in our diet should be avoided.


Ans.
1. Fats give energy two times more than the amount of energy given by
carbohydrates.
2. Some fat get deposited on the inner walls of the arteries causing
arteriosclerosis and obesity.
3. It also leads to cardio – vascular diseases and other complication like
hypertension, diabetes, etc.
Hence, excessive intake of saturated fats in our diet should be avoided.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

DISEASES DUE TO OVERINTAKE OF


SOME NUTRIENTS
Q2. Answer the following.

1. How high blood pressure is caused and how is it prevented?


Ans.
1. High blood pressure is caused due to the excess of fats.
2. It can be controlled by prevention of obesity.
3. One should take required amount of saturated fats to control obesity.
4. Intake of salts should be restricted after the age of 35 years.

2. What is diabetes? How is it caused? How is it prevented?


Ans.
1. Diabetes is the disease in which the level of glucose in blood increase beyond
normal level and glucose is excreted through urine.
2. A hormone ‘insulin’ controls blood glucose level.
3. Obesity interferes the action of insulin and is one of the causes of diabetes.
Which is caused in adults.
4. If obesity is reduced and controlled, diabetes will be automatically controlled.

3. Write the dietary caused through the following disorders:-

1. High blood pressure.


2 Inadequate blood supply.
3. Pitted teeth.
4. Dryness and itching skin.
5. Facial paralysis.

Ans.
1. Dietary causes of high blood pressure.
a. Excessive intake of saturated fats.
b. Intake of salts in excess.
2. Dietary causes of inadequate blood supply.
a. Excessive intake of fats.
3. Dietary causes of pitted teeth.
a. Excessive intake of fluorine.
4. Dietary causes of dryness and itching skin
a. Excessive intake of vitamin A.
5. Dietary causes of facial paralysis.
a. Excessive intake of vitamin D.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

DISEASES DUE TO OVERINTAKE OF


SOME NUTRIENTS
4. State the necessary precautions to avoid the following disorders.
1. Arteriosclerosis.
2. To control diabetes.
3. Obesity.

Ans.
1. Arteriosclerosis:- Arteriosclerosis can be avoided by restricting he consumption
of fat and fat rich nutrients.
2. To control diabetes:- It can be controlled by controlling the obesity and by
controlling the diet.
3. Obesity:- It can be avoided by restricting he quantity of fats and carbohydrates
in the diet.

5. What are the possible disorder due to the consumption of following.


1. High calorie diet.
2. Saturated fat.
3. Fluorine.
4. Vitamin A in children ‘s diet
5. Vitamin C

Ans.
1. High calorie diet: The over consumption of high calorie diet leads to
overweight and obesity. Such people may suffer from hypertension, liver
disorders, renal disorders and heart disorders.
2. Saturated fat: The over consumption of saturated fat leads to blood pressure
and arteriosclerosis, leading to heart disease, paralysis and gangrene.
3. Fluorine:- The over consumption of fluorine begins to discolour the teeth
enamel. It also leads to abnormal calcification of bones, known as “Bone
Fluorosis”
4. Vitamin A in children’s diet:- The over consumption of vitamin A in children’s
diet results in dry itchy akin, painful swelling of legs and hands thickening of long
bones and hyper irritability.
5. Vitamin C:- The over consumption of vitamin C has no ill effects on the body
as they are easily extracted through urine.

6. Give the disadvantages of excessive intake of nutrients.


Ans. The disadvantages of excessive intake of nutrients are:
1. Excessive intake of nutrients is wastage of nutrients.
2. Excessive intake of nutrients results in various disorders of the body leading to
disability and pre matured death.
3. Excessive intake of nutrients leads to overweight and obesity.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

DISEASES DUE TO OVERINTAKE OF


SOME NUTRIENTS
7. Explain hypervitaminosis.
Ans. Disorders or diseases resulting from the over intake of vitamins is called
hypervitaminosis. Hypervitaminosis is caused mainly due to excess consumption
of fat soluble vitamins like vitamin A, Vitamin D, etc.
1. Hypervitaminosis of vitamin A occurs when concentrated from of synthetic
vitamin A is administered for a larger period. Following symptoms are commonly
observed in the children. Dry itchy skin, painful swelling of legs and hands
thickening of long bones, occasional enlargement of spleen, hyper irritability. In
adults, complaints such as fatigue, general weakness, insomnia, constipation,
nail changes, bone and joint pains etc. are observed.
2. Hypervitaminosis of vitamin D causes nausea, fatigue, vomiting, drowsiness,
hypertension, renal damage, calcium deposition in large blood vessels and in soft
tissues, facial paralysis and anaemia etc.

8. What happens when an adult takes vitamin ‘A’ in excess?


Ans. Excessive intake of vitamin A causes following disorders in adults.
1. Fatigue
2. General weakness
3. Insomnia
4. Constipation
5. Nail changes
6. Bone and joint pains.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FOOD WASTAGE
Q1. Give scientific reasons:

1. Immature grains should not be harvested.


Ans. Immature grains should not be harvested because
1. They deteriorate quickly as enzymes are still active in them.
2. The grains also have high proportion of moisture in them which is favourable
condition for enzyme reaction.

2. Wet grains should not be dried in the hot sun.


Ans.
1. Drying of wet grains in the sun results in their cracking leading to increased
infestation by insects.
2. Hence, wet grains should not be dried in the hot sun.

3. Grapes should not be handled by untrained labourers.


Ans.
1. Untrained labourers handle grapes roughly during harvesting and packing.
2. Owing to this grapes get spoilt completely.
3. Hence, grapes should not be handled by untrained labourers.

4. Jaggery should not be packed in gunny bags during rainy season.


Ans.
1. Jaggery should not be packed in gunny bags during rainy season, because it
results in both qualitative and quantitative loss of the commodity.
2. Moreover, the commodity becomes unacceptable in the market because of its
contamination by both live and dead insects and their excreta.

5. Potatoes should not be stored for a long time.


Ans. Potatoes should not be stored for along time, because
1. Potatoes sprout during storage.
2. Sprouting leads to qualitative and quantitative losses of their nutritive values.

6. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than nonperishable


foodstuffs.
Ans.
1. Perishable foodstuffs have a short shelf – life as compared to non perishable
food stuffs.
2. Therefore, losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non perishable
foodstuffs.

7. Grapes get spoiled during packing.


Ans.
1. Grapes get spoilt if packed in rigid wooden boxes.
2. Therefore, grapes get spoiled during packing.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FOOD WASTAGE
8. Due to defective mode of distribution more wastage of food takes place.
Ans.
1. Improper packaging, marketing and transport arrangements for distribution of
food are responsible for wastage of food.
2. Therefore, due to defective mode of distribution more wastage of food takes
place.

9. Over ripening of fruits should be avoided.


Ans.
1. Over ripening of fruits get spoiled due to enzymatic action.
2. Therefore, over ripening of fruits should be avoided.

10. Buffet system of food serving should be followed at public places.


Ans.
1. Buffet system of food serving is useful in minimizing the wastage of food.
2. Therefore, buffet system of food serving should be followed at public places.

11. Overcooking of food should be avoided.


Ans. Overcooking of food should be avoided, because:
1. Overcooking disintegrates the food.
2. Owing to this, the colour and flavour of food is lost.
3. Therefore, overcooking of food should be avoided.

12. Cooking of food in an open pan should be avoided.


Ans.
1. Cooking of food in an open pan results in losses of vitamins.
2. Therefore, cooking of food in an open pan should be avoided.

13. Chopped vegetables should not be washed.


Ans.
1. Washing of chopped vegetables results in loss of nutritive quality.
2. Therefore, chopped vegetables should not be washed.

14. Bananas should not be kept in a refrigerator.


Ans. Bananas turn black if they are stored at low temperature. Hence, bananas
should not be kept in a refrigerator.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FOOD WASTAGE
Q2. Answer the following

1. Explain how production of food has increased in our country. (or)


How is the production of food being increased?
Ans. The production of food has increased in our country, because of the
following reasons.
1. New scientific methods and efficient technologies of cultivation.
2. Green revolution for producing more crops and white revolution for producing
more milk. Both these revolutions were the results of the programs implemented
by the Government of India.

2. What are the two lines of action which government has taken to meet the
food requirements of our country?
Ans. The two lines of action which government has taken to meet the food
requirements of our country are as follows.
1. Control of population growth.
2. Increase in food production and reduction in losses of food.

3. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non – perishable food


stuffs. Why?
Ans. Losses of perishable foodstuffs are higher than non – perishable foodstuffs
due to the following reasons:-
1. Perishable foodstuffs have a short – self life as compared to anon – perishable
foodstuffs. Therefore there is a considerable loss in perishable foodstuffs.
2. In perishable foodstuffs enzymes are more active than in non – perishable
foodstuffs. Therefore they deteriorate more quickly resulting into heavy losses.
3. In perishable foodstuffs, there is natural losses due to endogenous respiration
and wilting due to transpiration. In non – perishable foodstuffs, there is neither
endogenous respiration non wilting due to transpiration.
4. Perishable foodstuffs have heavy losses due to decay caused buy micro –
organism as compared to that of non – perishable foodstuffs.

4. Suggest measures for controlling quantitative loss of foodstuffs.


Ans. The measure for controlling quantitative loss of foodstuffs are:
1. Adequate measure must be adopted for proper distribution of foodstuffs to all
the sections of society.
2. A care must be taken at each and every step to avoid wastage and spoilage of
food. Good transportation facilities must be provided.
3. Proper distribution of foodstuffs can be achieved by implementing ration
system.
4. At home, proper serving of prepared food to all family members should be
practiced.
5. Buffet system at public places such as hostels, boarding will be useful to
minimize the wastage.

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S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FOOD WASTAGE
Scientific methods of post harvesting practices and storage.
1. After harvesting, transportation and storage facilities must be adequate and
proper safe storage go-downs should be built according to the nature of
foodstuffs.
2. There must be proper arrangements of temperature and moisture control.
3. Godowns must be well ventilated and protected from pests.
4. Before storage, grains should be properly dried and cleared off from infected
and spoiled materials and other impurities.
5. Periodical checking and pest control treatments are necessary to increase the
self – life of foods.
6. Adaptation of new technologies for harvesting and storage, training for proper
handling to the food handlers are some of the solution to minimize the losses of
food stuffs.
5. List the causes of food wastage
Ans. Causes of food wastage are
1. Defective post harvest practices.
2. Improper handling of foodstuffs.
3. Losses during transport and milling of foodstuffs.
4. Defective modes of storage and distribution of food.
5. Losses due to traditional custom.

6. What will happen if the food is not handled properly?


Ans. Effects of improper handling of food are as follows.
1. Rough handling by untrained labours is a major cause of food wastage.
2. Losses are more in perishable foodstuffs, particularly during harvesting,
packing, transporting, etc.
3. Delicate grapes if roughly harvested and packed in rigid wooden boxes, will
get spoil completely.
4. Careless digging of sweet potatoes, causes injury to them.

7. Explain how qualitative loss of nutritive nature of food takes place due to
faulty pre – marketing process.
Ans. The following faulty pre – marketing processes can lead to qualitative loss
of food:
1. Improper time of harvesting crop.
2. Wrong judgment of time required for foodstuffs to reach the market.
3. Damage to perishable goods during harvesting.
4. Wrong judgment of the likely time gap between production and marketing.
5. Lack of knowledge of available modes of packaging, storage, transport,
distribution etc.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FOOD WASTAGE
8. Enlist the faulty cooking methods.
Ans. Faulty cooking results in the loss of certain nutrients.
1. Over cooking may disintegrate food or may lose its colour, flavour etc.
2. Cooking with water in open pan results in greater losses of vitamins.
3. The water from cooked food if thrown away, protein, minerals and vitamins get
lost.
4. Washing fruits or vegetables after cutting affects the nutritive quality of the
food besides its acceptability.

9. Explain why harvesting of crops must be done at proper time?


Ans.
1. If immature crops are harvested they will deteriorate more quickly than mature
grains, as the enzymes are still active.
2. If the grain remains in the field after maturity, occasionally it becomes wet due
to rain and drying of such grains in the hot sun may cause grains to crack, thus
increasing the likelihood of infestation by insects.

10. Write a note on white revolution.


Ans.
1. Increase in production of milk by high yielding varieties of animals is called
white revolution.
2. In 1970 Government of India, in collaboration with Denmark, New Zealand and
other countries started improving Indian breeds of cows and buffaloes.
3. As a result high yielding varieties of cows and buffaloes were developed
leading to white revolution.
4. Aarey dairy at Mumbai, Amul dairy at Anand in Gujarat and Warna dairy at
Kolhapur have contributed to white revolution.

11. Write a note on green revolution.


Ans.
1. Increase in the production of food grains by developing high yielding varieties
of crop plants with the help of new scientific methods and technologies is called
green revolution.
2. The population explosion in India, after independence created increasing
demands for food supply.
3. To meet the ever – increasing demands for food, efforts were made to increase
the production of food grains.
4. In 1960’s scientists realized the importance of high yielding varieties of crop
plants for increasing the production of food grains.
5. Many hybrid varieties of crop seeds were used which led to tremendous
increase in food production.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FOOD WASTAGE
Q3. Write short notes on
1. Losses of food during farm level operation:
1. It includes various process such as threshing and drying grains, bagging or
placing threshed grain in other containers, grading or sorting of fruits, bundling of
leafy vegetables, transport from field to storage, mill or market etc.
2. Losses of non – perishable foodstuffs occur due to their post harvest quality
and threshing and shelling by using hand brake method or by use of animals.
3. Losses of perishable foodstuffs due to their short – self life.

2. Losses of food during transport.


1. It is due to transport from field to storage place or to processing place.
2. During this transits, loss may occur due to continued deterioration of
perishable food or spoilage of bagged grains exposed to rain, or spoilage due to
defective or damaged containers etc.
3. The use of hooks to handle sacks of grains in port is also one of the examples
of poor handling, causing loss.

3. Loss of food due to the defective modes of storage:-


1. Food losses during storage are quite high.
2. Variation in temperature, humidity and moisture are responsible for damage
during storage.
3. In hot damp conditions, the deterioration of food takes place due to the rapid
growth of micro – organism and insect population.
4. Unsuitable container used for the storage of food materials also plays sub role
in loss of food.

4. Loss of food due to defective modes of distribution:-


1. Improper packaging, marketing and transport arrangements for distribution are
responsible for food wastage.
2. The percentage of wastage is more among perishable foods, especially during
summer or rainy seasons.
3. Rough handling or vibration in overloaded trucks on poor roads causes physical
damage to the delicate perishable foodstuffs like vegetables, fruits, fish etc.

5. Loss of food due to traditional customs:-


1. A considerable amount of food materials are lost in many houses due to
wasteful and inefficient management.
2. Many a times more than required quantity of food is purchased, especially by
privileged section of the society.
3. Some amount of food is also wasted due to may customs and practices.
4. For example, a considerable amount of food prepared for feast during social
and religious functions is wasted due to improper management.
5. The wastage of good also occurs due to faulty serving methods.
6. Even in hotels, boarding, hostels, etc a large amount of food is wasted.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FACTORS CAUSING FOOD


SPOILAGE
Q1. Define

1. Natural preservatives: - The naturally occurring food stuffs such as sugar, oil
and apices which are used for preserving food are called natural preservatives.

2. Asepsis:- Keeping out microorganisms from food is called asepsis.

3. Food spoilage:- The undesirable change in food which makes it unfit for
human consumption is called food spoilage.

4. Developed preservatives:- During certain processes, some products can be


developed having a preservative effect. Such products are called developed
preservatives.

5. Artificial preservatives:- The synthetic chemicals that are used for the
preservation of food are called artificial preservatives.

6. Food poisoning:- An acute illness resulting from the ingestion of food


containing poisonous substances are called food poisoning.

Q2. Give scientific reasons:-

1. Packaging material for food should be selected properly.


Ans. Packaging material for food should be selected properly because
1. The material should be non – reactive, non toxic and non corrosive so as to
avoid spoilage of food.
2. To maintain the quality of food, it depends upon the packaging material used
for its packing.

2. Potable water must be used for foodstuffs.


Ans. Potable water must be used for food stuffs because
1. Potable water is free from micro – organisms.
2. It does not contaminate the food.

3. Potatoes are irradiated before storing.


Ans. Potatoes are irradiated before storing because
1. Potatoes sprout during storage.
2. To avoid the potatoes from sprouting they are irradiated with gamma rays.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FACTORS CAUSING FOOD


SPOILAGE
4. A high standard of cleanliness must be maintained at food processing
plants. (or)
Food handlers should be hygienically clean.
Ans. A high standard of cleanliness must be maintained at food processing plants
because
1. Most of the diseases and contamination of food is brought due to unhygienic
conditions of the food handlers.
2. Pathogens can be transmitted to other via the agency of food handlers.
3. Many communicable and contagious diseases are spread if food handlers do
not maintain health and hygiene.

5. Fruits and vegetables should not get bruised.


Ans. Fruits and vegetable should not get bruised because
1. Bruising facilitates the entry of micro – organisms.
2. They use the nutrients of food for their growth and activities there by decrease
the nutritive value.
3. They also release toxins, which contaminates the fruits and vegetables.

6. Milk should be preserved at low temperature.


Ans. Milk should be preserved at low temperature because
1. Low temperature treatment retards the chemical and enzymatic reactions.
2. It also slows down or stops the growth of micro – organisms.
3. Milk can remain fresh without contamination for a longer period if stored at low
temperature.

7. Combinations of different preservative methods are used for preserving


jams.
Ans. Combinations of different preservative methods are used for preserving
jams because.
1. Single method of preserving is not effective.
2. For preparing jam three methods are involved such as asepsis, use of high
temperature and use of preservative i.e. sugar.

8. Use of high temperature is essential for food preservation.


Ans. Use of high temperature is essential for food preservation because
1. The micro – organisms can be killed by using high temperature.
2. The enzymes present in food can also be inactivated by heating, boiling etc.

47
“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FACTORS CAUSING FOOD


SPOILAGE
9. Use of low temperature is a method of food preservation.
Ans. Use of low temperature is a method of food preservation because.
1. Low temperature treatments are useful to retard chemical and enzymatic
reactions.
2. They are also useful to slow down or stop growth and activity of micro –
organisms.

10. Butter milk should not be kept in a brass vessel.


Ans. Butter milk should not be kept in brass vessel because,
1. Butter milk contains an organic acid called as lactic acid.
2. The lactic acid present in the buttermilk reacts with the brass vessel.
3. The chemical reaction brings about spoilage of butter milk, which is unfit for
consumption.

11. Cut meat should not be kept for long time.


Ans.
1. After slaughtering killing animals certain chemical changes takes place.
2. Degradation of glycogen continues to form intermediate product specially lactic
acid.
3. Lactic acid increases acidity of meat, which affects the nutritive value of the
foodstuffs. Hence, cut meat should not kept for longer time.

12. Groundnuts are stored for a longer period.


Ans.
1. They turn rancid and develop an undurable flavour in it.
2. This is due to chemical reaction in it. Hence, groundnuts are stored for a
longer period.

48
“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FACTORS CAUSING FOOD


SPOILAGE
Q3. Answer the following in short.

1. List the extrinsic and intrinsic factors of spoilage in foodstuffs. Give one
example each.
Ans.
Extrinsic factors:-
1. Physical damage due to improper handling.
Example: If food is handled improperly while plucking, transporting, drying,
preserving etc. it may cause bruising after the tissues of food. It facilitates the
entry of micro organisms and insects in food.
2. Chemical reactions due to contact with metals.
Example:- Butter milk gets spoilt if kept in a brass vessel.
3. Micro Organisms

Example:- Yeast, bacteria etc. contaminate the food, which cause food poisoning.
4. Insects, rodents, birds and domestic animals.
Example: Fruits, vegetables and food gains are largely destroyed by insects,
rodents, birds and domestic animals. Such food becomes unfit for human
consumption.

Intrinsic Factors.
1. Enzymatic reactions:-
Example : Enzymes present in food starts degrading the food resulting into
spoilage of food.
2. Chemical Reactions
Examples:- Groundnuts stored for a longer period, they rancid and develop an
undurable flavour in it. This is due to chemical reaction in it.

2. Explain briefly different methods of food preservation.


Ans. The different methods of food preservation are as follows:
1. Asepsis or keeping out micro – organisms:- Foods are preserved by not
allowing the micro – organisms to come in contact with food. This is done by
keeping sanitation and hygiene related to food.
2. Removal of micro – organisms:- In this method micro – organisms are
removed by washing, trimming, filtration etc.
3. Maintenance of anaerobic conditions. :- An anaerobic condition can be created
by filling the container completely, evacuation of the unfilled space or the
replacement of the air by an inert gas. E.g. Canning of food.
4. Use of high temperature:- The micro – organisms can be killed by using high
temperature. The enzymes present in food can also be inactivated by high
temperature.

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“ROME WAS NOT BUILD IN A DAY”
S.S.C OMTEX CLASSES S.S.C
SCIENCE PART I & II “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES

FACTORS CAUSING FOOD


SPOILAGE
5. Use of Low temperature:- Low temperature is useful to retard chemical and
enzymatic reactions. They are also useful to slow down or stop growth and
activity of micro – organisms. E.g. use of refrigerator or cold storage for milk,
fruits, vegetables, meat etc.
6. Drying:- Preservation of food by sun – drying has been practiced for centuries.
It can also be done by using mechanical drier.
7. Use of chemical additives:- Some food stuffs are preserved by making use of
certain natural chemicals such as sugar, salt, oil spices and synthetic chemicals
such as sodium benzoate, citric acid, etc. During certain process some products
can be developed which act as preservatives. E.g. Acid during fermentation.
8. Irradiation:- Radiations of various frequencies are used to preserve food stuffs,
for example. To avoid sprouting of stored potatoes they are irradiated with
gamma rays.

Q3. Explain different ways of maintaining aseptic conditions of food


preservation.
Ans. The different ways of maintaining aseptic conditions of food preservation
are:
1. Maintenance of clean environment:- A high standard of cleanliness should be
maintained in the premises where food is harvested, stored, processed etc.
2. Cleanliness of food:- Foodstuffs may contain micro – organisms. Therefore,
they should be cleaned properly with clean water to minimize their contamination.
3. Cleanliness of food handlers:- A person who handles the food must maintain a
high standard of cleanliness. He should have the basic knowledge of the
principle of sanitation and hygiene.
4. Packaging material:- Packaging material for food should be non – reactive,
non – corrosive and non – toxic,, so that the food quality is maintained.
5. Cleanliness of equipments and utensils:- Equipments used in handling food
like choppers, knives, tongs, etc. Should be washed with hot water or sterilized.
6. Use of potable water:- Impure water may be a major cause of a source of
contamination, as it carries micro – organisms. Therefore clean water should be
used.
7. Safe disposal of leftover food and food waste:- Left over food should be
covered and stored in a cool dry place, preferably in a refrigerator. Food waste
like peels, seeds, bones etc. should be disposed off in garbage cans with lids.
The disposal of waste should be done with proper care.

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SPOILAGE
4. What are preservatives? Describe its types?
Ans. Preservatives are chemical substances or food additives, which are added
to foodstuffs to increase their shelf life. Preservative play an important role in
food preservation inhabit the spoilage of food.
Preservatives are classified into the following groups.
1. Natural preservative:- The naturally occurring foodstuffs such as sugar, salt, oil
and spices which are used for preserving food are called natural preservatives.
For example, sugar is used for the preservation of jams.
2. Developed preservatives:- During certain processes some products can be
developed which act as preservatives. The products are called developed
preservatives, for example during fermentation acid is produced in foods which
act as a preservatives.
3. Artificial preservatives:- The synthetic chemicals that are used for the
preservation of food are called artificial preservatives. For example sodium
benzoate, citric acid are artificial preservatives.

5. Write the effects off consumption of spoilt foods.


Ans. The effects of consumption of spoilt foods are:-
1. The intensity of effect will depend on the type and number of micro –
organisms and consumer’s power.
2. It may also cause food poisoning which may cause certain disease due to
ingestion of toxic substances produced by micro – organisms.
3. There may be an infection produced by pathogenic micro – organisms carried
by the food. Sometimes this pathogenic micro – organisms may produce some
toxins.
4. There may be gastro – intestinal disturbance. Such as nausea, abdominal
pain, vomiting, diarrhoea. Other symptoms are headache, fever or chills,
muscular weakness, drowsiness etc.
5. Food poisoning may be a cause of death.

6. State how cleanliness of food handlers should be maintained.


Ans. The cleanliness of food handlers should be maintained by the following
ways.
1. Food handlers should be free from any communicable diseases.
2. They should maintain a high standard of personal hygiene.
3. They should undergo regular medical check up.
4. They should wear clean clothes.
5. They should avoid coughing, sneezing and spitting while at work.
6. They should avoid smoking or chewing of tobacco.
7. They should not touch his body parts such as hair, legs, feet while handling the
food.

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SPOILAGE
7. Explain why food should not be exposed to moist air?
Ans.
1. If food is exposed to moist air, number of micro – organisms contaminate it.
2. They start multiplying itself.
3. They decrease the nutritive value of food.
4. Micro – organisms release some toxic substances and make food unfit for
consumption.
Hence food should not be exposed to moist air.

8. Explain what happens when meat is overcooked with a pinch of sodium


bicarbonate.
Ans. When meat is overcooked with a pinch of sodium bicarbonate, vitamins of B
complex and vitamin present tin meat get destroyed. As a result of this, the
nutritive quality of the food is affected. The meat is disintegrated and loss its
colour and flavour.

9. Explain, why fishes should not be used as food without salting?


Ans.
1. Salting of fishes is done to prevent its spoilage.
2. Salting of fishes is also done for preservation for a longer time.
3. If fishes are kept for a longer time they become stale and get contaminated.
4. Use of such contaminated fishes is harmful. Therefore, fishes should not be
used as food without salting.

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HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES


Q1. Give Scientific reasons:-

1. Albino persons cannot synthesize the pigment melanin.


Ans. Albino persons cannot synthesize the pigment melanin because.
1. It is hereditary disease in which there is no pigmentation of hair, eyes and
colour of the skin.
2. The gene, which controls the synthesis of the pigment melanin, undergoes
mutation in them.

2. In take of saturated fat should be avoided.


Ans. Intake of saturated fat should be avoided because
1. Saturated fat contains cholesterol and triglycerides in them.
2. Excess intake of saturated fats leads to deposition of these fats on the inner
walls of the arteries causing arteriosclerosis.
3. It also increases the chance of heart attack.

3. In India, the causes of heat attacks are increasing.


Ans. In India, the cause of heart attacks are increasing due to increased mental
and physical stress and strain on the people.
Both mental and physical stress and strain have adverse effects on the heart
causing heart attacks.

4. There is oedema on the body during kidney failure.


Ans. There is oedema on the body during kidney failure because
1. Kidney failure is the malfunctioning of kidneys.
2. There is accumulation of poisonous substance and water in body.
3. Accumulation of water in the tissues leads to swelling called oedema.

5. The people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS.


Ans. The people should be educated to avoid cancer and AIDS because they are
the leading cause of mortality in developed countries.

6. Cancer cannot be diagnosed in its early stage.


Ans.
1. Cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality in developed countries.
2. There is no early warning symptoms such as pain or fever. Hence, cancer
cannot be diagnosed in its early stage.

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7. Vehicle drivers are tested for colour blindness before issuing license.
Ans.
1. Colour blindness is a hereditary disease.
2. Colour – blind persons cannot distinguish between different colours.
3. Most common colour blindness is for red and green colour.
4. This defect is usually observed in males. Hence, vehicle drivers are tested for
colour blindness before issuing license.

8. Blood sugar level increases in diabetes.


Ans.
1. Diabetes may be due to metabolic disorder as well as organic failure and its
can be hereditary.
2. It is the defective functioning of the beta cells of islets of Langerhans in
pancreas which secrets the hormone insulin.
3. In absence of this hormone, the tissues, especially liver tissues fail to utilize
glucose. This, results increased blood sugar level in diabetes.

Q2. Define

1. Communicable disease :- Diseases that are caused due to pathogens and


are transmitted from one person to another are called communicable diseases.
Diseases such as influenza, cholera, tuberculosis are communicable diseases.

2. Non – communicable disease:- Diseases that are caused due to factors


other than pathogens and are not transmitted from one person to another are
called non – communicable diseases. Diseases such as cancer and diabetes are
non – communicable diseases.

Q3. Answer the following in short:-

1. List the carcinogenic factor (or) Name the factor which increases the risk
of caner. Suggest the treatment of cancer.
Ans. Factors such as smoking, exposure of radiation, some chemicals, food
stuffs and dyes may increase the risk of caner. These factors are called
carcinogenic factors as they cause cancer.
The Treatment of caner are
1. Radiotherapy. 2. Chemotherapy. 3. Surgery.

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2. Write a note on kidney failure.
Ans.
1. Malfunctioning or defective functioning of the kidney is called kidney failure.
2. It is due to infection of physiological disorders.
3. It leads to accumulation of poisonous substances in the tissues causing
oedema.
4. Urea in the blood increases, which leads to uremia.

3. What are the four types of heart diseases?


Ans. The four types of heart diseases are as follows.
1. Congenital defect
2. Rheumatic fever.
3. Coronary diseases.
4. Excessive strain on the heart.

4. Name the hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. Write down three
affects due to excess secretion.
Ans. 1.The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland is thyroxine.
2. Effects due to excess secretion of thyroxine is increased metabolic rate,
hyperactivity, loss of weight and protruding eyeballs.

5. Write the symptoms of diabetes


Ans. They symptoms of diabetes are as follows.
1. Excess of throat.
2. Hunger
3. Frequent urination
4. Loss of weight with general weakness

6. Suggest any four measures to control diabetes.


Ans. The four control measures to control diabetes are as follows.
1. Restriction of sugar intake.
2. Injections of insulin
3. Consumption of hypoglycemic substances
4. Regular exercise can control diabetes.

7. Name any four diseases caused by polluted water.


Ans.
1. Jaundice
2. Cholera
3. Typhoid
4. Gastroenteritis

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Q4. State the effect of the following

1. Effect of X – rays on health:- They show adverse affects on cell growth and
interfere with the genetic constitution and metabolic activities.

2. Effect of air pollutants on human health :- They cause lung disorders. They
also cause headache, irritation of eyes and nose, coughing, breathlessness,
chest pain and bronchial asthma.

3. Effect of water pollutants on health:- Water pollutants cause disease like


jaundice, cholera, typhoid and gastro – enteritis.

4. Effect of deficiency of iodine on health :- Deficiency of iodine causes goiter


i.e. enlargement of the thyroid gland.

5. Effect of mental and physical strain on health:- Mental and Physical strain
cause mechanical strain on the heart, resulting into heart diseases.

6. Effect pf consumption of saturated fats on health:- Consumption of


saturated fats causes arteriosclerosis, which results in heart attack.

Q5. Describe the following heart diseases:-

1. Congenital heart diseases:-


1. The congenital heat diseases are mostly due to malfunctioning of the valves in
the heart.
2. Congenital heart diseases may also be due to the presence of a hole in the
septal wall of the heart which causes the mixing of oxygenated and de –
oxygenated blood in the heart.
3. The main causes of congenital heart diseases are as follows:-
i. Infections like German measles in the pregnant mother.
ii. Administration of pregnancy.
iii. Exposure to radiations like X – rays which may affect the embryo.

2. Rheumatic fever:-
1. Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease caused by the infection by a strain
of streptococcus.
2. Rheumatic fever affects the heart.
3. Rheumatic fever is usually seen in the population living in cold and humid
climate in overcrowded areas where the condition are unhygienic.

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3. Coronary diseases:-
1. Coronary diseases of heart and caused by the intake of fats, especially
saturated fats in the diet.
2. The cholesterol from the fats gets deposited on the wall of the artery supplying
blood to the heart.
3. Owing to the deposition of cholesterol on the wall of the artery, its lumen
becomes narrow resulting into less supply of blood to the heart. This disease is
called arteriosclerosis.
4. Arteriosclerosis may cause heart attack.
5. Coronary diseases are observed in the people able the age of 45 years.
6. Males are more prone to coronary diseases.

Q 6. Explain the following:-

1. Health:-
1. Health literally means sound condition of the body.
2. It is a state of physical, mental and social well – being and not merely the
absence of disease.

2. Disease:-
1. The word disease (dis – ease) means uneasiness. i.e. departure from a state
of normal health.
2. Disease is a condition in which the normal state of mind, body and well – being
person is impaired.
3. A disease is diagnosed from the symptoms which it produces.

3. Haemophilia:-
1. Haemophilia is a hereditary disease caused by mutation of the gene which
controls the clotting blood.
2. In Haemophilia the blood does not clot. Therefore, a person suffering from
Haemophilia may bleed to death when injured.
3. Haemophilia is usually found in males. It is rarely seen in females.

4. Albinism:-
1. Albinism is a hereditary disease.
2. A person suffering from albinism cannot synthesize the pigment melanin.
Therefore, his skin, iris of the eyes, eyelashes and hairs on the body appear
white.
3. Albinism is caused by the mutation in the gene which controls the formation of
the pigment melanin in the body.
4. A person showing albinism is known as albino.
5. Albinos develop rashes on their skin in bright light. Their eyes are sensitive to
bright light.

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5. Uremia :-
1. When the amount of urea increases in the blood, it leads to disease, called
uremia.
2. Uremia is caused by the malfunctioning of the kidney.
3. Dialysis and kidney transplantation are remedial measures for uremia.

6. Silicosis:-
1. Silicosis is a respiratory diseases caused by the inhalation of silica dust.
2. Workers working in stone quarries and coal mines usually suffer from silicosis.
3. Silicosis is an occupational disease.

7. Cretinism:-
1. Cretinism is caused by under secretion of thyroxine hormone secreted by
thyroid gland.
2. In a child suffering from cretinism, the growth is stunted.
3. Cretinism also makes a child mentally retarded.

8. Diabetes:-
1. Diabetes is the defective functioning of the beta cells of islets of Langerhans in
pancreas which secrete the hormone insulin.
2. Owing to the lack of insulin, the cells of the body, especially, the liver cells fail
to utilize glucose.
3. As a result of this, the level of sugar in the blood increases.
4. In diabetes, there is excretion of glucose in urine.
9. Arteriosclerosis:-
1. Arteriosclerosis is caused by excessive intake of fats, especially saturated fats
in the diet.
2. In this disease, the cholesterol present in fats gets deposited in the arteries as
a result of which their lumens become narrow.
3. Owing to this, there is less supply of blood to the heart which causes heart
attack.

Q 7. Suggest the treatment for the following:-

1. Kidney disorders :- Kidney disorders can be treated by dialysis and kidney


transplantation.

2. Cancer:- Cancer can be treated by surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

3. Cretinism:- Cretinism can be treated by the harmone thyroxine.

4. Diabetes:- Diabetes can be treated by restriction of sugar intake, injections of


insulin, consumption of hypoglycemic substances and regular exercise can
control diabetes.

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Q8. Distinguish between

1. Cretinism and Dwarfism

Cretinism Dwarfism
1. It is caused due to under secretion of 1. It is caused due to under secretion of
thyroxine hormone. growth hormone.
2. Mental development is not normal. 2. Mental development is normal.
3. Body proportions are not normal. 3. Body proportions are normal
4. Face is without expression. 4. Face is with expression.
2. Gigantism and Dwarfism

Gigantism Dwarfism
1. It is caused due to over secretion of 1. It is caused due to under secretion of
growth harmone. growth hormone.
2. Individual grows to a height of 7 to 8 2. Individual grows to a height of only 3
feet. to 4 feet.
3. Skin, tongue, lips and ears become 3. There is no thickening of skin,
thick. tongue, lips etc.
3. Communicable and non – communicable diseases

Communicable Diseases Non – communicable diseases


1. Diseases that are caused due to 1. Diseases that are caused due to
pathogens and are transmitted from factors other than pathogens are called
one person to another are called non communicable disease.
communicable disease. 2. It does not spread.
2. It spreads through air, water, contact 3. It is not caused by micro –
or animals. organisms.
3. It is caused by micro – organisms
such as virus, bacteria, fungi or
protozoan.

4. Thyroid gland and Pituitary gland.

Thyroid gland Pituitary gland


1. Thyroid gland is situated in the lower 1. Pituitary gland is situated in the
part of the neck. posterior and lower part of the
2. Thyroid gland secretes the hormone cerebrum.
thyroxine. 2. Pituitary gland secretes the growth
3. Under secretion of the hormone hormones.
thyroxine from the thyroid gland leads 3. Under secretion of the growth
to stunted growth called cretinism. hormone by the pituitary gland leads to
dwarfism.

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5. Air pollutants and Water pollutants
Air pollutants Water pollutants
1. Pollutants that pollute air are called Pollutants that pollute water are called
air pollutants. water pollutants.
2. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, 2. Chemical wastes from factories,
sulphur dioxide, etc. are air pollutants. chemical fertilizers and pesticides, etc.
3. Air pollutants are known to cause are water pollutants.
airborne diseases like asthma, chest 3. Water pollutants are known to cause
pain, common cold, tuberculosis, water borne diseases like jaundice,
pneumonia, etc. cholera, typhoid, gastroenteritis, etc.

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Q1. Give scientific reasons:-

1. Energy flow is unidirectional (or)


At each trophic level from base to apex, the energy goes on
decreasing in biomass pyramid.
Ans.
1. In the biosphere the energy from the sun is trapped by the green plants.
2. The energy from the green plants in the form of food flows from one
trophic level to the other trophic level.
3. AT every trophic level, a considerable amount of energy lost to the
surrounding in the form of heat.
4. But this heat energy never returns to the sun. Therefore, energy flow is
unidirectional.

2. At every trophic level there is decrease in biomass.


Ans.
1. All the biomass produced by the green plants is not converted to biomass
of the herbivorous.
2. As a rule, only 5% to 20% of the biomass at any trophic level can passed
to the next one.
3. This is because a part of biomass is used for growth and maintenance at
various trophic levels and a part is lost to the surrounding in the form of
heat energy.
4. This shows that at every trophic level there is decrease in biomass.

3. The existence of life on the earth depends on the sun


Ans.
1. Only the green plants (autotrophs) have the capacity to produce food with
the help of solar energy during the process of photosynthesis.
2. Thus without solar energy food cannot be produced and without food
organisms life cannot exist on the earth, therefore the existence of life on
the earth depends on the sun.

4. Grasshopper is called first order consumer.


Ans. Grasshopper is called first order consumer because
1. It is herbivore, which depends upon grass for its food.
2. Since it depends upon product directly, it is a primary consumer.

Q2. Define

1. Biosphere:- The lithosphere, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere along with
the life forms existing on the earth is called biosphere.
2. Autotrophs:-Self – feeding organisms are called autotrophs. Autotrophs
consume the food prepared by them. For e.g. Green plants.

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3. Heterotrophs:- Non – green plants, animals and most of the microbes which
obtain their food either from green plants of from dead and decaying organic
matter are called heterotrophs
4. Producers:- Green plants of the biosphere, which prepare food with the help
of solar energy are called producers.
5. Consumers:- Animals, which consume green plants and some animals are
called consumers.
6. Decomposers:- Microbes such as fungi, bacteria, protozoan which brings
about the decomposition of dead bodies and their waste matter, are called
decomposers.
7. Food chain :- Food chain is defined as transfer of food i.e. energy from one
organisms to the other.
8. Food web:- Food web is defined as interconnections among different food
chain at different trophic levels forming a network.
9. Trophic level:- Trophic level means feeding level. Each organisms of a food
chain represents a trophic level.
10. Biomass:- Biomass is defined as increase in dry weight of organic matter of
all organisms combined together at any trophic level.

Q3. Distinguish between

1. Producers and Decomposers.

Producers Decomposers
1. Producers are autotrophs. 1. Decomposers are heterotrophs.
2. Producers use the food, which is 2. Decomposers use dead bodies of
produced by them. plant and animals as their food.
3. Producers cannot bring about the 3. Decomposers bring about the
decomposition of dead bodies and decomposition of dead bodies and
waster matter. waste matter.

2. Consumers and Decomposers.


Consumers Decomposers
1. Consumers use the food produced 1. Decomposers use dead bodies of
by producers. plant and animals as their food.
2. Consumers cannot bring about the 2. Decomposers bring about the
decomposition of dead bodies and decomposition of dead bodies and
waster matter. waste matter.

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3. Abiotic component and Biotic component.

Abiotic component Biotic component


1. The abiotic component of the 1. The biotic component of the
biosphere includes factors like light, biosphere are plants, animals and
humidity, temperature, soil, minerals, micro – organisms.
water and atmospheric pressure. 2. The biotic components are living
2. The abiotic components are non components.
living components.

4. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs.

Autotrophs Heterotrophs
1. Self feeding plants are called 1. Plants, animals which obtain their
autotrophs. food either from autotrophs or from
2. Autotrophs are green in colour due dead and decaying organic matter are
to the presence of chlorophyll. called heterotrophs.
2. Heterotrophs are non green colour
due to the absence of chlorophyll.

5. Producers and Consumers

Producers Consumers
1. Producers are autotrophs. 1. Consumers are heterotrophs.
2. Producers use the food, which is 2. Consumers use food produced by
produced by them. the producers.
3. All green plants of the biosphere are 3. All animals of the biosphere are
producers. consumers.

6. Photosynthesis and Respiration.


Photosynthesis Respiration
1. Photosynthesis is a constructive 1. Respiration is a destructive process
process in which glucose is in which glucose is broken down into
synthesized from CO2 and H2O. CO2 and H2O.
2. Photosynthesis is a light dependent 2. Respiration is independent of light.
process. 3. In this, energy is released from
3. In this, energy is stored in organic organic compounds.
compounds

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Q4. Answer the following:-

1. In which of the following food chain man get more energy? Why?
i. Maize --------- Man
ii. Maize ------ Goat ------ Man
Ans. Man gets more energy from the first food chain.
This is because, shorter the food chain, lesser is loss of energy. The
second food chain being larger, there is more loss of energy.

2. In the following example which is a part of the food chain:


Frog ------ Snake ----- Hawk , if the snake population declines, what will
happen to 1. Population of frog, 2. Population of Hawk.
Ans. The population of frog will increase and population of hawk will decrease.
This is because snake consume frog and hawk consume snake.

3. What is a food web? Describe the important aspects of food web.


Ans. Food web is defined as interconnections among different food chains at
different trophic level forming a network.
Important aspects of food web are:
1. It starts from an autotroph i.e. Producer. i.e. Producer.
2. It has many connecting food chains.
3. The number of links in the chain are variable.
Decomposers can operate at any level. They are dead plant materials, dead
bodies of herbivores and carnivores as the source of energy.

4. Name the tropic level represented by the larvae of mosquitoes in the


food chain from a pond. Give reason.
Ans.
1. The larvae of mosquitoes represent primary consumers in the food chain from
a pond.
2. This is because, they feed on algae of the pond, which trap the solar energy
and make it available to the larvae of mosquitoes.

5. What is photosynthesis? State its importance.


Ans. The process by which green plants synthesize carbohydrate from carbon
dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight is called photosynthesis.
Importance of photosynthesis.
a. The green plants absorb the solar energy during photosynthesis and
convert this radiant energy into chemical energy.
b. The energy required for different life activities comes from oxidation of
sugars produced during photosynthesis.

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6. What will happen if all the number of frogs becomes less in nature?
Ans.
1. If the number of frogs becomes less the number of grasshoppers will increase
with corresponding decrease in the number of snakes.
2. This is because frogs consume grasshoppers, while snake consume frogs.

7. What will happen if all the green plants disappear from the earth?
Ans.
1. If all the green plants disappear from the earth there will be no food
preparation by the process of photosynthesis.
2. In absence of photosynthesis neither the food nor the oxygen will be available
to other living organisms.
3. In absence of good and oxygen, life will not exist on the earth.

8. What is the role of producers in the biosphere?


Ans. The producers play the following roles in the biosphere:
1. The producers provide food to different organisms of the biosphere.
2. The producers provide energy to the different organisms of the biosphere.

9. The graph of biomass is called energy pyramid.


Ans.
1. When plotted on the graph paper, the biomass at various trophic levels forms a
pyramid.
2. As the biomass contains energy in the form of organic molecules. Hence, the
graph of biomass is called energy pyramid.

Q5. Draw the following graphic representation:

1. The food web involving at least three food chains.


2. A food web with the help of following organism, grass, shrub, deer,
sheep, rabbit, wolf, lion man.
3. The food chain is aquatic surroundings.
4. Draw a neat labeled diagram of energy flow.
5. Give the schematic representation of different trophic level.

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Q1. Give the balanced chemical equation:-

1. Green plants form carbohydrates during photosynthesis. (or)


Carbon dioxide reacts with water in presence of chlorophyll and
sunlight.
Ans. During photosynthesis, green plants synthesize carbohydrate from carbon
dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. The overall chemical reactions
involved during the process can be represented by the following equations.

2. Oxidation of carbohydrate during the aerobic respiration in a cell.


Ans. During aerobic respiration in a cell, the carbohydrate undergoes oxidation
and forms CO2 and H2O with the release of energy. The overall chemical
reactions involved during the process can be represented by the following
equation.

3. Dehydration synthesis in a plant cell.


Ans. Removal of water molecule is called dehydration. During dehydration
synthesis in a plant cell, small molecules get linked together to form large
molecules by the elimination of water as shown below.

4. Fermentation of glucose solution


Ans. During fermentation sugar such as glucose is converted into alcohol and
carbon dioxide and energy is released. The overall changes involved during
fermentation can be represented by the following equations.

Q2. Give scientific reasons.

1. Oxygen is called a life supporting gas.


Ans. Oxygen is called a life supporting gas because.
1. The atmosphere contains about 20% of oxygen.
2. All organisms require oxygen for respiration process during which food is
oxidized in order to release energy.
3. The energy obtained from respiration process is utilized for performing various
metabolic activities with out which life activity of an organism comes to an end.

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2. Bacteria like nitrosomonas and nitrobacter are called denitrifying
bacteria.
Ans. Bacteria like nitrosomonas and nitrobacter are called denitrifying bacteria
because
1. The conversion of ammonia into nitrites and nitrates is called nitrification.
2. Nitrosomonas bring the conversion of ammonia into nitrites.
3. Nitrites are converted into nitrates by nitrobacter.
4. These bacteria help in nitrification.

3. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are called fossil fuels.


Ans. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are called fossil fuels because
1. They are the dead remains of plants and animals of the remote past.
2. They are free from water and are rich in hydrocarbons.
3. They have been formed by the process of fossilization over a period of millions
years.

Q3. Define

1. Bio – geo chemical cycles:-The circular flow of nutrients from the


environment to the living organisms back to the environment in a cyclic manner is
called bio – geo chemical cycles.
2. Nutrients:- All kinds of ions and molecules taken up by the living organisms
are called nutrients.
3. Anaerobes:- Microbes that do not require oxygen for their respiration are
called anaerobes.
4. Aerobes:- Microbes that require oxygen for their respiration are called
aerobes.
5. Fermentation:- Fermentation means conversion of the complex organic
compounds into simpler organic ones by the activity of micro – organisms.
6. Ammonification :- The process in which nitrogenous compounds are
converted into ammonia by the activity of micro – organisms is called
ammonification.
7. Nitrification :- The process in which the ammonia gets converted to nitrites
and then to nitrates is called nitrification.
8. De – nitrification :- Conversion of nitrates to molecular nitrogen by the
activity of de – nitrifying bacteria is called de – nitrification.
9. Nitrogen fixation :- Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into compounds is
called nitrogen fixation.

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Q4. Write short notes on

1. Fossil Fuels:-
Ans.
1. Fossils are formed due to burial of plants and animals remains.
2. These animals and plants existed on the earth in the remote past.
3. Their remains accumulated slowly under the cover of sediments.
4. They got locked up and count not get decomposed, as oxygen was not
available due to over lying sediments.
5. The pressure of the sediments squeezed out water.
6. These remains are carbon rich fossil fuels.
7. Fossilized forests have resulted in the formation of coal bed.
Ex. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are fossil fuels.

2. Carbon in food.
Ans.
1. Carbon forms the most important constituent of food.
2. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids are all carbon compounds.
3. They are used as the source of energy by all living organisms.
4. During respiration, food gets oxidized and energy is released.
Ex. Glucose is oxidized during respiration.

3. Methods of Nitrogen fixation :- Nitrogen fixation occurs in two methods:-


1. The physical process:- During lightening, nitrogen in the atmosphere is
oxidized to nitrogen oxide. It then gets dissolved in rainwater to form
nitrous and nitric acid and is added to the soil. In the soil, they react
with each other elements to forms nitrogen compounds. This process
is called physical process of nitrogen fixation.
2. The biological process:- The conversion of molecular nitrogen to its
compounds is carried out by prokaryotes, namely some bacterial and
some blue green algae present in the soil. This process is called
biological nitrogen fixation.

4. Global water cycle or Hydrological cycle:-


1. In global water cycle, the atmosphere contains water vapour due to
evaporation mainly over the oceans.
2. This leads to cloud formation, which results in precipitation, which rains on
the oceans as well as on the land.
3. The excess of precipitations results in the formation of surface and ground
water system.
4. This water flows back to the sea.
5. This water cycle does not involve life forms and therefore it is called as
global water cycle.

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5. Mineral cycle:-
1. Minerals such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron are
important for the life of the organisms. They are called nutrients. Nutrients
are needed for the growth and development.
2. Minerals are present in the soil is dissolved state and also found in water.
3. They are absorbed by the plants and are incorporated in their body.
4. From plants, they are passed over to the body of animals through food
chain and food web.
5. Minerals return to the soil or water through waste matter or dead bodies
and animals.
6. Decomposition of dead bodies of plants or animals is carried out by
bacterial and fungi.
7. They release enzymes that degrade organic matter back to inorganic
compounds.
8. Thus minerals are released to the surroundings and are available for
racing.
9. All the minerals thus eventually make their way back to the environment.

6. Flow of energy (or) Energy flow


Ans.
1. Solar energy is captured by the green plants during photosynthesis. It is
stored in the form of organic molecules that is food molecules.
2. In the food chain food molecules pass from plants to animals.
3. During, respiration, food molecules are oxidized to release stored solar
energy. Much of the energy stored in the food molecules is simply lost as
heat energy.
4. It escapes to the surrounding. This energy cannot be recaptured and
reused by plants or animals.
5. It cannot return to the sun. Thus the flow of energy becomes
unidirectional. This means energy cannot be recycled.

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Q5. Answer the following briefly:

1. Give graphic representation of oxygen cycle and describe.

Ans. The cyclic journey of oxygen from the atmosphere to living organisms and
from living organisms back to the atmosphere is called oxygen cycle.
1. The atmosphere contains 20% oxygen. Aquatic plants and animals obtain
oxygen from water.
2. Both plants and animals require oxygen for respiration. During respiration
carbohydrates are oxidized with the help of atmospheric oxygen and
energy is released.
3. Carbon dioxide, which is a bi – product released in this reaction, is used
by plants for synthesis of food during the process of photosynthesis.
4. During the process of photosynthesis carbon dioxide is taken in and
oxygen is given out. Thus photosynthesis is the only process by which
oxygen is returned to the atmosphere.

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2. Give graphic representation of carbon cycle and describe.

Ans. The cyclic journey of carbon from the atmosphere to green plants from
green plants to animals and from both these back to the atmosphere is called
carbon cycle.
1. Carbon dioxide of the atmosphere is the main sources of carbon cycle.
2. Green plants during photosynthesis fix carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere and convert it into carbohydrates.
3. Herbivorous use green plants as their food and which in turn are
consumed by carnivorous.
4. Thus carbon passes from one organism to the other in the food chain.
5. Respiration of both, the green plants and animals bring about oxidation of
carbohydrates, which gives carbon dioxide, and it returns to the
atmospheres.
6. The decomposition of organic matter is carried out by the micro –
organisms which release carbon dioxide and it also returns to the
atmosphere.
7. Burning of wood, fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gasses and during
the process of fermentation carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere.

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3. Give graphic representation of Nitrogen cycle and describe.
Ans.

The cyclic journey of nitrogen from the atmosphere to soil, from soil to
plants, from plants to animals and from both these back to the atmosphere is
called nitrogen cycle.
The nitrogen cycle is complete in the following phases:-
1. Nitrogen fixation:- Nitrogen fixation occurs in two methods:-
a. The physical process:- During lightening, nitrogen in the
atmosphere is oxidized to nitrogen oxide. It then gets dissolved in
rain water to form nitrous and nitric acid and is added to the soil. In
the soil, they react with each other elements to forms nitrogenous
compounds. This process is called physical process of nitrogen
fixation.
b. The biological process:- The conversion of molecular nitrogen to its
compounds is carried out by prokaryotes, namely some bacteria
and some blue green algae present in the soil. This process is
called biological fixation.

2. Utilization of Nitrogenous compound by plants and animals:- Plants take up


nitrogen compounds like nitrites and nitrates form the soil. They build up organic
nitrogenous compounds like proteins and their derivatives. Herbivorous takes up
proteins from the plant to form amino acids. From these amino acids, they build
up their own body proteins. Carnivorous take up proteins from herbivorous.

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3. Conversion of organic nitrogenous compounds into inorganic state:- Excretory
products of animals and dead bodies of plants and animals are added to the soil.
A variety of micro – organisms act upon these nitrogenous compounds and
convert them to inorganic state. Organic nitrogenous compounds at first are
converted into ammonia. This process is called as ammonification. Ammonia
thus formed gets converted into nitrite by nitrosomonas and nitrosococcus
bacteria. The nitrite thus formed is finally converted into nitrate by nitrobacter by
the process known as nitrification. The nitrates are finally converted into
molecular nitrogen (N2 ) by denitrifying bacteria. This process is called de =
nitrification.

4. Describe fermentation:-
Fermentation means enzymatic conversion of the complex organic
compounds into simpler organic ones by the activity of micro – organisms.
Fermentation is anaerobic respiration by which micro – organisms obtain
energy required for their life processes.
Baker’s yeast in the common fermenting microbe. It brings about the
following reaction:

Carbon dioxide released during the process returns to the atmosphere.

5. What will happen to nitrogen cycle if all the bacterial disappear?


Ans. Nitrogen cycle will not occur in nature because bacteria play a very
important role in nitrogen cycle.
1. Nitrogen fixation:- Symbiotic bacteria like rhizobium and free living bacterial
like azatobacter and clostridium fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into
nitrites and nitrates.
2. Ammonification:- Certain bacterial decompose dead organic matter to release
ammonia.
3. Nitrification:- Certain bacterial such as nitrosomonas and nitrosococcus
convert ammonia into nitrites. Nitrobacter convert nitrites into nitrates.
4. Denitrification:- Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates into molecular nitrogen.

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6. Explain what happens, when solar energy is not available to bio – geo
chemical cycle?
Ans.
1. All biogeochemical cycles are regulated through solar energy.
2. Green plants play a key role in the entire process.
3. With the help of solar energy the green plants synthesize organic
molecules. i.e. carbohydrates.
4. Herbivorous animals use green plants as their source of food, carnivorous
animal consumes herbivorous animals.
5. Dead bodies of plants and animals are used as the source of energy by
decomposers.
6. If there is no solar energy, there will be no green plants.
7. If there are no green plants there will be no animals and even there will be
no decomposers.

7. Describe water cycle.

Ans. The cycle journey of water from soil to plants, from plants to atmosphere
and from atmosphere back to the soil is called water cycle.
Global water cycle:-
1. In global water cycle, the atmosphere contains water vapour due to
evaporation mainly over the oceans.
2. This leads to cloud formation, which results in precipitation, which rains on
the oceans as well as on the land.

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3. The excess of precipitation results in the formation of surface and ground
water system.
4. This water flows back to the sea.
5. This water cycle does not involve life forms and therefore it is called as
global water cycle.

Water cycle including living organism:-


1. Plants absorb water from the soil.
2. They use it for photosynthesis and other life processes.
3. During transpiration, water evaporates from the aerial parts of the body
and returns to the atmosphere.
4. Animals use water directly for drinking and indirectly through food
molecules.
5. Through excretion, perspiration and respiration, water returns back to the
surroundings.
6. During decomposition of dead organic matter, water is produced as the bi
– product, which passes to the surrounding.

8. How biogeochemical cycle is regulated?


Ans.
1. All biogeochemical cycles are regulated through solar energy.
2. Green plants play a key role in the entire process. They absorb water and
minerals from the soil. Carbon is taken from the atmosphere.
3. With the help of solar energy the green plants synthesize organic
molecules. i.e. Carbohydrates. Thus inorganic molecules are converted to
organic ones by using solar energy.
4. Herbivorous animals use green plants as their source of food, carnivorous
animal consumes herbivorous animals. Energy in form of food thus
passes from one organism to the other.
5. Dead bodies of plants and animals are used as the source of energy by
decomposers. Because of the decomposers, the organic matter is
converted back to inorganic compounds.

9. Explain role of water in living organisms.


Ans. Water play vital role in the life of organisms as follows:-
1. Life originated in water
2. Water is the medium in which a large number of plants and animals spend
their life. These organisms are called as aquatic organisms.
3. Nearly 90% of the production of the cell is made up of water. As such it is
the most important constituent of the living organisms.
4. It is the universal solvent, may substances get
dissolved in water readily.
5. It is used as transporting medium in both, plants and animals.

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6. Water is one of the raw material for photosynthesis and is a product of
respiration.
7. In the cell, small molecules get linked together to form complex
compounds. During such reaction water molecules are removed. This
process is called dehydration synthesis.
8. Larger molecules split into their smaller units by the addition of water
molecules. The reaction is called hydrolysis.

Q6. Distinguish between nitrification and denitrification.


Ans.
Nitrification Denitrification
1. The process in which the ammonia 1. The conversion of nitrates to
gets converted to nitrites and then to molecular nitrogen by the activity of de
nitrates is called nitrification. – nitrifying bacteria is called de –
2. In this, nitrogen is taken from the nitrification.
atmosphere. 2. In this, nitrogen is returned to the
atmosphere.

Q7. Give graphic representation of the following:

1. Mineral Cycle

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2. Construct carbon cycle with the help of the following:
Photosynthesis, Respiration, Animals, Decomposers, Atmosphere,
Combustion.

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Q1. Give scientific reasons

1. Cow dung and crop residue should not be used as fuel.


Ans. Cow dung and crop residue should not be used as fuel because
1. Agriculture wastes like crop residue and cow dung can be used as manures for
crop.
2. Further, using these waste products, valuable biogas can be prepared.
3. These materials are not efficient fuels.
4. The burning of these material cause air pollution.

2. The present era is called the ‘Plastic age’


Ans. The present era is called the ‘Plastic age’ because
1. During the last few decades, a variety of plastics with different properties have
been invented.
2. Thus the use of plastics in everyday life is increasing very fast.
3. Plastic items are replacing metal and wooden items.

3. It is beneficial to use compost fertilizers than chemical fertilizers for


agriculture.
Ans.
1. Compost manures are not acidic and therefore can be used for any type of
soil.
2. They not only add nutrients but also improve its texture.
3. Composting reduces health hazard as pathogens are destroyed during
composting.
4. It controls pollution due to wastes.
Hence, it is beneficial to use compost fertilizers than chemical fertilizers for
agriculture.

Q2. Define

1. Recycling:- Recycling means use of the material over and over again.
2. Wastes:- The rejected materials are called wasters.
3. Biodegradation:- The process in which complex organic molecules are
converted into simpler inorganic compounds due to some living beings, is called
as biodegradation.
4. Non – degradable wastes:- The waste products, which cannot be degraded
through biological activities, are called non – degradable waste. Metals, glass,
plastics are non – degradable wastes.

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Q3. Answer the following:-

1. What are wastes? How are they classified according to their origin?
Ans. The rejected materials are called wastes. Wastes are classified according to
their origin as follows.
1. Human wastes:- Human urine and fasces.
2. Animal wastes:- Diary wastes include cow dung and urine. Slaughter house
waste is a mixture of blood, urine, organ, etc. Sheep, goat poultry and fishery
also contribute to wastes.
3. Urban wastes:- House hold garbage and kitchen wastes including paper,
plastic items and metals articles. Besides, sewage is the main bulk of urban
waste, which is poured in the large bodies of water.
4. Crop residue:- The crop residues include crop stubble, straw, wasted fodder,
stick and weeds.
5. Industrial wastes:- Waste products of the industries are called as industrial
effluents. Pulp mills, tanneries, textile mills, refineries and chemical fertilizers
plants release complex organic compounds.

2. Explain the procedure of composting:-


Ans. Composting:- It is the process of decomposition of plants and animals
remain, through microbial activity.
Procedure:-
1. Pits of various dimensions are dug.
2. All sort of agricultural wastes, trash, dried leaves are spread in the pit as the
layer of 6 to 8 cm.
3. This layer is t hen covered with the layer of dung of 3 to 4 cm thickness.
4. Water is sprinkled over these layers.
5. In this fashion, many alternate layer of plant and animal remains and dung are
arranged in the pit. The pit then covered with soil. After some weeks, valuable
manure is formed in the pit.

3. Explain recycling of waste materials help in ecological balance.


Ans.
1. Due to various human activities, all sorts of wastes are generally thrown away
in the random manner.
2. The wastes are composed of different organic substances, a large number of
organisms are attracted towards such wastes.
3. Bacterial from soil and air start the process of decomposition odour. AS a
result, insects are attracted towards the decomposing matter.
4. Insects like flies, cockroaches are responsible for the spread of contagious
disease like cholera, typhoid, and dysentery.
5. These wastes products go on occupying more and more space. In this manner
the ecological balance around us is disturbed. Hence, recycling of waste
materials help us in the ecological balance.

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4. Explain the working of gobar – gas plant.
Ans.
1. The process of fermentation of biomass takes place in a brick lined well called
as digester.
2. The dung in the form of slurry is filled in the digester.
3. The digester is covered with a dome begins to rise and floats.
5. Through an opening on the top of the drum the gas carried to the kitchen by
pipes.
6. Continuous gas production is possible by daily feeding the digester through a
funnel.
7. The spent slurry over flows from the top and is collected in a pit. It is
periodically transferred to the manure pit.

5. Explain “Recycling is a must”


Ans.
1. All the resources of basic raw materials like ores, materials, fuels etc. are
limited on the earth.
2. These resources cannot be replenished.
3. However, there has been a steady increase in the consumption and demand
for all the basic raw materials.
4. Moreover, if all the non degradable waste products are haphazardly
(randomly) dumped some where, they go on occupying more and more space.
Hence, recycling of waste products is a must.

6. What are the advantages of bio – gas?


Ans. The advantages of bio – gas are as follows
1. It burns with a bluish flame and does not produce smoke.
2. It burns without emitting foul odour.
3. It is an efficient fuel.
4. The slurry formed in the production of biogas is used as fertilizer.

7. Name the constituent of bio – gas and give their approximate


percentages.
Ans. The constituents of bio – gas and their approximate percentages are_
1. Methane __________ 60%
2. Carbon dioxide _______ 30%
3. Hydrogen __________ 10%

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Q4. Distinguish between Biodegradable wastes and Non – degradable
wastes.

Biodegradable wastes Non – degradable wastes


1. Waste materials, which can be 1. The waste products, which cannot
decomposed through biological activity be degraded through the biological
of micro – organisms, are called activities, are called non – degradable
biodegradable waste. wastes.
2. This type of waste is degraded in 2. This type of waste is not degraded in
nature. nature.
3. This type of waste does not remain 3. This type of waste remains
accumulated in nature. accumulated in nature.

Q5. Classify the following waste in to biodegradable and non degradable


wastes.

(Paper, Plastic bags, Food wastes, Dairy wastes, Slaughter house wastes, Worn
out utensils, Broken glass vessels, Rusted iron wires, Used slippers, Cabbage
leaves, Paper bags, Cattle waste, Animal excreta, Dead Plants, Insecticide,
Industrial effluent, Nuclear waste, Metal, Dung, Glass)

Biodegradable wastes Non degradable wastes


1. Paper 1. Plastic bags
2. Food wastes 2. Worn out utensils
3. Dairy wastes 3. Broken glass vessels
4. Slaughter house wastes 4. Rusted iron wires
5. Cabbage leaves 5. Used slippers
6. Paper bags 6. Insecticide
7. Cattle waste 7. Industrial effluent
8. Animal excreta 8. Nuclear waste
9. Dead plants 9. Metal
10. Dung 10. Glass

ALL THE BEST FOR YOUR


BOARD EXAM

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