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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.

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SULPHUR, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
QI. Define

1. Efflorescence: The phenomenon of giving up of water of crystallisation is called


efflorescence.
2. Burnt Alum : When alum is heated, it melts at 920 C. On further heating, water of
crystallisation evaporates and swells. The swollen mass is called burnt alum.

QII. Questions and Answers

1. Where does CO2 occur in nature.


Ans. Carbon dioxide occurs in atmospheric air, in caves and in some mineral springs.

2. Through which reaction CO2 released in the atmosphere.


Ans. Carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere through combustion, respiration and
fermentation.

3. Write four sources of carbon dioxide.


Ans. Sources of carbon dioxide_
1. Carbon dioxide is present in air, in caves and some mineral springs.
2. It is produced in combustion.
3. It is produced in respiration and fermentation.
4. It is present in carbonates like calcium carbonate.

4. How is CO2 collected in the laboratory and why?


How is carbon dioxide gas collected? (March 98,99, October 99,2000)
Ans. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air. Hence, it is collected in a gas jar buy the upward
displacement in air.

5. How is ammonia gas collected?


Ans. Ammonia gas is lighter than air. Hence it is collected in a gas jar by the downward
displacement of air.

6. How is ammonia gas dried?


Ans. Ammonia gas is dried by passing it through a lime tower (CaO).

7. What is dry ice? How is it prepared? What are all its uses?
Ans. Solid carbon dioxide is called dry ice.
Preparation: It is prepared by applying pressure on carbon dioxide.
Uses : Dry ice is used as a coolant in storage and transport of articles of food.

8. What properties of carbon dioxide are used in a fire extinguisher? Write a balanced
chemical equations.
Ans. The following properties of carbon dioxide are used in a fire extinguisher_
1. It is not combustible.
2. It does not support combustion.
3. It is heavier than air.
Balanced chemical equation_
NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + H2O + CO2

9. What is photosynthesis?

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
SULPHUR, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
Ans. The synthesis of carbohydrates in green plants from the carbon dioxide in air and water
in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight is called photosynthesis.

10. Give a test to identify the presence of ammonia.


Ans. Moist turmeric paper turns red in the presence of ammonia.

11. Give a test to identify the presence of carbon dioxide.


Ans. Fresh lime water turns milky in the presence of carbon dioxide.

12. Give the physical properties of carbon dioxide.


Ans. Physical properties of carbon dioxide are_
1. Carbon dioxide is colourless and odourless gas.
2. It is heavier than air.
3. It is fairly soluble in water and more soluble in water under pressure.
4. It can be liquefied and solidified.

13. Give the chemical properties of carbon dioxide.


Ans. The chemical properties of carbon dioxide are _
1. Carbon dioxide is acidic in nature. It dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.
2. It reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium carbonate.
3. It reacts with excess of lime water and makes it milky.
4. It reacts with red hot coke to form carbon monoxide.

14. Give the used of carbon dioxide.


Ans. The uses of carbon dioxide are:
1. It is used in the manufacture of washing soda and baking soda.
2. It is used in the manufacture of aerated waters.
3. It is used as a fire extinguisher.
4. It is used in the form of solid carbon dioxide as a coolant for storage and transport of
articles of food.

15. Give the physical properties of ammonia.


Ans. The physical properties of ammonia are as follows.
1. It is a colour less gas.
2. It has a sharp, pungent and irritating odour.
3. It is lighter than air.
4. It is highly soluble in water ( ammonia fountain)
5. It can be easily liquefied by cooling and compressing.

16. Give the chemical properties of Ammonia.


Ans. The chemical properties of ammonia are
1. Ammonia gas is basic in nature.
2. It freely dissolved in water and forms alkali, NH4 OH.
3. It burns in the atmosphere of oxygen, with a yellow flame.
4. It combines with oxygen in the presence of catalyst to form nitric oxide.
5. It combines with HCl to form ammonium chloride.
6. It reacts with acids to form ammonium salts.

17. Give the used of ammonia.


Ans. The uses of ammonia are:
1. It is used in the manufacturing of washing soda, sodium bicarbonate, nitric acid, etc.
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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
SULPHUR, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
2. It is used in the manufacture of fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, urea etc.
3. It is used as a refrigerant in the manufacture of ice.
4. Solution of ammonia water is used as a laboratory reagent.
5. Liquid ammonia is used as a solvent.
6. Ammonia is used in medicine.

18. Give the properties and used of baking soda ( Sodium bicarbonate)
Ans. Properties of baking soda:
1. It is white amorphous powder.
2. It is soluble in water
Uses of Baking soda:
1. It is used in the preparation of baking powder, which is used in bread and cakes.
2. It is used in the fire extinguisher.

19. Give the properties and used of washing soda ( Sodium Carbonate)
Ans. Properties of washing soda.
1. it is white crystalline substance.
2. It is soluble is water.
3. When it is heated, it loses its water of crystallisation and forms a white amorphous powder.
4. It is alkaline.
Uses of Washing soda:
1. It is used as a cleansing agent for domestic purposes.
2. It is used for softening water.
3. It is used in the manufacture of many useful chemicals like borax, caustic soda, glass and
water glass.
4. It is used as a constituent of washing soaps and soap powder.

20. Give the properties and uses of lime stone (Calcium carbonate)
Ans. Properties of lime stone:
1. It is white amorphous solid.
2. It is insoluble in water.
Uses of Lime stone:
1. It is used in the manufacture of lime, cement, glass and washing soda.
2. It is used in metallurgical operations.
3. It is used in the form of marble in the construction of building, floorings and in carving
sculptures.
4. It is used in the preparation of carbon dioxide in the laboratories.
5. It is used in the form of precipitated chalk in paints, tooth powder and toothpastes.

21. Give the properties and used of green vitriol (Ferrous sulphate)
Ans. Properties of green vitriol:
1. It is light green crystalline compound.
2. Anhydrous ferrous sulphate is white.
3. It is efflorescent.
Uses of green vitriol:
1. It is used as a mordant in dyeing.
2. It is used as an insecticide in agriculture.
3. It is used in the laboratory as reducing agent.
4. It is used in preparing ink.
5. It is used in tanning.

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
SULPHUR, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
22. Give the properties and uses of blue vitriol (copper sulphate)
Ans.
Properties of blue vitriol:
1. Copper sulphate is blue crystalline substance.
2. It is poisonous.
3. It is soluble in water.
Uses of blue vitriol:
1. It is used as an insecticide and pesticide.
2. It is used in electrolytic refining of copper and electroplating.
3. It is used as a mordant.
4. Its solution is used in Daniel cell.
5. It is used for the preparation of compounds of copper.
6. It is a constituent of the reagent of Fehling’s solution of Benedict’s solution. which is used
to determine percentage of glucose in the urine or a diabetic person.

23. Give the properties and uses of alum.


Ans.
Properties of Alum:
1. It is double salt made up of potassium sulphate and aluminium sulphate.
2. It is crystalline solid having an astringent taste.
3. It is soluble in water. Its solution in water is acidic.
Uses of Alum:
1. It is used as a mordant in tanning industry.
2. It is used in medicine.
3. It is used in paper industry for sizing the paper.
4. It is used to arrest bleeding.
5. It is used in the purification of drinking water by removing suspended particles.

24. Give the properties and uses of plaster or paris.


Ans. Properties of plaster of paris.
1. It has a peculiar property of hardening when mixed with proper quantity of water.
2. As it hardens it expands slightly.
Uses of Plaster of Paris.
1. It is used in laboratories for sealing the gaps, where airtight arrangements is required.
2. It is used for making casts for statues.
3. It is used in case of bone – fractures to maintain bones in a fixed position.

25. Give the used of bleaching powder.


Ans. Uses of bleaching powder are
1. It is used for bleaching clothes.
2. It is used in paper and textile industries.
3. It is used for disinfecting water.

26. Explain the phenomenon of efflorescence with example.


Ans.
1. When sodium carbonate (washing soda) is heated or exposed to air lose water and turn into
white amorphous powder. Such an action, that is giving of water of crystallisation is termed
as efflorescence.

27. Explain why marble tiles are not used in kitchen.


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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
SULPHUR, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
Ans. Marble is form of calcium carbonate. Acidic substance like lemon juice, tamarind,
buttermilk, etc. are used in a kitchen can react with marble tiles. Due to this reaction the
marble tiles gat eroded and spoiled. Therefore, marble tiles are not used in kitchen.

28. Write the scientific name and the molecular formula of alum.
Ans. Scientific name : Potassium aluminium sulphate
Molecular formula: K2SO4. Al2(SO4).24H2O

29. Write the scientific name and the molecular formula of plaster of paris.
Ans. Scientific name : Calcium sulphate anhydride
Molecular Formula: (CaSO4). H2O

30. Write short note of bleaching powder. (TB)


Ans. Bleaching power is prepared by passing chlorine over slaked lime. When exposed to air,
it gives off chlorine. It is commonly used for bleaching clothes, in paper and textile industries
and also for disinfecting water.

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
SULPHUR, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
QIII. Give scientific reasons

1. Carbon dioxide is acidic.


Ans.
1. Carbon dioxide is an oxide of carbon, which is a non – metal.
2. When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid.
3. Carbonic acid turns blue litmus red.
4. It reacts with alkalies forming corresponding carbonate and bicarbonate salts.
Hence carbon dioxide is acidic.

2. A Magnesium ribbon continues to burn brilliantly in a gas jar containing carbon dioxide.
Ans.
1. Magnesium is a strong reducing agent.
2. When the burning magnesium ribbon is introduced in gas jar containing carbon dioxide,
magnesium reduces carbon dioxide to carbon.
3. This reaction is exothermic. Hence a magnesium ribbon continues to burn brilliantly in a
gas jar containing carbon dioxide.
2Mg + CO2 2MgO + C

3. When carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, it first turns milky and then turns
colourless.
Ans.
1. When carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, first white insoluble calcium carbonate
is formed, hence lime water turns milky.
2. When carbon dioxide is passed through lime water for a longer time it converts calcium
carbonate into colourless and water soluble calcium bicarbonate.
Hence, when carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, it first turns milky and then
turns colourless.

4. Carbon dioxide is used as a fire extinguisher.


Ans.
1. Carbon dioxide is not combustible and does not support combustion.
2. It is non – poisonous and is heavier than air.
3. When it is blown on burning object, it covers the object and separates it from air.
Thus, the fire is extinguished.
Hence carbon dioxide is used as a fire extinguisher.

5. We get a typical, strong odour at public urinals and cattle sheds.


Ans.
1. The urine of human beings and animals contains many nitrogenous compounds.
2. The bacterial decomposition of these nitrogenous compounds produce ammonia.
3. Ammonia has a strong, pungent and irritating odour.
Hence, we get a typical strong odour at public urinals and cattle sheds.

6. Baking powder is used in the preparation of bread and cakes. (or)


What are the main constituents of baking powder? How does it work? (or)
Write short note on baking powder.
Ans.
1. Baking powder contains sodium bicarbonate and an acid.
2. In this reaction between sodium bicarbonate and acid, carbon dioxide gas is produced.

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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
SULPHUR, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
3. Because of this, breads and cakes rise and become soft and fluffy. Hence, baking powder is
used in the preparation of bread and cakes.

7. Bordeaux mixture is spread on fruit trees.


Ans.
1. Bordeaux mixture contains copper sulphate.
2. Copper sulphate is a pesticide and insecticide.
3. It kills the harmful insects and pests on fruit trees.
Hence, Bordeaux mixture is spread on fruit trees.

8. Plaster of paris is used for making statues and to set the fractured bones at the right
position
Ans.
1. Plaster of paris hardens when mixed with appropriate amount water.
2. It expands slightly as it hardens. Due to this property, plaster of paris is used to for making
statues and to set the fractured bones at the right position.

9. Ferrous sulphate crystals are light green, but anhydrous ferrous sulphate is white.
Ans.
1. Due to the presence of water of crystallisation, ferrous sulphate crystals are green in colour.
2. Anhydrous ferrous sulphate does not contain water of crystallisation. Hence, anhydrous
ferrous sulphate is white.

10. Copper sulphate crystals on heating turn to a white powder.


Ans.
1. Due to the presence of water of crystallisation, copper sulphate crystals are blue in colour.
2. But when it is heater, the water of crystallisation is given out forming anhydrous copper
sulphate, which is white amorphous powder. Hence, copper sulphate crystals on heating turn
to a white powder.

11. Alum is used to arrest bleeding.


Ans.
1. Blood is a colloidal solution.
2. Alum is used as a co – agulant.
3. When alum comes in contact with blood, all the colloidal parcels settle down and blood
clot it formed.
Hence, alum is used to arrest bleeding.

QIV. Answer the following briefly.

1. How is carbon dioxide is prepared in the laboratory?(TB)


Ans.
1. Carbon dioxide is prepared in the laboratory by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on
calcium carbonate.
2. Calcium carbonate in the form of marble chips are introduced in a flat bottomed flask.
3. The flask is fitted with a thistle funnel and a delivery tube.
4. Water is poured through the funnel until it covers the chalk.
5. Then concentrated hydrochloric acid is added until carbon dioxide evolved steadily.
6. The gas is allowed to escape for a while as it is the air from the apparatus displaced by
carbon dioxide.
7. the gas is collected in the jar by the upward displacement of air.
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S.S.C Omtex – classes S.S.C
SULPHUR, HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, “THE HOME OF TEXT” NOTES
SULPHUR DIOXIDE

CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

2. Give the method of preparation of ammonia. (TB)


Ans.
1. A mixture of ammonium chloride and slaked lime in the ratio 3:2 is introduced in a test
tube.
2. A cork with a delivery tube is fixed to the test tube.
3. The delivery tube is attached to the lower end of a quick lime tower.
4. The test tube is heater. After some time ammonia gas comes out through the delivery tube
and passes through the lime tower, where it is dried.
5. As the gas is lighter than air the gas jar is inverted over the delivery tube of the lime tower
and the gas is collected by downward displacement of air.

2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 CaCl2 + 2H2O + 2NH3

3. Draw a neat and labeled diagram


a. Ammonia fountain b. fire extinguisher. .

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