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Table of Contents
Physiology ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 Digestive System ........................................................................................................................................... 4 Homeostasis ................................................................................................................................................ 11 Excretion and Ion Balance........................................................................................................................... 14 Nervous System .......................................................................................................................................... 18 Endocrine System........................................................................................................................................ 21 Muscle Structure ......................................................................................................................................... 23 Circulatory System ...................................................................................................................................... 25 Respiratory System ..................................................................................................................................... 29 Immunity and Defence................................................................................................................................ 32 Evolution and Diversity ............................................................................................................................... 37 Variation and Natural Selection .................................................................................................................. 38 Population Genetics .................................................................................................................................... 39 Behavioural Ecology .................................................................................................................................... 41 Speciation.................................................................................................................................................... 43 Systematics ................................................................................................................................................. 45 Population and Community Ecology ........................................................................................................... 47 Ecosystem Structure and Function ............................................................................................................. 54 Conservation Biology .................................................................................................................................. 55 Multiple Choice Questions .......................................................................................................................... 57
In the Beginning . . . The first forms of living organisms consisted of simple single celled creatures (~1 billion years ago) o Prokaryotic single celled organisms existed first o Eukaryotic single celled organisms, such as Protists, came afterwards and eventually evolved into three separate classes of multi-cellular organisms Plants Fungi Animals The dawn of the multi-cellular organism presented a series of problems that nature had to solve o How to keep the cells bound together? o How to regulate a cell for the good of the whole, rather than the good of the one? o How to allow for communication over long distances? o How to allow for continued growth of the cells? Each form of multi-cellular eukaryote had to deal with these issues in its own way o First multi-cellular animal was the Metazoan, which resembled the modern day sponge o Note that the precursor for multicellularity is called an aggregation, or a clumping together of similar cells Specialization Specialization refers to the creation of highly specific functions or structures at the cellular level as well as the tissue level o On the cellular level Cell specialization refers to the selective expression of certain genes to create cells with a subset of characteristics Examples include neurons, myocytes, erythrocytes (red blood cells) etc. o On the tissue level Specialized cells of a similar nature are grouped together to form a complex with a specific role to play within the organism Has to involve two or more cells to be deemed a tissue Four different types, including 1. Muscle 2. Nervous 3. Epithelial 4. Connective
The Different Kinds of Tissues Muscle Tissue o Structure made up of muscle cells, which are designed to contract through motor proteins to create force o Three main forms 1. Skeletal: pulls on structural components of the body to facilitate movement
Interstitial Fluid: fluid that surrounds cells 2. is encapsulated in epithelial tissue and smooth muscle tissue. an organ found in a plethora of different animals. Epithelial Tissue o Multi-purpose tissue made for the main intention of separating the organism from the environment o Examples include skin.
The Digestive System
Fluid Compartments Within the body. initiate future signals etc. o Hypertonic: when the salt concentration of the extracellular fluid is much higher than that of the intercellular fluid.SOS Exam-Aid
2. 3. gland activity. Passive Diffusion: movement through a membrane without the aid of a protein. This can be accomplished using a concentration gradient. 2. Includes: 1. Plasma: liquid portion of blood Molecules can be transferred between these different compartments via a series of different processes 1. each separated by some form of barrier be it a single cell membrane or a large tissue complex 1. and is operated via nervous tissue. o Note: The term stratified refers to multi-layered epithelial tissue Connective Tissue o A network made of a variety of cells and the different macromolecules they produce and secrete (ex.
. Tonicity is the effect of salt concentration on cell shape o Isotonic: when the salt concentration of the extracellular fluid equals that of the intercellular fluid. Smooth: encompasses hollow structures to impart force on the inner contents. The stomach. but without the need for additional energy input. Nervous Tissue o Network of neurons to initiate and transmit electrical signals about the organism to invoke action o Actions could include muscle contraction. Facilitated Transport: movement through a membrane with the aid of a protein. that provide a functional asset to the organism o Ex. Active Transport: movement through a membrane with the aid of a protein that requires additional energy input. digestive tract. there are a series of different fluid filled compartments. Extracellular Fluid: the aqueous environment outside of cells. Usually involuntary in nature. Usually involves moving a molecule against a gradient. where molecules move from the side of higher concentration to the side of lower. Intracellular Fluid: cytosol within a cell 2. respiratory tract etc. 3. called organs. Cardiac: allows for the pumping of the heart. Also involuntary in nature. collagen) o Created primarily for structural benefits to the organism These tissues are then combined to form larger structures.
Vitamins o There are also a few inorganic compounds required. therefore it must be consumed through its diet. Examples: The Hydra breaks down its food within a gastrovascular cavity. Hypotonic: when the salt concentration of the extracellular fluid is much lower than that of the intercellular fluid Leads to an influx of water into the cell. to try and level out the concentration gradient. to try and level out the concentration gradient. namely minerals used by the body Note: Essential when it refers to nutrients means that the nutrient cannot be synthesized by the organism. o This applies to 8 amino acids. Excretion of the remains Digestion is the process by which food and larger nutrients are broken down into useable molecules.
Nutrition A nutrient is any compound required for the continued survival. o Intracellular digestion Simple organisms utilize this form of digestion Food is brought into the cell via phagocytosis and broken down within a vacuole by lysosome enzymes. Carbohydrates 2. certain fatty acids. Fatty Acids 3. Digestion 3. vitamins and minerals
The General Digestive Process Full process includes: 1. Nucleic Acids 5. Autotroph: an organism that can use the sun’s energy to synthesize its own nutrients. o Extracellular digestion The preferred form of digestion for more complex organisms Food is broken down in a cavity by enzymes. tissue repair or reproduction of the organism. There are five required organic nutrients that must be consumed by heterotrophs to survive 1. development. Absorption of nutrients 4. growth. o Organisms can be broken down into two main forms 1. Heterotroph: an organism that needs to consume other organisms in order to get nutrients.
. o The digested food then moves into the cells that surround the cavity o Waste is excreted back through the same orifice that it entered (the mouth).SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 Leads to the exit of water from the cell. Proteins 4. 2. Ingestion 2.
The Stomach is essentially a large sac designed for storage and digestion via gastric juices o Gastric juices include both hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a protease called pepsin The HCl kills microbes and destabilizes polar molecules for further digestion Pepsin breaks peptide bonds using water (hydrolysis). o The processed food than moves from the oral cavity onwards through the esophagus Involves a voluntary motion at the top (swallow). with a pH of approximately 6 to counteract the acidic conditions of the gastric juices (pH = 2). Water softens the food that collects here Birds can store and regurgitate the contents of the Crop for their young The bird stomach has two parts: Proventriculus: secretes acids and enzymes (traditional stomach)
.ions. o The Oral Cavity for many organisms houses several accessory structures. Lubricate food for further travel 2. known as pepsinogen. Kill bacteria 4. The teeth rip and tear food into more manageable portions. turning proteins into polypeptide fragments. The stomach is lined with a mucous wall. o The stomach has to protect itself against being digested by its own gastric juices Cells lining the stomach synthesize and secrete pepsin in its inactive form.
Ingestion and Digestion in Vertebrates The Anterior End of the digestive system (alimentary canal) is the site of ingestion. but is instead secreted as separate H+ and Cl. Food processing and the beginnings of digestion also occur at this site. The hydrochloric acid is not built up in the glands that produce the acid. They are specialized for the diet of the particle organism (ex. Dissolve food particles for tasting 3. Saliva has an assortment of roles. Activity is given to the protease through exposure to HCl. a disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules. namely the teeth and the salivary glands. Amylase facilitated breakdown of polysaccharides Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down large polysaccharides into maltose. Examples of Additional Structures o Birds possess additional portions to their digestive tracts The Crop is a sac-like structure found right after the esophagus that allows for the collection of food. jagged and sharp for carnivore). including: 1. or the taking in of food. flat for herbivore. followed by a series of spontaneous muscle contractions that squish the food downwards These un-voluntary muscle motions are called peristalsis.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 Most organisms break down their food throughout the course of an alimentary canal. Amylase in saliva accounts for very little of digestion. or a tube that has openings at both ends.
The majority of food breakdown occurs in the first quarter.SOS Exam-Aid
Gizzard: sac that contains tiny pebbles to allow for grinding and mechanical breakdown of food (replaces teeth) o Herbivores ingest a large amount of cellulose. The Cecum of herbivores tends to be bigger than that of the carnivores. 1. Pancreatic Amylase: breaks down polysaccharides into disaccharides 3. however digestion does take place here too. due to its use for cellulose breakdown
. Bicarbonate: to neutralize gastric juices. which must be broken down by microorganisms inside their alimentary canal due to a lack of cellulase Ruminants are herbivores that have developed a fore stomach that comes before their true stomach. The fore stomach is comprised of three sacs Reticulum: contains microbes to breakdown cellulose Rumen: contains microbes to breakdown cellulose Omasum: water and salt absorption Abomasum: true stomach The animal may also regurgitate its food once its travelled through the forestomach and re-chew it The Small Intestine is a labyrinth of stacked tubing which serves as the main site of digestion and absorption. o Microbes residing in the intestines can further breakdown nutrients Cecum Pouch like structure between the small and large intestines that houses microbes to help breakdown dietary products. Lipases: breaks down fats into its components (fatty acids and glycerol) 4. Most import substance in bile are the bile salts Gallbladder Storage for bile that allows for timed secretion with meals. which is a mixture of different substances that help to solubilise fats. Large droplets of fat are reduced into much smaller ones to allow for digestion and absorption. o Herbivores generally sport a longer small intestine than carnivores in order to cope with the excess plant material (cellulose) The Large Intestines are meant primarily for absorption. o Several accessory structures provide the digestive enzymes necessary to digest the food exiting the stomach Intestinal Glands Produce maltase to break apart maltose and proteases to digest proteins The Liver A large organ that produces bile. Proteases: break down proteins 2. The Pancreas Injects a large variety of digestive enzymes into the upper parts of the small intestines.
which are then transferred to the blood. Lipase is in the aqueous environment. as they are insoluble in aqueous environments and cluster together in large droplets. At the centre of the villi there is another transport tube known as a Lacteal. where a Na+ ion gradient made using energy from the cell is used to move glucose Absorption into the blood vessels for both monomers occurs through facilitated diffusion o Fats present a problem to absorption.
. Lipase is the main enzyme that digests triglycerides (a major form of fat) into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride. for the polar portions of the bile salts and the phospholipids are exposed to the aqueous environment. Ex. disaccharides of glucose Additional enzymes fixed to the cell surface of the epithelial cells then break down the disaccharides. Once in these small droplets. 4 Fructose is absorbed using facilitated diffusion Glucose is absorbed using secondary active transport. Maltase breaks down maltose into two glucose molecules Depending on the monomer.SOS Exam-Aid Absorption in Vertebrates
The majority of absorption occurs in the first quarter of the small intestines. Absorption of nutrients is specific to the type of nutrient being brought into the epithelial cell and then to the blood o Carbohydrates that are brought into the body as polysaccharides have to be broken down into monomers before they can be absorbed Amylase in the small intestines breaks polysaccharides down into disaccharides. Starch is broken down into maltose. The villi outcroppings contain blood vessels through which nutrient molecules can be absorbed and transported throughout the body. though it continues throughout its length and into the large intestines. the molecule will be absorbed into the epithelial cells through one of the transport methods mentioned above. while their hydrophobic portions are pointed inwards with the fats. so it has limited access to the fats in the droplet The droplet is “emulsified” or broken down into smaller droplets due to the mechanical motion of muscles surrounding the small intestines. The epithelial cells that coat the intestinal tract absorb the digested molecules. This small droplet is called a micelle. Microvilli are extensions from the epithelial cells that form a “brush border” to increase surface area. See pg. Ex. This is achieved through three methods. o The small intestine increases absorption by increasing its surface area. Extreme length of the small intestines provides optimal surface area for absorption to take place 2. Villi are foldings of the intestinal wall’s epithelial cells into outcropping structures that increase the surface area. bile salts and phospholipids (both found in bile) collect around their surface to keep the droplets from congealing together again. 3. which is an extension of the lymphatic system. 1.
Micelle formation and breakdown occurs readily. the fatty acids that were digested by the lipase are remade into triglycerides in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. See Food = Activation of certain Digestive Functions) 2. Nervous system Nerve cells along the alimentary canal control muscle responses. which can then be absorbed by the epithelial cells via diffusion Once absorbed into the epithelial cells. increasing access to the fats by the lipase. minerals and water are all absorbed without being digested
Regulation of the Digestive Process Regulation occurs through two means 1. similar to glucose Absorption into the blood vessels occurs through facilitated diffusion Vitamins. 2. They stimulate the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder. The triglycerides are then packaged in chylomicrons (lipoproteins) and diffused into the lacteal of the villi Proteins enter the small intestines as peptide fragments due to the stomach gastric juices Proteases secreted by the pancreas and intestinal glands further break down the proteins until they are single amino acids Absorption into epithelial cells can then take place through secondary active transport with Na+ ions. Stimulates contraction of the stomach muscles and acid production Secretin and CCK are two hormones secreted by the small intestines in response to the influx of acid from the stomach. and activity of the accessory glands. Implanting of a collection tube into the duct that secretes pancreatic juices into the small intestines. and each time it breaks down it releases small molecules of lipids into solution. This is done to maintain the gradient of fatty acids that is used to transport them into the epithelial cells.
. The brain itself can also affect the digestive system (ex. Experiment by Starling and Bayliss was done to prove that something beyond just the nervous system was responsible for the timed secretion of digestive enzymes from the pancreas o Ivan Pavlov had already proven that the nervous system played a part in the digestive process o Starling and Bayliss used two experiments to prove that hormones were also important in the regulation of the digestive system o Experiment #1 showed that the presence of acid in the small intestine stimulated a pancreatic response even without nerve cells present 1. Removal of the nerves surrounding an anaesthetized dog’s small intestines. Endocrine system (hormones) Gastrin is secreted into the blood stream from the stomach in response to food.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 The formation of these small droplets increases the overall surface area.
which leads to damage of the epithelial cells. ulcers can become quite dangerous medical conditions Perforated ulcer: an ulcer where stomach acid has eaten through the stomach lining. 2. Injection of acid into the small intestines. even though the nerves were missing Criticism: Perhaps they just missed some nerves.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 3. allowing gastric juices to flow into the body cavity beyond Bleeding ulcer: an ulcer where the stomach epithelial has been so damaged it bleeds into the stomach
Homeostasis Homeostasis is the maintenance of a suitable physiological condition in the face of changes in environmental stimuli. o Marshall and Warren discovered that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the main causes of ulcers Bacteria infects the cells of the stomach (gastric mucosa) and lead to inflammation Inflammation leads to the formation of an ulcer o If left unchecked.
Experiment #2 showed that an extract from the small intestines injected directly into the blood would create a pancreatic response 1. Grind and filter out a purified extract of possible secretions from the intestine 3. Take a piece of dog intestine and expose it to acid. Inject into another dog that also has the collection tube to measure pancreatic reaction 4. organisms can employ a series of different strategies o An organism can either maintain its body temperature within a certain range (regulator) or it can allow it to fluctuate with the environment (conformer) Homeotherms are regulators Poikilotherms are conformers o An organism can either gather heat from internal processes or from the environment
. in spite of environmental pressures o Note: Organisms can be both conformers and regulators with regards to different physiological variables When it comes to temperature control.
Ulcers Peptic ulcers are an erosion of the mucous layer that protects the stomach as well as the small intestine (especially the upper part or duodenum). Organisms have different ways in which they handle alterations to environmental variables o Conformers: “go with the flow” organisms that allow aspects of their internal environment to vary with that of the surroundings. Resulted in a pancreatic reaction. Resulted in a production of pancreatic juices. Not conclusive of hormonal response. proving conclusively that a hormone secreted by the small intestines was also responsible for the time of pancreatic responses in the digestive process. o Regulators: use energy to keep physiological conditions within an acceptable range.
nerve cells connected to skin) 3. Fats. as defined by the Integrator. increase in temperature) 2. Integrator: Portion of the body (usually in the brain) that compares information from the sensor to the homeostatic optimal. Homeostatic challenge: change in variable towards outer bounds of acceptable range (ex. sweat glands ) 5. Effector: Mechanism that initiates change back towards the homeostatic optimal. each contraction releases more signals to increase contractions. and are only used for food as a last line of defence against starvation o When energy is required the stores of organic molecules are broken back down into their monomers and released into the blood stream Liver breaks down glycogen into glucose via glycogenolysis Adipose breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and glyercol The glycerol is then used to make glucose via gluconeogenesis
. 4. (ex.SOS Exam-Aid
Ectotherms gather heat from outside their body Endotherms gather heat from internal chemical reactions Regulator organisms use feedback loops to keep their physiological conditions within the appropriate range o Negative feedback loops are meant to sense a change in a variable in one direction and initiate internal pathways that will move the variable in the opposite direction Can be simplified into a general 5 Step Process 1. A series of hormones and nerve signals strengthen contractions of the uterus in a positive feedback loop. Regaining of homeostasis: initiates cessation of effector’s action Allows for the retention of homeostasis without overcompensating o Positive feedback loops are not actually used by organisms to maintain homeostasis. They are instead used to propagate a process in what is called an “explosive system” An example of this would be during child birth. Sensor: Structure that senses the change and reports (ex. So. carbohydrates and even proteins can be broken down by the body in order to be used to create ATP When nutrients are digested they can either be used right away or they can be stored in more stable conformations for future use o Storage of an organic molecule in a stable conformation occurs in specific tissues Small carbohydrates like glucose are stored as long chains of glycogen in the liver and muscles Fatty acids are stored as triglycerides in the adipose tissue Proteins are found in every cell. These systems are rare in nature
Metabolism Metabolism is the complete collection of all chemical reactions occurring within a body o The metabolic rate refers to the rate at which the body uses energy in order to power these reactions forward o This energy for animals comes primarily from the diet Recall: Cellular respiration is the process by which ATP is created from organic molecules to be used as energy for chemical reactions.
requires a higher standing metabolic rate than a mouse 4. Food-induced Thermogenesis Refers to the surge in metabolic processes after finishing a meal. Mass Specific Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) This is a factor that differs metabolic rates between organisms It refers to how an elephant. glycerol and its fatty acids. Changes in activity of skeletal muscles Increases in metabolic rate occur in order to deal with excess activity of muscles (AKA exercise) Decreases in metabolic rate occur when skeletal muscles are in a state of relaxatiion 2. . which would be collected in a beaker.SOS Exam-Aid
Muscle cells are responsible for breaking proteins down into amino acids via gluconeogenesis. if necessary Organisms have to regulate their blood glucose level. The volume of water created was then related to the amount of heat created by the creature. . which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood Homeostasis restored! o When blood glucose levels decrease. This is done through two opposing negative feedback loops. as well as amino acids These processes produce glucose mostly. homeostasis goes to work Portions of the hypothalamus in the brain initiate the production of glucagon and norepinephrine These two chemicals work on the liver to stimulate the breakdown of glycogen. as well as ketones which can also be used to supply energy These products are exported from the liver to increase blood concentration of glucose Measuring Metabolic Rate can be done through two different methods that measure different variables to determine the rate at which an organism utilizes fuel o Direct Calorimetry: Uses the creation of body heat as an indicator of metabolic rate In the olden days. which is a direct indicator of energy use o Indirect Calorimetry: Uses the consumption of oxygen as an indicator of metabolic rate The animal is fitted with a mask that supplies air as well as collects exhaled air Measuring the rate at which the animal uses up oxygen allows for an estimation of the metabolic rate The intake of oxygen is an indirect indicator of energy use Factors that affect metabolic rate 1. o When blood glucose levels increase after a meal . that characteristically leads to an increase in heat production 3. Cyclical Factors 12
. due to its size. A hormone called Insulin is secreted from the pancreas Binds to cell surface receptor and increases the expression of glucose importers in cells Promotes influx of glucose into cells (especially adipose and muscles). one responsible for decreasing and the other for increasing blood glucose levels. The animal’s body heat would melt the ice. an animal would be placed in a container surrounded by ice.
1. a hormone called leptin is released that informs the brain that there is plenty of energy stores This reduces appetite and increases metabolic rate When fat stores run out. the skin temperature varies quite frequently depending on the environment. sweat) 3. Nervous and hormone control An example of this is the “Satiety” Impulse. Evaporation: heat lost to the environment as it is carried away as water vapour (ex. Increase the width of blood vessels closer to the outside environment
. or the feeling of being full Occurs when nerve cells surrounding the stomach and small intestines sense the increase in volume to accommodate food and send signals to the brain to reduce hunger The stomach and small intestines also release hormones into the bloodstream to achieve the same result In a more long term example. presence or absence of fat stores can affect appetite as well as metabolic rate When fats are plentiful in the adipose tissue.SOS Exam-Aid
Increases and decreases in metabolic rate due to a reoccurring necessity or activity Torpor: refers to a short term reduction of BMR. where the BMR is reduced for an extended amount of time Like short term torpor. the internal body temperature can be reduced to just a few degrees above that of the environment 5. o Methods for reducing heat loss on a cold day through the skin MAIN GOAL: to decrease the amount of warm blood travelling close the cold conditions outside the body Reduce the width of blood vessels closer to the outside environment Increase the width of blood vessels deeper within the skin o Methods for increasing heat loss on hot days through the skin MAIN GOAL: to increase the amount of warm blood travelling close to the warm conditions outside the body. Convection: heat lost through the movement of fluids past the body Heat from the body is transferred into air or water. the absence of leptin increases appetite and decreases the metabolic rate Heat Gain or Loss Animals can exchange heat with their surroundings via four different methods. Conduction: heat lost or gained through contact of the body with another object 4. this process relies on conduction Due to all these methods of heat exchange. Radiation: heat lost to or gained from the environment through the emission or absorption of infrared radiation 2. which then moves away from the body Therefore. which is coupled with a lower internal temperature Occurs at night Hibernation: is a long term version of torpor.
and enzymatic activity among other things Water and Salt balances have to occur in spite of interferences from the environment o Certain actions essential to survival have the potential to upset the salt and water balance 1. o Proper salt concentration facilitates proper neuron control. Food Intake: Introduces water and salts 3. Over 70% of our air is made up of the stuff. the parameters of which differs depending on the species and the environment Fish excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ions (NH4+) o What are the downsides to this method? These compounds are by far the most toxic. 4. yet an accumulation of waste material containing it in our body can be fatal o Nitrogenous wastes are created in the body due to the breakdown of nucleic acids and proteins.SOS Exam-Aid
Reduce the width of blood vessels deeper within the skin Additional methods for dealing with environmental temperature o Counter-current is another method for dealing with a cold environment Warm blood flowing through the arteries is allowed to transfer heat to the colder veins flowing past them o Surviving the extreme cold may require a special protein in order to prevent the freezing of the blood Anti-freeze proteins are found in the blood vessels of certain animals to prevent ice crystals from growing o Animals also use behavioural adaptations to contend with extreme temperature
Excretion and Ion Transport
Yet another balancing act Organisms of all forms are in a constant struggle with the environment to balance their water levels and salt concentration o The amount of water maintained within the body is crucial to the proper movement of nutrients and waste. Exertion and Energy Consumption: Both produces water through cellular respiration and releases water via perspiration. Excretion: Loss of salt and water in feces and urine o The body has to find ways to counteract the detrimental effects of these Obligatory Salt and Water Exchanges
Nitrogenous Waste Nitrogen is a strange element. possessing the ability to take part in un-wanted chemical reactions as well as to screw up the organism’s internal pH
. and great pains are taken within the body to avoid their build up o The excretion of nitrogenous wastes is a form of obligatory salt and water exchange. Breathing: releases water vapour into the atmosphere 2.
This means that less water is required for excretion Birds. Exodus of ions into the environment. o This presents two problems 1. which is a ketone product. the uric acid produced by the chick is stored in a structure called the Allantois. Is by far the most energy taxing process yet. via the gills o Fish have to deal with this through several means 1. insects and a large portion of reptiles produce uric acid for the purpose of excreting nitrogenous wastes. one of extreme significance to “water breathing” organisms that use gills o Gills are thin structures high in surface area for gas exchange. this can produce a world of troubles In fresh water fish the concentration of salt inside the body is much higher than that outside the body. o Points of Interest Bird Guano is still farmed today to be used as a fertilizer In the egg. This situation is termed Hypoosmatic o This presents the issues
. In flux of water into the organism. meaning that very little water is needed for excretion. via the gills 2. bird guano is characterized as a semisolid. and a hand full of amphibians. Urine is diluted with excess water In salt water fish the concentration of salt inside the body is much lower than that outside the body. Has a very low toxicity associated with it. In fact. requiring a massive 15 step process in order to create o Let’s count the “Feathers in the cape” of this process [Note: read Catch 22].SOS Exam-Aid
Fish must excrete NH3 and NH4+ as soon as it is produced. No drinking! 2. o What are the upsides to this method? Production of this form of nitrogenous waste requires little to no energy Mammals.
Respiration Respiration is another form of obligatory water and salt exchange. and usually with high amounts of water to accompany it. containing two amide groups. o Let’s count the “Black Eyes” of this process [Note: read Catch 22]. This situation is termed Hyperosmotic.from the water back into the body 3. o What are the flaws in this method? Compound requires a fair bit of energy in order to produce. Considering how often these wastes need to be produced. Gill’s actively transport Na+ and Cl. Urea is produced through the aptly named Urea Cycle o What are the perks of this method? Urea is much less toxic than ammonia and ammonium. They also have the potential to allow water and salt to diffuse in and out of the organism o Depending on the environment. that’s a pretty big cheque. reptiles and marine fishes excrete nitrogenous wastes as urea. which it was derived from.
Excretory Organs Organs designed for the process of eliminating material that has no further use to the body o Three Primary Functions 1. instead of excreting it Hence why Gordon Ramsey vomited after eating Hakari. In flux of ions from the environment o Fish handle these issues by 1. Drinking lots and lots of sea water 2. perhaps to aid in the elimination of toxins The vertebrate urinary system is an interconnected series of organs that serve the three primary functions given above o The kidney is the main player in the excretory system for vertebrates Bean shaped organ that possesses several layers. Urine is extremely concentrated. Actively excreting large amounts of ions across the gills 3. Constant threat of dehydration from water diffusion out of the body 2. with little water used and a lot of salts Points of Interest o Salmon can change between fresh and salt water. Renal Cortex Renal Medulla. Filtration Selectively remove water and small solutes from blood stream. which is comprised of an outer and inner portion Renal Pelvis The functional unit or structure of the kidney is the nephron The nephron is a self-contained series of small tubes There are millions of nephrons within the kidney Structure of the nephron Renal Corpuscle o Used for Filtration of the blood o Contains two main portions The glomerulus: a series of tubes supplied with blood via the afferent arteriole
1. which is fermented shark meat. Reabsorption Regaining useful material from the above filtrate and returning it to the blood 3. Secretion The addition of other solutes to the filtrate. starting from the outermost to the innermost. making them on par with their environment This is achieved through the shark’s adaptation to maintain large quantities of ammonia in their bloodstream. depending on their stage in life Both gills and urine have to change depending on the environment o Sharks have very high salt concentration in their blood. without taking the larger content such as blood cells. proteins etc 2.
we get the increased diffusion of water o Some urea also diffuses out. responsible for passing the waste on to the rest of the excretory system via the renal pelvis The tour of the nephron 1.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 The Bowman’s capsule. Cl-) o As we ascend out of the inner medulla. keeping the big stuff in the blood while moving the small stuff into the Bowman’s capsule 2. Filtrate moves into the proximal tubule with the same osmolarity as the blood 3. which is a liquid filled container that encases the glomerulus
A Long Tubule o Used for secretion and reabsorption o Contains three main segments Proximal Tubule Loop of Henle (Descending and Ascending) Distal Tubule Collecting Duct o Another long tube. the tissue around the nephron has a much higher salt concentration o Facilitates passive re-absorption of water via diffusion 4. In the Distal Tubule. active transport allows for the continued reabsorption of ions 6. Blood is filtered in the glomerulus. The Collecting Duct is responsible for fine tuning urine content o Descending back into the medulla. We now come to the descending limb of the Loop of Henle o Nephron endothelial cells are permeable to water o As we descend into the medulla. the ambient tissue has a lower concentration of salt o Facilitates passive reabsorption of ions via diffusion 5. to maintain the high ion concentration of the medulla Note: Within the water permeable membranes of the nephron there are a family of water transporters called aquaporins After the kidney. the osmolarity is now much lower than that of the blood 7. The “Thin Segment” of the Ascending limb of the Loop of Henle o Nephron endothelial cells are permeable to ions (Na+. the other organs of the excretory system are Ureters: dual tubes that collect urine from both kidneys Urinary Bladder: storage compartment for urine Urethra: one way ticket to the outside world
. The “Thick Segment” of the Ascending limb o Is technically impermeable to water and ions o However.
Na+ inward o Ion gradients maintained by Na/K pumps 3 Na+ out 2 K+ in o Chemical vs. Hyperpolarization (K+ flows out) Action potential speed o Axon diameter – thicker axon moves potential faster o Myelination – increases speed of conduction Classes of neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine: most widespread Neuromuscular junctions Excitatory in brain and skeletal muscles. MOTOR neurons generate RESPONSE (Efferent. E comes after A) Electrochemical gradients o Think of resting gradient as a salty banana (more K+ on inside. serotonin and epinephrine
. Threshold -50mV (Na+ flows in) o 3. Action potential +30mV (max level of excitement) (voltage gated Na+ channel inactivated) o 4.9) o Depolarization: less polarized o Hyperpolarization: more polarized Action potentials (Fig 41. inside of neuron is negatively charged (-70mV) at this stage it is and waiting to be excited o 2. A comes before E) o Skip: INTERNEURONS (generally not used) o 2. SENSORY neurons SENSE things from outside (Afferent. more Na+ on outside) As a result electrochemical gradient for K+ is outward.7) Chemical: look at what ion is Electrical: look at net charges only Neurons as excitable cells o Ligand gated: open/close to ligands or chemicals o Voltage gated: open/close to voltage changes Graded potentials (Fig 41. electrical gradient (Fig 41. At rest. inhibitory in cardiac muscles o Biogenic Amines Dopamine.1) o All or none hardcore party animals. or don’t go at all o 1. party’s gotta be good.SOS Exam-Aid Nervous System
Neuron o DENDRITES (receive signal) CELL BODY (nucleus and organelles) AXON (send signal to terminal) AXON TERMINAL (sends signals to other cells) o Axon contains NODES OF RANVEIER and GLIAL CELLS if MYELINATED Types of Neurons (remember using REFLEX ARC) o 1.
and depression) o Amino acids glutamate most widespread excitatory GABA most common inhibitory in brain o Neuropeptides Neuromodulators.SOS Exam-Aid
Abnormal levels associated with schizophrenia. Ganglia) o Specialization of function Afferent Efferent o Complex synaptic contacts Many synapses from single neuron More interneurons Regions of the brain o Hindbrain Cerebellum: motor control Medulla and brain stem: respiratory and cardio o Midbrain Tectum: sensorymotor processing o Forebrain Cerebrum: thinking Hypothalamus: homeostasis in temp and appetite Thalamus: motor/sensory relay Limbic: olfactory bulb.10) o Frontal: conscious thought. dendrites. parkinson’s. some unmyelinated axons o Enclosed in three layers of membranes called MENINGES PNS o Somatic (voluntary) Sense external env’t conditions and control skeletal muscles o Autonomic (aka visceral nervous system. produced locally Origin of nervous system o More neurons o Concentration of neurons in specialized structures (ex. amygdala CNS o White matter: myelinated axons bundled together o Gray matter: neuronal cell bodies. social awareness
. alter response of postsynaptic neuron o Gaseous neurotransmitters Short acting. voluntary) Regulates homeostasis and organ function SYMPATHETIC division PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION Lobes of cerebral cortex (Fig 42.
speedy signal. specific signal send through gmail Endocine system: general signal sent to everybody. Nervous System is like GMAIL and FACEBOOK Nervous system: quick. cells can choose not to respond posting on facebook (might take a while for people to read. metabolism. growth.14) o Studied the California sea slug because it had relatively few neurons and they were large o Behaviour: withdrawing of siphon into gills o Short term memory: no synthesis of new proteins. some memory Experiment on Learning: Eric Kandel and the sea slug (Fig 42.g. language.SOS Exam-Aid o
Parietal: receives and interprets sensory input from visual pathways and somatic pathways o Occipital: vision and colour o Temporal: hearing. some may not respond) Endocrine Systems Hormone action Hypothalamic and pituitary axis Hormones and Mineral Balance Hormones and Growth Hormones and Stress
Mechanisms of Hormone Action and Control 4 Classes of Hormones o Amines Tyrosine epinephrine. insulin) Participate in reproduction. Single stimulus activates intracellular second messenger pathways o Long term memory: activate genes in presynaptic cell synthesis of mRNA and translation of encoded proteins Proteins cause formation of additional synaptic connections (synaptic plasticity)
Endocrine System Endocrine vs. no epinephrine (adrenal medulla) Tryptophane melatonin (pineal gland) o Proteins/Peptides (e. aldosterone (adrenal cortex). androgens (testes). estrogen (ovaries) Ecdysone in insects (prothoracic gland) o Fatty Acid derivatives Juvenile hormones Hormone Receptors o *Only cells with proper receptors can respond to the hormone!
. mineral balance o Steroids (Q: Which one is not like the other?) Cholesterol (lipid) Cortisol.
oxytocin o Hypothalamus o Parathyroids o Adrenal glands: cortex and medulla Lec 10. bind noncovalently Human Endocrine Glands (Fig 48. letdown of milk o Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) decreases urine production (increase aquaporin channels in kidney) Diuresis means increased loss of water Increases blood pressure at high concentrations
.SOS Exam-Aid o
Different receptors may be recognized by the same hormone (isoforms produced by alt. pg 8 (which organ does each go to? Hypothalamic-pituitary axis (Fig 48. growth hormone o Posterior Pituitary (POST means after. ACTH. peptides/proteins. thyroid stimulating hormone.4) o HYPOTHALAMUS: neuroendocrine region of brain with leaky blood-brain barrier o PORTAL VEIN transfers products from hypothalamic neurons to anterior and posterior pituitary gland Water Soluble Hormones Membrane Receptors o Neurotransmitters. like an afterthought): ADH. control and energy balance o Prolactin (PRL) late pregnancy and lactation milk production Posterior Pituitary Gland o Oxytocin contractions of uterus muscles. and amine hormones act this way (except thyroid hormones) Lipid Soluble Hormones INTRAcellular receptors o Receptors in cytosol or within nucleus o Acts as transcriptional activator Hormone Levels in Blood o Regulated by rates of synthesis and removal o Engulfed by cells (endocytosis) and degraded by lysosomes o Water soluble hormones excreted in urine o Modified by liver o Negative feedback processes Anterior Pituitary Gland o Adrenocorticotopic Hormone (ACTH) adrenal cortex Cortisol o Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ovaries/testes egg/sperm development and release of estrogens and androgens from gonads o Growth Hormone (GH) growth.1) (Matching activity) o Anterior pituitary: prolactin. gonadotropic hormones. Splicing) o Receptors may have different affinities for hormone and may act differently depending on hormone concentration.
Posterior pituitary secrets more antidiuretic hormone (diuresis=increased urination)decreases H2O in urine o 2. 17 hypothalamus coordinates responses of glands and tissues during stress Adrenal glands (on top of kidneys) o Cortex (outside): mineralcorticoids. Atrial Natriuretic Hormone: Na+. metabolism/stress (think glucose) precursors for androgens/estrogen o Medulla (middle) Catecholamines for fight/flight of sympatheic nervous system Epinephrine/norepinephrine
. Heart makes atrial natriuretic peptide more Na+ in urine o 3. Aldosterone INHIBITED by adrenal glands more Na+ in urine ADH. Pituitary GH Liver IGF 1 bone elongation. Aldosterone. in puberty) o Gonadal hormones seal growth plates preventing further elongation o In adults: GH helps with metabolism and regulation of glucose and fatty acid lvls o Hypothalamus Ant. Pituitary) o GH acts on liver to produce insulin like growth factor IGF 1 o IGF 1 stimulates elongation of bones (esp. steroids for ion balance (think minerals) glucocorticoids. muscle mass Insects (Fig 48.25 –dihydroxyvitamin D Stimulates the absorption of Ca 2+ from intestines o Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Dissolve bone and release Ca2+ into blood when blood levels low o OSTEOPOROSIS: “brittle bones” low bone mineral density Increased Na+ o 1. K+ o ADH: acts on kidney to reabsorb water o Aldosterone: sodium re-absorption in kidney acts in opposition to the other two o Atrial Natriuretic peptide (ANP): secreted form heart whenever blood Na+ increase to decrease sodium reabsorption from forming urine
Growth and Differentiation
Growth Hormone (GH) produced by anterior pituitary (hypothalamusAnt.15) o Ecdysone (which controls ecdysis or molting) expressed in cyclic manner throughout life o Juvenile hormone (“forever young” hormone) decreases as insect matures
Lec 10.SOS Exam-Aid Mineral Balance
Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone: Ca 2+ o Transport of Ca2+ facilitated by derivative of vita D Vita D modified by two hydroxyl groups into hormone secreted by kidney called 1.
Pituitary) TRH (thyroid) thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyroxine (T3) o Require iodine to produce. secretion of leptin inhibits appetite
Muscles Skeletal systems o Hydrostatic: Combined muscles and fluid pressure to move body o Exoskeleton: External surface (chitin) provides muscle support o Endoskeleton: Internal support structure (bone) Smooth Muscles o Involuntary o Slow. islets of Langerhans): released when glucose levels high Glucagon (alpha cells. accumulate at high levels in blood T2DM: cells lose ability to respond to insulin.g. sustained contractions o E. linked to obesity Adipose Tissue: Appetite o Leptin acts on hypothalamus. controlled by negative feedback Normal levels of T3 and T4 prevent overstimulation of thyroid by TSH Low levels of T3 and T4 reduces negative feedback. provides energy o Promote gluconeogenesis to raise blood glucose (liver) o Breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol (adipose) o Inhibit muscle sensitivity to insulin (turns glucose into glycogen) to preserve glucose for brain o Catabolic effects on immune tissue can depress immune system in prolonged stress
Metabolism and Energy Balance
Thyroid Hormones: Metabolism o TSH (ant.SOS Exam-Aid
How glucocorticoids mediate stress responses o Catabolic hormones: tissue breakdown. creates excess TSH Lack of iodine in diet causes iodine-deficient goitre o Increase energy consumption via Na/K pumps Pancreas and Adrenal Gland: Fuel Levels o Endocrine gland of pancreas release: Insulin (beta cells. Digestive tract
. islets of Langerhans): released when glucose levels low o Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine: stimulates gyclogenolysis (glucagon glucose) o Andreal Cortex Cortisol: stimulates liver to synthesize glucose from aa’s and glycerol o Diabetes mellitus TIDM: glucose cannot cross cell membranes.
Circular controls diameter Longitudinal controls length Both induce peristalsis Striated Muscles o locomotor system and body wall o Skeletal muscles Voluntary control. easily become fatigued Few mito. Access to actin (blocked by tryptomyosin o Ca2+ bines to troponin to move tropomyosin away o Once myosin gains access to myosin. signal carried to apex of heart via PURKINJE fibres o Heart rates vary depending on hormones and neurotransmitters Muscle Basics o Muscle fibre = muscle cell o Myofibril = cylindrical bundles in muscle fibre o Sarcolemma = membrane o Sacroplasmic reticulum o Tendons = link bones to skeletal muscle Myofibril structure o Unit of repeating pattern is SARCOMERE o THICK filaments made of myosin o THIN filaments made of actin Muscle contraction: a story about myosin and actin o There are two actors: myosin and actin o Myosin’s goal is to grab onto actin. signals from motor nerves o Cardiac Involuntary control. pacemaker cells and nerves Types of muscle movement o Slow-oxidative fibres (red) Specialized for slow movements that can be sustained for long periods Lots of mito. ATP allows myosin head to move Contraction (as described in text) o Cross bridge binds to actin
. ATP o 2. two things need to happen o 1. but high ATPase activity Cardiac Muscle o Cardiomyocytes are electrically connected via INTERCALATED DISKS (depolarization of one causes neighbour to depolarize also) o Contraction initiated when specialized heart cells (pacemaker cells) depolarize. low ATPase activity o Fast-glycolytic fibres (white) Specialized for rapid movements.
. and transporting waste from all the cells in the organism to excretion zones o Three different formats for accomplishing these goals 1.SOS Exam-Aid
o Cross bridge moves and filament slides past each other (power stroke) o ATP binds myosin. 3. Closed Circulatory System Used by the upper classes of organisms (such as us) Main difference between Open and Closed is that the Closed system retains separation between the blood and the interstitial fluid Advantages of this system include o Allows organism to grow to larger sizes
.leads to Excitation-contraction coupling Excitation-contraction coupling o Action potential in plasma membrane of muscle fibre leads to cross bridge activity o i. absorption of nutrients and excretion of waste Movement of the organism helps with the flow of the nutrient filled water throughout the cavity. where it delivers nutrients and takes up waste (note: not used for gas exchange) Re-enters the hearts via small openings. called Ostia. Gastrovascular Cavity Used in extremely simple organisms (Hydra) A large water filled compartment with a single opening that is in contact with all the cells in the organism Serves as the site for digestion of food. Open Circulatory System Used primarily by insects Consists of three components o Hemolymph (blood) o Open ended blood vessels o One or more tubular hearts Hemolymph is pumped by the heart(s) out through the open ended blood vessels into the organism’s interstitial fluid. contraction of skeletal muscle coupled with electrical excitation
Types of Circulatory Systems The circulatory system is responsible for transporting essential nutrients to all the cells in the organism.e. causing cross bridge detaching o Hydrolysis of ATP re-energizes cross bridge resetting Neuromuscular junction o Junction between a motor neuron’s axon and the muscle fibre o Axon releases vesicles of acetylcholine (Ach) o Muscle fibre under axon terminal folded to increase surface area o Ach receptor ligand gated o .. 2.
SOS Exam-Aid o Allows for selective control of blood flow
A closer look at the Closed Circulatory System o Used by a multitude of different organisms, though they all share Seven Things in Common 1. B lood remains in vessels 2. O ne or more contractile hearts 3. S ystem grows in size with the organism 4. S olutes exchanged with the environment and body cells 5. C lotting factors to stop bleeding 6. A djusted to meet differing demands 7. D isease fighting cells and molecules within o There are three generic types of Closed Circulatory Systems, used by different organisms Fish use a Single Circulation Model One track for blood to follow Single Atrium Single Ventricle Gills Body Cells Single Atrium Pumped out to the gills, where it picks up Oxygen and drops off CO2 Delivers Oxygen and other nutrients to the body cells, before returning to the heart with the collected waste Mammals and Birds use Double Circulation Model Two tracks for the blood to follow 1. Pulmonary Circulation Right Atrium Right Ventricle Lungs Left Atrium 2. Systematic Circulation Left Atrium Left Ventricle Body Cells Right Atrium
Oxygenated blood is kept at high pressure, while deoxygenated blood is at a lower pressure Amphibians use Intermediate Circulation Model Three pseudo separate tracks for the blood to follow 1. To the Lungs Right Atrium Single Ventricle Lungs Left Atrium 2. To the Skin Right Atrium 3. To the Body Left Atrium Single Ventricle Single Ventricle Skin Body Cells Left Atrium Right Atrium
Note: the single ventricle means that some of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mixes, producing the purple coloured arrows that are either mostly deoxygenated (dark purple) or mostly oxygenated (light purple)
Major Structures of the Mammalian Circulatory System
The heart is the focal point of the mammalian circulatory system o Four major compartments Two atriums which accept blood returning from either the lungs (left atrium) or the body (right atrium) Two ventricles which pump blood either to the lungs (right ventricle) or the body (left ventricle) One heart beat contains two distinct phases Diastole: contraction of both atria, which fills the ventricles with blood Systole: contraction of the ventricle, which ejects the blood from the heart at a much higher pressure Each of these phases is initiated by an electrical excitation of one of two clusters of specialized cardiac muscles called nodes Sinoatrial (SA) Node or pacemaker excitation stimulates the diastole phase by contracting the atrium muscles Atrioventricular (AV) Node excitation stimulates the systole phase by contracting the ventricle muscles o This node takes longer to excite than the SA node, allowing the ventricles to fill up before they are flexed The valves that separate the different compartments of the heart also have to be coordinated. This is done via Pressure Gradients o Electrocardiogram (EKG) is used to measure the electric excitations of the heart P wave: Atrial excitement via the SA Node QRS Complex: three wave complex that involves the AV Node excitation and the corresponding excitation of the ventricles T Wave: Relaxation of the ventricles Blood vessels have a variety of different structural attributes depending on their function in the body o Transport of blood from the heart out to the body is handled by Arteries Large and under high pressure Large amount of smooth muscle and elastic fibre Smaller lumen Arterioles Miniature version of arteries Surrounded by smooth muscle o Transport of the blood back to the heart from the extremities is handled by Veins Large lumen, with less smooth muscle and elastic fibre Contains one-way valves to prevent blood from flowing away from the heart Pooling of blood in the veins is common, due to lower pressure. o Serves as a reservoir for blood for times of need Venules Miniature version of veins o Capillaries are very thin blood vessels that act as the cross over between oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood 27 o
Attributes Serve as the site for oxygen diffusion and nutrient/waste transfer Single layer of endothelial cell thick, allowing for maximum diffusion Water loss and retrieval When blood enters the capillary at the arteriole end it is at an extremely high pressure compared to the interstitial fluid o High pressure forces water diffusion out into the interstitial fluid o Would result in an overall loss of blood volume Blood is returned to the blood vessel through three means 1. Reduction of pressure in capillary near the venule end. 2. Osmotic gradient caused by the increased saturation of proteins in the capillary (due to loss of water) 3. Lymph vessels capture water lost and return it to the venules. The blood is a cellular solution that carries nutrients and waste throughout the circulatory system o Four part solution Plasma: the water and dissolved solutes of the blood Act towards buffering capabilities, water balance and cellular transport Erythrocytes (red blood cells): biconcave cells that transport oxygen from respiratory surface to the rest of the body Contains hemoglobin, a four subunit protein that attaches to oxygen via a Heme group (iron containing compound) Leukocytes (white blood cells): immunity cells that defend the body against pathogens Platelettes and other clotting factors: responsible for initiating and proliferating the clotting mechanisms to prevent bleeding o Red blood cell count is used to measure the Oxygen Carrying Capacity Also known as hematocrit, or the volume of erythrocytes in the blood. Reduction in functioning red blood cells can cause a physiological response called Anemia Hemolytic Anemia: Fragile cells due to vitamin deficiency Megaloblastic Anemia: Big cells with small amounts of hemoglobin Pernicious Anemia: B12 deficiency Sickle Cell Anemia: Misshapen cells that result in reduced ability to deliver oxygen The body has several ways to alter blood flow in order to deal with differing conditions o Blood pressure Alterations to blood pressure can be achieved by either altering The activity of the heart The diameter of the blood vessels Blood pressure Control Nervous system o Baroreceptors monitor blood vessel stretching and relay information to the brain, which can then act on the output of the heart
SOS Exam-Aid o
BIO 103 Neurotransmitters can be released directly to smooth muscle cells in order to promote vasoconstriction or vasodilation Hormones o Epinephrine is used to increase heart activity through increasing stroke volume or heart rate In addition to controlling blood pressure. AKA from high partial pressure to low partial pressure Ex. such as CO2 o Gases are capable of passing through bi-lipid membranes without assistance o Motive force for gas exchange is partial pressure gradients Gases move through membranes in a predictable manner. Air Breathing o Water breathers Less oxygen available Oxygen fluctuates depending on temperature. and for expulsion of gaseous by-products. so diffusion into the cells is slowed. Requires more energy and creates osmotic gradient issues o Air breathers Suffer from the drying out of the lungs (desiccation) Respiratory Organs o Common Features
. the atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen is lower. solute concentration etc. such as O2. though there efficiency of dissolution is highly dependent on several key factors Pressure of the gas Higher pressure results in more gas within the solution (to a certain limit) Temperature Cold holds more than hot Presence of other solutes More solutes in solution decreases solubility of gas
Adaptations for Gas Exchange Water breathing vs. the body can also control where the majority of blood is being sent throughout the body by controlling blood vessel diameter
Gas Exchange Organisms utilize the respiratory system primarily for the uptake of required gases. Oxygen moves from the lungs to the deoxygenated blood cells due to atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen (partial pressure in the lungs) being higher than that of the red blood cells Note: at higher elevations. Gas Solubility o Gases can dissolve in solution.
See pg. and then closes it to force water back through the gills Ram Ventilation Fish opens its mouth and uses its forward motion to force water backwards into the gills More efficient than buccal pumping. Air breathing lungs o Differentiations Positive versus Negative Pressure Positive pressure forces air into lungs (amphibians)
. through the capillaries to the efferent vessel Water containing the oxygen flows through the gills. opposite to the flow of blood Called Countercurrent Exchange o Gill Ventilation Gill Ventilation is the process of getting the water to flow over the gills Buccal Pumping Fish lower jaw to allow water to enter.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 Thin. branching off into tracheoles which deliver directly to the body cells Muscular movement assists in the drawing in of gas through the pores Note: open circulatory system above is not used for gas exchange. delicate structures with ample surface area Moist surface to allow for the dissolving of gases for diffusion Extensive blood flow Several Mechanisms for Gas Exchange Gills Trachea Lungs Across the Body Note: Ventilation is the act of bring oxygenated air into contact with the respiratory surface to allow for gas exchange
o Gills o
Structure Made up of a gill arch or support from which extend several long filaments that contain blood vessels Two blood vessels flow through the filaments Afferent Vessel: contains deoxygenated blood from the heart Efferent vessel: contains newly oxygenated blood heading to the body cells Both vessels are connected by a network of capillaries o Go with the Flow Blood flows from the afferent vessel. though a lot of fish use both Both are considered “Flow through” Systems Insect Trachea o Structure Long tubes that are open to the outside environment Descend downwards into the insect.
to relieve tension between the air phase and the extracellular liquid Go with the Flow Blood flows from the pulmonary artery.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 Negative pressure uses suction to pull air into lungs (mammals. awaiting diffusion This method is much less efficient than the countercurrent approach of gills Avian Lung Structure A single trachea is the entry point for air There are a series of air sacs. but do not actually take part in gas exchange The bird lung is made up of a series of parallel air tubes called parabronchi. a mixture of protein and lipids. which further branch into a series of bronchioles surrounded by smooth muscle The end of the route are the alveoli. which are responsible for providing the negative pressure to get air into the body. which are single cell thick sacks made for the express purpose of gas exchange Alveoli contain two types of cells o Type I: responsible for gas diffusion utilizing the extracellular fluid to dissolve gas o Type II: responsible for producing surfactant. separated into anterior and posterior groupings. birds. around the alveoli and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein Oxygen flows into the alveolus sack and then remains stagnant. and will be examined in more detail shortly Mammalian Lung Structure A single trachea opens up into two bronchi. reptiles) Tidal versus Flow Through Tidal implies that the lungs fill and empty like the tides of an ocean o Inhalation (tide coming in): done in humans by a tensing of the diaphragm and intercostals muscles o Exhalation (tide going out) done in humans by the relaxing of the diaphragm and intercostals muscles o Note: tidal volume is total amount of air that is taken in and released per cycle Flow Through means that the lung has a constant supply of fresh air running through it o This is done by birds. which are responsible for gas exchange Go with the flow Blood flows perpendicular to the parabronchi Air flow for birds is a complicated four part process involving two inhalations (expansion of air sacs) and two exhalations (contraction of air sacs)
These barriers include: Skin Mucous Lining of respiratory. Exhalation 2: air is pushed out of the anterior sacs and back out the trachea Process is called Cross Current Exchange because air and blood meet perpendicularly. some toxins and pharmaceuticals. as well as cancer cells Non-specific. There are 4 main forms of non-specific immunity.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 1. Inhalation 2: air is sucked into the anterior sacs 4. Phagocytosis is a cellular activity through which immunity cells envelope and destroy unwanted cells and molecules within the body Undertaken by specific Leukocytes (white blood cells) called Phagocytes. Exhalation 1: air is pushed forward by the closing of the sacks through the parabronchi 3. digestive and urinary tracts 2. Considered less efficient than counter current. back to the posterior sacs 2. Neutrophils Macrophages (upgraded form of Monocyte) Dendritic cells 3. Inhalation 1: air is sucked in through the trachea. or innate. by Lysis of the pathogen cell wall
.youtube. 1. immunity is a series of immediate reactions that occur using pathways that are poised for action at all times.com/watch?v=iigxJXFJF4U
The Immune System
Non-specific Immunity Immune system is a collection of cells and chemicals designed to eliminate anything determined to be “not of the body” o Includes pathogens. but more efficient than the stagnant lung model This process is kinda confusing so check out this video for a better representation http://www. Soluble factors secreted by leukocytes and damaged endothelial cells help the immune response Chemicals may regulate interactions between cell types Histamine Secreted by Mast Cells Responsible for making blood vessels more porous Cytokines Provide chemical communication between immunity systems Chemokines Chemicals may complement the immune response. of which there are three main forms. Physical barriers provide a form of innate protection from infection.
Inflammation is a crucial physiological response to local infection and/or injury Blood flow increases and capillaries become more permeable Allows for influx of plasma and white blood cells into the damaged or diseased tissue Permeability of capillaries is stimulated by mast cell secretion of histamine Increased blood flow also ensures timely flushing out of the infected region Influx of immune cells allows for increased phagocytosis in order to rid the body of invading pathogens Local hyperthermia (increase in heat) stimulates immune responses A fever is just a body wide inflammation response Note: some organisms use behavioural changes in order to increase body temperature to fight off infection (Behavioural Fever) Specific Immunity Lymphocytes are a particular type of Leukocyte that are involved in direct identification of specific foreign cells or proteins o Lymphocytes use definitive foreign molecules (antigens) to identify invading cells and/or molecules within the body Antigens are a stamp identifying an invading material as “not of the body” o The two general types of Lymphocytes are B cells and T cells Both are used in different forms of specific immunity Humoral Immune Response utilizes B cells o B cells mature in the bone marrow and protect against foreign species found within the extracellular fluid (blood + interstitial fluid) o Immune Response occurs through a three step process 1. a mediator lymphocyte between the two forms of specific immunity An activated B cell will begin to divide and differentiate into either effector cells or memory cells Effector Cells are called Plasma cells. Antibody mediated Attack
Enhancing phagocytosis Attracting white blood cells 4. Encounter and Recognition of Antigen B cells produce a specific antigen receptor on its cell surface. Activation and Division Activation is stimulated by both antigen recognition as well as the presence of cytokines Cytokines are produced by Helper T Cells. and they are responsible for the immune response Memory Cells remain within the body after the infection is taken care of. so that the same antigen may be recognized quickly if it returns in the future 3. which can recognize and bind to that antigen Each B cell will be able to recognize only one type of antigen 2.
IgA. which collectively have to be able to synthesize an infinite number of antigen recognition sites . and are made up of four peptides: two heavy chains and two light chains The twos tips at the top of the Y are called variable regions.SOS Exam-Aid
Plasma cells are used to guide immune responses against invaders through the production of antibodies Antibodies are part of the immunoglobulin protein family Antibodies possess antigen recognition and binding sites Note: An antibody is identical to the original antigen receptor found on the immature B cell surface. called agglutination. of which IgM is the only one found in all vertebrates All are Y shaped. T cells produce a specific antigen receptor on the cell surface. save for the deletion of the transmembrane region o These B cell receptors are also part of the immunoglobulin family Immunoglobulin proteins can be grouped into 5 different classes IgM. IgE. . Activation and Division
. Encounter and Recognition of Antigen Like with B cells. . and IgD. This is called Immunoflorescence Cell Mediated Immune Response uses T cells o T cells mature in the Thymus and partake in the direct destruction of infected cells o Immune response facilitated by another three step process 1. as they differ greatly between B-cells o This area serves as the antigen recognition sites The stem (Fc region) and bottom of the two branches are called constant regions o The Fc region is constant between immunoglobulin proteins of the same class Immunoglobulin genes number at approximately 200. each containing over 300 domains. serves to stimulate important immune responses such as o Phagocytosis o The release of important soluble immune factors Agglutination can also serve to inactivate the pathogen Note: Antibodies can also be used to probe for proteins of interest through the addition of a fluorescent Tag to the antibody. how? Recombination of the different domains provides some of the diversity Imprecision of joining the domains produces variation that also improves diversity Hypermutation through mistakes in DNA replication lead to changes in the protein sequences Antibodies guide immune responses through the formation of antibody-antigen complexes This process. IgG. which limits the T cell to the binding of one type of antigen 2.
Similar to the Humoral Immune response. specific immune responses are dependent on the nonspecific immune responses to take up an antigen and present it to a Helper T Cell Cytotoxic T cells can only associate with an antigen when it is presented with a Class I MHC Interaction facilitated by CD8 protein
. the combination of the antigen recognition as well as the release of cytokines via Helper T cell serve to activate and stimulate division of the T cells An activated T cell will begin to divide and differentiate into either effector cells or memory cells Effector Cells are called Cytotoxic T cells. Direct cellular attack T cells interact with infected cells through a series of protein-protein interactions T cell antigen receptors on the cell surface possess a variable region for identifying antigens o These receptors are not of the immunoglobulin family. so that the same antigen may be recognized quickly if it returns in the future Natural Killer Cells are another form of Leukocyte that is very similar to the T cell. but also perform nonspecific actions as well 3. and they are responsible for the immune response Memory Cells remain within the body after the infection is taken care of. nor are they secreted into the extracellular fluid like antibodies o The receptors are created through similar levels of mutation and recombination as seen above T cells also produce other surface proteins in order to facilitate interaction with target cells o Cytotoxic T Cells require CD8 o Helper T Cells require CD4 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are a family of proteins expressed on the cell surface of all body cells o These proteins are unique to the individual o Assist in T cell attack of infected cells by associating with antigens of the infecting pathogen and presenting them on the infected cell surface (Antigen Presenting Cells) o T cell antigen receptor interacts with MHC-antigen complex o Two types of MHC proteins are known Class I is found on all body cells Class II is found solely on certain phagocytes Helper T cells can only associate with an antigen when it is presented with a Class II MHC Interaction facilitated by CD4 surface protein Helper T cells serve to stimulate activation and division of both B and T cells Therefore.
the T cell releases cytotoxic proteins that result in the death of the infected cell
What else to know about Immunity Immunological Memory o Active Memory An immediate and heightened immune response to an antigen that one has already been exposed to Previous exposure could be in the form of Previous engagement with the same antigen Vaccinations. which occurs through two steps Sensitization o Initial exposure to the allergen results in macrophage attack. which inject small amounts of harmless antigen into the body in order to create immunological memory of the antigen o Passive Memory A temporarily heightened immune response caused by the receiving of antibodies from another person or animal Occurs naturally during pregnancy and breast feeding. such as increased mucous production. which selectively adhere to Mast Cells Re-exposure o Re-exposure to the allergen results in Mast Cell activation of the localized inflammatory response o The physical symptoms of allergies are just unwanted nonspecific immune responses.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 Once associated. followed by presentation to the Helper T Cell o Stimulates the B cell production of IgE antibodies. such as Hepatitis The Immune System and Disease o Disease states can arise from a lack of immunity Cancer cells are cells that should be destroyed by the immune system but aren’t Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a deadly pathogen that infects and results in the destruction of Helper T Cells o Disease states can arise from an overactive or unwanted immune response Transplant rejection occurs when T cells identify the transplanted cells as “not of the body” and attack Not of the body recognition occurs through individual specific membrane proteins Allergies are an overzealous immune response to a usually harmless allergen from the environment. where the mother’s antibodies help defend the offspring Occurs synthetically in order to combat diseases. swelling and rash due to increased blood flow etc. Autoimmune disorders arise from T cells and B cells mutated to recognize self cells Normally two mechanisms prevent antigen specific sites from recognizing body cells
Individuals compete for limited resources o 4. selective breeding of pigeons can lead to “big bird” phenotype
. High reproductive potential means population increase geometrically o 3. leading to related species. but evolution acts BETWEEN generations o Small evolutionary changes can occur rapidly. when it is seen to react with body cells Clonal Inactivation: inactivating of the T or B cell clone once it leaves the site of maturation (thymus or bone marrow)
Evolution and diversity (Lec 1)
Evolution: Accumulation of inherited changes in populations over time. More fit individuals (with phenotypes matching current environment) more likely to survive and reproduce Other assumptions: o Natural selection acts on PHENOTYPES WITHIN generations. The theory that “evolution by natural selection” is the dominant mechanism for evolution acknowledges that other processes contribute to evolutionary change o Darwinian Fitness: individual’s ability to survive and reproduce relative to other members of a pop’n o Population: individuals of one species in a geographic area sharing same gene pool o Community: group of species that live together and interact in a given area o Ecosystem: interactive system composed of one or more communities and their abiotic env’t o Biosphere: all Earth’s ecosystems taken together Theory of evolution by natural selection has 4 assumptions o 1. but complex adaptations require accumulation over long periods of time
Evidence for Evolution Fossil record o Earth is old.SOS Exam-Aid o o
BIO 103 Clonal Deletion: destruction of the T or B cell clone during maturation. Variation in phenotype o 2. life evolved through time o Fossil intermediates provide evidence for evolution of whales (whales may have evolved from hippo-like ancestor. WHIPPO hypothesis) Biogeography o Current distribution of flightless “ratite” birds explained by Gondwana and break up Selective Breeding o E.g.
creating the different vegetables we recognize today as: cabbage.. cat. they show structural and functional similarities in feeding mode Homologies: derived from same structure in common ancestor o Anatomical Vestigial structures: remnants of structures indicate adaptations wax and wane as environments change (e.. look at frequencies of. kale. mechanistic o Ultimate: involves evolutionary perspective
Variation and Natural Selection (Lec 2)
Detecting evolution. o Phenotypes: physical expression of genotype o Genotypes. ultimate explanations o Proximate: immediate observation.g. brussel sprouts Convergent evolution o Homoplastic/analogous features: similar functions in distantly related organisms o Ex. panolin. physiological. or combo of all) Proximate vs. bat forearm bone structure o Developmental Reveals ancestral structures no longer present in adults Ex. anteater. on homologous chromosomes o Alleles: variants of DNA sequence at given locus Genetic variation caused by. homology in human. goosebumps in humans and chimps) Ex.. gill silts in human embryo suggest humans evolved from aquatic animal (Ernst Haeckel) o Molecular Homeotic genes show underlying “universal body plan” in all animals Hox genes dictate order of growth of different segments of body Phylogenetic analysis show how similar homologous DNA sequences are Important notes o POPULATIONS evolve. cauliflower. whale. combination of alleles at a given locus. not INDIVIDUALS o Some evolution is neutral o ADAPTATIONS enhance an organism’s survival or reproduction in a particular environment (can be structural. behavioural.. broccoli. aardvark are all mammals that feed on ants/termites. o Mutation Cannot enter population unless this occurs in gametes o Sexual reproduction Recombination via crossing over in meiosis Problem with sex 38
.SOS Exam-Aid o
Selection in Brassica lead to exaggeration of different parts of plant.
orchids can be red or yellow o Polymorphic gene: gene that exists as two or more alleles Population Genetics is concerned with allele and genotype frequencies o Allele freq= (# copies of a specific allele)/(total number of alleles in that gene) o Genotype freq= (# individuals with specific genotype)/(total number of individuals) Hardy-Weinberg Equation relates allele and genotype frequencies in a pop’n o Two alleles in a pop’n A and a o p= freq of allele A. central issue is GENETIC VARIATION
Genes in populations A population is a group of interbreeding individuals o Pop’ns can change in number. q= freq of allele a
. geographic location and genetic composition Genes in Natural Populations are usually polymorphic o Polymorphism: variation of traits. yarrow plants grown in common garden retain ecotype ** Environment also affects developing phenotypes of quantitative loci o Norm of reaction: continuous range of phenotypic possibilities Ex. human height o Heritability of quantitative traits o Morphological traits show quantitative genetic variation = multiple loci and env’tal effects
Population genetics: study of genes and genotypes in a population.SOS Exam-Aid o o Asexually. Land snails eaten by song thrushes. Curt Lively and the New Zealand snails Sexual repro more common in habitats where parasitism is high
Genetic variation is high! Electrophoresis revealed more variation than expected Genetic polymorphism maintained by: o Balanced polymorphisms (heterozygotes more fit than homozygote) Ex. patterns are selected for in mosaic habitat o Neutrality (not being exposed to selection) Spatial/temporal env’tal variation o One genotype can produce different phenotypes in different env’ts = phenotypic plasticity Ex.g. Malaria. fast! Ex. Heterogotes for Cystic fibrosis confer resistance to typhoid disease (tradeoff) o Frequency dependent selection (fitness depends on relative abundance of morph) Ex. e. heterozygote carriers of sickle cell allele confer resistance to malaria Ex. clonally reproducing populations win.
malaria Negative frequency-dependent selection: more common individuals less fit. allele freq can be altered by random genetic drift o Drift: random sampling error o Over time.SOS Exam-Aid o o o o o o o p+ q = 1 AA= p2 Aa=2pq aa=q2 p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 If allele frequencies can predict genotype frequencies (using the eqn). peaock feathers more extravagant than peahen’s In small populations. can occur as a result of Heterozygote advantage. orchids (p 528) Sexual selection is a type of natural selection that directive promotes reproductive success o Intrasexual selection: between members of the same sex Ex. males defend females from other males o Intersexual selection: between members of opposite sex Ex. Characteristics that make organism better adapted to env’t and therefore more likely to survive and reproduce 2. exon shuffling. horizontal gene transfer Natural selection in differential reproductive success of individuals in a population o Reproductive success measured as: 1. ex. Individual produces viable offspring o Mean fitness of the population: average reproductive success of members of a population Natural selection can follow different patterns o Directional selection: favours individuals in one of the two extreme phenotypes o Stabilizing selection: favours intermediate phenotype o Disruptive selection: favours the extreme phenotypes o Balancing selection: maintains genetic diversity in a population. enlarged claw of male fiddler crab. gene duplication. drift favours either loss or fixation of an allele (0 or 100%)
. ex. then the population is considered to be at EQUILIBRIUM Conditions for HW Population is large Random mating No migration No natural selection No mutation
Evolutionary Mechanisms and their effects on Populations Microevolution: changes in a pop’ns gene pool from generation to generation Mechanisms of microevolution are: o Natural selection o Random genetic drift o Migration o Non-random mating Sources of new genetic variation: new alleles.
they want to avoid inbreeding (mating with related individual) o Inbreeding depression: produces homozygotes that are less fit Deleterious recessive genes exposed to selection
Behaviour: observable response of organisms to external or internal stimuli o Proximate causes looks at how animals behave o Ultimate causes look at why animals behave in certain ways
Foraging Behaviour Optimal foraging entails maximizing the benefits and minimizing the costs of food gathering o Optimal foraging theory: animals seeks to obtain the most energy possible while expending the least energy Ex. Given a choice. remaining individuals repopulate. this tends to increase frequenciy of homozygotes o Individuals may be choosy depending on another’s past history.SOS Exam-Aid o
Bottleneck effect: large population subject to dramatic decrease in size.g. since they provide highest energy return Defending territories has costs and benefits o Territories provide exclusive access to resource o Communication important for territory owners (e. mussle shore crabs prefer intermediate size mussels. using chemical signals such as pheromones)
Living in Groups Living in groups may reduce risk of predation because of increase vigilance o Many eyes hypothesis individuals decrease amount of time they need to scan for predators Living in groups offers protection by the “selfish herd”
. their allele frequencies are expected to be significantly different from original population by chance Neutral theory of evolution proposes that genetic drift plays in important role in promoting genetic change o Neutral variation: does not favour any genotype o Kimura’s neutral theory of evolution: most genetic variation is due to neutral mutations that have attained high freq in a population Migration between two populations tends to increase genetic variation o Gene flow occurs when individuals migrate between populations with different gene frequencies Nonrandom mating affects the relative proportion of homozygotes and heterozygotes in a population o Positive assortative mating: choose mates with similar phenotype. but genetic variation significantly lower than it was before o Founder effect: small group of individuals move to new location.
mole rats have sterile castes. in which adaptive traits generally selected for because they benefit the individual more likely than group selection (in which whole groups selected) o Mutation: mutants that readily use resources for themselves or offspring will be advantaged o Immigration o Individual selection: individuals more likely to be selected against than entire groups o Resource prediction: population size better explained by environment in which individuals try to gain as much resources as they can Apparent altruistic behaviour in nature is often associated with kin selection o Individuals most likely to help out relatives (inclusive fitness) o Kin selection: selection that favours reproductive success of a relative Ex. individuals only help others if Br>C (benefit times the relatedness is greater than cost) Altruism in social insects arise partly from genetics and partly from lifestyle o Eusociality: marked by existence of sterile castes in population some insects give up sex to help queen o Explanation for eusociality may be haplodiploidy: males haploid. male hangingflies present females with nuptial gift. the more likely she will mate with him Ex. and predators tend to attack in periphery
Altruism Altruism: behaviour that benefits others at a cost to oneself In nature..Handicap principle in widowbirds. males do not reproduce because otherwise food source would not be enough to feed entire colony. individual selfish behaviour is more likely than altruism o Individual selection. the bigger the gift. since large herds attract more predators. females like males with longer tails. elephant seals compete to defend their female harems In monogamous mating systems. blood meals in vampires
Mating systems Sexual selection involves mate choice and mate competition o Intersexual selection Ex.. may indicate good genes o Intrasexual selection: females mate with competitively superior mates Ex. females diploid Daughters are more related to each other than to their brothers Altruism can arise in diploid organisms for ecological reasons o Ex. alarm calling in ground squirrels o Hamilton developed a mathematical rule to quantify altruistic behaviours.
.SOS Exam-Aid o Individuals want to hang around centre of herd. males and females are paired for at least one reproductive season o Males and females generally more similar in size and appearance o Monogamy may be explained by. behaviour evolved as result of this niche Unrelated individuals may engage in altruistic acts if altruism is likely to be reciprocated o Ex.
Male widow birds possess long tails. she is only limited by number of males she can find to incubate eggs
Reproductive isolation leading to the formation of new species o Cessation of genetic exchange between populations. A large portion of Elephant seal males die without conceiving Sexual selection leads to dimorphisms between sexes o Males differ in appearance to females. Male peacock feathers make it harder to escape predators o Passing on of genes is not only determined by ability to survive. leads to divergence and evolutionary alterations
Sexual Selection Favouring of certain traits or characteristics due to their appeal to the opposite sex o Sometimes seem to contradict natural selection Ex. but also by the ability to get oneself into the position to pass on the genes Based on the idea that not every male will get its chance to sow its seed o Ex.SOS Exam-Aid
Mate guarding hypothesis: males stay with females to prevent her being fertilized by another male Male assistance hypothesis: males remain with females to help her rear offspring Female-enforced monogamy hypothesis: females stop males from being polygynous In polygynous mating systems. as certain characteristics in males make them more likely for sexual selection Ex. while females do not. the more likely it is that the male will “get lucky” (biologically speaking)
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Barriers between species that prevent the flow of genes o Allow for the separation of organisms into different species Prezygotic Barriers
. one female mates with many males o Role reversal seen o Females productivity is high.e. leks): males all congregate to perform mating display. one male mates with many females o Resource based polygyny: some males dominate resource and mate with more than one visiting female o Harem mating structures: some males defend group of females without commanding resourced based territory o Communal courting (i. females choose best mate In polyandrous mating systems. Studies show that the longer the tale.
Certain flowers can only be pollinated by small bees. Ex. calls etc. day lovers) o Behavioural isolation Required mating rituals. Atlantic versus Pacific Different environments lead to the selection of different traits as optimal
. and are passed on between generations Lead to the differentiation of populations that have none to limited access to each other o Adaptation to the local environment Ex. They are now different species o Genetic drift Random mutations and alterations to allele frequency within a population that occur by chance. which over time develop differently to the point of becoming separate species Most common form of speciation Ex. in order to attract females o Mechanical Isolation Genital organs are not compatible Ex. while other flowers can only give pollen to larger bees. in order to produce mules and hinnys Mules are offspring where the father is a donkey and the mother is a horse Tend to be larger and easier to succeed at breeding Hinnys are offspring where the mother is a donkey and the father s a horse
Forms of Speciation Allopatric Speciation o Geographic barriers isolate a population into two or more groups. scents. o Gametic Isolation Egg and sperm do not recognize each other.SOS Exam-Aid o o
Multiple barriers that prevent mating or fertilization Habitat Isolation Isolated into different geographic areas Preference for different habitat types o Temporal Isolation Differences with mating season Differences with time of activity (nocturnal vs. therefore preventing the line from continuing Issues with meiosis produce inviable gametes o Horse and Donkeys are bred together often. Isthmus of Panama separated two populations of the same species of fish 3. Male Satin Bowerbirds build bowers of twigs. due to differences in molecular recognition signals Postzygotic Barriers o Interruptions that occur after fertilization o Hybrid inviability Embryo dies before birth due to genetic issues o Hybrid sterility Embryo lives but the offspring is unable to reproduce. using bright blue.5 million years ago.
and common phenotypic traits that identify it as being of that category Classification is useful for Providing each animal with a unique name Aiding in memorizing and identification Identifying historical relationships between organisms o Hierarchy of Taxonomy Series of classifications starting at the broad and vague and delving down into the specific Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
. such as wheat o This form of speciation is more likely to produce viable offspring in plants as opposed to animals Can handle major genetic changes with more ease Adaptive Radiation o The differentiation of a single species into a multitude of different species Often due to adaptations to a new environmental feature or a new physiological feature Multiple species radiating from one central ancestor o Ex The adaptive radiation of Cichlid fish since the previously dry Lake Victoria became wet again
Study of the diversity of organisms as well as their interrelationship from an evolutionary standpoint Taxonomy is the bookkeeping portion of systematics o Involves the integration of organisms into categories or taxa Each taxon has an associated name. Occurs within a species Allopolyploid: an organism that features multiple sets of chromosomes from multiple species Common crops are allopolyploids.SOS Exam-Aid
Sympatric Speciation o Differentiation that occurs within a population without geographic isolation Caused predominantly by major genetic changes that occur and quickly create reproductive isolations o Changes in the number of sets of chromosome can cause sympatric speciation Polyploid: an organism with more sets of chromosomes than two Often due to non-disjunction or other issues during meiosis.
in the following format Genus species Note the italics and only genus is capitalized Dead languages.SOS Exam-Aid o
Even within species you can get sub-species. o Agreements between Phylogeny and Taxonomy Categorizing taxa by how well they agree with Phylogenetic trees Monophyletic Taxon: taxon contains a common ancestor as well as all its descendants o This is what all taxa want to be!! o A monophyletic taxon is also known as a Clade Paraphyletic: taxon contains a common ancestor but is missing certain descendents Polyphyletic: contains groups of species with different common ancestors A monophyletic taxon is in agreement with evolutionary data Example: previously. as in they are based mostly on observation. birds are recognized to be of a common ancestor to reptiles o New taxon puts reptiles and birds together. making this new taxon (name?) monophyletic Paraphyletic and Polyphyletic taxons are in disagreement with evolutionary data Example: the dolphin and an extinct species known as the Ichthyosaur were often placed into the same taxon due to supposed similar attributes
. developed by Linnaeus Provides the Genus and Species name. protein. birds were considered to be in a different taxon than reptiles. RNA) o Phylogenetic Trees Pictorially represent the divergence of organisms from common ancestors Common features of a Phylogenetic Tree Nodes: common ancestors to a series of taxa Sister Taxa: Closely related taxa that possess the same ancestry up to the last divergence Polytomy: means “more than one tip” and refers to Nodes that branch off into multiple taxa. such as Latin. are used to name the different taxa so as to keep the categories stable and international Evolutionary Phylogeny o Tracks the development and differentiation of organisms from a common ancestor to their respective positions Done using morphological or genetic homologies Determining common ancestor based on common structure or macromolecular similarity (DNA. o In modern day. or different polymorphic variants Note: All the taxa above species are artificial classifications. The artificial classes are prone to change as our views of biology change o Binomial Nomenclature The accepted form for scientifically titling an organism.
Population Characteristics Population Density o A form of quantitative characterization of a population over space The number of individuals per unit space at a given time
. age etc. temperature etc. regarding ancestry and divergence. but vary greatly between different species o In this way. PCR of that part of the genome can identify one species from another Databases allow for the stockpiling of different organism “barcodes” o Mitochondrial DNA is often barcoded in eukaryotes. as it is relatively conserved within species but varies greatly outside of it o COI gene of the mitochondrial genome Often used for DNA barcoding
Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their respective environment o Studies both biotic and abiotic factors Predators. competitors and prey etc. meaning that this taxon is polyphyletic
Future of Systematics o Molecular systematics uses analysis of biological macromolecules to identify evolutionary data. Rain fall. Molecular clocks Used to measure the time of evolutionary divergences through the occurrence of neutral mutations in the genome Graph is made to analyze differences in nucleotide sequence (or amino acid sequence) between different organisms o Y-axis is differences in nucleotide sequence between the two organisms o X-axis is time since the two organisms diverged By knowing the differences in the macromolecules.SOS Exam-Aid o
BIO 103 Recent data shows them to be descended from completely different common ancestors. Population Ecology is the study of changes in the number of organisms within a population over time and space o Requires information regarding the population size and characteristics Sex composition. soil type. one can see how much time has elapsed since they diverged DNA Barcoding Identification of organisms based on select portions of the genome that are fairly conserved between members of the same species.
Population Dispersion o A form of qualitative characterization of a population over space The distribution of a population within an allotted space o Three forms Clumped Ex. thereby changing the Growth rate expression to r = (b-d) + (i-e) o + r = increasing population size. this rarely happens in the real world May be seen at the beginning of an organisms conquest of new. A population may also have immigration and emigration that affects its population. fertile land Simple Exponential math for population change dN/dt = rN o Where dN/dt is population change o r is growth rate o N is the original population size o Note: Population change can be denoted as dN/dt or ΔN/Δt
. with somewhat equal distances between individuals Random Ex. dandy lions grow wherever their seeds happen to land o Note: Population dispersal is different from Population dispersion Dispersal refers to an active state where a population is expanding outwards from the space they usually inhabit
Population Growth Population growth is affected by four different processes o Natality or birth rate (b) o Mortality or death rate (d) o Immigration or coming on over (i) o Emigration or moving on out (e) o Note: Usually it is assumed that the number of organisms immigrating is equal to that emigrating. Penguin nesting grounds are spread out almost uniformly. meaning that the net difference in population size due to these actions is 0 Growth rate (r) is the rate at which a population increases per capita (or per individual) for a certain length of time o An easier way to think of this is that the growth rate = birth rate – death rate ex. wolf packs aggregate together to form clumps of individuals Uniform Ex. while – r = decreasing population size Intrinsic rate of increase is the maximum positive growth rate a population can undergo with ideal conditions Models of population growth o Exponential Model (J Shaped) Results from the availability of boundless resources and no spatial constraints As you can imagine. If a population experiences 10/1000 births per year (b) and 4/1000 deaths per year (d) the growth rate for that population would be 10/1000 – 4/1000 or 6/1000 per year.
the term on the right grows closer to zero. where it goes to an asymptote 2. both biotic and abiotic Can be both physiological or behavioural o Reproductive strategy is a good example of a Life History Trait Semelparous reproduction
. At this point. Y axis is r (growth rate) and X axis is N (population size) o Negative. as well as the environment The classic example of the Hare and the Lynx Both populations go through an eleven year cycle of increase and decline Lynx is slightly staggered behind Hare The cycles are caused by two factors Predation of Lynx on Hare Availability of food for the Hares
Looking at Life Life History Traits o Darwinian attributes that have arisen in response to environmental factors. making the change in population resemble exponential growth Graphical representation 1. N=K (carrying capacity) True population growth is reflective of the relationships between populations. Y axis is N (population size) and X axis is number of generations o S-shaped o Population size grows until it approaches K.SOS Exam-Aid
BIO 103 Nt+1 = Nt + rNt o Simply adding the change in population (dN/dt) to the original population size (Nt) Graphical representation Y axis is N (population size) while X axis is number of generations J shaped o Population size continues to grow upwards as the number of generations increase Logarithmic Model (S Shaped) Population grows until it hits a carrying capacity (K). or maximum number of organisms that the space is capable of supporting Caused by realistic limitations on resources and space Simple Logarithmic math for population change dN/dt = rN x [(K-N)/N] o As N approaches K. reducing the change in population o At N values close to 0. the term on the right grows closer to one. linear graph o Growth rate starts at maximum when N is low and decreases as N increases Eventually intercepts with the X-axis.
so as to produce multiple offspring over many years o More effort is generally put into raising the young Used by trees. birds etc. with intense food reserves to help in development o Trees are good competitors and can produce large population sizes that dominant an ecosystem. showing the portions of an organism’s life cycle in which it is most vulnerable Can be shown in one of two ways o Y axis is Number of survivors. while X axis is Age
. Survival Patterns o Life Table Used in the study of population dynamics (demography) Statistical study of populations Summarization of vital statistics including: Number of individuals alive within age brackets Number of deaths within age brackets Average age of reproductive maturity Age related survival pattern (Survivorship) Data is taken from a cohort. o Once they reach seed producing age. as they are rate limiting in terms of population growth o Survivorship Curves Graphical representation. the seeds they produce are fewer but larger seeds. Weeds spread fast and grow quickly to reproductive age. so as to produce populations that stabilized close to the carrying capacity (K) o Parental care is high Ex. while X axis is Age o Y axis is Death rate per capita. they are not good competitors and so they usually die out quickly. Trees grow very slowly and require a long time to reach maturity. mammals. K-selected species Are characterized by having a lower growth rate but good survivability. certain plants etc. Iteroparous reproduction A reproductive strategy that spaces out reproductive efforts. fish. o Life History Traits can be generalized into two different subsections r-selected species Are characterized by having a high growth rate (r) but poor survivability o Parental care is minimal Ex. o However. if given the time.SOS Exam-Aid
A reproductive strategy that uses all of the organisms energy in one big reproductive effort Used by insects. or sample group of a population Used to predict future trends in the population Usually only considers females. o They produce lots of small seeds that require nutrients from where they land.
BIO 103 Three common types of survivorship curve Type I o Deaths are prevalent in older ages. different communities can be distinguished by sharp divisions Mostly due to major changes in the biotic or abiotic environment The interface between communities is called an ecotone o More often. interactions with other species and personal abilities to survive in certain abiotic conditions Tolerance ranges define the species compliment of a Community o Sometimes. o Fundamental Niche The potential ecological niche that an organism could inhabit. if no restricting species were present Based solely on abiotic factors of the space provided o Realized Niche The true ecological niche that an organism settles for within a community of interacting species Takes into account biotic factors such as competition and predation
. but uncommon in youth o Iteroparous reproductive strategy Type II o Rate of death is constant throughout all age brackets Type III o Deaths are most prevalent at younger ages. predator/prey etc. and become less so as the organism ages o Semelparous reproductive strategy
A community is a group of different species within a set space that interact and impart change onto each other o Incorporates a series of different populations o Community Ecology is the study of how the different species within a community interact to create a functional existence Tolerance Range o A species will spread itself out within a given space according to its specific tolerance range Dictated by lifecycle characteristics. the divide between communities is not as sharp Caused by gradient changes in the environment Results in the bleeding together of different communities
Interactions between Species Ecological Niche o The role of a particular species within a community Incorporates all biotic and abiotic considerations Ex. habitat. food source.
space etc. but is shaded similarly to a wasp Symbiosis o The co-evolution of species as a result of a close association
. Hornet moth is harmless. Interconnecting roots from multiple trees compete for nutrient uptake Controlled experiment done by Joseph Connell to ascertain the reason for barnacle dispersion at the water front o Competitor Exclusion Principle Two species cannot share the same niche for an indefinite amount of time Eventually one will force the other to adopt a new niche (or die!!) Predation o Prey defenses are stimulated by the ongoing threat of predators Mechanical defences Physiological hardware for defence Safety in numbers Creation of group protection Colouration Cryptic or warning colouration Mimicry o Mimicry has two basic forms Mullerian Mimcry When a form of harmful prey mimics the appearance of another harmful prey Ex. o Two forms of competition Intraspecific Competition occurs within a population Interspecific Competition occurs between populations o Examples of competition Consumptive competition is when organisms compete for the same nutrients Ex.SOS Exam-Aid
Types of Ecological Interactions o Competition Does harm to both parties o Mutualism Benefits both parties o Predation/Parasitism Does harm to one and benefit to the other o Commensalism Benefits one while the other is unaffected o Amensalism Harms one while the other is unaffected Competition o When two or more organisms contend for resources Resources can include food. water. Wasp and bumble bee both have characteristic colouring Batesian Mimcry When benign prey mimics the appearance of harmful prey Ex. shelter.
shifting between the different ecological interactions as time goes on What starts off as parasitism may morph into competition before switching to mutualism and then back again. Star fish predators are keystone species.
. as each species is trying to survive and do so better than the other Occasional truces caused by beneficial relationships occur
Succession A pattern/process that sees the formation and alteration of an ecosystem as time goes by o Mediated by arrival of new species. as both groups are benefiting It’s a God Dammed Arms Race o Relationship between species is fluid. Rock or gravel areas o Secondary Succession Re-formation of a community in an area that experienced trauma such as fire or clear cutting Secondary Succession Walk Through o Starting Space Perhaps an old field. for their absence results in the overpopulation of several types of highly competitive species o Absence of key stone leads to a decline in the variety of species present. changing of the environment and competition o Primary Succession The pioneering of and subsequent alterations to a community in an area not previously inhabited Ex. Treehoppers are small insects that suck sap out of plants for food. o Akin to an arms race. The excess sap that the Treehoppers don’t consume is sometimes consumed by ants. which in turn protect the Treehoppers from spiders A form of mutualism. or burned down forest Foundation for a thriving community exists (AKA soil) o Pioneering Species Short lived weeds invade o Early Successional Community Weeds replaced with longer living grasses o Mid-Successional Community Grasses replaced with shrubs and short lived trees o Late Successional Community Short lived trees mature Long lived trees begin to invade o Climax Community Long lived trees mature Everything is hunky dory!
Keystone Species Species whose presence greatly determines the species composition of a community o Ex.SOS Exam-Aid o
oceans. sediments. phosphorus) which lead to overgrowth of algae and the subsequent depletion of water oxygen levels Pyramids of Biomass and Energyshows how ecosystems are structured o Occur as direct effect of 10% rule o Organisms higher up more prone to extinction Biomagnification: Consequence of food chains is that pollutants concentrate as they move to higher trophic levels o Why is the open ocean biomass pyramid inverted? Most primary producers in ocean are tiny and turnover quickly Biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems o Nutrients cycle in an ecosystem via assimilation.g. Net Primary Productivity: energy available to primary consumers (NPP = GPP. nitrogen. consumption. atmosphere o How humans affect environment Components of ecosystem o Primary producers (autotrophs): organisms that synthesize its own food from inorganic materials o Consumers (secondary producers): can be herbivores or carnivores o Decomposers/detrivores: feed on waste products or remains of other organisms Productivity o GPP.R) R is the energy released from plant cellular respiration NPP lowest in deserts and arctic regions Total productivity takes into account commonness of area Total NPP = NPP per unit area x Area covered by ecosystem type o Terresterial limited by water and temperature o Aquatic limited by nutrients Adding MICROnutrients such as iron to oceans could increase production and help sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide Net secondary production: after metabolism and waste is accounted for Only 10% of energy moves to next level o Eutrophication: caused by excess of macronutrients (e. Gross Primary Productivity: rate at which carbon is fixed during photosynthesis o NPP. and key elements cycle through organisms.SOS Exam-Aid Ecosystem Structure and Function (Lec 8)
Biogeography: environmental and historical factors explain plant and animal distributions Ecosystems: consist of communities of organisms that live in an area and their physical and chemical (abiotic) environments Ecosystem Ecology o energy flows in ecosystem o Carbon. nitrogen. decomposition Nutrients may be exported by migration
absorption of chemicals by living organisms o Geo. low infant mortality. tropical wet forests have almost no litter accumulation Biogeochemical cycles: involve biological. quality of detritus) o Decomposers (saprotrophs) o Ex.transport mechanisms include dissolved matter in rain. Boreal forests have extensive litter accumulation o Ex.age structure generally shows equilibrium o Triangular.weathering and erosion of rocks o Chem. and are now dropping off.SOS Exam-Aid
Factors controlling rate of nutrient cycling o Decomposition rate (regulated by temperature. only cycles locally
Conservation Biology (Lec 9)
All problems in conservation can be traced back to human population growth! (7 billion) o Growth rates peaked at 1965. it’s concentration is rising over time (a lot of this is actually produced by livestock!) o Autotrophs incorporate CO2 into biomass o Decomposition and respiration recycle it back to atmosphere o Human activity (burning fossil fuels are increasing atmospheric CO2 Phosphorus: o No atmospheric component.developing countries (many in the young/reproductive age category) 55
. top heavy age structure. atmospheric gases. but why are we still concerned? Demographic momentum: large number of women yet to go through process of having children Age structure influences population dynamics o Could reach zero population growth by end of 21st century o Industrial revolution caused exponential increase (rare in natural populations) UN growth scenarios o Med= replacement predicts stabilization Human population characteristics o Developed: low birth. chemical. high life expectancy. dust Carbon cycle o CO2 is greenhouse gas. snow. geological transport mechanisms o Bio. higher income o Developing : exact opposite Factors for birth rate decline? o Women’s rights o Social issues Age structure diagrams o Rectangular.
o Females tend to have greater longevity o If population is declining. subject to interference o CITES: governs transport of protected species internationally Types of conservation o In situ is ideal. less people in young age category o Baby boomers “echo” their way up age structure diagrams Biological diversity o Genetic. fragementation o Pollution. dusky seaside sparrow hybridization event with wrong species! Garret Hardin and the Tragedgy of the Commons o Each herdsman. Grizzly bear. in attempts to maximize his own utility will always put more animals in the herd. found each tree had 600 specialized arthropods not found on other trees Cause of declining diversity o Most significant is DEFORESTATION o Habitat loss. invasive species Forest ecosystem surfaces: o Watershed protection o Prevent soil erosion o Climate moderation o Protection from flooding o Wildlife habitat Conservation bio o Studies how humans affect communities o Develop ways to protect diversity MVP= minimum viable population size to ensure 90-95% probability survival between 100 to 1 000 years in the future o Minimum = 50 o Ex. weaker legislation.3% of world’s surface o Erwin and Scott: how many species are there? Fog tree and collect insects. not very viable b/c not enough available habitat Legal Stuff o Endangered Species Act (USA) = Species at Risk Act (Canada). but the effects of overgrazing will soon deplete the resource for everyone o Solutions? Privatization? Shame/honour? War? Treaty?
. conserve within natural habitat o Ex situ: conserve in human controlled settings Ex. ecosystem diversity o Decreasing worldwide: 34 hot spots occupy 2. we need more territory. if we want to support mvp of 500.
. B 3. thereby leading to the depletion of water from his cells. Forcing cells to adhere to the needs of the many. Therefore. d. None of the Above e. The Hydra practices extracellular digestion. 2. while the human does not. this is . . . unlike humans. over the needs of the few . The Hydra digests its food throughout the course of an alimentary canal. this is a bad idea (though tell that to a dehydrated person and see if they care). or the one. A 2. Connective Tissue d. A good idea.
. What is a major difference between how a Hydra digests food compared to a human? a. b. a. All of the above f. None of the above In this case. A good idea. c. Which of the following muscle types is used in the voluntary application of force? a. because he will now experience a hypotonic state c. Finding a way to pass genetic material from nucleoid to nucleoid c. b) and c) Answer Key 1. A bad idea. The Hydra has one orifice for taking in and excreting food. Stratified c. A bad idea. for the influx of water will allow for the continued activity of his cells b. Skeletal b. ewww! e. Cardiac e. a) and c) 2.SOS Exam-Aid Multiple Choice Problems Physiology
1. . Which of the following is not an obstacle to the development of multi-cellular organisms? a. Which of the following tissues does not play a part in the heart? a. d. Cardiac muscle Tissue b. because fish poop in the ocean . because he will now experience a hypertonic state d. None of the above 3. unlike humans. . An old man. The Hydra practices intracellular digestion. the excess salt in the water will raise the salt concentration of his extracellular fluid. Smooth d. . while the human does not. D Digestive System 1. Epithelial Tissue c. decides to drink sea water in order to replenish his loss to the elements. Determining how to keep the cells stuck together b. lost at sea.
All of the above 7. The digestive tract is partially controlled by hormones secreted by the small intestines c. A carnivore. Gastric Juices e. People can be mean to dogs for no good reason b. Necessary for the transport of proteins to the blood stream d. 3. . I am a vertebrate with a very long intestinal track. this creature is . a. Which of the following does not protect against bacterial invasion. The epithelial cells of the digestive tract b. . In scientific terms. a. An autotroph. The absorption of glucose into the epithelial cells e. with no need for any sustenance but the sun d. Bile salts d. Both b) and d) 6. Saliva c. Both b) and c) f. A herbivore. None of the above Answer Key 1. with an affinity for glycogen heavy meats. with an affinity for high cellulose diets. The absorption of glucose into the blood stream d. A stark drop in the amount of sodium within an organism will greatly affect which of the following absorption mechanisms? a. . a lizard is considered cold blooded. via the digestive track? a. Both a) and c) 5. A large green hose in the centre of a stalagmite b. . 6. Used extensively after the consumption of a Crispy Creme donute e. Excretion and Ion Balance 1. 7. regardless of nerves or hormonal factors e. I am most likely . . sporting a large cecum and rounded teeth. The findings of Starling and Bayliss proved that . A ruminant e. . In colloquial terms. All of the above 4.SOS Exam-Aid
3. c. . A part of the lymphatic system c. Ivan Pavlov’s findings were wrong d. The lacteal is . 58
. C A A C F F B
Homeostasis. 2. All of the above f. The absorption of fructose into the epithelial cells b. The pancreas self stimulates. 5. 4. b. . The absorption of amino acids into the epithelial cells c. a. Both b) and d) g.
a. None of the above 2. Both a) and b) are correct f. Base Mediated Reactions d. a. Increase the amount of water being reabsorbed b. The excretion of nitrogenous waste is an example of . Fresh water fish have to concentrate their urine. BMR stands for . Allow for regulation of amount of water reabsorbed c. Nerves around the stomach will send signals to the brain to decrease appetite e. An oddity. None of the above 3. Best Meal evaR b. 4. None of the above 6. Insulin will be released b. An ectotherm d. Both a) and c) e. Fresh water fish are in a Hyperosmotic state b. An evolutionary mistake d. . All of the above Answer Key 1. Base-line Metabolic Reaction c. . A conformer b. Basal Metabolic Rate e. a. . using very little water c. Just to make things more difficult d. After a large meal. 5. A Poikilotherm c. Leptin will stop being secreted by adipose tissue d. Why are aquaporins found in the nephrons. . All of the above e. None of the above 4. which of the following will not occur in your body? a. when most of the nephron tubule is permeable to water? a. Which of the following statements regarding water breathing organisms is true? a. All of the above 5. known as Thermogenesis c. Both a) and c) f. D C D E A D
. An increase in temperature will be felt. Sharks are capable of maintaining an internal salt concentration much higher than that of their environment d. Different mechanisms being employed by different species b. An Obligatory Salt and Water Exchange c. 2. 3. 6. occurring only in mammals e.
Positive. Outward. Inward. If there are equal numbers of positive and negative charges on each side. Interneurons d. At rest. Nervous systems only respond to changes in the external environment 2. Dendrites Axon Cell body Axon Terminals d. Motor neurons c. None of the above 7. The central nervous system (CNS) are all the neurons outside of the PNS c. Negative. cytosol is positively charged relative to extracellular environment b. Cell body c. Axon terminal 3. Sneezing from your allergies d. Afferent neurons e. there is no chemical gradient for K+ b. Which of the following is TRUE about nervous systems? a. the K+ gradients are ____ and the Na+ gradients are____ a. You cannot always distinguish between PNS and CNS in invertebrates d. If K+ are equal on both sides of the membrane. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding membrane potentials? a. Neurons that send signals from the CNS to generate a response are: a. At the resting membrane potential... outward c. Dendrite b. A and D 5. Axon d. The part of the neuron that is responsible for transmitting signals to other cells is called. A neuron with a membrane potential of -100mV is said to be depolarized d. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of a brain and nerve chord b. Cell body Axon Axon Terminals Dendrites 4. positive 8. inward b. there is an electrical gradient
.SOS Exam-Aid Nervous System
1. a. List the correct flow of information through a neuron: a. Sensory neurons b. Which of the following is NOT an example of a reflex arc? a. Getting poked by a paperclip in the eye 6. Dendrites Cell body Axon Axon Terminals c. negative d. The resting potential of a neuron is -50mV c. Axon Cell Body Axon Terminal Dendrites b. Pick the INCORRECT statement about electrochemical gradients: a. Flinching away from a hot kettle c. Kneejerk response b.
Acetylcholine b. Closed. the direction of K+ flow will move towards the right d. The activation of adjacent Na+ channels along the axon e. The neuron to become depolarized b. The direction of the flow of an ion often depends on the combined effect of electrical and chemical gradients The flow of Na+ into the neuron during the action potential causes: a. The neuron to become hyperpolarized c. you make an observation that this alien has really thick neurons. Take some pictures and post it on facebook! The same neurotransmitter can cause excitatory or inhibitory responses in the postsynaptic cell. C and D When the neuronal membrane reaches the peak of its action potential (+30mV).
12. Biogenic amines c.
c. serotonin and epinephrine are examples of which class of neurotransmitters? a. Closed. Gaseous neurotransmitters GABA. Amino acids d. A change in the electrochemical gradient of the neuron d. closed c. Neuropeptides 61
. Neuropeptides e.
10. Stay and fight. True b. if you win perhaps you can dissect it and make your own unique contribution to the field of biology d.
14. Run away as fast as you can. the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Biogenic amines c. A. the alien is likely to move with slow and jerky movements due to a poorly developed nervous system b. this alien has a speedy reaction time! c. the voltage gated Na+ channels are ____ and the voltage-gated K+ channels are ____. Inactivated. open This question pays tribute to my biology professor from first year: You are carelessly wandering the streets when suddenly you encounter a flesh-eating alien! Based on your expansive knowledge of neuronal biology and a very keen eye. False Dopamine. Acetylcholine b. open d. Amino acids d. Take your time and walk away.SOS Exam-Aid
9. Given the premise of the situation you should: a. If more positive charges accumulate on the left side. Open. falls under which class of neurotransmitters? a. closed b. a. a.
13. B and C f.
Activation of the fight or flight response d. Synapses closer to the axon hillock are more effective d. Control skeletal muscles and receive external stimuli b. 19) B (lec 7.
17. Regulate homeostasis and organ function c. 11. one may conclude that: a. 21) A (lec 7. 2. 9. the cat brain is less complex because it has a smaller mass d. 3. Gaseous neurotransmitters Ligand gated ion channels that open in response to a neurotransmitter are known as: a. The cat brain is more complex b. 13. Ionotropic b.SOS Exam-Aid e. 14.
Answer Key: 1. 16. 3) B (lec 7. 15) B (lec 7. 8. 3) B (lec 7. Metabotrophic c. 6) D (lec 7. C (lec 7. 2) D (lec 7.
18. 24) D (945)
. 4. 10. 5) C (lec 7. 9) F (lec 7. 7) A (lec7. If several excitatory synapses are close together and activated at the same time: a. 7. GPCRs d. 15. Depolarization will be larger and spread farther b. 5. Action potential is more likely to surpass +30mV Comparing the brain anatomy of a cat and a chimpanzee. A and C The somatic nervous system has which of the following characteristics? a. 6. 12. The chimpanzee brain has greater surface area in the cerebral cortex c. The chance of triggering an action potential increases c. Activation of the parasympathetic response e. 18) A (lec 7. 20) C (lec 7.
16. None of the above Choose the INCORRECT statement. C and D
15. 8) B (lec 7. 12) C (lec 7.
Will experience no changes in its life history
.SOS Exam-Aid 17. 19) Endocrine System 1. False 5. You will most likely develop osteoporosis 6. c. which of the following is most likely to happen? a. a. Receptor activity is dependent on hormone concentration 3. Cortisol – Adrenal Cortex
4. Antidiuretic hormone decreases blood solute concentration by reabsorbing water from the kidneys b. More Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) is secreted. which causes more Ca2+ to be absorbed from the intestine and mineralized into bone b. None of the above 7. which causes more Ca2+ to be released from bone c. An insect that expresses juvenile hormone at constant levels throughout life… a. Antidiuretic Hormone – Posterior Pituitary c. Which of the following is FALSE about hormone receptors? a. Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorbtion in the kidneys. 15) 18. Oxytocin – Anterior Pituitary d. A (lec 8. Epinephrine – Amines d. Find the INCORRECT gland-system match up. True b. which causes less Ca2+ to be released from bone d. The difference between a neurohormone and a neurotransmitter is that neurohormones are released into the capillary. Choose the INCORRECT statement about Na+ regulation. D (lec 8. Less PTH is secreted. Intracellular hormones bind non-covalently with the receptor c. More PTH is secreted. Cortisol – Steroids 2. Glucagon – Alpha cells in the Islets of Langerhans e. Glucagon – Proteins/peptides c. Experiences more frequent moulting c. Will experience faster pupation b. The calcium level in your blood drops. a. Which hormone class is INCORRECTLY matched with its class? a. a. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) – Anterior Pituitary Gland b. Never reaches reproductive maturity d. Atrial naturetic peptide decreases sodium reabsorbtion in the kidneys d. Only cells with an appropriate receptor can respond to the hormone b. Testosterone – Amines b. The same hormone can perform more than one action d.
Anterior pituitary hypothalamus ecdysone b.15) Muscle Structure 1. F 2. Expose myosin binding sites on thin filaments d. B 5. fast oxidative b. B and D 2. Cause change in myosin so it detaches from actin b. Provide energy necessary for movement of cross bridge c. B 3. Which of the following muscle types are considered voluntary? a. D 7. B
. D (lec 10. Smooth muscles b. A long distance marathon runner is making efficient use of ______ muscle fibres. Skeletal muscles e. Slow glycolytic.SOS Exam-Aid
8. while a sprinter is using _____ muscle fibres. Bind to tropomyosin e. Striated muscles c. B 3. A and C
Answer Key: 1. What is the function of calcium ions in skeletal muscle contraction? a. B (1096) 6. C 4. fast glycolytic c. A 2. Slow oxidative. Which of the following shows the CORRECT pathway for hormonal control of development in vertebrates? a. A and C f. C 8. slow oxidative d. Posterior pituitary growth hormone IGF-1 d. Anterior pituitary growth hormone liver IGF-1 Answer Key: 1. Fast glycolytic. a. Cardiac muscle d. Anterior pituitary liver IGF1 c. Fast oxidative. slow glycolytic 3.
If the body detects that the blood pressure level is too high within the blood vessels. As such. This is why veins have one way flaps. What is(are) the major difference between the amphibian circulatory system and ours? a. Both a) and b) e. O2 and CO2 d. None of the above 7. to prevent blood from simply flowing back down the vein! 5. Human lungs
. Reduce the stroke volume\ d. its return to the heart is slower and gravity may cause it to slow and accumulate in certain areas. All of the above e. in order to facilitate the influx of CO2 for excretion purposes. Which of the following forms of respiration are not Flow Through models? a. a. The excitation of the atriums of the heart is done via the SA node. A collection of blood in the veins. To prevent major increases or decreases in temperature b. All of the above 6. Both b) and c) g. which is known as the Diastole. Different number of atriums e. To prevent bacterial growth c. Different number of hearts b. what are some ways in which this can be remedied? a. due to gravity d. Reduce the rate of heart beats c. A loss of smooth muscle in the arteries b. Reduce the diameter of the blood vessels b. Different number of ventricules c. Water c. Both a) and b) 2. A collection of hemolymph in the veins. A hyper-extension of capillaries The blood in veins is under low pressure. due to gravity c. . Both b) and d) f. False 4. The insect open circulatory system is used to transport . True b. Both b) and c) e.SOS Exam-Aid
Circulatory and Respiratory Systems 1. Different number of oxygen receiving sites d. a. To allow for the diffusion of gases d. Why are the surfaces of respiratory organs usually moist? a. during the second beat of the cycle. All of the above h. Varicose veins arise at bend points in the body due to which of the following? a. None of the above 3. . Digested food b.
That red puffiness that appears around a wound after it happens d. 3. Other cops do things 66
. 5. Some of these cops are a part of the K-9 unit. If a disease managed to destroy the MHC I protein on the surface of a cell it infected. Macrophages c. save for a trans-membrane domain in the B cell antigen receptor b. Alveoli stagnancy Answer Key 1. 6. All of these criminals are part of the same organized crime ring. The police chief then selectively activates members of the police force. Mucous lining of nasal passage b. it would specifically hinder what form of Immune Response a. 4. Cell Mediated Response d. Part of the same family of proteins as the T cell antigen receptors d. Both a) and d) f.SOS Exam-Aid b. Counter current. Counter current. Bird lungs d. None of the above 2. Both a) and d) f. A snitch for the cops attacks one of the criminals. None of the above 8. Alveoli stagnancy. specially equipped to handle these criminals. E F B B D C E C
Immunity and Defense 1. All of the Above 4. 2. Counter current b. reasonably contained city. Cross current c. Which of the following is not a form of non-specific immunity? a. Both a part of the Immunoglobulin family of proteins c. Identical. Cross current. Hummoral Response c. Counter current. and use dogs drawn to that specific logo in order to get a hold of the criminals. which can be identified through their logo (an upside down Y). a. Alveoli stagnancy d. and takes the logo to the police chief. 7. Cross current. Alveoli stagnancy. Innate Response b. 8. . Fish gills c. Specific for the same antigen e. Let me tell you a tale. A group of criminals is on the loose in a small. Cross current. What is the order of most efficient to least efficient gas exchange model? a. . Amphibian lungs e. Antibodies and B cell antigen receptors are . All but c) 3. A Behavioural Fever e.
Which of the following ailments is not related to the immune system? a. Plasma cell and anti-bodies. Poison. and perform raids on buildings that display the logo openly. Lymphocyte. All of the above d. The changes are not heritable e. True b. while T cells mature in the Thymus gland a. AIDS b. What are the characters in this story (criminals. There is no variation in phenotype b. Effector Cell b. say their earthworm cousins that possess no teeth. evolution cannot occur because there is no variation in phenotype c. raiders)? a. There are an excess of bees. Alice decides to paint her roses pink because it seems to be the most desirable flower colour among bees. and is more likely to receive pollination visits as a result. so flowers are not competing for limited resources c. T Cell. because this new colour makes the roses more “fit” 2. No. Pathogen. K-9 unit. snitch. B cell. police chief. However.SOS Exam-Aid
the old fashion way. 5. Roses have low reproductive potential d.e. False 6. E F C C A D
Evolution and Diversity 1. Cytotoxic T cell. Phagocytes. German Shepards. Yes. None of the above Answer Key 1. No. 4. Flight occurred in both insects and birds. 5. All the worms possess tiny teeth-like projections that enable them to hold on to their hosts more effectively than. 3. Helper T Cell. Alice’s roses will not evolve. 2. B cells mature in the bone marrow. Which of the following is does NOT provide evidence supporting evolution? a. more teeth is obviously more advantageous for worms to attach to their hosts than having no teeth at all b. Transplant rejection c. Macrophage. Will this population of parasitic worms evolve? a.
. individuals are not competing for limited resources e. The roses will evolve. Memory Cell. B and C 3. T Cell. Bacteria. all of members are clones of each other). A small population of parasitic worms reproduce asexually (i. why? a. 6. Cytotoxic T cell d. Plasma Cell. No. Macrophage c. Helper T Cell. Pathogen. evolution cannot occur because no individual is more “fit” than the other d.
3. aardvark. Fossil evidence shows that Earth is very old and how organisms progress from unicellular organisms to organisms we see today c. decreases the number of heterozygotes in the population d. Which of the following is NOT true about inbreeding? a. there is no clear explanation why they are similar b. A. does not affect allele frequencies b. Jumping genes and crossing over during meiosis d.g.SOS Exam-Aid
b. Structural and functional similarities occur as a result of pure coincidence. the benefits are long term rather than immediate e. decreases the number of homozygotes in the population c. results in lower fitness of an organism e. Sexual populations can be quickly replaced by clonal females c. cabbage. Developmental homology show similar embryonic origins between species of animals. Which of the following is an ultimate explanation for the structural and functional similarities we see in different ant-eating species of mammals (e. pangolin)? a. 4. Sexual populations are subject to infections from mating partner b. d. the mode of feeding required specializations such as a long tongue and pointy snout Answer Key: 1. None of the above 2. Genetic variation in populations is caused by: a. B 2. anteater. Structural and functional similarities are a result of convergent evolution. Sex is too costly. Ratite birds can be found in different parts of the world. Mutation and recombination by sexual reproduction c. brussel sprouts) e. Artificial selection in the plant Brassica can produce various the various vegetables we see in grocery stores today (e. E Population Genetics 1.g. exposes deleterious recessive alleles
. broccoli. 4. Why is sexual reproduction considered an “unsolved problem for evolutionary biology”? a. Mutation and gene shuffling b. B and D Answer Key: 1. 2. Sex maintains genetic diversity in a population d. D E A B
Variation and Natural Selection 1.
medium beaks are favoured d. some lemmings decide to jump off a cliff to reduce competition within the population b. scientists found that the average beak size varied greatly over several years. disruptive c. This is an example of: a. Of the original population. unbanded lake Erie water snakes are less conspicuous to predators and have a higher reproductive fitness than their banded cousins d. stabilizing b. el nino events that occur every 5 years favours smaller phenotype b. and of the remaining survivors. A and B Answer Key:
. none of the above 6. the painted flowers seem to have higher pollination visits. only 20 survivors remain. in an environment with limited food resources. large beaks are favoured c. Which of the following statements best exemplifies natural selection? a. the founder effect c. selection pressure changes over time. clonal propagation 3. one was homozygous recessive for a rare phenotype known as "cloudy eye. A large population of salamanders has been affected by a huge forest fire. However. What type of selection is this? a." Several generations later. large and small beaks are favoured e. working in opposing directions c. What is the predicted change in beak length in the population of the seed crackers over time? a. this is an example of bottlenecking since birds migrate between islands on the Galapagos d. random mating e. the mean beak size in the population increased because large beaked individuals had greater access to the seeds on the island. genetic drift b. After a drought year on Daphne Major. giraffes obtain longer necks by stretching it over time to reach higher leaves 4. Alice paints flowers for the Red Queen. Studies on baby weight in England in the 1950's show that very small and very large babies had higher mortality rates. gene flow d. A population of black-bellied seed crackers undergoes disruptive selection for beak length. but 80% of the new population display the "cloudy eye" phenotype.SOS Exam-Aid
2. therefore a higher fitness c. Why was the increase in mean beak size not continuous? a. the salamander population is restored back to it's original size. positive 5. small beaks are favoured b. directional d.
Lifestyle behaviours related to ecology 3. Postzygotic Isolation
. Polygamy c. Hamilton’s theory of kin selection suggests that altruistic behaviours in a population can spread if the altruistic behaviour of an individual could increase the reproductive behaviour of: a. a. Some traits that are selected for (e. males compete for mates Answers: 1. The first asks politely if he can buy the girl a drink. C 3. Intrasexual selection involves competition amongst individuals of the same sex for mates d. Relatives d. Species in which sexual selection exist are often dimorphic. while the second throws her a Powerade and says “You are welcome”. 2. C 4. Females are always the choosier sex. 5. Monogamy b. Youngest individuals of the group 4. . This is an example of . A 2. Females only c. Obviously. Eusocial behaviour in insects may be explained by: a. 6.SOS Exam-Aid 1. D Speciation 1. B B C A D D
Behavioural Ecology 1. Social structure of the insect colony c. Which of the following is FALSE about sexual selection? a. Which type of mating system would you expect to find males and females of similar size and appearance? a. Polyandry d. All members of the group b. Two guys walk up to a girl in a bar. 4. 3. Polygyny 2. Nest building behaviour b.g. females and males have different appearances b. . Haplodiploid genetics d. Nonrelatives e. the former receives a more positive reaction. peacock’s tail) do nothing to increase the fitness of the organism c.
For the Logarithmic Model of population growth. Population Ecology d. DNA Barcoding is a molecular technique that is used to aid in which branch of Systematics? a. Allopatric speciation c. such as that which contains both the dolphin and the Ichthyosaur d. B 2. a. Evolutionary Phylogeny b. A 3. A 2. Mechanical Isolation d. Behavioural Isolation c. In agreement with evolutionary data b. a. Class comes after Phylum but before Family (going from least specific to most specific). The value of dN/dt approaches 1
. . The amount of growth in a population increases b. A Monophyletic taxon is . Their population growth model resembles a J b. Sudden genetic alterations that create reproductive barriers within a population can lead to what type of speciation? a. the change in population for a certain amount of time is given as dN/dt = rN x [(K-N)/N]. Habitual Isolation 2.SOS Exam-Aid
b. a. . True b. Their growth rate is a negative number c. None of the Above Answer Key 1. None of the Above 2. . As the population grows and approaches K. what happens? a. Hide and Seek Answer Key 1. Taxonomy c. None of the Above 3. as it contains species from different common ancestors c. B Population and Community Ecology 1. A Systematics 1. The population can continue to expand for forever d. Sympatric speciation b. . A taxon. Broken. When animals first enter a new environment and do very well . Sinusoidal speciation d. False 2.
Vince begins to lose his place in the group and issues arise from the duality. Males are not as prevalent in most populations c. False 6. Males are generally harder to find b. 6. All of the above 5. 5. a. False Answer Key 1. How my lab partner Jane behaves in lab e. . Survivability b. A C B C B C C
. All of the above f. wears the same coloured clothing and alters his hair to match Vince’s. Iterparous reproduction b. Parasitism c. True b. books a room and gets people to attend a large number of different clubs about campus. This effort tires her out. Both a) and c) 3. 7. . A moose walking on an ant hill would be an example of . The number of males in a population is not rate limiting d.SOS Exam-Aid
c. The value of dN/dt approaches 0 d. and so she doesn’t attend any of the clubs and most of her clubs don’t last very long. Predation 7. . A young Queen’s Student named Jane decides that she needs to be more pro-active and proceeds to start a lot of clubs. She fills out the paper work. 4. True b. Tolerance Range c. Semelparous reproduction c. This form of club forming is similar to . 2. Why do Life Table’s usually only look at the females in a species? a. In one episode of Recess. An Arms Race 8. a. A fundamental niche is limited primarily by biotic factors. . Amensalism d. This is an example of what principle? a. None of the above 4. a. As the episode progresses. 3. Mickey decides that he wants to be more like Vince and so he becomes extremely good at sports (quite inexplicably). Competition b. The amount of births in the population has increased e. Competitor Exclusion Principle d. Type II Survivability d. Both secondary and primary succession require a pioneering species in order to get the ball rolling a.
Eutrophication 2. Herbivores/primary producers are most abundant d. iron c. Smaller number of carnivores in an ecosystem c. Temperature. rainfall b. Sunlight. 10% rule of energy transfer b. A Ecosystem and Function 1. All of the above Answers: 1. Prevent soil erosion d. nutrients d. Which two are major limiting factors to productivity of terrestrial ecosystems? a. The “typical” biomass pyramids can be explained by: a. B
. D Conservation Biology 1. Pollution b. Increased carbon dioxide output into the atmosphere c.SOS Exam-Aid 8. Deforestation d. C 2. Watershed protection b. nitrogen 2. Rainfall. The most significant cause of decline in biodiversity is caused by: a. A 2. Which of the following is NOT a service provided by forests? a. Filtering air c. Climate moderation Answers: 1. Phosphorus.