Assignment #3 Strategic Plan (Team Project) Create a Library

Dr. Benjamin Speller LIBR204-17

Keith Kutscher - Tim Trevathan San Jose State University – M.L.I.S. Program Fall 2008


Table of Contents

Group Library’s Name……………………………………………………………….1 Context of Environment……………………………………………………………...A Three Year Strategic Plan Mission Statement……………………………………………………………………2 Services and Programs……………………………………………………………...3 • • • • • • Collection Characteristics

Three Year Strategic Plan……………………………………………………………6 Overview Needs Assessment Goals-Outcomes Goals-Programs-Timeframe-Measures

Budget…………………………………………………………………………………14 Appendixes: (Tabbed) Appendix ‘A’ - Strategic Planning Process..……………………………………….29 Appendix ‘B’ - Review of Information Collected……………………………………31 Appendix ‘C’ - Organizational Chart…………………………………………………33 Appendix ‘D’ - Staffing & Scheduling………………………………………………..35 Appendix ‘E’ - Hours of Operation……………………………………………….…..36 Appendix ‘F’ - Management Style……………………………………………………41 Appendix ‘G’ - Budget and Planning Highlights……………………………………49 Appendix ‘H’ – 2008 Public Library Budget Planning Document…………………65 Appendix ‘I’ – Calculate the Value of Services Used at your Local Library….….71 Appendix ‘J’ – Budget Case Example # 3: Congressional Library Budget…..…72


The Vogl Public Library located in Sierra California was designed to inspire and develop innovative thought. The concept was contracted and implemented through a collaboration of architects Frank Gehry and Michael Jantzen using eco-friendly materials. The process included solar power ceilings to power the building, natural desert plants to reduce water consumption, and recyclable building materials. We took on this project to show that libraries of the 22nd centuries will have to come up with new ways of attracting clients with interesting ideas, our building is one way in which to grab your imagination. Our facility is visited by an average of more than 50,000 people each month and our goal is to keep them coming back for more with our programs. One of the first steps to keep people returning is to have an adequate parking structure. Since the Vogl Public Library is located in the heart of downtown, the Parking Enforcement section of Public Works patrols and monitors the patron parking lot. Our structure can hold up to 120 cars at any given time giving ample space for visitors. For security, Parking Enforcement personnel enforce a three hour time limit for the lot. If additional time is needed see a parking attendant or call 792-606-1101. Please contact Parking Enforcement for further information regarding the parking lot, citations, or the appeals policy at 792-606-1101.

Mission Statement
The Vogl Public Library is focused on providing responsive, dynamic service that meets the changing informational needs of a diverse population. Through a trained, service-orientated staff, partnerships, and ready access to both print and electronic resources, the library is committed to superior service that promotes a strong, literate community and enhances the quality of life. We envision a community where every person has the opportunity to reach his or her own full potential in an economically strong community which values family, diversity, and cooperation.


Services and Programs

Children's Programs Infant and Toddler Story times on Tuesdays. (Pre-registration required for Infant and Toddler Story times. Preschool Films Fridays at 10:00 a.m. Family Story time Saturdays at 10:00 a.m. For special events, pre-registration and holiday programs call 792-606-1100. Captioned Films All films in this series are captioned for the hearing-impaired, and are shown free of charge at 1:00 p.m. in the Jantzen Auditorium. Service to the Home based This program is designed to provide library materials to anyone who is a resident of Sierra and is confined to their homes or convalescent centers due to illness, injury or disability. For more detail call 792-606-1100. Volunteer Program The Volunteer Program gives interested individuals an opportunity to serve the community in a variety of categories, assisting library staff or the general public. If interested, applications are available at the circulation desk. Complete the application and return it to the manager. For more information call 792-606-1100. Central Grounds The East Patio area has been remodeled into a place for people to relax and enjoy food and drink, in our new coffee shop. Hot and cold drinks, sandwiches, salads and pastries are all available for purchase. Computers at the Library The Library has a wide variety of computers and computerized resources available to our patrons on a regular basis. Except as noted, the computers are available free of charge for a limited amount of time per day, but there are fees for printing, in most cases 10 cents per page printed. Take advantage of our newly implemented program SOCIAL NETWORKING!!! Why use those other brands when you can relate to those in the library world. Share stories of books read, create your own book club, blog about your favorite library, and more. The best part of library social networking is it’s free. Just ask one of our employees about this new and exciting endeavor. Jantzen Auditorium The Auditorium accommodates 142 people, with 35 additional seats available on request. Priority for auditorium use is given first to Library sponsored events, second to City-sponsored events and third to Sierra based groups. All others will be given consideration on a first-come/first served basis. The Library reserves the right to preempt any event for library or City-sponsored event. Call 792-606-1100 on Tuesdays or Thursdays only to reserve the auditorium and to learn about


Library policies about using this or other library meeting rooms. For a schedule of events in the auditorium, you can visit our library calendar Children's Wing Previously known as the Peter Pan Room and later the Boys and Girls Room, the Children's Wing was dedicated on April 21, 2009 as the Imagination Unveiled Room. Collection

With more than 400,000 books, magazines, CDs, DVDs and videos for children and their parents, the collection is a treasure trove of bestsellers, popular reading and classic books, nonfiction books for homework and research reports, and an extensive folktale collection (over 2,000 volumes) arranged by country of origin. Spanish language books are also available. The library collection offers a broad choice of circulating print and non-print materials aimed at meeting the informational needs of the community. The Library has strong general reference, business, and local history and periodicals collections. A high priority is placed on acquiring information and resources about Sierra, past and present. The Library is a 25% depository for United States documents, and a partial depository for State of California documents. City of (?) reports, agendas, and minutes of boards and commissions are available for public review at the library. The collection contains electronic resources including access to the Internet, CD-ROMs and Information Access Company's InfoTrac periodical and newspaper indexes. For more information, call 792-606-1100. Computer Resources Four computer workstations with educational computer games, as well as access to online databases for children and live homework help online tutoring are available. The Peek-a-Book station gives short read-alouds for recommended picture storybooks for preschoolers. Services and Programs Reference and reader's advisory services are available at the children's room desk all hours that the library is open. Story times for babies, toddlers and preschoolers are presented weekly (registration is required for the baby and toddler story times). Each month during the school year, approximately 35 classes from local schools visit the Children's Wing for literature-based programs, browsing and checking out books. In FY 2005/2008, the Vogl Public Library Children's


Room conducted 452 programs for children with 14,755 in attendance. Of these, 183 were class visits with 3,880 in attendance. Library Characteristics Vogl Public Library Characteristics Opened/Expanded Building Size (Sq. Ft.) Meeting Room Seats Parking Spaces Collection 2008 130,000 142 120 343,591 Use Statistics Fiscal Year Total Total Circulation Visitors 648,201 642,864 645,351 666,231 652,223

2008/2009 790,190 2009/2003 824,122 2003/2004 851,882 2004/2005 969,484 2005/2008 902,484

Three Year Strategic Plan


Overview The Vogl Public Library serves the information needs of the city of Sierra and its neighbors. As a public library, an important role of the library is to provide professional and courteous support. The Vogl Public Library has historically used state and private funding to support its programs. Keith Kutscher and Tim Trevathan have chosen to rigorously evaluate the 2009-2012 fiscal years. Through evaluation and planning process, the consensus is that there is not one answer to provide excellent service. After reflecting on how to ready librarians for the near future, the Vogl Public Library staff believes that the best course of action is to equip librarians with the skills and resources to identify, assess and address the needs of today and tomorrow, thereby expanding their capacity to be responsive leaders in shaping the future of their Sierra community. This is the primary focus of this three year strategic plan. As evident from the following report, the conclusions were reached after significant research. There are three forces impacting the United States: “substantial disparities in skill levels; seismic economy changes; and sweeping demographic shifts” This was taken from a report in 2007 titled Americas Perfect Storm. Sierra will grow an estimated 45,000 citizens by 2012 according to the US Census Bureau. This means that Sierra librarians are faced with a broad range of social, educational and economic challenges. Libraries face dramatic shifts in service areas and customer expectations, along with the challenge of developing and maintaining services that are responsive to changing communities. This report focuses on needs of the community through assessment. The information is organized around four questions: 1. How do individuals look for information? 2. How do individuals view the role of the public library 3. What do Sierra librarians think of the Vogl Public Library? 4. What do legislators think of their library service? Also conducted was a public opinion survey conducted by a blind agency. The survey found that in general, the Sierra community had a positive view of their public library. But along those lines many agreed that public libraries are becoming irrelevant since people can find almost anything they need on-line. Based on research, the strategic plan identifies three primary areas of need and four goals. The goals will be achieved with a mix of targeted initiatives and competitive grants. The goals are broad in nature to provide flexibility for creative community response and leveraging local funds. Needs

1. Online Access: This addresses the needs for all age groups to be aware of, access and 2. 3.
Goals successfully use digital resources for school, work, or personal enrichment. Training and Support: This addresses professional development, direction and support for librarians and library staff to maintain the knowledge and skills required to serve effectively in the 21st century. Historical Experiences: This addresses the need for communities to view historical accomplishments in the context of current achievements, while creating community relationships for future success.

1. Connections: The Sierra community will view the library as a trusted, knowledgeable,
easy access source of information.

2. Customer Experience: The Vogl Public Library will offer virtual and physical customer
experiences to enhance the user’s ability to find and use information and services available to them.


3. Community Response: Sierra and surrounding communities will recognize that library 4.
staff has the ability to participate in assessing community needs, identifying resources and planning to address the needs of its community. Collaboration: The Vogl Public Library will use partnerships and collaboration with various types of libraries and cultural institutions to extend services, reach new audiences, and to better serve its growing community.

Needs Assessment
In the U.S. and in California, the growth of human capital and its distribution is shifting in the wrong direction creating significant gaps. Job growth, requiring increased education and skill levels, is being matched against declining literacy and numeric levels in the working age population. The city of Sierra has a population of 133,701 which makes it the 160th largest city in the U.S. The city is an affluent city in Los Angeles County. It ranks as the 55th most expensive city to live in within California with a median home sale price of $700,000. The small community of Sierra’s racial make-up consists of: 49 percent White, 31 percent Hispanic of any origin, 8 percent African American, 7 percent Asian, and 5 percent Pacific Islander. The median income per household is $86,000 and the median income per family is $73,000. Sierra retains a high profile image throughout Southern California due to its broad economic base, noted cultural, scientific, educational institutions, and shopping and dinning establishments that attract customers from the region. This along with the exciting eco-friendly, state of the art, Vogl Public Library, a prominence is enjoyed by few other cities in the Los Angeles area. The three year strategic plan addresses the needs identified from public opinion, surveys, consultant reports and other data gathered over a six month period in Sierra California. The following ideas consistently arose as needs, perceptions, or issues to be addressed by this plan.

Assessments 1. How do individuals look for information? a. Use multiple sources b. Use on-line access, sometimes as the first and only choice c. Ask a colleague, friend, or other d. Check print sources 2. How do individuals view the role of the public library? a. A place to find books and “out of print” material b. A place to find “popular” reading material c. Internet access d. A meeting place, sometimes even a community center in rural towns e. Key source for new material in technology f. A place to learn how to research and use databases g. A place that serves all ages based on community need h. A place for equal access i. A place where convenience is expected 3. What do Sierra librarians think of the Vogl Public Library? a. It needs to be relevant and central to the community b. Library staff needs training on how to best serve their community c. It needs to keep up with electronic resources and equipment d. School librarians want to participate more in public libraries e. Academic librarians want to be more involved with public libraries f. Customer service is amazing


4. What do legislators think of their library service? a. Progress is being made with the link between education and libraries b. Customer service rated excellent c. A true resource and a leader in the 21st century. Public Opinion Survey The University of Southern California conducted a survey of the Sierra community and its surrounding cities in the spring of 2008. A random sample of 1,679 citizens participated in the survey. The surveys found that the public views the importance of the public library and were positive about services rendered. The information revealed: • 95 percent agree that public libraries are needed because they provide free service and information • 90 percent agree that public libraries are essential for maintaining a productive community • 61 percent have a Vogl Public Library card • An average of ten visits to the library per year • An average of three on-line visits per year. Despite these positive findings, 40 percent of those surveyed agreed that the library is becoming irrelevant since people can find almost anything they need on-line. These perceptions are important for the three year strategic plan.

Goals - Outcomes



Goals – Programs – Measures – Timeframe

Goals – Programs – Measures – Timeframe Continued



Goals – Programs – Measures – Timeframe Continued


Goals – Programs – Measures – Timeframe Continued

Strategic Plan Developed with the help of the following sites: * * * * * *


Budget and Planning Highlights
 The budget for Vogl Library is allocated similarly as most major library systems. Typically, up to 25% of the budget goes to pay for library staff, support and services. Another 25% goes to information technology enhancements, primarily the acquisition of new storage devices to meet with the exploding demand for new rich media that uses up a lot of storage space. Components of IT are air conditioning, servers, support staff, technician training and per diem expenses related to travel to location(s) for repair, maintenance and some physical upgrades. The last half of the budget is split between circulation expenses that include physical resources as well as electronic resources. New programs, library physical structure maintenance and operational considerations use up the last 25%. The budget problem: at once chronic and acute  For over a decade, the cost of building library collections is rising faster than collections budgets. This largely is due to the annual rate of inflation on library materials. It is due, as well, to a burgeoning of new information — to a dramatic rise in the number and specialization of journals, the availability of full text and searchable electronic versions of items we previously only had in print, and the emergence of new genres of digital content. In more recent years, we have also seen a dramatic decline in the value of the U.S. dollar that has further eroded our ability to acquire access to materials that our researchers need. • Through its more than 2,200 computers, the VOGL provides more than five million hours of free public access. Across the city, computers are in use from the time libraries open until they close. Computer use is especially heavy during after-school hours and on weekends. All VOGL libraries are wireless hubs; there are more than 22,000 wireless connections to the Internet per month through these hubs. Vogl's web site has more than 110 million “hits” per year. Vogl’s subscription databases are accessed over one million times per year. There are more than 600,000 hits on Teen Web per year and over 300,000 hits on the Adult Literacy site, and nearly seven million hits on the Kids’ Path site. Annual Budget, Percentage of Earned Income and Staff The Vogl Library Foundation’s annual budget for 2008-09: $5,375,000. 23% is for staff. -0- Earned Income. 

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Media Type Print (books, journals, manuscripts, microforms, analog media, etc.) Digital (Vogl) Digital (Vogl consortia)

Amount Spent

$8,091,000 $1,366,993 $2,899,879

Disciplinary Support

Vogl collection dollars are committed as efficiently as possible to support the broad range of academic programs. The funds are managed by over 45 subject specialists with annual allocations to cover journals, books, and electronic resources. In 2008, funds covering print books, journals and special collections were expended between Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences and the Sciences as reflected in the following graph:

In 2008, funds covering access to digital resources (e-journals, databases, e-book packages, etc) were expended across the disciplinary groups as reflected in the following graph:


Budgetary Pressures During the past six years the collections budget has maintained a fairly steady division of expenditures between continuing commitments (subscriptions to journals, newspapers, databases and monographic series) and one-time purchases (books, special collections, etc.).

The impact of continuing commitments can be contrasted with those at peer institutions according to the latest Associate for Research Libraries data on serial vs. monograph expenditures. Percentage of (2005) Collection Dollars:
Institution Columbia Harvard Illinois Texas Vogl LIBRARYLA Serials 59% 37% 73% 60% 65% 56% Monographs 41% 63% 27% 40% 35% 44%


E-Journal Usage One indicator of a journal title's utility is how often it is used. The Library is building a directory of usage statistics for over thirty publisher packages. Information Explosion The amount of material that is available for purchase has increased faster than library's ability to purchase. (Table courtesy of Mary Case, ARL, Director — Office of Scholarly Communication.)
Year 1986 2009 Serials Published as reported by Ulrich's 103,700 164,000

The percentage change: 58%. Another shift in journal publishing is the growing number of titles that are available online:

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compare 27,083 titles in 2007(Ulrich's) To 110 titles reported in 1991(Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and Academic Discussion Lists, ARL).

Book publishing shows a similar dramatic increase in volume: • "According to figures from UNESCO, over 850,000 books were published worldwide in 1996. Data from the top 15 producing countries reveals that book production increased 50% between 1985 and 1996." (Mary Case, ARL)


The costs of library materials have fluctuated dramatically over the last 10 years, to the detriment of the purchasing power of library budgets. As unit prices for serials and monographs have soared well above the CPI, library budgets have not even kept up with inflation. A table from the Association for Research Libraries (PDF) shows that, between 1986 and 2005    The consumer price index increased by 78%. Monograph unit costs increased 81%, library expenditures for monographs increased 59% and actual numbers of monographs purchased actually decreased 7%. Serials unit costs increased by 167%, library expenditures for serials increased a whopping 302% and actual numbers of serials purchased increased by only 42%.


Sample journal prices (courtesy of Mary Case, ARL, Director — Office of Scholarly Communication)
Journal Title Brain Research Biochem. Bio-phys. Acta Chem. Phys. Letters Tetrahedron Letters Eur. Jrnl. of Pharmacology Gene Inorganica Chim. Acta Intl. Jrnl. of Pharmaceutics Neuroscience Theoretical Computer Science Jrnl. of Exp. Marine Bio. and Eco. 1995 $10,181 $7,555 $5,279 $5,119 $4,576 $3,924 $3,611 $3,006 $3,487 $2,774 $1,947 2008 $17,444 $12,127 $9,637 $9,036 $7,889 $7,443 $6,726 $5,965 $6,270 $4,608 $3,501 % Change 71.3% 60.5% 82.6% 76.5% 72.4% 89.7% 86.3% 98.4% 79.8% 66.1% 79.8%

Price increases aren't only dramatic in the Sciences (from Library Journal, courtesy of Mary Case, ARL, Director — Office of Scholarly Communication).
% INCREASE IN PRICES 1996-2000 SELECTED SUBJECTS Subject Military and Naval Science Business and Economics Sociology Technology Engineering Political Science Education Health Sciences Biology Psychology Chemistry Physics % Increase 74.5% 56.9% 49.5% 49.1% 48.9% 46.9% 45.0% 44.3% 44.1% 43.8% 39.4% 35.8%


Mathematics and Computer Science Anthropology Law History Music Philosophy and Religion Language and Literature Art and Architecture

35.6% 34.9% 31.2% 25.5% 23.7% 21.2% 16.9% 7.8%

"Prepare for sticker shock if you're headed for the journal shelves in the Science Library. Dangling red tags are marking periodicals that have one-year subscription rates of $1,000 or higher. Some rates, such as the $19,396 for Nuclear Physics A and B, match the cost of a new midsize car. Relatively lower rates, such as $4,159.13 for Neuroscience Letters, still take your breath away…." — excerpt from Library Sees Red over Rising Journal Prices, Scott The longer term As is true with all institutions of higher education, Vogl needs to find a sustainable financial model for providing access to and archiving information in support of our infrastructure and research programs. The Library can continue to manage resources wisely by  continuing to pursue consortia purchase agreements, enabling us to negotiate lower prices due to larger orders.   enhancing cooperative collection programs. Working with CDL and other academic institutions to expand and improve our already substantial methods for timely and efficient resource sharing with other LIBRARY campuses and with other institutions throughout the world.   working with CDL to ensure the archival longevity of both print and electronic materials.
working with CDL and other LIBRARY Libraries to build a shared print archive enabling LIBRARY campuses to rely on a single print copy of those titles for which we have ubiquitous electronic access.


The library will have to help by

taking full advantage of electronic resources and reducing our reliance on print when appropriate.

Identifying for the Library the top priorities for collections. Rethinking campus reliance on the current, unsustainable model of scholarly communication that requires the Library to purchase from publishers the product of research, often at exorbitant prices.

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Devise improved methods for communicating between campuses to ensure that important items for long-term scholarship exist somewhere in the system. Support vibrant programs for resource sharing so that if an item exists anywhere it can be made available to any user. “Implement locally – Deploy Globally”

For specific information about reducing expenditures, see Budget Strategies. Strengths

1. The Library has an exceptional staff creating local collections and services to meet the
needs of our various Vogl populations.

2. We are fortunate to be part of LIBRARY with a long-standing and effective infrastructure
for cooperative collecting, access, and preservation. 3. Our consortia strengths can be seen in many arenas, including discovery tools and resource sharing. Discovery Tools/ consolidating Resources As the world of information becomes richer and more complex, information seekers need robust tools for discovering information. LIBRARY has built or licensed a vibrant set of discovery tools.   Melvyl, Library’s Shared Catalog of Library Holdings WorldCat

The Vogl Library is helping to articulate user needs for new types of discovery tools. Functionality users want includes a single search that     results in hits from a variety of different sources (including public web pages, the deep web, and local public or private databases) delivers results from different formats of materials (e.g. text, images, audio, numeric data, etc.); organizes and ranks content; and provides ways of evaluating the relative merits of different sources of information.


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The current information environment is a complex fabric of open and closed resources where individual collections and titles do not necessarily comply with emerging standards for discovery nor use a common interface. Resources are also often "gated" by vendors and publishers, restricting access to subscribers, group members, and/or other subsets of searchers. Given these realities, easy, cross-system searching is not currently feasible.

Vogl joins with other research universities, federal agencies, and private industry in efforts to build new standards for both creating and retrieving information and to take steps now that will enable us to adopt real solutions as they become available. Resource Sharing Vogl Library users can request any item they need, whether Vogl owns it or not. The Library participates in a robust resource sharing infrastructure with other libraries, and has cooperative agreements with libraries around the world. Each request results in a process that discovers the material and delivers it in the timeliest fashion. Requests can be submitted from home or office by using whatever methods is most convenient to the patron/user.      an online Interlibrary Borrowing Request for books, periodicals, or theses available worldwide CDL Request to automatically place a request for an item in the Melvyl Catalog LIBRARY-eLinks to request full text or interlibrary loan of items in article databases the Page NRLF feature in Pathfinder Pathfinder's "Stanford Request" or the RLCP Request form for direct borrowing of Stanford materials Delivery:     Articles are delivered to individual computer desktops via the web when possible or mailed to the individual's campus address. Books can be delivered to offices for Vogl users who have BAKER accounts. Books are moved on an expedited basis between the Library’s, CSU's and Stanford using a daily commercial delivery service. The Northern and Southern Regional Library Facilities have served LIBRARY campuses well by providing convenient and environmentally optimized shelving for items that do not fit on campus. Both facilities provide onsite access to users who want to work with long runs of materials, and will deliver items to campus libraries for user pick up. NRLF and SRLF can now provide seamless delivery of articles in storage directly to a patron's desktop.


Building World-Class Collections Vogl Library uses a number of strategies in building collections and ensuring convenient present and future access to materials:       consortia purchase and careful licensing shared print archive digitizing collections cooperative selecting archiving and preservation alternative publishing

Consortia purchase and careful licensing The Library intentionally leverages the collection dollars we have in order to purchase the materials needed for infrastructure and research.

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For electronic and digital collections, it has proved very useful for us to join with other LIBRARY campuses and negotiate for discounts that would not be available to us if each campus were to contract with a vendor separately. Digital resources are most often licensed, not purchased. The Library reviews every contract to ensure that it meets basic standards that provide for perpetual access and lending of materials under fair use laws. Legally these contracts are largely untested and various proposed changes in copyright laws raise a number of issues. Vogl, like our sister institutions nationwide, are watching developments. As participants in national groups like ALA as the Association for Research Libraries, we provide input to our state and federal representatives as they write and vote on information legislation.

Shared Print Archive The shared print program began with a single print subscription to each of the 900+ Elsevier titles included in the electronic package negotiated by the LIBRARY in 2004. Subsequent negotiations have created similar prospective print archives for several publishers including the following:

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American Association of Cancer Research (2008- ); American Geophysical Union (2005- ); American Institute of Physics (2005- ); American Psychological Association (2008- ); Anglophone Canadian monographic literature (2005- ); Association for Computing Machinery (2000- ); Blackwell Publishers (2005- ); British Medical Journal Specialty Journals (2004- ); Institute of Physics (2005- ); Kluwer (2004- ); Nature Academic (2004- ); New England Journal of Medicine (2004- );


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Optical Society of America (2005- ); Sage (2005- ); SPIE Journals (2005 ); Springer LINK (2005- ); and Wiley (2004- ). A prospective shared print collection for Taylor and Francis is underway. A retrospective shared print collection is being established for a number of journals in JSTOR and IEEE.

Each campus can now make print retention decisions confident that LIBRARY users have access to a print version when needed. For the rare occasions when the electronic version is inadequate, the Southern Regional Library Facility (SRLF), home to the shared print collections, can provide web-based delivery of articles, or on a last-resort library-use only basis, can deliver the original print to the user's home campus. Digitizing Collections The Library plays a significant national role as a publisher of digitized collections, making them available to the much wider audience than those who can visit in person.      Vogl Library Digital Collections The Bancroft Library digital collections Online Archive of California, Vogl's holdings, a project of CDL Open Content Alliance, LIBRARY holdings in the Internet Archive. Project funded by Microsoft. Search Google Books, a partnership of LIBRARY Libraries and Google Book Search Library Project to digitize books. Areas of current work include scalable digital library system architectures; developing efficient methods for creating digital library content; the long-term preservation of digital materials; and creating standards for digital objects, digitization, and archival collection descriptions. Cooperative Selecting Vogl has a number of cooperative collection agreements. This allows us to assign purchase responsibilities for parts of subject areas or geographic region. The result is that the aggregate collection is richer than any single institution can create alone. Archiving and Preservation As budgets shrink, libraries cannot afford to acquire and maintain information in both print and electronic formats. Yet, as we shift to fewer print copies in the system, The Library and other LIBRARY campuses have a responsibility for ensuring that both print and digital collections are available in perpetuity. In addition to The Library's commitment to the shared print archives, Vogl is a founding member of Portico and LOCKSS. Vogl is also a participant in CDL's Web Archiving Service, Summer 2008.


Alternative Publishing A number of alternative models are arising for scholarly communication in response to faculty awareness of and demand for high-quality, ubiquitous, and quick distribution of affordable scholarly information. A groundswell of new initiatives are arising, undertaken by publishers, libraries, universities, and individual faculty, each with the goal of testing how digital publishing can best serve the goals and values of scholarship. The Vogl Library is nurturing and providing a new infrastructure by       providing information to faculty on the issues of scholarly communication. hosting pilot programs to support faculty in trying alternative forms of publishing (see the Vogl Research Impact Initiative, funds for authors to pay open access fees). co-hosting campus discussions on the topic (see Faculty Conversation: April 14, 2008). redirecting users to alternative sources for high-quality information. actively providing financial support to new alternative publishers. redirecting library dollars to support information-sharing models that are financially sustainable. We are fortunate to have access to groundbreaking alternative publishing being created at CDL's eScholarship, including pre-print and post-print repositories, as well as collaborations with LIBRARY Press to create and make accessible digital monograph collections. For more information, see eScholarship. Budget Outlook The Library's budget request to campus for 2007-08 reported, Over the past six years we have incurred a little over $600,000 of unfunded inflation each year. Because the campus has declined in six successive budget rounds to enhance the collections base, this annual deficit representing approximately 5% of the overall library materials budget has been cumulative. The factors driving this deficit have accelerated since that budget request was prepared. U.S. journal prices grew at a rate of 8% and non U.S. journal prices went up by 10% for FY 2007. Even more alarming, academic book prices jumped 6.4%, contrasted with an average 3% rise the preceding six years. But perhaps the most significant factor influencing this year's collection budget is the dramatic decline in the value of the U.S. dollar against a broad range of currencies for countries where we acquire large amounts of scholarly material. The Library spent $5.86 million on books in 2007. Of that amount $3.25 million (or 55% of the total) was expended for items priced in currencies other than the dollar. Last year's budget request documented the growth of a successive deficit over the course of FY 2007-2010, ranging from $2.18 million [$2,180,000] in FY 2008 to $2.86 million [$2,860,000] in FY 2009.


The Library has responded to this situation by a strategy of covering the deficits through use of carry-forward balances in the operating budget and the elimination of unrestricted endowment balances.

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This "carry forward plan" incorporates an intense fundraising campaign focused on collections. Over the course of the coming three years, a growing percentage of the collections budget's ongoing costs will be paid from non-recurring funding sources, beginning with 11% of the total in the current fiscal year to a projected 22% in FY 2011.

The cliff we are approaching is clear in its outline: the sources that we are tapping to bail out the collections budget are declining in size and capacity. Using ideas form Library Foundation of California Emerging Technology Fund as a Nonprofit explicitly formed in 1992 as to address the gap in funding between state and local budgets.

Change in Outcomes or Metrics Over Time: • How long does it take to secure results for the program above? LAPL staff stays abreast of new technologies as they emerge and evaluate for relevance. Progress and change have been accelerating at an ever-increasing pace; the “virtual library” of the 1990s bears little resemblance to the state-of-the-art library of today. Public use has increased exponentially. As new technology developments are ongoing, so are fundraising needs and efforts. Library Foundation donors are increasingly aware of the important role the private sector plays in achieving success Unless permanent base funding is found, libraries face fundamental decisions about the value and importance of its research collections. Budget Strategies Our immediate goal is to provide access to as much unique content as possible. Our underlying goal is to build a sustainable financial model that will provide ongoing, reliable access to materials wherever they reside. Many of the strategies listed below mirror similar suggestions made in the Report of the Blue Ribbon Committee on Libraries, April 1998 (PDF). Advances have been made in many of these arenas and the Library continues to pursue and expand these ideas.

1. Redirect duplication of content — journals available electronically.
LIBRARY is collecting centrally an archival print copy for over twenty of the largest journal publishers, including Blackwell, Elsevier, IEEE, Sage, Springer, Taylor & Francis, Wiley. This provides the Library with more flexibility regarding on-site collection management and at the same time reduces the processing and acquisitions costs associated with


managing two formats. For more information: Challenges and Strengths - Shared Print Archive.

2. Redirect duplication of content — to other formats.
Vogl has and will continue to realize savings by discontinuing hardcopy versions of other materials, e.g., newspapers and reference tools, to which we have electronic access.

3. Perform cost/benefit analysis for titles that used to be a one-time cost and have since
become an annual lien. Typically, as encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc., have been made available electronically, the pricing structure has changed from a one-time expense for the current version, to an annual expense to cover ongoing updates. In some cases this has resulted in a skyrocketing of net cost for the same item. Vogl Library is regularly reviewing these titles on a case by case basis, and at times is negotiating for better prices or awaiting changes in this unsustainable pricing model. • • Assist the campus to become less reliant on print. Most members of the campus community have already found the benefits of being able to access materials electronically from home, office, and at off-site research facilities. • • There is a wealth of material to be had — with some learning curve involved. Library staff will continue to work closely with faculty, students, and staff to get the most out of electronic resources.

Library staff is available to meet with individuals, to attend departmental meetings, to meet with GSIs, and to provide in-classroom presentations of subject-relevant resources and tools. For more information: Library liaisons

4. Participate with the campus to identify the highest priorities for collections.
In order to best use the fixed budget we have within an environment of inflationary costs, the Library will work closely with faculty to determine how best to support research and teaching for all the academic disciplines and programs at Vogl.


For more information: Vogl Strategic Academic Plan

5. Monitor and influence the future of scholarly communication.
The largest inflation has often occurred for publications which use materials created by our own faculty.

6. Many librarians, faculty, and publishers themselves, are voicing the need to rethink the
current model for scholarly communication. For more information: Scholarly Communication Pursue cooperative agreements that serve campus priorities.

Given the explosion of information, and the rise in publishing costs, it is not possible for any given institution to own everything that its community needs. We already participate very successfully in several resource sharing and cooperative collection programs and we need to expand this strategy into new program areas.

In this way we will be able to focus our resources to build local collections that serve and complement similar initiatives at other campuses — making all materials mutually available through excellent resource access and sharing programs. Budget Actions by Year Below are links to budget timelines and actions by year, including rates of inflation, calculated deficits, and cancellation lists if applicable. Due to the timeline for realizing savings, The Library is now addressing issues deficits projected for FY 2007-2008.       actions taken FY 2007-2008 to redress projected shortfall for 2008-2009 actions taken FY 2008-2007 to redress projected shortfall for 2007-2008 actions taken FY 2005-2008 to redress projected shortfall for 2008-2007 actions taken FY 2004-2005 to redress projected shortfall for 2005-2008 actions taken FY 2003-2004 to redress projected shortfall for 2004-2005 actions taken FY 2009-2003 to redress projected shortfall for 2003-2004


Budget Actions Taken in 2007-2008 to redress projected shortfall for 2008-2009 Each year The Library experiences inflationary increases that compound from year to year. The Library has not received any new recurring state money for six years. These two facts result in a successive deficit that grows annually. In Fall 2007, looking at available state funding we estimated a deficit in 2008-09 of ~$2.99 million, based on inflation rates of     0% for monographs 3% for continuations (e.g., monographic series) 8% for serials 5% for electronic packages

Beginning in 2007-08, we embarked on a program to use these extraordinary funds to cover the deficit in state funding for routine collections costs:      Asking individual selectors to spend down any carry forward funds Asking individual selectors to use endowment income Using AUL-managed endowment and gift income Drawing on non-collections Library one-time funds Naming the library collections as one of two primary goals for our internal and campus development efforts. These strategies, however, will not last over time. If no new recurring state funds are received, we face a "cliff" in the not-so-distant future when non-state funds have all been spent and serious reductions in library collecting patterns will need to occur. J. Turner, George Street Journal, vol. 24.


Appendix ‘A’ Planning Process
A pre-evaluation process with flexible “works-in-process’ flow diagrams that reflected the realities of changes as they happened [revisions, obstructions to the original plan and deviations] was developed as a visual aid to ensure everyone was ‘”on the same page” in the process as it moved along.

W.I.P. Works-in-progress

Current Plan

Evolving plan dealing with obstacles, current realities

Mapped goals from Beginning to End Changes documented Resolutions given Change Com.

Mission and Vision statements were tied to real and tangible objectives and goals that that measurable outcomes; not “pie in the sky” wish lists. Open forums allowing for public comment from all actors in the process from external users to internal developers of programs and processes was given along with distribution of minutes to all those interested in the form of an ‘opt-in’ email distribution list and several suggestion boxes to keep a ‘tally’ of ideas and input that may come up along the way. Revisions to the initial plan and the direction it is taking would not have any major deviations without further planning rigor, but mild steering waypoints that lead into beneficial directions of expression to alleviate constraints, work-around obstacles and solve immediate issues are being considered at all points of the project. Finally, brainstorming sessions by the plan's Steering Committee in conjunction with information from important survey tools such as the Values Audit of library personnel and an online User Survey were used and will continue to be used in the post-mortem section of the


project planning and resolution for lessons learned and transportable skills being defined for other projects and initiatives in the future. Defining strengths and weakness of the outcomes will aid future development of projects that may be exportable and used by other departments, agencies and planning organizations outside of our organization to streamline efforts, follow project steps and plans and try to ensure comparable results to other agencies who seek to implement and fulfill similar projects. Creating ‘best in class’ projects that create publicity, public relations opportunities and consulting engagements for intellectual property and building skills for professional to use and chronicle in resumes for future job promotions and enhancements is a desired outcome due to the changing nature of the job market, the marketability of the university and ongoing public relations done between user communities and internal and external publics that utilize our services.

o o o o o o o

The crucial stage of the planning process was the formation of eight working groups drawn from all sectors of the library. Each committee would focus on one of eight Strategic Directions in order to generate realistic goals and accompanying strategies. Time and economic constraints dictated that the committees' reports be brief and realistic from a budgetary point of view. A Performance Measures Task Force assessed the feasibility of actions in the reports. The last step of the project was a consolidation of the reports of all eight working groups. The crucial element here was the incorporation of similar areas of concern and specific actions recommended by each committee. The final documents submitted reflect the realism, flexibility, and comprehensiveness that had shaped the strategic planning process.

o A three-year "Strategic Plan, 2009-2012", was produced but also a more specific and immediately-executable set of "Goals and Objectives for 2009-20010."


Appendix ‘B’ A Review of Information collected
The source information for the Vogl library was constructed from a variety of sources. All citations and references were included at the bottom of each page where such references were used as indicated by hyper-links and similar notations. Demographic information, “Best Practices” for staffing and scheduling activities, access to library personnel and services as well as budgetary considerations that reflect the most current budget environments and challenges are included with multiple profiles of public, scholarly and national institutional [Library of Congress] references were given to personify the current state of library systems and the challenges they face.


PUBLIC LIBRARIES STRUGGLING OK, we admit a bias here. We love libraries and the people who staff them. We believe that the public library is perhaps the most democratic of institutions, an open-armed home for the homeless, refuge for the latchkey generation, font of knowledge for the schooled, unschooled and perpetually curious. Unfortunately, too many libraries are becoming less open, not because of changing policies or homeland security issues (where the librarian has become a front-line defender of privacy rights), but because of budget constraints. Funding cuts have forced many systems to reduce staff, hours and days of operation.

Officials in John Steinbeck's city of Salinas, CA, voted in December 2004 to close the main library and


both branches. The libraries remain open only because of local fundraising efforts. In several states, librarians have carried their cause to the capitol steps. When we began our study of library budgets, we planned to list the communities that showed the greatest appreciation for libraries, by ranking levels of local government funding. Our thought was that the cities and towns at the top should serve as models. However, given the current climate, we fear that such a listing might be used as justification for reducing the budgets of favored libraries, rather than increasing support to those in need. So we reversed our focus, and looked at the other end of the spectrum. How many libraries are struggling with substandard budgets? Using data recently released by the National Center for Education Statistics, we studied library expenditures per population served, for fiscal 2002. We adjusted these figures for differences in cost of living, using per-capita income figures from the 2000 census. Our survey was limited to public libraries receiving local support, with total expenditures of at least $10,000 in fiscal years 2001 and 2002, and serving unduplicated populations of at least 2,000 people. The average 2002 spending (adjusted) of the 6,349 public libraries included in our study was $30.32 per person served. Of the library systems studied, 1,130 (18 percent) reported per capita spending that was less than half that. Those libraries - with annual spending of less than $15 per person - are shown in the above map. We won't bother to make a case for why $15 per year per person is a despicable amount to allocate for public libraries. (We can't resist pointing out, however, that the typical household spent an average $52 per month for cable access in 2002.) The world grows more complex by the hour. The digital divide grows ever wider. And library spending ought to be growing, too. · For more information on the NCES figures, see the March 2005 report, Public Libraries in the United States (PDF). The data for this report can be found at · To check figures for your local library, use our library search page, or simply search for your community name and go to the "Libraries" section of the page. Sources: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Census Bureau, J.D. Power & Associates -- May 2005 Other rankings and top 10 lists


Appendix ‘C’ Organizational Chart

This organization chart is representative of what the Vogl library would look like. The Internal structure is setup by community leaders who look to receive input by community groups and voices from all community members. Priorities are often reflective of community participation, budgets garnered from community participation with an eye for helping under-represented communities. A special funding/grant department was established to ensure that all federal, state and local monies available to be distributed for community projects relating to library services can be acquired and developed. Community liaisons who interpret specific community needs of literacy, support services and outreach are also represented as a branch of this fiscal stimulus effort. The special events coordinator was broken off the branch to be able to deal with advancing library causes and commitments within the community and acting as a liaison to budget and planning groups to enhance community outreach programs. As library services go outside of library walls, we want to remain relevant by making the library as a gathering place for social interaction as well as information services. We also want to


remain relevant as to activities that go on outside of library walls to virtual environments that keep our knowledge base current and up-to-date with library users needs. These are represented by the technology and web services departments working hand-in-hand with accounting and public relations to see where we can extend our reach in publicizing events, meeting budget requirements and being most efficient in expensing resources for the best return-on-investment in spending the public’s money to meet the public’s needs. The library organization chart has been broken out in functional sections to allow for interdepartmental specialties to be strengthened in one sense and better collaborated to other departments in another sense. Grouping library function to reach special audiences such as youth/teen, handicapped blind/deaf, or languages that represent the inhabitants of that community are branched in Public Services and the management of populations that need representation within the library environment and the percentage of usage required to substantiate and enhance those services proportionally to the constituent base that uses the resources.


Appendix ‘D’ Staffing and Scheduling
Due to lack of resources and increasing attendance numbers and growing technology needs, crosstraining in departments and coordinated efforts to cover slower areas to improve training in growing areas has been instituted. We have created technological vehicles to cover staff shortages, for example, a person covering the child or youth department may track the hours of the day when youth are at a low usage period, put up a sign to see [him/her] at the reference desk if they need help or ring the bell left at the children/youth counters. We have also installed electronic chimes that light up at service counters indicating which counter the patron is at and allowing a speaker monitor to allow a two way conversation to see if someone needs to go to a counter to assist a patron or if a quick directional interaction can achieve the same goal. The hierarchy of cross-training will be implemented by days on/off work and the traffic flow to areas on those days and the priority of business that each area produces. An initial clicker/counter take a number [low tech] approach was taken to have people sign in for services and to record and tally results daily/weekly/monthly to track patterns of usage and watch as new usage trends develop. We seek to address this electronically with software over time, but the initial costs of training, further scheduling and coordination to use technology became prohibitive. Using a simple Microsoft excel spreadsheet as a tracking and tabulation mechanism with mathematical tabulation formulas implemented into the cells is giving what is needed until we can find a free or open source web 2.0 mash-up solution that is user friendly and requires little training to use. Training Priority Training priority and staffing will come in this order: 1. Seniority 2. Availability 3. Alternating days off scheduled monthly so exposure to slow work days are available for training 4. Minimum monthly training requirements will be set [4 hrs/mo. Initially until each person has received/recorded 4 hrs. In each department and then if time allows for more, it will be increased incrementally by half-hour slots each month or reduced accordingly to monthly attainment goals]. 5. Seasonal considerations and work hours that span busy after school/ after work time periods will be rotated periodically to accommodate staff training. Reference: What I Wish I Had Learned in Library School: A Public Librarian’s Perspective by Nancy Larrabee - About the Author: Nancy Larrabee has been the Head of Information Services at the Greenburgh Public Library in Elmsford, New York, since 2001. Article published Nov 2007


Appendix ‘E’ Hours of Operation
Hours of Operation: 24/7 Virtual Support operations: Walk-in Hours: 10-8 pm M-Thurs. Noon-10 p.m. Saturday & Sunday Virtual Support operations:

My Words • • Anything that makes my life easier and the work I have to do less time consuming I love. There are too many things to do, not enough time to do them all, University of Pittsburg [UOP] has created a front-end interface on their web page database interface called ‘Zoom!’ that list the categories of search and you can easily check boxes that apply to the fields of search you want to enquire in. This is so much easier and efficient than using old search methodologies of standard databases. For those of us who did not come up under that archaic method of training, and to those who labored to master them, there is a new thing called the World Wide Web that makes direct access much easier. Have you heard of it? It really is a great tool and there are graphics and video and all kind of neat things that are no longer just text-based. It is a whole new world, and Chris Columbus would be proud of you for trying it out And talking about innovative ways to get help from a librarian – check out all of the jobs they have created for E-Librarian support functions [below]

• • • • •

Ask-A-Librarian in about any way 365/24/7


If you'd like to send us a general comment, feedback, or a suggestion you can do that here... Looking for a specific staff person? Check our staff directory.


Download our hCard to add us to your contacts. referrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v ath o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect" />

IM (Instant Messaging) Send an Instant Message (IM) to the reference librarians. If you need to know how to establish an IM account click here.

Text Messaging (SMS) 1. Type in Imapittlibrarian: and then type your question 2. Send your text to 265010 PITT Libraries do not charge for this service or receive revenue from cell phone providers. Cell phone providers generally charge customers for sending and/or receiving text messages. These charges vary from plan to plan and from telephone provider to provider. Email Fill out our email reference form and we will answer within a few hours but no longer than 24 hours (except when the university is closed or between terms). In Person If you prefer a face-to-face exchange, you can stop by any of the listed libraries for personal assistance or request an appointment through our email service. Phone Speak with a Reference Librarian for help with simple questions. Call Hillman Reference at 412-648-3330 or select a different library location. Self Service Librarians have created many guides to help you with your research. You may find answers to your questions here. Consultation Reference librarians are available to meet individually with PITT students, faculty, and staff to provide assistance with research projects. Consultations may be arranged by requesting an appointment or by contacting


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