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Assignment #3

Strategic Plan (Team Project)

Create a Library

Dr. Benjamin Speller


Keith Kutscher - Tim Trevathan

San Jose State University – M.L.I.S. Program

Fall 2008

Table of Contents

Group Library’s Name……………………………………………………………….1

Context of Environment……………………………………………………………...A
Three Year Strategic Plan
Mission Statement……………………………………………………………………2
Services and Programs……………………………………………………………...3
• Collection
• Characteristics
Three Year Strategic Plan……………………………………………………………6
• Overview
• Needs Assessment
• Goals-Outcomes
• Goals-Programs-Timeframe-Measures
Appendixes: (Tabbed)
Appendix ‘A’ - Strategic Planning Process..……………………………………….29
Appendix ‘B’ - Review of Information Collected……………………………………31
Appendix ‘C’ - Organizational Chart…………………………………………………33
Appendix ‘D’ - Staffing & Scheduling………………………………………………..35
Appendix ‘E’ - Hours of Operation……………………………………………….…..36
Appendix ‘F’ - Management Style……………………………………………………41
Appendix ‘G’ - Budget and Planning Highlights……………………………………49
Appendix ‘H’ – 2008 Public Library Budget Planning Document…………………65
Appendix ‘I’ – Calculate the Value of Services Used at your Local Library….….71
Appendix ‘J’ – Budget Case Example # 3: Congressional Library Budget…..…72

The Vogl Public Library located in Sierra California was designed to inspire and develop
innovative thought. The concept was contracted and implemented through a collaboration of
architects Frank Gehry and Michael Jantzen using eco-friendly materials. The process included
solar power ceilings to power the building, natural desert plants to reduce water consumption,
and recyclable building materials. We took on this project to show that libraries of the 22nd
centuries will have to come up with new ways of attracting clients with interesting ideas, our
building is one way in which to grab your imagination. Our facility is visited by an average of more
than 50,000 people each month and our goal is to keep them coming back for more with our
One of the first steps to keep people returning is to have an adequate parking structure.
Since the Vogl Public Library is located in the heart of downtown, the Parking Enforcement
section of Public Works patrols and monitors the patron parking lot. Our structure can hold up to
120 cars at any given time giving ample space for visitors. For security, Parking Enforcement
personnel enforce a three hour time limit for the lot. If additional time is needed see a parking
attendant or call 792-606-1101. Please contact Parking Enforcement for further information
regarding the parking lot, citations, or the appeals policy at 792-606-1101.

Mission Statement

The Vogl Public Library is focused on providing responsive, dynamic service that meets
the changing informational needs of a diverse population. Through a trained, service-orientated
staff, partnerships, and ready access to both print and electronic resources, the library is
committed to superior service that promotes a strong, literate community and enhances the
quality of life. We envision a community where every person has the opportunity to reach his or
her own full potential in an economically strong community which values family, diversity, and

Services and Programs

Children's Programs

Infant and Toddler Story times on Tuesdays. (Pre-registration required for Infant and Toddler
Story times. Preschool Films Fridays at 10:00 a.m. Family Story time Saturdays at 10:00 a.m. For
special events, pre-registration and holiday programs call 792-606-1100.

Captioned Films

All films in this series are captioned for the hearing-impaired, and are shown free of charge at
1:00 p.m. in the Jantzen Auditorium.

Service to the Home based

This program is designed to provide library materials to anyone who is a resident of Sierra and is
confined to their homes or convalescent centers due to illness, injury or disability. For more detail
call 792-606-1100.

Volunteer Program

The Volunteer Program gives interested individuals an opportunity to serve the community in a
variety of categories, assisting library staff or the general public. If interested, applications are
available at the circulation desk. Complete the application and return it to the manager. For more
information call 792-606-1100.

Central Grounds

The East Patio area has been remodeled into a place for people to relax and enjoy food and
drink, in our new coffee shop. Hot and cold drinks, sandwiches, salads and pastries are all
available for purchase.

Computers at the Library

The Library has a wide variety of computers and computerized resources available to our patrons
on a regular basis. Except as noted, the computers are available free of charge for a limited
amount of time per day, but there are fees for printing, in most cases 10 cents per page printed.
Take advantage of our newly implemented program SOCIAL NETWORKING!!! Why use those
other brands when you can relate to those in the library world. Share stories of books read, create
your own book club, blog about your favorite library, and more. The best part of library social
networking is it’s free. Just ask one of our employees about this new and exciting endeavor.

Jantzen Auditorium

The Auditorium accommodates 142 people, with 35 additional seats available on request. Priority
for auditorium use is given first to Library sponsored events, second to City-sponsored events
and third to Sierra based groups. All others will be given consideration on a first-come/first served
basis. The Library reserves the right to preempt any event for library or City-sponsored event.
Call 792-606-1100 on Tuesdays or Thursdays only to reserve the auditorium and to learn about

Library policies about using this or other library meeting rooms. For a schedule of events in the
auditorium, you can visit our library calendar

Children's Wing

Previously known as the Peter Pan Room and later the Boys and Girls Room, the Children's Wing
was dedicated on April 21, 2009 as the Imagination Unveiled Room.


With more than 400,000 books, magazines, CDs, DVDs and videos for children and their parents,
the collection is a treasure trove of bestsellers, popular reading and classic books, nonfiction
books for homework and research reports, and an extensive folktale collection (over 2,000
volumes) arranged by country of origin. Spanish language books are also available. The library
collection offers a broad choice of circulating print and non-print materials aimed at meeting the
informational needs of the community. The Library has strong general reference, business, and
local history and periodicals collections. A high priority is placed on acquiring information and
resources about Sierra, past and present. The Library is a 25% depository for United States
documents, and a partial depository for State of California documents. City of (?) reports,
agendas, and minutes of boards and commissions are available for public review at the library.
The collection contains electronic resources including access to the Internet, CD-ROMs and
Information Access Company's InfoTrac periodical and newspaper indexes. For more information,
call 792-606-1100.

Computer Resources

Four computer workstations with educational computer games, as well as access to online
databases for children and live homework help online tutoring are available. The Peek-a-Book
station gives short read-alouds for recommended picture storybooks for preschoolers.

Services and Programs

Reference and reader's advisory services are available at the children's room desk all hours that
the library is open. Story times for babies, toddlers and preschoolers are presented weekly
(registration is required for the baby and toddler story times). Each month during the school year,
approximately 35 classes from local schools visit the Children's Wing for literature-based
programs, browsing and checking out books. In FY 2005/2008, the Vogl Public Library Children's

Room conducted 452 programs for children with 14,755 in attendance. Of these, 183 were class
visits with 3,880 in attendance.

Library Characteristics

Vogl Public Library Characteristics Use Statistics

Fiscal Total Total

Opened/Expanded 2008
Year Circulation Visitors

Building Size (Sq. Ft.) 130,000 2008/2009 790,190 648,201

Meeting Room Seats 142 2009/2003 824,122 642,864

Parking Spaces 120 2003/2004 851,882 645,351

Collection 343,591 2004/2005 969,484 666,231

2005/2008 902,484 652,223

Three Year Strategic Plan


The Vogl Public Library serves the information needs of the city of Sierra and its neighbors. As a
public library, an important role of the library is to provide professional and courteous support. The
Vogl Public Library has historically used state and private funding to support its programs. Keith
Kutscher and Tim Trevathan have chosen to rigorously evaluate the 2009-2012 fiscal years.

Through evaluation and planning process, the consensus is that there is not one answer to
provide excellent service. After reflecting on how to ready librarians for the near future, the Vogl
Public Library staff believes that the best course of action is to equip librarians with the skills and
resources to identify, assess and address the needs of today and tomorrow, thereby expanding
their capacity to be responsive leaders in shaping the future of their Sierra community. This is the
primary focus of this three year strategic plan.

As evident from the following report, the conclusions were reached after significant research.
There are three forces impacting the United States: “substantial disparities in skill levels; seismic
economy changes; and sweeping demographic shifts” This was taken from a report in 2007 titled
Americas Perfect Storm. Sierra will grow an estimated 45,000 citizens by 2012 according to the
US Census Bureau. This means that Sierra librarians are faced with a broad range of social,
educational and economic challenges. Libraries face dramatic shifts in service areas and
customer expectations, along with the challenge of developing and maintaining services that are
responsive to changing communities.

This report focuses on needs of the community through assessment. The information is
organized around four questions:
1. How do individuals look for information?
2. How do individuals view the role of the public library
3. What do Sierra librarians think of the Vogl Public Library?
4. What do legislators think of their library service?
Also conducted was a public opinion survey conducted by a blind agency. The survey found that
in general, the Sierra community had a positive view of their public library. But along those lines
many agreed that public libraries are becoming irrelevant since people can find almost anything
they need on-line.

Based on research, the strategic plan identifies three primary areas of need and four goals. The
goals will be achieved with a mix of targeted initiatives and competitive grants. The goals are
broad in nature to provide flexibility for creative community response and leveraging local funds.

1. Online Access: This addresses the needs for all age groups to be aware of, access and
successfully use digital resources for school, work, or personal enrichment.
2. Training and Support: This addresses professional development, direction and support
for librarians and library staff to maintain the knowledge and skills required to serve
effectively in the 21st century.
3. Historical Experiences: This addresses the need for communities to view historical
accomplishments in the context of current achievements, while creating community
relationships for future success.
1. Connections: The Sierra community will view the library as a trusted, knowledgeable,
easy access source of information.
2. Customer Experience: The Vogl Public Library will offer virtual and physical customer
experiences to enhance the user’s ability to find and use information and services
available to them.

3. Community Response: Sierra and surrounding communities will recognize that library
staff has the ability to participate in assessing community needs, identifying resources
and planning to address the needs of its community.
4. Collaboration: The Vogl Public Library will use partnerships and collaboration with various
types of libraries and cultural institutions to extend services, reach new audiences, and to
better serve its growing community.

Needs Assessment

In the U.S. and in California, the growth of human capital and its distribution is shifting in the
wrong direction creating significant gaps. Job growth, requiring increased education and skill
levels, is being matched against declining literacy and numeric levels in the working age

The city of Sierra has a population of 133,701 which makes it the 160th largest city in the U.S. The
city is an affluent city in Los Angeles County. It ranks as the 55th most expensive city to live in
within California with a median home sale price of $700,000. The small community of Sierra’s
racial make-up consists of: 49 percent White, 31 percent Hispanic of any origin, 8 percent African
American, 7 percent Asian, and 5 percent Pacific Islander. The median income per household is
$86,000 and the median income per family is $73,000. Sierra retains a high profile image
throughout Southern California due to its broad economic base, noted cultural, scientific,
educational institutions, and shopping and dinning establishments that attract customers from the
region. This along with the exciting eco-friendly, state of the art, Vogl Public Library, a prominence
is enjoyed by few other cities in the Los Angeles area.

The three year strategic plan addresses the needs identified from public opinion, surveys,
consultant reports and other data gathered over a six month period in Sierra California. The
following ideas consistently arose as needs, perceptions, or issues to be addressed by this plan.


1. How do individuals look for information?

a. Use multiple sources
b. Use on-line access, sometimes as the first and only choice
c. Ask a colleague, friend, or other
d. Check print sources
2. How do individuals view the role of the public library?
a. A place to find books and “out of print” material
b. A place to find “popular” reading material
c. Internet access
d. A meeting place, sometimes even a community center in rural towns
e. Key source for new material in technology
f. A place to learn how to research and use databases
g. A place that serves all ages based on community need
h. A place for equal access
i. A place where convenience is expected
3. What do Sierra librarians think of the Vogl Public Library?
a. It needs to be relevant and central to the community
b. Library staff needs training on how to best serve their community
c. It needs to keep up with electronic resources and equipment
d. School librarians want to participate more in public libraries
e. Academic librarians want to be more involved with public libraries
f. Customer service is amazing

4. What do legislators think of their library service?
a. Progress is being made with the link between education and libraries
b. Customer service rated excellent
c. A true resource and a leader in the 21st century.
Public Opinion Survey

The University of Southern California conducted a survey of the Sierra community and its
surrounding cities in the spring of 2008. A random sample of 1,679 citizens participated in the
survey. The surveys found that the public views the importance of the public library and were
positive about services rendered. The information revealed:
• 95 percent agree that public libraries are needed because they provide free service and
• 90 percent agree that public libraries are essential for maintaining a productive
• 61 percent have a Vogl Public Library card
• An average of ten visits to the library per year
• An average of three on-line visits per year.
Despite these positive findings, 40 percent of those surveyed agreed that the library is becoming
irrelevant since people can find almost anything they need on-line. These perceptions are
important for the three year strategic plan.

Goals - Outcomes

Goals – Programs – Measures – Timeframe

Goals – Programs – Measures – Timeframe Continued

Goals – Programs – Measures – Timeframe Continued

Goals – Programs – Measures – Timeframe Continued

Strategic Plan Developed with the help of the following sites:


Budget and Planning Highlights

 The budget for Vogl Library is allocated similarly as most major library systems. Typically,
up to 25% of the budget goes to pay for library staff, support and services. Another 25%
goes to information technology enhancements, primarily the acquisition of new storage
devices to meet with the exploding demand for new rich media that uses up a lot of
storage space. Components of IT are air conditioning, servers, support staff, technician
training and per diem expenses related to travel to location(s) for repair, maintenance and
some physical upgrades. The last half of the budget is split between circulation expenses
that include physical resources as well as electronic resources. New programs, library
physical structure maintenance and operational considerations use up the last 25%.

The budget problem: at once chronic and acute

 For over a decade, the cost of building library collections is rising faster than collections
budgets. This largely is due to the annual rate of inflation on library materials. It is due, as
well, to a burgeoning of new information — to a dramatic rise in the number and
specialization of journals, the availability of full text and searchable electronic versions of
items we previously only had in print, and the emergence of new genres of digital
content. In more recent years, we have also seen a dramatic decline in the value of the
U.S. dollar that has further eroded our ability to acquire access to materials that our
researchers need.

• Through its more than 2,200 computers, the VOGL provides more than five million hours
of free public access.
• Across the city, computers are in use from the time libraries open until they close.
Computer use is especially heavy during after-school hours and on weekends.
• All VOGL libraries are wireless hubs; there are more than 22,000 wireless connections to
the Internet per month through these hubs.
• Vogl's web site has more than 110 million “hits” per year.
• Vogl’s subscription databases are accessed over one million times per year.
• There are more than 600,000 hits on Teen Web per year and over 300,000 hits on the
Adult Literacy site, and nearly seven million hits on the Kids’ Path site.
• Annual Budget,
• Percentage of Earned
• Income and Staff
 The Vogl Library Foundation’s annual budget for 2008-09: $5,375,000. 23% is for staff.
-0- Earned Income.


Media Type Amount Spent

Print (books, journals, manuscripts,

microforms, analog media, etc.) $8,091,000

Digital (Vogl) $1,366,993

Digital (Vogl consortia) $2,899,879

Disciplinary Support

• Vogl collection dollars are committed as efficiently as possible to support the broad range
of academic programs.
• The funds are managed by over 45 subject specialists with annual allocations to cover
journals, books, and electronic resources.
• In 2008, funds covering print books, journals and special collections were expended
between Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences and the Sciences as reflected in the following

In 2008, funds covering access to digital resources (e-journals, databases, e-book packages, etc)
were expended across the disciplinary groups as reflected in the following graph:

Budgetary Pressures

During the past six years the collections budget has maintained a fairly steady division of
expenditures between continuing commitments (subscriptions to journals, newspapers,
databases and monographic series) and one-time purchases (books, special collections, etc.).

The impact of continuing commitments can be contrasted with those at peer institutions according
to the latest Associate for Research Libraries data on serial vs. monograph expenditures.

Percentage of (2005) Collection Dollars:

Institution Serials Monographs

Columbia 59% 41%

Harvard 37% 63%

Illinois 73% 27%

Texas 60% 40%

Vogl 65% 35%


E-Journal Usage

One indicator of a journal title's utility is how often it is used. The Library is building a directory of
usage statistics for over thirty publisher packages.

Information Explosion

The amount of material that is available for purchase has increased faster than library's ability to
purchase. (Table courtesy of Mary Case, ARL, Director — Office of Scholarly Communication.)

Serials Published
as reported by Ulrich's

1986 103,700

2009 164,000

The percentage change: 58%.

Another shift in journal publishing is the growing number of titles that are available

• compare 27,083 titles in 2007(Ulrich's)

• To 110 titles reported in 1991(Directory of Electronic Journals, Newsletters and
Academic Discussion Lists, ARL).

Book publishing shows a similar dramatic increase in volume:

• "According to figures from UNESCO, over 850,000 books were published worldwide in
• Data from the top 15 producing countries reveals that book production increased 50%
between 1985 and 1996." (Mary Case, ARL)


The costs of library materials have fluctuated dramatically over the last 10 years, to the detriment
of the purchasing power of library budgets.

As unit prices for serials and monographs have soared well above the CPI, library budgets have
not even kept up with inflation. A table from the Association for Research Libraries (PDF) shows
that, between 1986 and 2005

 The consumer price index increased by 78%.

 Monograph unit costs increased 81%, library expenditures for monographs increased
59% and actual numbers of monographs purchased actually decreased 7%.
 Serials unit costs increased by 167%, library expenditures for serials increased a
whopping 302% and actual numbers of serials purchased increased by only 42%.

Sample journal prices (courtesy of Mary Case, ARL, Director — Office of Scholarly

Journal Title 1995 2008 % Change

Brain Research $10,181 $17,444 71.3%

Biochem. Bio-phys. Acta $7,555 $12,127 60.5%

Chem. Phys. Letters $5,279 $9,637 82.6%

Tetrahedron Letters $5,119 $9,036 76.5%

Eur. Jrnl. of Pharmacology $4,576 $7,889 72.4%

Gene $3,924 $7,443 89.7%

Inorganica Chim. Acta $3,611 $6,726 86.3%

Intl. Jrnl. of Pharmaceutics $3,006 $5,965 98.4%

Neuroscience $3,487 $6,270 79.8%

Theoretical Computer Science $2,774 $4,608 66.1%

Jrnl. of Exp. Marine Bio. and Eco. $1,947 $3,501 79.8%

Price increases aren't only dramatic in the Sciences (from Library Journal, courtesy of
Mary Case, ARL, Director — Office of Scholarly Communication).


Subject % Increase

Military and Naval Science 74.5%

Business and Economics 56.9%

Sociology 49.5%

Technology 49.1%

Engineering 48.9%

Political Science 46.9%

Education 45.0%

Health Sciences 44.3%

Biology 44.1%

Psychology 43.8%

Chemistry 39.4%

Physics 35.8%

Mathematics and
Computer Science 35.6%

Anthropology 34.9%

Law 31.2%

History 25.5%

Music 23.7%

Philosophy and Religion 21.2%

Language and Literature 16.9%

Art and Architecture 7.8%

"Prepare for sticker shock if you're headed for the journal shelves in the Science Library. Dangling
red tags are marking periodicals that have one-year subscription rates of $1,000 or higher. Some
rates, such as the $19,396 for Nuclear Physics A and B, match the cost of a new midsize car.
Relatively lower rates, such as $4,159.13 for Neuroscience Letters, still take your breath away…."
— excerpt from Library Sees Red over Rising Journal Prices, Scott

The longer term

As is true with all institutions of higher education, Vogl needs to find a sustainable financial model
for providing access to and archiving information in support of our infrastructure and research

The Library can continue to manage resources wisely by

 continuing to pursue consortia purchase agreements, enabling us to negotiate lower

prices due to larger orders.

 enhancing cooperative collection programs.

 Working with CDL and other academic institutions to expand and improve our already
substantial methods for timely and efficient resource sharing with other LIBRARY
campuses and with other institutions throughout the world.

 working with CDL to ensure the archival longevity of both print and electronic materials.

 working with CDL and other LIBRARY Libraries to build a shared print archive enabling
LIBRARY campuses to rely on a single print copy of those titles for which we have ubiquitous
electronic access.

The library will have to help by

 taking full advantage of electronic resources and reducing our reliance on print when

 Identifying for the Library the top priorities for collections.

• Rethinking campus reliance on the current, unsustainable model of scholarly communication

that requires the Library to purchase from publishers the product of research, often at
exorbitant prices.

• Devise improved methods for communicating between campuses to ensure that

important items for long-term scholarship exist somewhere in the system.
 Support vibrant programs for resource sharing so that if an item exists anywhere it can be
made available to any user.
 “Implement locally – Deploy Globally”

For specific information about reducing expenditures, see Budget Strategies.


1. The Library has an exceptional staff creating local collections and services to meet the
needs of our various Vogl populations.
2. We are fortunate to be part of LIBRARY with a long-standing and effective infrastructure
for cooperative collecting, access, and preservation.
3. Our consortia strengths can be seen in many arenas, including discovery tools and
resource sharing.

Discovery Tools/ consolidating Resources

As the world of information becomes richer and more complex, information seekers need robust
tools for discovering information. LIBRARY has built or licensed a vibrant set of discovery tools.

 Melvyl, Library’s Shared Catalog of Library Holdings

 WorldCat

The Vogl Library is helping to articulate user needs for new types of discovery tools. Functionality
users want includes a single search that

 results in hits from a variety of different sources (including public web pages, the deep
web, and local public or private databases)
 delivers results from different formats of materials (e.g. text, images, audio, numeric data,
 organizes and ranks content; and
 provides ways of evaluating the relative merits of different sources of information.

 The current information environment is a complex fabric of open and closed
resources where individual collections and titles do not necessarily comply with
emerging standards for discovery nor use a common interface.
 Resources are also often "gated" by vendors and publishers, restricting access to
subscribers, group members, and/or other subsets of searchers.
 Given these realities, easy, cross-system searching is not currently feasible.

Vogl joins with other research universities, federal agencies, and private industry in efforts to build
new standards for both creating and retrieving information and to take steps now that will enable
us to adopt real solutions as they become available.

Resource Sharing

Vogl Library users can request any item they need, whether Vogl owns it or not. The Library
participates in a robust resource sharing infrastructure with other libraries, and has cooperative
agreements with libraries around the world.

Each request results in a process that discovers the material and delivers it in the timeliest

Requests can be submitted from home or office by using whatever methods is most convenient to
the patron/user.

 an online Interlibrary Borrowing Request for books, periodicals, or theses available

 CDL Request to automatically place a request for an item in the Melvyl Catalog
 LIBRARY-eLinks to request full text or interlibrary loan of items in article databases
 the Page NRLF feature in Pathfinder
 Pathfinder's "Stanford Request" or the RLCP Request form for direct borrowing of
Stanford materials


 Articles are delivered to individual computer desktops via the web when possible or
mailed to the individual's campus address.
 Books can be delivered to offices for Vogl users who have BAKER accounts.
 Books are moved on an expedited basis between the Library’s, CSU's and Stanford using
a daily commercial delivery service.
 The Northern and Southern Regional Library Facilities have served LIBRARY campuses
well by providing convenient and environmentally optimized shelving for items that do not
fit on campus. Both facilities provide onsite access to users who want to work with long
runs of materials, and will deliver items to campus libraries for user pick up. NRLF and
SRLF can now provide seamless delivery of articles in storage directly to a patron's

Building World-Class Collections

Vogl Library uses a number of strategies in building collections and ensuring convenient present
and future access to materials:

 consortia purchase and careful licensing

 shared print archive
 digitizing collections
 cooperative selecting
 archiving and preservation
 alternative publishing

Consortia purchase and careful licensing

The Library intentionally leverages the collection dollars we have in order to purchase the
materials needed for infrastructure and research.

• For electronic and digital collections, it has proved very useful for us to join with
other LIBRARY campuses and negotiate for discounts that would not be available
to us if each campus were to contract with a vendor separately.
• Digital resources are most often licensed, not purchased. The Library reviews
every contract to ensure that it meets basic standards that provide for perpetual
access and lending of materials under fair use laws.
• Legally these contracts are largely untested and various proposed changes in
copyright laws raise a number of issues.
• Vogl, like our sister institutions nationwide, are watching developments. As
participants in national groups like ALA as the Association for Research Libraries,
we provide input to our state and federal representatives as they write and vote on
information legislation.

Shared Print Archive

The shared print program began with a single print subscription to each of the 900+ Elsevier titles
included in the electronic package negotiated by the LIBRARY in 2004. Subsequent negotiations
have created similar prospective print archives for several publishers including the following:

• American Association of Cancer Research (2008- );

• American Geophysical Union (2005- );
• American Institute of Physics (2005- );
• American Psychological Association (2008- );
• Anglophone Canadian monographic literature (2005- );
• Association for Computing Machinery (2000- );
• Blackwell Publishers (2005- );
• British Medical Journal Specialty Journals (2004- );
• Institute of Physics (2005- );
• Kluwer (2004- );
• Nature Academic (2004- );
• New England Journal of Medicine (2004- );

• Optical Society of America (2005- );
• Sage (2005- );
• SPIE Journals (2005 );
• Springer LINK (2005- );
• and Wiley (2004- ).
• A prospective shared print collection for Taylor and Francis is underway.
• A retrospective shared print collection is being established for a number of journals in

Each campus can now make print retention decisions confident that LIBRARY users have access
to a print version when needed. For the rare occasions when the electronic version is inadequate,
the Southern Regional Library Facility (SRLF), home to the shared print collections, can provide
web-based delivery of articles, or on a last-resort library-use only basis, can deliver the original
print to the user's home campus.

Digitizing Collections

The Library plays a significant national role as a publisher of digitized collections, making them
available to the much wider audience than those who can visit in person.

 Vogl Library Digital Collections

 The Bancroft Library digital collections
 Online Archive of California, Vogl's holdings, a project of CDL
 Open Content Alliance, LIBRARY holdings in the Internet Archive. Project funded by
 Search Google Books, a partnership of LIBRARY Libraries and Google Book Search
Library Project to digitize books.

Areas of current work include scalable digital library system architectures; developing efficient
methods for creating digital library content; the long-term preservation of digital materials; and
creating standards for digital objects, digitization, and archival collection descriptions.

Cooperative Selecting

Vogl has a number of cooperative collection agreements. This allows us to assign purchase
responsibilities for parts of subject areas or geographic region. The result is that the aggregate
collection is richer than any single institution can create alone.

Archiving and Preservation

As budgets shrink, libraries cannot afford to acquire and maintain information in both print and
electronic formats. Yet, as we shift to fewer print copies in the system, The Library and other
LIBRARY campuses have a responsibility for ensuring that both print and digital collections are
available in perpetuity. In addition to The Library's commitment to the shared print archives, Vogl
is a founding member of Portico and LOCKSS. Vogl is also a participant in CDL's Web Archiving
Service, Summer 2008.

Alternative Publishing

A number of alternative models are arising for scholarly communication in response to faculty
awareness of and demand for high-quality, ubiquitous, and quick distribution of affordable
scholarly information. A groundswell of new initiatives are arising, undertaken by publishers,
libraries, universities, and individual faculty, each with the goal of testing how digital publishing
can best serve the goals and values of scholarship.

The Vogl Library is nurturing and providing a new infrastructure by

 providing information to faculty on the issues of scholarly communication.

 hosting pilot programs to support faculty in trying alternative forms of publishing (see the
Vogl Research Impact Initiative, funds for authors to pay open access fees).
 co-hosting campus discussions on the topic (see Faculty Conversation: April 14, 2008).
 redirecting users to alternative sources for high-quality information.
 actively providing financial support to new alternative publishers.
 redirecting library dollars to support information-sharing models that are financially

We are fortunate to have access to groundbreaking alternative publishing being created at CDL's
eScholarship, including pre-print and post-print repositories, as well as collaborations with
LIBRARY Press to create and make accessible digital monograph collections. For more
information, see eScholarship.

Budget Outlook

The Library's budget request to campus for 2007-08 reported,

Over the past six years we have incurred a little over $600,000 of unfunded inflation each year.
Because the campus has declined in six successive budget rounds to enhance the collections
base, this annual deficit representing approximately 5% of the overall library materials budget has
been cumulative.

The factors driving this deficit have accelerated since that budget request was prepared. U.S.
journal prices grew at a rate of 8% and non U.S. journal prices went up by 10% for FY 2007.
Even more alarming, academic book prices jumped 6.4%, contrasted with an average 3% rise the
preceding six years. But perhaps the most significant factor influencing this year's collection
budget is the dramatic decline in the value of the U.S. dollar against a broad range of currencies
for countries where we acquire large amounts of scholarly material. The Library spent $5.86
million on books in 2007. Of that amount $3.25 million (or 55% of the total) was expended for
items priced in currencies other than the dollar.

Last year's budget request documented the growth of a successive deficit over the course of FY
2007-2010, ranging from $2.18 million [$2,180,000] in FY 2008 to $2.86 million [$2,860,000] in FY

• The Library has responded to this situation by a strategy of covering the deficits through
use of carry-forward balances in the operating budget and the elimination of unrestricted
endowment balances.
• This "carry forward plan" incorporates an intense fundraising campaign focused on
• Over the course of the coming three years, a growing percentage of the collections
budget's ongoing costs will be paid from non-recurring funding sources, beginning with
11% of the total in the current fiscal year to a projected 22% in FY 2011.
• The cliff we are approaching is clear in its outline: the sources that we are tapping to bail
out the collections budget are declining in size and capacity.
• Using ideas form Library Foundation of California Emerging Technology Fund as a Non-
profit explicitly formed in 1992 as to address the gap in funding between
state and local budgets.

Change in Outcomes or Metrics Over Time:

• How long does it take to secure results for the program above?

LAPL staff stays abreast of new technologies as they emerge and evaluate for

Progress and change have been accelerating at an ever-increasing pace; the “virtual
library” of the 1990s bears little resemblance to the state-of-the-art library of today.
Public use has increased exponentially. As new technology developments are
ongoing, so are fundraising needs and efforts. Library Foundation donors are
increasingly aware of the important role the private sector plays in achieving success
Unless permanent base funding is found, libraries face fundamental decisions about
the value and importance of its research collections.

Budget Strategies

Our immediate goal is to provide access to as much unique content as possible. Our underlying
goal is to build a sustainable financial model that will provide ongoing, reliable access to materials
wherever they reside.

Many of the strategies listed below mirror similar suggestions made in the Report of the Blue
Ribbon Committee on Libraries, April 1998 (PDF). Advances have been made in many of these
arenas and the Library continues to pursue and expand these ideas.

1. Redirect duplication of content — journals available electronically.

LIBRARY is collecting centrally an archival print copy for over twenty of the largest journal
publishers, including Blackwell, Elsevier, IEEE, Sage, Springer, Taylor & Francis, Wiley.
This provides the Library with more flexibility regarding on-site collection management
and at the same time reduces the processing and acquisitions costs associated with

managing two formats.

For more information: Challenges and Strengths - Shared Print Archive.

2. Redirect duplication of content — to other formats.

Vogl has and will continue to realize savings by discontinuing hardcopy versions of other
materials, e.g., newspapers and reference tools, to which we have electronic access.

3. Perform cost/benefit analysis for titles that used to be a one-time cost and have since
become an annual lien.

Typically, as encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc., have been made available electronically,

the pricing structure has changed from a one-time expense for the current version, to an
annual expense to cover ongoing updates. In some cases this has resulted in a sky-
rocketing of net cost for the same item. Vogl Library is regularly reviewing these titles on
a case by case basis, and at times is negotiating for better prices or awaiting changes in
this unsustainable pricing model.

• Assist the campus to become less reliant on print.

• Most members of the campus community have already found the benefits of being able
to access materials electronically from home, office, and at off-site research facilities.

• There is a wealth of material to be had — with some learning curve involved.

• Library staff will continue to work closely with faculty, students, and staff to get the most
out of electronic resources.

• Library staff is available to meet with individuals, to attend departmental meetings, to

meet with GSIs, and to provide in-classroom presentations of subject-relevant resources
and tools.

For more information: Library liaisons

4. Participate with the campus to identify the highest priorities for collections.

In order to best use the fixed budget we have within an environment of inflationary costs,
the Library will work closely with faculty to determine how best to support research and
teaching for all the academic disciplines and programs at Vogl.

For more information: Vogl Strategic Academic Plan

5. Monitor and influence the future of scholarly communication.

The largest inflation has often occurred for publications which use materials
created by our own faculty.

6. Many librarians, faculty, and publishers themselves, are voicing the need to rethink the
current model for scholarly communication.

For more information: Scholarly Communication

Pursue cooperative agreements that serve campus priorities.

• Given the explosion of information, and the rise in publishing costs, it is not possible
for any given institution to own everything that its community needs.
• We already participate very successfully in several resource sharing and cooperative
collection programs and we need to expand this strategy into new program areas.

In this way we will be able to focus our resources to build local collections that serve and
complement similar initiatives at other campuses — making all materials mutually available
through excellent resource access and sharing programs.

Budget Actions by Year

Below are links to budget timelines and actions by year, including rates of inflation, calculated
deficits, and cancellation lists if applicable.

Due to the timeline for realizing savings, The Library is now addressing issues deficits projected
for FY 2007-2008.

 actions taken FY 2007-2008 to redress projected shortfall for 2008-2009

 actions taken FY 2008-2007 to redress projected shortfall for 2007-2008
 actions taken FY 2005-2008 to redress projected shortfall for 2008-2007
 actions taken FY 2004-2005 to redress projected shortfall for 2005-2008
 actions taken FY 2003-2004 to redress projected shortfall for 2004-2005
 actions taken FY 2009-2003 to redress projected shortfall for 2003-2004

Budget Actions Taken in 2007-2008
to redress projected shortfall for 2008-2009

Each year The Library experiences inflationary increases that compound from year to year. The
Library has not received any new recurring state money for six years. These two facts result in a
successive deficit that grows annually.

In Fall 2007, looking at available state funding we estimated a deficit in 2008-09 of ~$2.99 million,
based on inflation rates of

 0% for monographs
 3% for continuations (e.g., monographic series)
 8% for serials
 5% for electronic packages

Beginning in 2007-08, we embarked on a program to use these extraordinary funds to cover the
deficit in state funding for routine collections costs:

 Asking individual selectors to spend down any carry forward funds

 Asking individual selectors to use endowment income
 Using AUL-managed endowment and gift income
 Drawing on non-collections Library one-time funds
 Naming the library collections as one of two primary goals for our internal and campus
development efforts.

These strategies, however, will not last over time. If no new recurring state funds are received, we
face a "cliff" in the not-so-distant future when non-state funds have all been spent and serious
reductions in library collecting patterns will need to occur.

J. Turner, George Street Journal, vol. 24.

Appendix ‘A’
Planning Process

A pre-evaluation process with flexible “works-in-process’ flow diagrams that reflected the

realities of changes as they happened [revisions, obstructions to the original plan and deviations]

was developed as a visual aid to ensure everyone was ‘”on the same page” in the process as it

moved along.


Mapped goals from

Evolving plan
Beginning to End
dealing with
Current Plan Changes documented
obstacles, current
Resolutions given
Change Com.

Mission and Vision statements were tied to real and tangible objectives and goals that that

measurable outcomes; not “pie in the sky” wish lists. Open forums allowing for public comment

from all actors in the process from external users to internal developers of programs and

processes was given along with distribution of minutes to all those interested in the form of an

‘opt-in’ email distribution list and several suggestion boxes to keep a ‘tally’ of ideas and input that

may come up along the way. Revisions to the initial plan and the direction it is taking would not

have any major deviations without further planning rigor, but mild steering waypoints that lead into

beneficial directions of expression to alleviate constraints, work-around obstacles and solve

immediate issues are being considered at all points of the project.

Finally, brainstorming sessions by the plan's Steering Committee in conjunction with

information from important survey tools such as the Values Audit of library personnel and an

online User Survey were used and will continue to be used in the post-mortem section of the

project planning and resolution for lessons learned and transportable skills being defined for other

projects and initiatives in the future. Defining strengths and weakness of the outcomes will aid

future development of projects that may be exportable and used by other departments, agencies

and planning organizations outside of our organization to streamline efforts, follow project steps

and plans and try to ensure comparable results to other agencies who seek to implement and

fulfill similar projects. Creating ‘best in class’ projects that create publicity, public relations

opportunities and consulting engagements for intellectual property and building skills for

professional to use and chronicle in resumes for future job promotions and enhancements is a

desired outcome due to the changing nature of the job market, the marketability of the university

and ongoing public relations done between user communities and internal and external publics

that utilize our services.

o The crucial stage of the planning process was the formation of eight working groups
drawn from all sectors of the library.

o Each committee would focus on one of eight Strategic Directions in order to generate
realistic goals and accompanying strategies.

o Time and economic constraints dictated that the committees' reports be brief and
realistic from a budgetary point of view.

o A Performance Measures Task Force assessed the feasibility of actions in the reports.

o The last step of the project was a consolidation of the reports of all eight working groups.

o The crucial element here was the incorporation of similar areas of concern and specific
actions recommended by each committee.

o The final documents submitted reflect the realism, flexibility, and comprehensiveness that
had shaped the strategic planning process.

o A three-year "Strategic Plan, 2009-2012", was produced but also a more specific and
immediately-executable set of "Goals and Objectives for 2009-20010."

Appendix ‘B’

A Review of Information collected

The source information for the Vogl library was constructed from a variety of sources. All
citations and references were included at the bottom of each page where such references were
used as indicated by hyper-links and similar notations. Demographic information, “Best Practices”
for staffing and scheduling activities, access to library personnel and services as well as
budgetary considerations that reflect the most current budget environments and challenges are
included with multiple profiles of public, scholarly and national institutional [Library of Congress]
references were given to personify the current state of library systems and the challenges they



OK, we admit a bias here.

We love libraries and the people who staff them. We believe that the public library is perhaps the most
democratic of institutions, an open-armed home for the homeless, refuge for the latchkey generation,
font of knowledge for the schooled, unschooled and perpetually curious.

Unfortunately, too many libraries are becoming less open, not because of changing policies or
homeland security issues (where the librarian has become a front-line defender of privacy rights), but
because of budget constraints. Funding cuts have forced many systems to reduce staff, hours and
days of operation.

Officials in John Steinbeck's city of Salinas, CA, voted in December 2004 to close the main library and

both branches. The libraries remain open only because of local fundraising efforts. In several states,
librarians have carried their cause to the capitol steps.

When we began our study of library budgets, we planned to list the communities that showed the
greatest appreciation for libraries, by ranking levels of local government funding. Our thought was that
the cities and towns at the top should serve as models.

However, given the current climate, we fear that such a listing might be used as justification for
reducing the budgets of favored libraries, rather than increasing support to those in need.

So we reversed our focus, and looked at the other end of the spectrum. How many libraries are
struggling with substandard budgets?

Using data recently released by the National Center for Education Statistics, we studied library
expenditures per population served, for fiscal 2002. We adjusted these figures for differences in cost
of living, using per-capita income figures from the 2000 census.

Our survey was limited to public libraries receiving local support, with total expenditures of at least
$10,000 in fiscal years 2001 and 2002, and serving unduplicated populations of at least 2,000 people.

The average 2002 spending (adjusted) of the 6,349 public libraries included in our study was $30.32
per person served. Of the library systems studied, 1,130 (18 percent) reported per capita spending
that was less than half that. Those libraries - with annual spending of less than $15 per person - are
shown in the above map.

We won't bother to make a case for why $15 per year per person is a despicable amount to allocate
for public libraries. (We can't resist pointing out, however, that the typical household spent an average
$52 per month for cable access in 2002.)

The world grows more complex by the hour. The digital divide grows ever wider. And library spending
ought to be growing, too.

· For more information on the NCES figures, see the March 2005 report, Public Libraries in the United
States (PDF). The data for this report can be found at

· To check figures for your local library, use our library search page, or simply search for your
community name and go to the "Libraries" section of the page.

Sources: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Census Bureau, J.D. Power & Associates
-- May 2005

Other rankings and top 10 lists

Appendix ‘C’

Organizational Chart

This organization chart is representative of what the Vogl library would look like. The Internal
structure is setup by community leaders who look to receive input by community groups and voices
from all community members. Priorities are often reflective of community participation, budgets
garnered from community participation with an eye for helping under-represented communities. A
special funding/grant department was established to ensure that all federal, state and local monies
available to be distributed for community projects relating to library services can be acquired and

Community liaisons who interpret specific community needs of literacy, support services and
outreach are also represented as a branch of this fiscal stimulus effort. The special events coordinator
was broken off the branch to be able to deal with advancing library causes and commitments within
the community and acting as a liaison to budget and planning groups to enhance community outreach

As library services go outside of library walls, we want to remain relevant by making the
library as a gathering place for social interaction as well as information services. We also want to

remain relevant as to activities that go on outside of library walls to virtual environments that keep our
knowledge base current and up-to-date with library users needs. These are represented by the
technology and web services departments working hand-in-hand with accounting and public relations
to see where we can extend our reach in publicizing events, meeting budget requirements and being
most efficient in expensing resources for the best return-on-investment in spending the public’s money
to meet the public’s needs.

The library organization chart has been broken out in functional sections to allow for inter-
departmental specialties to be strengthened in one sense and better collaborated to other
departments in another sense. Grouping library function to reach special audiences such as
youth/teen, handicapped blind/deaf, or languages that represent the inhabitants of that community are
branched in Public Services and the management of populations that need representation within the
library environment and the percentage of usage required to substantiate and enhance those services
proportionally to the constituent base that uses the resources.

Appendix ‘D’

Staffing and Scheduling

Due to lack of resources and increasing attendance numbers and growing technology needs, cross-
training in departments and coordinated efforts to cover slower areas to improve training in growing
areas has been instituted. We have created technological vehicles to cover staff shortages, for
example, a person covering the child or youth department may track the hours of the day when youth
are at a low usage period, put up a sign to see [him/her] at the reference desk if they need help or ring
the bell left at the children/youth counters. We have also installed electronic chimes that light up at
service counters indicating which counter the patron is at and allowing a speaker monitor to allow a
two way conversation to see if someone needs to go to a counter to assist a patron or if a quick
directional interaction can achieve the same goal.

The hierarchy of cross-training will be implemented by days on/off work and the traffic flow to areas on
those days and the priority of business that each area produces. An initial clicker/counter take a
number [low tech] approach was taken to have people sign in for services and to record and tally
results daily/weekly/monthly to track patterns of usage and watch as new usage trends develop. We
seek to address this electronically with software over time, but the initial costs of training, further
scheduling and coordination to use technology became prohibitive. Using a simple Microsoft excel
spreadsheet as a tracking and tabulation mechanism with mathematical tabulation formulas
implemented into the cells is giving what is needed until we can find a free or open source web 2.0
mash-up solution that is user friendly and requires little training to use.

Training Priority

Training priority and staffing will come in this order:

1. Seniority
2. Availability
3. Alternating days off scheduled monthly so exposure to slow work days are available for
4. Minimum monthly training requirements will be set [4 hrs/mo. Initially until each person has
received/recorded 4 hrs. In each department and then if time allows for more, it will be
increased incrementally by half-hour slots each month or reduced accordingly to monthly
attainment goals].
5. Seasonal considerations and work hours that span busy after school/ after work time periods
will be rotated periodically to accommodate staff training.

Reference: What I Wish I Had Learned in Library School: A Public Librarian’s Perspective
by Nancy Larrabee - About the Author: Nancy Larrabee has been the Head of Information Services at
the Greenburgh Public Library in Elmsford, New York, since 2001.
Article published Nov 2007

Appendix ‘E’

Hours of Operation

Hours of Operation: 24/7 Virtual Support operations:

Walk-in Hours: 10-8 pm M-Thurs.

Noon-10 p.m. Saturday & Sunday

Virtual Support operations:

My Words

• Anything that makes my life easier and the work I have to do less time consuming I love.
• There are too many things to do, not enough time to do them all, University of Pittsburg [UOP]
has created a front-end interface on their web page database interface called ‘Zoom!’ that list
the categories of search and you can easily check boxes that apply to the fields of search you
want to enquire in.
• This is so much easier and efficient than using old search methodologies of standard
• For those of us who did not come up under that archaic method of training, and to those who
labored to master them, there is a new thing called the World Wide Web that makes direct
access much easier.
• Have you heard of it? It really is a great tool and there are graphics and video and all kind of
neat things that are no longer just text-based.
• It is a whole new world, and Chris Columbus would be proud of you for trying it out
• And talking about innovative ways to get help from a librarian – check out all of the jobs they
have created for E-Librarian support functions [below]

Ask-A-Librarian in about any way 365/24/7

If you'd like to send us a general comment, feedback, or a suggestion you can do that here...

Looking for a specific staff person? Check our staff directory.

Download our hCard to add us to your contacts.
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librarians. If you need to know how to establish
an IM account click here.

Text Messaging (SMS)

1. Type in Imapittlibrarian: and then type

your question

2. Send your text to 265010

PITT Libraries do not charge for this service

or receive revenue from cell phone
providers. Cell phone providers generally
charge customers for sending and/or
receiving text messages. These charges
vary from plan to plan and from telephone
provider to provider.
Fill out our email reference form and we will
answer within a few hours but no longer than 24
hours (except when the university is closed or
between terms).
In Person
If you prefer a face-to-face exchange, you can
stop by any of the listed libraries for personal
assistance or request an appointment through
our email service.
Speak with a Reference Librarian for help with
simple questions. Call Hillman Reference at
412-648-3330 or select a different library

Self Service
Librarians have created many guides to help
you with your research. You may find answers
to your questions here.

Reference librarians are available to meet
individually with PITT students, faculty, and
staff to provide assistance with research
projects. Consultations may be arranged by
requesting an appointment or by contacting

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