Information Use by Millennials vs.

Boomers

Running Head: MILLINNEALS USE OF INFORMATION VS. THE BABY-BOOMERS

Millennials Use of Information vs. The Baby-Boomers Dr. Cherie Givens LIBR200-23

Tim Trevathan San Jose State University – M.L.I.S. Program Fall 2008

Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Abstract Different generations have always presented different challenges in variables such as reference of cultural importance, communication styles, values and acceptance of the world view of their elders. Today’s generation has the access and ability to supplant these issues in ways that empower them and mitigate the influence that past generations had over control, authority and

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even at times, expertise. Knowledge as power and access to information to make decisions gives inert ability to process forward movement in society, thus creating an acceleration of change. This change has a de-stabilizing effect on politics, religion, social environments and societies as a whole. This change also enables, empowers and re-aligns the world as we have known it since the inception of history. The technology makes for some ‘game-changers’ and attitudes can shift voluntarily or be eclipsed by the power and velocity of the change that is occurring. [Like it or not…here it comes].

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Introduction

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My thesis [of sorts] is seeking to validate my perception that indicates that the 82 million Baby-Boomers and the 80 million Millennials generation [of 181 million working tax-payers in the U.S. – our ‘customers’] have very different orientations towards library services and information access and usage. The resistance of older library system personnel and corporate America illustrates the 'lag' between the two entities world view and technology orientation differences. Boomers [the majority of] for example, have “no interest” in many of the technologies and surrounding digital culture items that many millennials partake in. The disparity of numbers often shows the divergence in the exposure to the technologies and following of trends that come along with those technologies.

I am trying to not only chronicle this for academic purpose, but to allow SJSU to act as the premier entity it is in advancing change, adapting to technology and being the trail-blazers in innovation as Silicon Valley is known for. This is not a new or untested phenomenon, but people,

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cultures [library and other], age groups, anthropology issue and societal context need the balance of the 'pioneers & homesteaders' [see my SJSU SlisLife Blog Entry “Web 2.0” at (http://slislife.spartasocialnetworks.com/Tim Trevathan)]. In chronicling this change, the resistance to new, more adept, efficient online access tools and the threat that represent to brick & mortar libraries that need not exist. If the needs of library patrons are met with the needs of the community [see my SJSU SlisLife Blog "Funding Libraries is not Rocket Science” (http://slislife.spartasocialnetworks.com/Tim Trevathan)] then the survival and actual thriving of library systems as functional bridges between the needs of the two generations and their habits, attitudes and ability to access information and library systems is assured. Top-down Org. 'A' management [Beauracratic] vs. horizontal type ‘B’ Org.’s [ collaborative – ‘flat’ - Friedman "The World is Flat"] type information access behaviors are exhibited by the rapid change and impact to global geo-political structures of economics, politics and global resource utilization. “It’s like globalization, some people will never ‘get it’, some cultures will fight to maintain their ancient ways and customs, some will adapt. But ultimately the world changes and how we react to that change defines our future and destiny (Tim Trevathan, Dec. 2008).” “The pentagon’s new map” (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TBWbNXbi9w)

Literature Review Millennials as a topic have taken on significance in recent years as the generation gap created not only by time, but by technology, has created a new type of digital divide. The tools, ascendancy and methods of the millennial generation growing up with tools that are ubiquitous

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers in all environments, both work and play, in some senses defines who these people are, how they work and what methods they use to solve problems and illustrate talent. The root of their existence is often characterized by more isolated tendencies in face-to-face social behavior but fill that void with a tendency to be ‘always connected’ electronically. Studies on millennials and their impact on society, both numerically [80 million Millennials vs. the Baby Boomers 82 million] (Duck, April 7–10, 2005, p. 2) and the social impact they are shaping in many areas of  society has been developed over the last decade. Any bubble generation that represent large  numerical components will have a large impact on many if not most of the other factors of  society including politics, religion, anthropology, social science, law and social order.(Howe & Strauss, Millennials Rising, 2000) .

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This article is about the social science. For other uses, see Anthropology (disambiguation).

Anthropology portal Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/, from Greek ἄνθρωπος, anthrōpos, "human"; -λογία, -logia) is the study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, and the humanities.[1] Ethnography is both one of its primary methods and the text that is written as a result of the practice of anthropology and its elements. Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology has been distinguished from other social science disciplines by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context, crosscultural comparisons (socio-cultural anthropology is by nature a comparative discipline), and the importance it places on long-term, experiential immersion in the area of research, often known as participant-observation. Cultural anthropology in particular has emphasized cultural relativity and the use of findings to frame cultural critiques. This has been particularly prominent in the

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers United States, from Boas's arguments against 19th-century racial ideology, through Margaret Mead's advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation, to current criticisms of post-colonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropology) How information and technology affect society as a whole and our future generations in  their learning styles, acclimation to the work­force and empowerment to lead and govern in all  environments from government, legal, academic and social underpinnings is of great  consequence. 

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Futurists predict that within ten years almost half of the workforce will be employed in information-based occupations - gathering, processing, retrieving and analyzing information. To be successful in this information economy, students must prepare themselves with the knowledge and skills they will need in tomorrow's world of work. The illiterate of the year 2000, according to Alvin Toffler, will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. Our students need to be information literate, lifelong learners. (Koechlin and Zwaan, Teaching Tools for the Information Age, 2001). Information literacy is defined as "the ability to acquire, critically evaluate, select, use, create and communicate information in ways which lead to knowledge and wisdom" (Information Literacy and Equitable Access (ILEA): Draft Document, Ministry of Education and Training, 1995). Information literacy is the key to helping students use learning throughout their lives as a way to solve problems, act ethically, plan for the future and prepare for change. According to the Association of TeacherLibrarians in Canada (ATLC), students, to become lifelong learners, must be able to: • • • • • • • recognize the need for information to solve problems and develop ideas; pose important questions; use a variety of information gathering strategies and research processes; locate relevant and appropriate information; access information for quality, authority, accuracy and authenticity; use the practical and conceptual tools of information technology; understand form and format of information, location and access methods, including how information is situated and produced;

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers • 2008) That being the case, looking forward within the current generation and onto the next, the conflicts in the digital divide will continue to escalate as another form of ‘have’ and ‘have nots’ format and publish in text and multimedia, adapting to emerging technologies.
(http://www.accessola.com/action/positions/info_studies/html/intro.html accessed

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online Oct.

develop. The rise of the technologically competent vs. the non-technologically competent digital divide will become as significant in work-place environments as the current age and view of technology and society is. This divide will span across all demographics of race, gender, income and age. The technologically savvy vs. the non-technologically savvy will determine job function and pay in most areas of job function at some level. Our road map can be graphed for success, or we can continue to use “what has always worked” without modification and see the dismal results of both wrong headed experimentation, initiatives to pass test [no child left behind], outdated curriculum and learning methods or allow a generation to teach itself what it can online without regard to focus or substance of knowledge and ‘connecting the dots’ outside of rote learning methods.

September 22, 2008 (Computerworld) Like most generations before it, Generation Y -- those born between roughly 1982 and 2002 -- has been stereotyped based on a cultural change identified with its era. In this case, the group is united by a hunger to use the latest technologies to communicate. [The internet drive and public access ability did not start until 1992]. These digital natives -- also known as millennials -- are natural multi-taskers, often simultaneously texting on a mobile device and instant-messaging on a PC without removing even one iPod ear bud [which sprouted closer to 1998 for IM and Oct 2001 for the first iPod].Many of this generation can't conceive of communicating without an instant messaging system or social network. Now that members of Generation Y are graduating from college and entering the workforce, they're bringing with them a slew of technology demands. In fact, in many cases, they research the technology portfolios of potential employers before agreeing to schedule job interviews. 7

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Because this generation's demands are vastly different from those of earlier groups, many companies are struggling to find ways to satisfy them. Businesses that don't may find themselves struggling to hire and keep the most talented young workers, say some experts who have studied Generation Y. (Alsop, 2007) The generation before the millennials is quite different. The classic film “You Are what you Were, When….” (Massey, 1978), Illustrates the factors that affect people as their world-view develops. The economy, pop culture, working moms, music and culture, all affected the previous generation and its self-reliant attitudes and expectations of how they work, when they work and what type of conditions they will work in or who they will work for are coming into focus. The 51 million members of Generation X, born between 1965 and 1976, grew up in a very different world than previous generations. Divorce and working moms created "latch-key" kids out of many in this generation. This led to traits of independence, resilience and adaptability. Generation X feels strongly that "I don't need someone looking over my shoulder." At the same time, this generation expects immediate and ongoing feedback, and is equally comfortable giving feedback to others. Other traits include working well in multicultural settings, desire for some fun in the workplace and a pragmatic approach to getting things done. Generation X saw their parents get laid off or face job insecurity. Many of them also entered the workplace in the early '80s, when the economy was in a downturn. Because of these factors, they've redefined loyalty. Instead of remaining loyal to their company, they have a commitment to their work, to the team they work with, and the boss they work for. For example, a Baby Boomer complains about his dissatisfaction with management, but figures its part of the job. A Gen Xer doesn't waste time complaining-she sends her resume out and accepts the best offer she can find at another organization. At the same time, Generation X takes employability seriously. But for this generation there isn't a career ladder. There's a career lattice. They can move laterally, stop and start, their career is more fluid. Even more so than Baby Boomers, members of Generation X dislike authority and rigid work requirements. An effective mentoring relationship with them must be as hands-off as possible. Providing feedback on their performance should play a big part, as should encouraging their creativity and initiative to find new ways to get tasks done. As a mentor, you'll want Gen Xers to work with you, not for you.

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Start by informing them of your expectations and how you'll measure their progress and assure them that you're committed to helping them learn new skills. (Members of Generation X are eager to learn new skills because they want to stay employable.) Gen Xers work best when they're given the desired outcome and then turned loose to figure out how to achieve it. This means a mentor should guide them with feedback and suggestions, not step-by-step instructions. (Thielfoldt & Scheef, 2004) Learning to overcome generational values and the ensuing conflicts that arise in the work place and the ensuing conflict that represents is in need of critical analysis, learning to adapt communication styles both verbally and technologically and change motivational methods accordingly becomes the charter to bridging the gap between three or more very different generations and the ways they interact, both in private and how that extends to the work place. The theory and methodology being used today often does not encompass the differences or the will to change by any of the participants. By doing training sessions, understanding who we are as a people, as a generation and not categorically labeling each other, we find out why we behave as we do and then see how we are the same, not just different, making a bridge to understanding what makes working environments ‘work’ that enhance diversity, communication, leadership, listening, management skills, motivation and inspiration, respectful workplace, teams and teambuilding. (Massy, Just Get It!, 1994)

Generation X Born 1965-1976 51 million Accept diversity Pragmatic/practical Self-reliant/individualistic Reject rules Killer life Mistrust institutions

Millennials Born 1977 – 1998 75 million Celebrate diversity Optimistic/realistic Self-inventive/individualistic Rewrite the rules Killer lifestyle Irrelevance of institutions

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers PC Use technology Multitask Latch-key kids Friend-not family Mentoring Do’s · Casual, friendly work environment · Involvement · Flexibility and freedom · A place to learn Internet Assume technology Multitask fast Nurtured Friends = family Mentoring Do’s · Structured, supportive work environment · Personalized work · Interactive relationship · Be prepared for demands, high expectations

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Source: The Learning Café and American Demographics enterprising museum 2003.

How the generations access and use information is different as the time-frames, circumstances and technologies that they were exposed to. The Baby Boomers had a relatively late start at gaining access to technology in the home and in a 24 hour-a-day environment and the late start really began to evolve with the internet and Windows version 3.1 and the development of the Netscape browser in 1992 giving graphic information and navigation capability to web access over previous DOS text-only environments. Suddenly the richness of the internet and the content of the world was made open for all to explore. As literally millions of web pages were added daily at first, today that growth is exponential as the user base of the World Wide Web increase. Billions of pages are literally accessed daily and almost the same amounts are created, stored and utilized. This gold rush of information and the ability to digitize, collect and distribute information caused revolutionary changes described as cataclysmic in some ways, but enabling in others. The advent of access became the boom of information dissemination, mis-information, dis-information, propaganda and sometimes outright fraud and lies. Learning to discern viable and credible information became of utmost importance, but like usual, bureaucracy in the form

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers of slow-to-change often got in the way of progress. Government was surprisingly quick at

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getting some information on the web while it still has a long way to go in other areas. Academia, used to Me, My and Mine territorial budgets, status and control often combated change instead of adapting to it. The Internet and its users did not wait, they just simply went around the entities that tried to slow or block progress. (Friedman, 2005).

“The World is Flat” - Friedman Ten flatteners
Friedman defines ten "flatteners" that he sees as leveling the global playing field:

#1: Collapse of Berlin Wall--11/'89: The event not only symbolized the end of the Cold war, it allowed people from other side of the wall to join the economic mainstream. (11/09/1989) #2: Netscape: Netscape and the Web broadened the audience for the Internet from its roots as a communications medium used primarily by 'early adopters and geeks' to something that made the Internet accessible to everyone from five-year-olds to ninety-five-year olds. (8/9/1995). The digitization that took place meant that everyday occurrences such as words, files, films, music and pictures could be accessed and manipulated on a computer screen by all people across the world. #3: Workflow software: The ability of machines to talk to other machines with no humans involved. Friedman believes these first three forces have become a "crude foundation of a whole new global platform for collaboration." #4: Open sourcing: Communities uploading and collaborating on online projects. Examples include open source software, blogs, YouTube and Wikipedia. Friedman considers the phenomenon "the most disruptive force of all." #5: Outsourcing: Friedman argues that outsourcing has allowed companies to split service and manufacturing activities into components which can be subcontracted and performed in the most efficient, cost-effective way anywhere in the world. This disruptor follows post-Fordist views of capitalism finding the lowest labor sources to fund the highest profit margins for Global Corporate Titans. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-Fordism) #6: Offshoring: The internal relocation of a company's manufacturing or other processes to a foreign land in order to take advantage of less costly operations and labor costs there. China's entrance in the WTO allowed for greater competition in the playing field. Now countries such as Malaysia, Mexico, and Brazil must compete against China and each other to have

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businesses offshore to them. Countries like India have already begun Offshoring some of their work from the U.S. Information Technology sector to lower paying labor forces in highly educated places like Uruguay. (SJSU Colloquia. “My Fulbright Scholarship trip to Uruguay” - Colloquia.) #7: Supply chaining: Friedman compares the modern retail supply chain to a river, and points to Wal-Mart as the best example of a company using technology to streamline item sales, distribution, and shipping. #8: Insourcing: Friedman uses UPS as a prime example for insourcing, in which the company's employees perform services--beyond shipping--for another company. For example, UPS repairs Toshiba computers on behalf of Toshiba. The work is done at the UPS hub, by UPS employees. #9: In-forming: Google and other search engines are the prime example. "Never before in the history of the planet have so many people-on their ownhad the ability to find so much information about so many things and about so many other people", writes Friedman. The growth of search engines is tremendous; for example take Google, in which Friedman states that it is "now processing roughly one billion searches per day, up from 150 million just three years ago". #10: "The Steroids": Personal digital devices like mobile phones, iPods, personal digital assistants, instant messaging, and voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).

Triple convergence
In addition to the ten flatteners, Friedman offers "the triple convergence," three additional components that acted on the flatteners to create a new, flatter global playing field. 1. Up until the year 2000, the ten flatteners were semi-independent from one another. An example of independence is the inability of one machine to perform multiple functions. When work-flow software and hardware converged, multiple functions such as e-mail, fax, printing, copying and communicating were able to be done from one machine. However, around the year 2000, all the flatteners converged with one another. This convergence could be compared to complementary goods, in that each flattener enhanced the other flatteners; the more one flattener developed, the more leveled the global playing field became. 2. After the emergence of the ten flatteners, a new business model was required to succeed. While the flatteners alone were significant, they would not enhance productivity without people being able to use them together. Instead of collaborating vertically (the top-down method of collaboration, where innovation comes from the top), businesses needed to begin collaborating horizontally. Horizontalization means companies and people collaborate with other departments or companies to add value creation or innovation. Friedman's Convergence II occurs when horizontalization and the ten flatteners begin to reinforce each other and people understand the capability of the technologies available.

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3. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, countries that had followed the Soviet economic model—including India, China, Russia, and the nations of Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Central Asia—began to open up their economies to the world. When these new players converged with the rest of the globalized marketplace, they added new brain power to the whole playing field and enhanced horizontal collaboration across the globe. In turn, Convergence III is the most important force shaping politics and economics in the early 21st century.

Proposed remedies
Friedman believes in order to fight the quiet crisis of a flattening world the United States work force should keep updating its work skills. Making the work force more adaptable, Friedman argues, will keep it more employable. He also suggests that the government should make it easier to switch jobs by making retirement benefits and health insurance less dependent on one's employer and by providing insurance that would partly cover a possible drop in income when changing jobs. Friedman also believes there should be more inspiration for youth to be scientists, engineers, and mathematicians due to a decrease in the percentage of these professionals being American. Two-thirds of today’s graduating PhD’s are not American in origin. (Friedman, 2005) As a result of this ‘flattening’, the vertical collaboration that previously existed within work-groups and in general interactions began to take on a more horizontal form. No longer was ‘top-down’ accountability and work process required. The social medium of the internet in the forms of email, instant messaging [IM] and other socially geared intermediary points [MySpace, Facebook, Twitter etc.] began to take hold as ‘bureaucracy busters’. Workers no longer needed the process flow, geography or localization of power, authority, accountability or isolation of resources to be productive or collaborative. Employee productivity and creativity value increased exponentially as tools became available to enhance workers abilities in the information age. These tools took on forms in every industry as time-savers and productivity enhancers and reduced the manual functions of many worker hours and gave employees the productivity levels of two or three previous workers abilities. This discovery compelled corporations at all sizes to function in a more stream-lined manner and created a new ‘value chain’ of requirements that

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers insisted workers be computer literate as well as technologically capable to ensure their competitiveness in the immediate work place function as well as remaining competitive in the new global work space. This evolution of skills required that even the lowest levels of workers

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and administrators have skills that reflected the ability to interact with a computer on the lowest side of the equation to being able to use and enhance computer access skills. This newest revision of the skills on the internet, characterized by the label ‘Web 2.0’ has created access points, solution bases and problem solving capabilities that had never existed at the individual level before. This access took on a new dimension in library systems as universities began to look for ways around cumbersome access methods that required in-house, localized information access and created new ways to access information from the World Wide Web and through internet connections and a simple web browser. Universities like the University of Pittsburg began tying front-end interfaces to back-end library databases and the competition between historically isolated information sources and globally accessible information sources began. Students demanded the ability to have information delivered to their computer, whether at home or on the fly via the laptop portable computer, and then later the Mac Iphone. The ability to access information anywhere anytime created a plethora of applications to create what was only envisioned 20 years ago as ‘space age’ Star Trek Next Generation technology evolved in a few short years. The incessant need by millennials to remain connected at all waking hours and beyond began to shape the world and the access to information that we had known into a new tool as well as a new monster. (Duck, Marketing the Millennials, 2005)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers As a new term came onto the horizon, “aggregation”, “aggregating” and consolidating data

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into portals like AOL had done in the early days of the internet took on a new meaning. Data and information was everywhere, but localizing and consolidating useful information into groups on the internet like browser ASK.com and research source Questia.com became more prevalent and useful. Academics required that with sometimes careless and inaccurate information existing on the internet, data and information needed to meet the rigors of academic study and the sources used to do research and support credible research and findings. Since the earliest times of institutional foundations, this exclusivity was the basis for the foundation for scholarly research to have its value and roots in academic, industrial and government circles. The tenants of power and control that those resources represented was now being threatened by resources that may be more current, relevant and valid than research that typically has a 3-5 year lag on what is current or presently going on in the fields being studied. Sources like Wikipedia.com are collaborated efforts, but not seen as ‘peer-reviewed’ because of being outside of academia’s control or power. This information can be propagated, manipulated, assimilated and disseminated without the prevue of academic control and the output can be more reliable in some cases, and less reliable in others. Since the funding sources of academia can lead to what can and cannot be researched or will be paid for ‘to’ research by government and private funding entities, the ‘buffer’ of control is once again removed. This lag provided a historical context and a look back at development, but rarely captured current events or trends that emerged. As an example, by the time research came out for blogs, which had been a phenomenon for nearly five years as individual voices emerged on the internet as new ‘experts’ on isolated subjects and ideas, the blogsosphere was declared

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‘dead’ and corrupted by corporate influence and being taken over and controlled by corporations by the end of a five year period. What had made blogs revolutionary had been overtaken by commercialization and major media outlets.
(Boutin, Paul Wired.com Oct., 2008)

For many years, access to even get information required tuition, sponsorship and exclusive barriers to the few that had control over institutions that housed those information and research sources, much like the Catholic Church shepherding the knowledge in the Bible but making it inaccessible to the public and its teaching for centuries. With the printing press and now digitization, the de-centralization of power through release of information became eminent. For Boomer’s, Busters, Xr’s, Y’rs and Millennials, the absolute permeation of data and information became and inclusive factor as well as an isolating factor. Information overload in the form of emails to workers exploded and the phenomenon of email ‘junkies’ and addicts that could not step away from their work environment and ‘always on’ activities became compulsive in many social and work-related contexts. Productivity faltered in some ways but improved in others, in the end there was a productivity lag but overall it has leveled out. (Hoffman, Thomas, Jan. 12, 2004 (Computerworld) Since internet and technology statistics and studies show that men have a stronger orientation in almost all categories and age demographics to using technology and the internet (Horrigan, 2003), this leaves females as librarians being represented as 80% of library workers at a disadvantage. This becomes another divider or disabler to women [as a whole] in keeping up in the digital divide. Personally, I have seen young women under 18 using text messaging and

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internet access as much or more than their male counterparts in work environments and personal usage., but ‘across the board’ age demographics do not reveal the same trend.

A large part of the analysis in this report focuses on the three most tech-intensive groups, what we call the Young Tech Elites, the Wired GenXers, and the Older Wired BabyBoomers. These high-end users are worthy of scrutiny by virtue of the intensity with which they crave information technology and exchange information with others. These are the true leaders when it comes to technology adoption. Independent from their levels of income and education (which are above average), these groups of Americans are bigger spenders on technology goods and services and more ardent information consumers. As the table below shows, these three segments make up about one-third of the population. The remaining two-thirds of the population are less intense in their use of technology for a variety of reasons (e.g., lack of time, lack of experience, relatively low levels of interest in information goods and services). Americans’ love affair with technology is one of the defining characteristics of their culture.
For many Americans, having the latest electronic gadget or experimenting with the newest tech fad is a habit they develop at an early age and never break. Although these ardent technophiles are a minority of the population, their trendsetting ways often ripple widely in society. Many people, in time, wind up following the technological trail cleared by these pioneers. In fact, Americans have become steady adopters of devices and services that enable them to gather and distribute information, and these have given us flexibility in how we communicate, altered the patterns of how we stay in touch with others, and even influenced the content of our messages. In this report, we take an inventory of the communications gadgets and services that American use and examine the variations within the population of technology users. This elite comprises three distinct sub-groups of Americans who are the most voracious consumers of information goods and services in the United States. The Young Tech Elites make up one-fifth of the technology elite. The average age for this group is 22 years. Older Wired Baby Boomers make up the remaining one-fifth of the technology elite. The average age for these baby boomers is 52. Wired Generation Xers (GenXers) make up most of the technology elite (about 60%). The average age for this group is 36 years. (http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Info_Consumption.pdf)

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Social and Government Change
Information access and retrieval has become a paramount issue in the evolution of society and the importance of government and politics as we enter in the new and sometimes dangerous era. The implications of data access to daily life and the functioning of society in the financial arena, the political arena and the socio-anthropological arena have become extensive. Boomers are still catching-up in the political arena as witnessed by the political contributions of John McCain and Barrack Obama in the 2008 election. In the L.A. times Article “Final Push to Register Youth” (L.A. Times. Oct. 2008) the sub-title reads: “They’re making a final push by using texting, the Web, even video games to reach and register young adults. This article illustrates a mechanical difference in the usage of technology and the adaptation and adoption of technological tools used by the millennial generation. Although Howard Dean used this technology first in 2000 to harness the power of the internet for campaign contributions, no candidate in history has garnered the support of technology, race and youth as President-elect Barrack Obama has. The sheer deployment of volunteers, strategic vision to supplement virtual efforts with volunteers on the street and the ‘feet on the street’ viability of using youth energy, devotion and idealism shocked even the most savvy pundits in the political arena. Rock the Vote and other youth-oriented voter organizations harnessed the power and prevalence of the millennial age groups exposure to social networks and online presence to create levels of event attendance, financial support and grass root efforts that had organic growth

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers in an ‘all states’ campaign that would have been impossible even a few years ago. The cost for

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radio and television and the physical limitations of a candidate to be in more than one place at a time was supplemented with tools like YouTube videos, massive event attendance organized virtually online and empowered media attendance by younger and more liberal reporters, bloggers and media-type pundits. The variety of methods used for getting the attention of voters, inserting the candidate’s message into their living spaces and the success of that proliferation is demonstrated by the 3.3 million voters registered in the last 15 months of the campaign which was twice as many people that were registered in 2004. The nine percent increase of young people was double the increase of size of any other voting group in the primaries. (Linthicum, K., L.A. Times, “Final Push to Register Youth Vote”, Oct. 9, 2008)

http://www.entrepreneur.com/hottrends/web.html

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This student registration drive is representative of the success garnered by millennial age groups in converting technology and communication advances into tangible advantages in the information equals power equation. By a simple task of texting, organizers were able to text and instant message students they had acquired by campus organization efforts. The instructions for registering to vote were issued so that a simple telephone number or web page links to online site or physical location to registration capabilities. Students in turn forwarded that information in a snowball like manner, and even if the respondent didn’t not act immediately, the ability to reproduce and forward the content and allow for removal once contacted was available for each message in a granular way, not as a contact on whole (Example usage: Do not contact me for this message vs. do not contact me again [at all] due to spam or over contact on one message). The millennials social foundation for referral to friends instead of strangers adds a personal dimension to the text, emails and instant messages. The database of contacts, the immediacy of contact and the ability to remind and cajole in some cases the results ends up being numerically effective. Rock The Vote began using online social networks like Facebook and MySpace to give free downloadable songs and free concerts by local acts to corral the youth vote as early as 1996. Bands are given rewards by being allowed to put their songs on the Rock The Vote website for youth to link to and their attendance at events goes along with the bans exposure goes up along with youth participation. (Linthicum, Kate, L.A. Times, “Youth voter groups ramp up efforts as deadlines approach” 10/09/08) Viral videos like “Yes, We Can” on YouTube with had over 3 million hits in the first few weeks of being posted [and 20 million hits ‘to date’] show the success of viral videos and internet technologies and the effect that youth voters have on technology involvement returns.

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers By using cultural icons that are relevant to age, voter turnout and registration has taken a

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marketing approach to the task of voter registration and political outcomes. The past Karl Rove or ‘Rovian’ tactics of ‘divide and conquer’ by issue seems to have become as transparent as the methods of political smear and dirty campaigning at the end of campaigns to turn to the negative to bring out the worst of people’s emotions and fears instead of any optimistic engagement of issues, ideology and thought that should prevail for a leader in any capacity. Summary The digital divide is showing itself to not be an age, gender, race or ability, but of access and a way of thinking and interacting with technology that supplants and supplements standard information access and enhances online leverage of time for relationships and behavior in such a way that the results demonstrate a new way of looking and dealing with information and information access, distribution and dissemination. Leadership in the workplace and all areas of interaction that intersect age disparity relations are affected between Millennials and Boomer generations, so the tools to facilitate the rationale response to change and information often lies with the attitudes and incentives given by the leaders in the boomer generation to the newer, younger professionals under their tutelage. The recognition and acknowledgement that the separation in work methods, work values, both how things are done ant the outcomes that are desired to be produced require tools of communication first, the tools of understanding second and the tools of technology enablement last. The over-riding goal of this paper is to bridge the gap in understanding first, facilitate communication and discussion on the topic second, and to highlight the very real cause and effect relationships that exist in the forward movement and inter-dependence of these two groups

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers in steadying the foundation of the ‘old’ and the movement and advancement of the ‘new’ and seeing how the collision of these two entities evolve to the benefit and efficiency of the overall goals of society (Goman, 2000). Appendix ‘A’

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www.pitt.edu/~pmd1/acrl/millennial.ppt

Marketing the Millennials: What They Expect From Their Library Experience

Patricia M. Duck and Randi Koeske University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg April 8, 2005

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers

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Appendix ‘B’ http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/brainiac/2008/01/pc_generation.html

BRAINIAC'S GUIDE TO AMERICA'S RECENT GENERATIONS 1904-13: The Greatest Generation Partisans 1914-23: The Greatest Generation The New Gods 1924-33: The Silent Generation postmodern Generation 1934-43: The Silent Generation Anti-Anti-Utopian Generation 1944-53: Baby Boomers 1954-63: Baby Boomers OGX (Original Generation X) 1964-73: Generation X PC Generation 1974-83: Generation Y Net Generation 1984-93: Millennials Please credit Brainiac/Joshua Glenn whenever you use this guide. Got a beef with my periodization, or different generational name suggestions? Leave a comment on this post or email me. Born between 1954 and 1993 and still unsure about whether you're a Boomer, Xer, Yer, or Millennial? Here's a handy guide.

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Final words on Generations X and Y
Email|Link|Comments (6) Posted by Joshua Glenn April 17, 2008 11:28 AM

Were you born between 1954 and 1993? Confused about what generation you belong to? Read on. Everything will be explained. And there's a handy chart at the end of this post!

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers
A LOST GENERATION

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Despite the social-scientific-sounding claims made by journalists and marketing consultants (or, in the case of pop demographers like Neil Howe and William Strauss, Meredith Bagby, and Jonathan Pontell, some unholy combination of the two), not to mention political advocacy groups like Third Millennium, a generation isn't a sociological fact. That doesn't mean, however, that you can arbitrarily select two dates and name everyone born between them a member of a generation; if it doesn't feel like a good fit to most of those people, then something is wrong with your theory. For example, Americans who were born between the mid-1940s -- 1944, in my reckoning; though others would set the start date at 1946 (Census Bureau) or 1943 (Howe and Strauss) -- and the early 1950s (1953, in my reckoning) tend to agree that they're Boomers. Fine! No problem there. But many Americans born from 1954 through the early 1960s don't feel like Boomers; in fact, many of them actively resent and/or scorn the Boomers. In the early 1990s, the zinester Candi Strecker claimed that Americans who, like herself, were born between the mid-1950s and early 1960s were members of the "Repo Man" generation; she was referring to the 1984 cult movie directed by Alex Cox (1954) and starring Emilio Estevez (1962), both members of the lost generation in question. Around the same time, Douglas Coupland published his first novel, "Generation X" (1991), the title of which seemed to suggest that North Americans more or less the same age as the author (b. 1961) didn't feel like Boomers. In the early 2000s, Jonathan Pontell offered a new name for this lost generation, whose members he claimed were born between 1954 and 1965: "Generation Jones." In the past year or so, Barrack Obama (b. 1961) has become the spokesman for this lost generation, because of his insistence that his generation's worldview and politics aren't a Baby Boomer's. My own periodic table of American generations -- which is eccentric, inflexible, and therefore 100 percent correct -- indicates that the lost generation in question was born between 1954 and 1963. Mr. Pontell was close, but off by a few years on the end date. In honor of Mr. Coupland, I've called this impressive, influential, and anti-Boomer cohort the "Original Generation X" (OGXers). GENERATION X & TWENTYSOMETHINGS But what of the Generation X we heard so much about in the 1990s? In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; and in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. Neil

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers

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Howe and William Strauss's bestselling books "Generations" (1991) and "13th-Gen" (1993) claimed that the post-baby-boom "13ers" (aka Gen X) were born between 1961-81. (However, in their 1997 book "The Fourth Turning," Howe and Strauss confessed that the members of this so-called generation didn't buy into it: "Compared to any other generation born in this century, [the 13th generation] is less cohesive, its experiences wider and its culture more splintery.") In 1993, the political advocacy group Third Millennium, announced that it had formed to represent the concerns of those Americans who'd been dubbed "twentysomethings" or "Generation X"; following Howe and Strauss, its leaders claimed that the cohort in question was born between 1961 and 1981. And in her 1998 book, "Rational Exuberance: The Influence of Generation X on the New Economy," a young economist named Meredith Bagby (b. 1974) said she was proud to be a member of Generation X, which she defined as those born between 1965-76. Why so much confusion? Because there never was a Generation X. It was just a placeholder label, lifted from Douglas Coupland by journalists, marketing consultants, and others, and applied to anyone and everyone born from the mid-1960s on. No wonder that nobody -except Meredith Bagby -- ever identified as an Xer. Ironically, Bagby is not a member of the over determined generation in question. According to my periodization scheme, Americans born between 1964 and 1973 are members of an ambivalent (not apathetic), fragmentbrooding, rejuvenile generation that I've called Generation PC (PCers). GENERATION Y & MILLENNIALS Who, then, are these Millennials and Generation Yers that we've heard so much about? According to the consumer research outfit Iconoculture, Millennials are those Americans who were 29 and under in 2007; i.e., the first Millennials were born in 1978. Newsweek, meanwhile, has described the Millennials as those born between 1977-94. The New York Times has called "Generation Y" those born from 1976-90, and those born from 1978-98. In their 2000 bestseller "Millennials Rising," Howe and Strauss claimed that Millennials were born between 1982 and 2002. (The nice thing about a flexible generational periodization scheme is that you can neatly peg the Millennials to 1982, which allows the first-born of their cohort to graduate in the year 2000.) All of these guesstimates are off, though Howe and Strauss came close with the start date, and Newsweek was close with the end date. There never was a Generation Y; like Generation X, it was a placeholder label that lumped together young Americans who were actually members of discrete generations. According to my inflexible periodization scheme, the shiny-happy, but good-hearted Millennials were born between 1984 and 1993. But wait! All this confusion about Generation Y should make us suspicious. Especially now that we've learned that an entire generation -- the OGXers -- went missing for decades, and

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that some members of another generation -- the PCers -- were mistakenly called Generation X. What about the rest of this so-called Generation X, i.e., those Americans born from the mid-1970s through, say, 1981 (the end fate of Howe and Strauss's 13th Generation)? And what about the so-called Gen Yers and Millennials who were born before 1984? Did we lose another post-Boomer generation? ONE OF OUR GENERATIONS IS MISSING! Yes, we did. However, thanks to my inflexible and therefore completely accurate periodization scheme, I've located the lost generation and they're safe and sound. The Net Generation, as I call these Web-savvy, boss-flustering, heavily tattooed Americans, were born between 1974 and 1983. In other words, the older Netters were lumped in with younger PCers and called "Generation X," while the younger Netters were lumped in with older Millennials and called "Generation Y." What a drag. They're a great bunch of young people. Let's not lose track of them again, OK? *** Still feel confused about which generation you belong to, and which generations you've been accused of belonging to, by misguided journalists, unscrupulous marketers, and others? If you were born between 1954 and 1993, consult the following chart. 1954-60: OGXers 1954: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the previous generation (in this case, Boomers). 1955: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). 1956: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65).

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers
1957: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). 1958: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). 1959: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). 1960: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). 1961-1965: A confusion of OGXers and PCers 1961: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72. 1962: You're an OGXer> But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72. 1963: You're an OGXer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72. NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the next generation (in this case, PCers). 1964: You're a PCer. But you were lumped in with the Boomers. (The Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964.) William Strauss and Neil

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers
Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72. NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the previous generation (in this case, OGXers).

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1965: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Jonathan Pontell claims you're a member of "Generation Jones" (1954-65). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77.

1966-1971: PCers 1966: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. 1967: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. 1968: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. 1969: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77.

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1970: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. 1971: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. 1972-76: A confusion of PCers and Netters 1972: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76). In 1990, Time Magazine claimed that the "twentysomething" generation was born between 1961-72; in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. 1973: You're a PCer. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76); in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the next generation (in this case, Netters). 1974: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76); in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the previous generation (in this case, PCers). 1975: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76); in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. 1976: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Meredith Bagby claims you're Generation X (1965-76); in 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 1965-77. In a 2000 story, The New

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers
York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 1976-90. 1977-81: Netters

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1977: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). In 1997, Time claimed that "Generation X" was born between 196577. Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 1976-90. 1978: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 1976-90. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1979: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 1976-90. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1980: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 1976-90. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1981: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Thirteenth Generation" (1961-81); Third Millennium, following Howe and Strauss, claim you're Generation X (1961-81). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 1976-90. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1982-1990: A confusion of Netters and Millennials

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1982: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1983: You're a Netter. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the next generation (in this case, Millennials). 1984: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the previous generation (in this case, Netters). 1985: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1986: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1987: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1988: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation

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Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98.

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1989: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1990: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. In a 2000 story, The New York Times described "Generation Y" as "the young people between 10 and 24"; this suggests that Yers were born from 197690. But a 1999 Times story describes Yers as having been born from 1978-98. 1991-1993: Millennials 1991: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. A 1999 Times story describes members of "Generation Y" as having been born from 1978-98. 1992: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. A 1999 Times story describes members of "Generation Y" as having been born from 1978-98. 1993: You're a Millennial. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. A 1999 Times story describes members of "Generation Y" as having been born from 1978-98. NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the next generation (in this case, an unnamed one). 1994-2003: An unnamed generation 1994: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). Newsweek has described the "Millennials" as those Americans born between 1977 and 1994. A 1999 Times story describes members of "Generation Y" as having been born from 1978-98. NB: You were born in a cusp year, and might identify with the previous generation (in this case, Millennials).

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1995: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). A 1999 Times story describes members of "Generation Y" as having been born from 1978-98. 1996: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). A 1999 Times story describes members of "Generation Y" as having been born from 1978-98. 1997: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). A 1999 Times story describes members of "Generation Y" as having been born from 1978-98. 1998: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). A 1999 Times story describes members of "Generation Y" as having been born from 1978-98. 1999: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). 2000: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). 2001: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). 2002: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way. William Strauss and Neil Howe placed you in their "Millennial Generation" (1982-2002). 2003: You're a member of a generation that's too young to characterize in any remotely meaningful way.

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http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/brainiac/2008/03/follow_the_leader.html

Local Search Site Search

< Back to Front Page Text size – +

Follow the leader
Email|Link|Comments (0) Posted by Joshua Glenn March 10, 2008 11:18 AM

Thanks, readers, for alerting me whenever you spot a New York Times story about something that was covered in Brainiac weeks earlier. To be honest, I delete most of these emails without even looking up the Times stories in question. Life is short! One other little bit of Times-bashing, and then we'll forget all about that newspaper for a while, OK? While I was away on vacation, last month, over a dozen readers urged me to take a look at "In the Eye of the Beholder: When a Boom Begins," a story by Jenny Lyn Bader that appeared on the "Ideas & Trends" page of the Time’s popular Week in Review section, on February 17. "Barrack Obama could be the first Generation X president," Bader announces. "Or, depending on how you figure it, Mr. Obama, born in 1961, could be the third boomer in chief, following Presidents Clinton and Bush." Despite the fact that the Census Bureau defines the baby boom as births during the years 1946 to 1964, notes Bader, "the practice of defining generations is more complicated than the theory." If this sort of thing sounds familiar, it's because you read about "Generation Obama vs. the Boomers" in Brainiac (and in the Ideas section) almost exactly one year to the day before Bader's ideas/trend story appeared. You may have read about it again in "Obama: boomer or post-boomer," a Brainiac post (and Ideas column) about "the Original Generation X" that appeared this past December. My original post was sparked by a column written by the Globe's Peter Canellos, who picked up -- early -- on Obama's own insistence that he isn't a

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boomer, and that his politics are post-boomer politics. The more recent post was inspired by an Atlantic Monthly essay on Obama. However, I've been rethinking the post-boomer generations since 1992. Bader goes on to quote "generation-spotter" Jonathan Pontell, coiner of the phrase "Generation Jones," as an authority. Pontell places Obama in the generation that he claims was born between 1954 and 1965. This is confusing, though, because Bader has described Obama as an Xer, while the point of Pontell's "Generation Jones" conceit is that Americans born between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s don't identify either as boomers as Xers. The point I've made in Brainiac is that Americans born between 1954 and 1963 (Pontell and I are roughly in agreement about these dates) are Original Generation Xers... and that part of what defines an OGXer is a visceral disdain for being labeled a member of any generation. Particularly the Boomers. Having already muddied the waters by calling Obama both an Xer and a member of Generation Jones, Bader compounds the problem by quoting the influential pop demographers Neil Howe and William Strauss, who argued that Americans born from 1925 through 1942 were the "Silent Generation" -- and then noting, with some puzzlement, that John McCain, born in 1936, "doesn't seem especially Silent." As I've argued in Brainiac, there's no reason to be puzzled: McCain is actually a member of the outspoken, though conflicted Anti-Anti-Utopian Generation, born between 1934 and 1943. Obama is an OGXer, Clinton is a Boomer, and McCain is an Anti-Anti-Utopian. Got it? Bader should have consulted BRAINIAC'S GUIDE TO AMERICA'S RECENT GENERATIONS before writing about Boomers, Xers, Jonesers, and Silents. If she had, she would have understood that Obama was slyly referring to me in a speech that she quotes at the end of her essay. "I thank the Moses Generation," Obama said -- referring to the AntiAnti-Utopians, not the Boomers, if you ask me. "We're going to leave it to the Joshua Generation to make sure [progressive social change] happens." Very flattering! But I prefer the term PC Generation.

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Appendix C

Consumption of Information Goods and Services in the United States: Summary of Findings at a Glance
• • • • • • • • • • Americans’ love affair with technology is one of the defining characteristics of our culture. The technology his elites fall into three distinct sub-groups of Americans who are the most voracious consumers of information goods and services in the United States. Most people – 69% of the population – are not part of the technological elite, and they are a fairly diverse crowd. As information technology users, Americans sort into eight distinct groups of information technology users. The Internet and computer are the media of choice for many Americans. Technology elites, especially the young, have a very hands-on approach to managing their technology experiences.

Source: Horrigan, John B. Consumption of Information Goods and Services in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project, November 23, 2003.

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Appendix ‘D’

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/bookhome/117356987/
Next Generation Business Handbook
Published Online: 5 Dec 2007 Editor(s): Subir Chowdhury Print ISBN: 9780471669968 Online ISBN: 9780470172223 10.1002/9780470172223 Copyright © 2004 Subir Chowdhury

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Book Home

Recommend to Your Librarian How to get Online Access

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Save Title to My Profile Purchase a Print Copy

Product Information | For Authors

Frontmatter (p i-xxiv) Summary | Full Text:

PDF (Size: 3399K)

Part none: Section I: Leadership

Part none: Part Introduction (p 1-4) Noel M. Tichy Summary | Full Text:

PDF (Size: 56K)

Part none: Section I: Leadership – Part One: Leadership and the Business Environment

Chapter 1: The Effective Leader (p 5-21) Subir Chowdhury Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 107K) Chapter 2: Using Organizational Culture as a Leadership Tool (p 22-38) Jennifer A. Chatman, Sandra E. Cha Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 118K) Chapter 3: Leadership and Innovation (p 39-55) Joaquim Vilà Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 106K)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Chapter 4: Leadership and Destructive Self-Confidence (p 56-71) Sydney Finkelstein Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 115K)
Part none: Section I: Leadership – Part Two: Leadership and Learning

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Chapter 5: Leading by Analogy (p 73-90) Leigh Thompson, Ashleigh Shelby Rosette Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 123K) Chapter 6: Career Imprinting and Leadership Development (p 91-105) Monica C. Higgins Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 102K)
Part none: Section I: Leadership – Part Three: Leadership and Employees

Chapter 7: Leading by Doing (p 107-123) Sigal G. Barsade, Stefan Meisiek Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 114K) Chapter 8: Leadership to Improve Performance (p 124-141) Jean-François Manzoni, Jean-Louis Barsoux Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 140K) Chapter 9: Managing Leadership Images (p 142-156) Juan-Carlos Pastor, Margarita Mayo, James R. Meindl Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 860K)
Part none: Section I: Leadership – Part Four: Leadership and the Workplace

Chapter 10: Leadership in the Virtual Workplace (p 157-173) Gretchen M. Spreitzer Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 175K) Chapter 11: Leadership in a Branded World (p 174-185) Miriam Salzer-Mörling, Lars Strannegård Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 91K)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Chapter 12: Managing a Self-Managed Team (p 186-199) Marja Flory Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 102K) Chapter 13: The Merchandising of Leadership (p 200-219) Jack Denfeld Wood, Gianpiero Petriglieri Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 131K)
Part none: Section II: Strategy

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Part none: Part Introduction (p 221-226) Christopher A. Bartlett Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 65K)
Part none: Section II: Strategy – Part One: Strategies for Competitive Advantage

Chapter 14: Quality Strategy (p 227-247) Subir Chowdhury Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 142K) Chapter 15: Competing on Social Capabilities (p 248-271) Piero Morosini Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 440K) Chapter 16: Dynamics of Competitive Interaction (p 272-293) Joel A. C. Baum Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 777K) Chapter 17: Strategic Advantage and the Dynamics of Organizational Competence (p 294-312) Rebecca Henderson Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 342K)
Part none: Section II: Strategy – Part Two: Strategic Planning and Renewal

Chapter 18: To Plan or Not to Plan? (p 313-332) Jeanne M. Liedtka Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 130K)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Chapter 19: Mastering Strategic Renewal (p 333-357) Henk W. Volberda Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 188K)
Part none: Section II: Strategy – Part Three: Strategies for the Networked Economy

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Chapter 20: Value Creation in the Networked Economy (p 359-376) Nicolai J. Foss Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 119K) Chapter 21: Global Strategy in an Internet Era (p 377-390) Subramanian Rangan Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 101K)
Part none: Section II: Strategy – Part Four: Strategies for Business Expansion

Chapter 22: Symbiosis or Parasitism? (p 391-413) Jaideep Anand Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 157K) Chapter 23: Globalization and Management Attention (p 414-429) Allen J. Morrison, John C. Beck, Cyril Bouquet Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 116K)
Part none: Section II: Strategy – Part Five: Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations

Chapter 24: Strategy Dynamics for Nonprofit Organizations (p 431-449) Kim Warren Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 445K)
Part none: Section III: Customer Management

Part none: Part Introduction (p 451-455) Philip Kotler Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 63K)
Part none: Section III: Customer Management – Part One: Relating to the Customer

Chapter 25: Understanding Customer Needs (p 457-472)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Subir Chowdhury Summary | Full Text:

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PDF (Size: 7764K)

Chapter 26: Strengthening Customer Relationships (p 473-491) Prashant Malaviya, Sarah Spargo Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 127K) Chapter 27: Building Customer Interface (p 492-506) Niraj Dawar, Mark Vandenbosch Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 219K) Chapter 28: Avoiding Traps in Customer Relations (p 507-522) Jacques Horovitz Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 134K) Chapter 29: Customer Relations Online (p 523-536) Ravi Dhar Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 99K)
Part none: Section III: Customer Management – Part Two: Experience with the Customer

Chapter 30: Customer Experience (p 537-552) Bernd Schmitt Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 116K) Chapter 31: Coping with Critical Criticism (p 553-568) Gil McWilliam Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 123K) Chapter 32: Growing Pains (p 569-583) Michael D. Johnson Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 119K) Chapter 33: Persuading with Emotions (p 584-595) Patti Williams Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 91K)
Part none: Section III: Customer Management – Part Three: Managing the Customer

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Chapter 34: Strategic Customer Management (p 597-615) Alexander Chernev Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 127K) Chapter 35: Designing Supply and Distribution Channels (p 616-629) Duncan Simester, John Roberts Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 103K) Chapter 36: Managing Global Customers (p 630-644) Omar N. Toulan, David J. Arnold, Julian Birkinshaw Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 123K)
Part none: Section IV: Entrepreneurship

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Part none: Part Introduction (p 645-654) Mark P. Rice, Philip Anderson Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 82K)
Part none: Section IV: Entrepreneurship – Part One: Entrepreneurial Behavior

Chapter 37: The Effective Entrepreneur (p 655-665) Subir Chowdhury Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 82K) Chapter 38: Entrepreneurial Opportunities (p 666-679) Sankaran Venkataraman Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 121K) Chapter 39: Nature of Entrepreneurship (p 680-694) Mike W. Peng Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 104K)
Part none: Section IV: Entrepreneurship – Part Two: Entrepreneurship and Finance

Chapter 40: New-Venture Finance (p 695-711) Michael Horvath Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 338K)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Chapter 41: Untangling Service-for-Equity Arrangements (p 712-725) James E. Henderson, Benoît F. Leleux, Ian White Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 178K) Chapter 42: Business Planning (p 726-741) Fernando Alvarez Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 117K)
Part none: Section IV: Entrepreneurship – Part Three: Entrepreneurship and Strategy

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Chapter 43: Playing Entrepreneurial Judo (p 743-759) Javier Gimeno Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 113K) Chapter 44: Success for New Ventures (p 760-771) Todd Saxton, Thomas A. Hiatt Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 95K)
Part none: Section IV: Entrepreneurship – Part Four: Entrepreneurial Management

Chapter 45: Entrepreneurial Mind-Set in Multinational Corporations (p 773-792) Julian Birkinshaw Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 130K) Chapter 46: Sustaining Rapid Growth (p 793-808) Charlene L. Nicholls-Nixon Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 128K)
Part none: Section IV: Entrepreneurship – Part Five: Entrepreneurship and Economics

Chapter 47: Income Disparity and Entrepreneurship (p 809-829) Andrew Zacharakis, Dean A. Shepherd Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 134K)
Part none: Section V: People Management

Part none: Part Introduction (p 831-835) Marshall Goldsmith Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 59K)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers
Part none: Section V: People Management – Part One: People-Management Strategy

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Chapter 48: Talent-Management System (p 837-859) Subir Chowdhury Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 2072K) Chapter 49: Living Strategy (p 860-871) Lynda Gratton Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 92K) Chapter 50: Changing Foundations of People Management (p 872-883) Carlos J. Sánchez-Runde Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 94K)
Part none: Section V: People Management – Part Two: HR Management

Chapter 51: Returning Human to HR Management (p 885-902) Donald E. Gibson Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 116K) Chapter 52: Change Management and HR Practices (p 903-919) Gerard H. Seijts, Victoria Aldworth Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 117K) Chapter 53: What Really Matters in HR Management? (p 920-937) Veronica Hope Hailey Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 118K)
Part none: Section V: People Management – Part Three: People and the Organization

Chapter 54: The Four Thrusts Driving Corporate Renewal (p 939-955) Quy Nguyen Huy Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 114K) Chapter 55: Creating the Family-Friendly Organization (p 956-970) Lynn Perry Wooten Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 121K)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Chapter 56: Transforming the Process of Staffing toward Innovation (p 971-985) Jill E. Ellingson Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 104K) Chapter 57: How Old You Are May Depend on Where You Work (p 986-1006) Barbara S. Lawrence Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 148K) Chapter 58: Tomorrow's Global Workforce (p 1007-1020) Philip M. Rosenzweig Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 109K)
Part none: Section VI: Networked Business

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Part none: Part Introduction (p 1021-1027) Don Tapscott Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 72K)
Part none: Section VI: Networked Business – Part One: Organizations in the Networked ERA

Chapter 59: The Power of Networked Business (p 1029-1038) Subir Chowdhury Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 80K) Chapter 60: Managing Networked Organizations (p 1039-1059) Ben M. Bensaou Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 144K) Chapter 61: Beyond Synergies (p 1060-1075) Christopher L. Tucci Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 125K) Chapter 62: From Extended Enterprise to Orchestrating a Team of Companies (p 1076-1089) Carlos Cordón, Thomas E. Vollmann Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 271K) Chapter 63: Digital Networked Business (p 1090-1102)

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Kim Viborg Andersen, Ann M. Fogelgren Pedersen, Upkar Varshney Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 130K)
Part none: Section VI: Networked Business – Part Two: Network Strategy

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Chapter 64: Strategic Connections (p 1103-1127) N. Venkatraman Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 159K) Chapter 65: Technological Mediation as Strategy (p 1128-1156) Shane Greenstein Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 4958K) Chapter 66: Seamless IT Alignment (p 1157-1168) Carol V. Brown Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 92K) Chapter 67: Seizing the Value of Online Auctions (p 1169-1182) Eric van Heck Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 169K) Chapter 68: Building a Platform for E-Business (p 1183-1198) Chris Sauer, Leslie Willcocks Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 131K) Notes (p 1199-1262) Summary | Full Text:

PDF (Size: 328K)

About the Leader (p 1263-1264) Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 37K) About the Next Generation Business Thinkers (p 1265-1299) Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 189K) Author Index (p 1301-1310) Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 82K)

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Subject Index (p 1311-1320) Summary | Full Text: PDF (Size: 78K)

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References

Bibliography

Howe, Neil & Strauss, William. (2003). Millennials go to college. American Association of collegiate registrars and admissions officers and life course associates. Manuel, Kate. (2002).Millennials rising: The next great generation. New York: Vintage Books. “Teaching information literacy to generation Y.” Journal of Library Administration 36:195–217. Sheesley, D. (2002). “The ‘Net Generation’: Characteristics of traditional-aged college students and implications for academic information services.” College & Undergraduate Libraries 9 (2): 25–42 Seiss, Judith. (2003). The visible librarian: Asserting your value with marketing and advocacy. Chicago: ALA. www.ala.org 1. Gravett, Linda (2007), Career Press, author of Bridging the Generation Gap: How to Get Radio Babies, Boomers, Gen Xers, and Gen Yers to Work Together and Achieve More), noted that the millennials she interviewed were clearly reluctant to work for companies lacking Web 2.0 and other emerging technologies. 2. Alsop, Ron a columnist for The Wall Street Journal and author of The Trophy Kids Grow Up, said that many recent entrants into the workforce face a culture shock from Day One. Alsop's book, due out next month, looks at how the new generation is already shaking up the workplace. 3. Thielfoldt, Diane & Scheef, Devon are the co-founders of The Learning Café. They collaborate with clients to make peace with multiple workplace generations, create leadership development initiatives, and craft mentoring initiatives that work. www.thelearning-cafe.com

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers http://www.abanet.org/lpm/lpt/articles/mgt08044.html November 2005

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Their work on generational issues is featured in the thought-leadership compendium Human Resources in the 21st Century, published by John Wiley & Sons Inc. Their breakthrough advice on generations in the workplace is featured in Love ‘Em or Lose ‘Em: Getting Good People to Stay. They are the co-authors of Mentoring: A How-To Guide published by the American Society for Training & Development, and their popular Talks on Talent have provided practical guidance on making mentoring work to thousands of business people worldwide 4. JUST GET IT! Massey, Morris Morris Massey has been called frank, direct and irreverent. He's also a bestselling authority on workplace issues. In Just Get It!, you'll learn how to overcome generational value conflicts that arise in the workplace. Learn how to analyze values, adapt communication styles and change motivational methods. Just Get It! combines theory and methodology to help us unlock the mystery of why people behave as they do. KEY LEARNING POINTS Understand generational differences and value clashes Integrate the values of each generation Improve relationships at work and at home Learn to think differently USES
• • • • •

Diversity Communication Leadership Listening Management Skills

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• • •

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Motivation and Inspiration Respectful Workplace Teams and Teambuilding

Package includes the video and a workbook.

VIDEO PROGRAMS
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Morris Massey (1939- ) is a producer of training videos. His undergraduate and M.B.A. degrees are from the University of Texas, Austin, and his Ph.D. in business is from Louisiana State University. During the late 1960s through the 1970s, as an Associate Dean and Professor of Marketing, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, he received four awards for teaching excellence. Dr Massey was honored with the W.M. McFeely award presented by the International Management Council for "significant contribution to the field of management and human relations." During the 1980s and 90s he was the #1 ranked resource for the Young Presidents Organization International. In What Works At Work (Lakewood Publications, 1988) he was cited as one of the 27 most influential workplace experts of the time.

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He retired in 1995 from the consulting/speaking circuit and now lives with his wife in Sedona, Arizona

Friedman, Thomas. (2005) The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century ISBN: 0374292884 5. Figure 1. UPG Library Experiences. http://www.library.pitt.edu/ [Zoom! By Subject]
6. Marketing the Millennials (April 7–10, 2005, Minneapolis, Minnesota)

7. http://www.computerworld.com/managementtopics/roi/story/0,10801,88885,00.html SIDEBAR: IT PRODUCTIVITY: THE LAG EFFECT Thomas Hoffman Today’s Top Stories or Other Management Stories January 12, 2004 (Computerworld) -- Growth in productivity, which is generally defined as output per unit of worker input, has chugged along at an annual rate of more than 4% since early 2001, after rising 2.6% per year from 1996 to 2000 and about 1.5% before then. Some economists and researchers maintain that the massive investments companies made in IT during the go-go days of the late 1990s are just beginning to blossom and are being borne out in today's productivity figures. "The reason we're having such strong productivity growth now is that firms laid the foundation for this growth five years ago with the IT investments they made then," says MIT professor Erik Brynjolfsson. One problem with most IT productivity research is that it's based on quarterly or annual comparisons, whereas some productivity gains aren't immediately realized because "some IT investments have more of a long-term effect," notes Howard Rubin, executive vice president at Meta Group Inc. Glenn, J., (2008). Final words on Generations ‘X’ and ‘Y’ Retrieved October 15, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/brainiac/2008/04/final_words_on.html 8. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/brainiac/2008/01/pc_generation.html

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9. Goman, C. K. (2000). The Human Side of High-Tech: Lessons from the Technology Frontier. New York: Wiley. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114034368 10. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Info_Consumption.pdf

(Horrigan, J. B. (2003). Consumption of information goods and services in the United States PEW INTERNET & AMERICAN LIFE PROJECT 1100 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, NW – SUITE 710 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 202-296-0019 http://www.pewinternet.org/ 12. www.youtube.com

04:30 Yes We Can - Barrack Obama Music Video Congratulations, Mr. President. -Lyrics- It was a creed written into the founding documents that declared the destiny of ... 10 months ago 14,314,888 viewsWeCan08

13:09 Barrack Obama: Yes We Can Barrack Obama speaks in Nashua, New Hampshire on the night of the primary. Highlight footage from the past week in New ...

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11 months ago 2,148,062 viewsBarackObamadotcom

04:30 Yes We Can Obama Song by will.i.am I was sitting in my recording studio watching the debates... Torn between the candidates I was never really big on ... 10 months ago 6,059,230 viewsillwilly

04:29 YES WE CAN - Music Video Barrack Obama VOTE BARACK '08. YES WE CAN! Check out: www.youbama.com According to will.i.am, founding member and frontman of Black ... 10 months ago 1,205,012 viewsYouBamaVideos

04:25 Barrack Obama - Yes We Can music video Black Eyed Peas' will.i.am's music video inspired by Barrack Obama's message of hope. Yes We Can! ¡Sí, Se Puede! If you ...

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10 months ago 1,378,842 viewsIrvineKinneas509

01:39 john.he.is Will.i.am totally stole this idea from us, we've been thinking for a long time that earnest people reacting to a ... 9 months ago 2,124,966 views

1. Amazon.com: Blueprint for Action: A Future Worth Creating: Thomas ...
Barnett maps out a sweeping new vision for the U.S. military in Blueprint for Action, the sequel to his influential previous book The Pentagon's New Map. ... www.amazon.com/Blueprint-Action-Future-Worth-Creating/dp/0399153128 - 348k -Cached - Similar pages 2. Amazon.com: The Pentagon's New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty ... This item: The Pentagon's New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas P.M. Barnett; Blueprint for Action: A Future Worth Creating by Thomas ... www.amazon.com/Pentagons-New-Map-Twenty-First-Century/dp/0399151753 - 370k -Cached - Similar pages More results from www.amazon.com » 3. The Pentagon's New Map (PNM) Esquire Thomas P.M. Barnett Pentagon's New Map | Blueprint for Action ..... This month, Barnett delivers the same briefing to you in "The Pentagon's New Map (page ... www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm - 46k -Cached - Similar pages 4. "The Pentagon's New Map" and "A Blueprint for Action" by Thomas ... 5 posts - 5 authors - Last post: May 19 "The Pentagon's New Map" and "A Blueprint for Action" by Thomas PM Barnett. www.uselectionatlas.org/FORUM/index.php?topic=75521.0 - 43k -Cached - Similar pages 54

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5. The Pentagon's New Map - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nov 12, 2008 ... The Pentagon's New Map. Putnam Publishing Group. ISBN 0-399-15175-3; Thomas P.M. Barnett (October 20, 2005). Blueprint for Action. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pentagon's_New_Map - 21k - Cached - Similar pages – 6. Video Stats : http://www.entrepreneur.com/hottrends/web.html

References

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Alfred, R. L. (2006). Managing the big picture in colleges and universities: from tactics to

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strategy. Westport, CT: American Council on Education/Praeger. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113184518 This resource speaks to the teaching and learning challenges in college today and in general how technology impacts everything from attention span to student’s ability to learn in traditional ways of teaching. Interactivity and technology play a large part in today’s youth college experience, teaching methods that use similar technologies are being implemented and extended to reach this generation of college students. Knowing how to teach the Millennials and how they learn become imperative to understanding Libraries, Information and future Library system methods for reaching future patrons as well as bridging the gap to technology for new patrons. Alvermann, D. E., & Heron, A. H. (2001). Literacy identity work: playing to learn with popular media. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45(2), 118. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000892912 Literacy and popular media go hand-in-hand in current youth culture. How the media advances learning and tools for literacy like games that build literacy, interactive tools like web chat, text messaging and online learning environments that stimulate activity that is non-traditional in style but accomplishes traditional results that meet with methods that youth can be engaged in and relate to for future education extension is of utmost urgency and importance. Cetron, M. J., & Davies, O. (2008, March/April). Trends shaping tomorrow's world: forecasts and implications for business, government, and consumers. The Futurist, 42, 35+. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5025610166 We ignore looking into future trends and developments to our detriment. These forward thinkers see emerging trends and the societal impacts they indicate with general swaths of direction barring many variables that can and do disrupt futures and trends, primarily economic in this case. The trends do not stop, but slow and consolidate, and in some cases, accelerate.

Crumpacker, M., & Crumpacker, J. M. (2007). Succession planning and generational

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers stereotypes: should HR consider age-based values and attitudes a relevant factor or a passing fad? Public Personnel Management, 36(4), 349+. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5025535746

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This resource asks the question but gives the standard answer of “We’ll See”. It indicates the usual slowness of business to adapt to changes but they are eventually forced by circumstances to conform to win talent, labor and innovative capabilities to remain competitive. The lag is the usual 3-5 years, but change always happens, no matter who resists it. It just determines how fast you get behind or lose your competitive advantage. Don't write off the next generation. (2000, December). The American Enterprise, 11, 8. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001163562 This resource take the obvious swipe at the generation gap in all generations and reduces the differences to workable solutions to managing, interacting and motivating the next work force into being more like the employers so employers can understand the new world by making it look like the old world. Not an effective strategy for survival or thriving, but often how change morphs its successors into the past instead of the present or future. Duck, P.M. (2007, September). Marketing to the millennials: What they expect from their library experience. Retrieved October 15, 2008 from the Web Title www.ala.org – This is the American Library Association Web Site This Power Point presentation does an excellent job of illustrating why change has to occur in library and information system environments. Younger folks are not ‘lazier’ than their predecessors; they often are just working ‘smarter’ not ‘harder’. That irks the technologically obsolete understanding of less technological familiar teachers and organizational leaders and creates a chasm between the understanding of efficiency and reliability of information. Using old methods is purposeful in eliminating digital mis-information, dis-information, propaganda and manipulation of data, but can be blended with new and old requirements to ensure accuracy, historical context and assurance of facts, sometimes more relevant by current exploration and historical dissemination, sometimes less.

Geraci, J. C. (2005, September). Learning from youth marketers: adapting to the schoolhouse.

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers What business already knows about the millennials. School Administrator, 62, 24+. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011049257

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Marketing and sales are at the heart of everything we do as Americans and in American society. Being that 70-90% of our economy and the world’s economy depends on our consumption model occurring and continuing, this source addresses how the relevance of marketing in schools and for future consumption and usage of that model benefits everyone. Giancola, F. (2006). The generation gap: more myth than reality. Human Resource Planning, 29(4), 32+. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018817611 More hyperbole on whether business is willing to adapt or adopt the new frontier. To the end that they do or don’t and how to change perception and business models to begin accommodating this change, including college recruitment and retention of this new entity of tech savvy employees. Glenn, J., (2008). Final words on generations ‘X’ and ‘Y’ Retrieved October 15, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/brainiac/2008/04/final_words_on.html A better understanding and generalization of the ‘when’ of people’s birth date coinciding with the ‘why’ of how technology and social events affect the outcome of the generation’s ways. Goman, C. K. (2000). The human side of high-tech: Lessons from the technology frontier. New York: Wiley. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114034368 This source speaks to privacy, information privacy, social networks and their impact on the work-place and how Millennials interpret this new world of public exposure and ways they have broken-down barriers to social isolation, but exposed themselves to personal information gathering to be profiled, identified and cataloged more efficiently for global tracking purposes. The naivety’ of this generation about the power and long-lasting impact of being ‘labeled’ like the red scare of early days in Hollywood and the black-listing of people based on erroneous labeling, mis-characterization by government bodies and classification of threat levels based on

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ethnicity, race, creed or color have chilling 1984 Orwellian implications that have been completely lost to a generation of no-history interest or relevance to their lives. It is important to have a healthy level of suspicion and involvement in government to ensure that 9/11 and Iraq war proposals are in fact authentic, necessary and grounded in real, not perceived needs of our nation. Havenstein, H. ( 2008) Computerworld September, 22, 2008 , Millennials demand changes in IT strategy (2008). Companies are increasingly forced to bend to Generation Y to get the best young talent. Retrieved October 15, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId =326407 This source speaks to the challenges of recruiting, maintaining and retaining talent from the newer, more technologically savvy generations of workers today. The way they work, the reason they work and the best ways to develop their skills, harness the resourcefulness that they have and the best way to mentor and release their skill in your working environment. Give them and outcome, tell them a time-frame that the requirement needs to be completed in and get out of the way and let them produce the results. Guidance may be several drafts of the project steps, but the outcomes are often better than expected. Henri, J. & Asselin, M. (Eds.). (2005). Leadership issues in the information literate school community. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113180281 How and why leadership is applied is examined and the differences of how to lead as well as effective tools for leading a widely dispersed employee bases are some of the topics this resource addresses.

Hovecamp, C. (2003). Who are the Millennials”. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/brainiac/2008/04/final_words_on.html. This resource gives the foundation for understanding what is defined as the ‘millennials’ and how perceptions of this generation affect how they work and why they work to fulfill their own objectives and their employers or teachers desires. Huntley, R. (2006). The world according to Y: Inside the new adult generation. Crows Nest,

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113653466

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The age disparity of twenty-something’s vs. thirty something’s has some valid key factors but little difference in technology orientation. Those and some sociological factors are discussed and evaluated for the reader. . Kuo, J., Hagie, C., & Miller, M. T. (2004). Encouraging college student success: The instructional challenges, response strategies, and study skills of contemporary undergraduates. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(1), 60+. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006016882 The desired goal of this resource is to examine where schools and student challenges collide. Some of the resultant ideas require both to change. The outcomes are still tenuous at best, but suggestions for strategies are given. Nichols, S. L., & Good, T. L. (2004). America's teenagers--myths and realities: media images, schooling, and the social costs of careless indifference. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110024273 Understanding how media impacts how people perceive the world is of utmost significance in understanding their ‘world’ and why they act as they do and how that affects you as an employer or teachers when interacting with them in that arena. Ontario Library Association (OLA -2004), Information studies retrieved October 15, 2008 from the Web: http://www.accessola.com/action/positions/info_studies/html/intro.html This study was the reason I began moving into the idea of Library Systems. The useful insight into how we learn and what we are going to need to know and how that information and learning process will change the world we live in is of major interest to me.

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Information Use by Millennials vs. Boomers Paavola, J. & Lowe, I. (Eds.). (2005). Environmental values in a globalising world: Nature, justice, and governance. New York: Routledge. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108759049

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How information and globalization affect global governance is a topic that shows how all of this ‘connects the dots’ on our world and how it is ultimately run and governed. Cooperation, not tribalism is required and anthropology is an important aspect of created and sustaining change for future generations.

Tucker, P. (2006, May/June). Teaching the millennial generation. The Futurist, 40, 7. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from Questia database: Magazine article by Patrick Tucker; The Futurist, Vol. 40, May-June 2006 (P. 7). http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014938252 The ‘big picture’. This gives global insight without reflecting the vast change and immensity of speed in which it is occurring. We can barely keep up in laws and rules governing the last hundred years. They are significantly different than the previous hundred years. Senate, Congress and the President are required to see the dawn of a new day and accommodate rules and regulation to anticipate the slowness of hierarchy to respond to that change.

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