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Ninth Std. Organisationof organisms Science
• DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS.
1. Cell: - A cell is the structural and functional unit of life.

2. Community:- The community refers to the population of different species


inhabiting an area.
For example, all plants and animals of the forest together constitute the forest
community.

3. Ecosystem:- Different communities that are found in an area along with non
living components of that area together constitute an ecosystem.

4. Organ system:- Many organs together make an organ system.


For example:- the digestive system in animals is made up of organs like Stomach,
Liver, Pancreas, etc.

5. Tissue:- A tissue is defined as a group of cells having similar structure and


similar function.
• Give the functions of the following cell organelles.
1. Chloroplast:- Chloroplast performs the function of photosynthesis.

2. Mitochondria:- Mitochondria oxidize the food during the process of


respiration and liberate energy.

3. Ribosome:- It is concerned with the synthesis of proteins.

4. Golgi- body:- It is concerned with the secretory activities of the cells.

5. Centrioles:- It plays an important role during cell division.

6. Vacuole:- The vacuole stores water, pigments, salts and sugars.

7. Lysosome:- It plays an important role in intracellular and extra cellular


digestion of food.

8. Nucleus:- it plays an important role in cell division and in transmission of


hereditary characters from one generation to other.

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Ninth Std. Science

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9. Chromosomes:- Chromosomes contain genes which control hereditary
characters.

10. Endoplasmic reticulum :- It helps in transport of materials within the


cells.
• Define the following
1. Nutrition :- The process by which living organisms obtain and consume
their food is called nutrition.
2. Autotrophs:- The organisms which consume the food prepared by
themselves are called autotrophs, E.g. Green plants.
3. Heterotrophs:- The organisms which obtain their food either from
other living organisms or from dead and decaying organic materials are
called heterotrophs, e.g. bacteria, fungi and animals.
4. Saprophytes:- The organisms which obtain their food from dead and
decaying organic matter are called saprophytes, e.g. bacteria, yeast, etc.
5. Parasites:- the organisms which obtain their food from other living
organisms are called parasites. For Example, Cuscuta, plasmodium and
leech.
• Distinguish between Plant cell & Animal Cell
Plant cell Animal cell
1. Cell wall is present in Plant 2. Cell wall is absent in an
cell. animal cell.
2. Chloroplast is present in a 3. Chloroplast is absent in an
plant cell. animal cell.
3. Centriole is absent in a plant 4. Centriole is present in an
cell. animal cell.
4. A plant cell possesses large 5. An animal cell possesses small
vacuoles. vacuoles.
5. a plant cell does not possess 6. An animal cell possesses
lysosomes. lysosomes.

Arteries Veins
1. Carry blood away from the 1. Carry blood towards the heart.
heart
2. Deeply situated 2. Many are superficial
3. Walls are more muscular 3. Walls are less muscular
4. Walls are less elastic 4. Walls are more elastic
5. Blood flow is rapid and with 5. Blood flow is slow and with
pressure steady pressure.
6. Valves are absent 6. Valves are present at intervals.
7. Carry oxygenated blood 7. Carry deoxygenated blood
except pulmonary artery. except pulmonary vein.

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Ninth Std. Science
• Explain the following terms.
1. Ingestion:- The process by which the good is taken in by an organism is
called ingestion.

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2. Digestion :- The process by which complex indiffusible food is converted
in to simple soluble form in an organism is called digestion.

3. Absorption:- The process by which the digested food is absorbed in the


body of an organism is called absorption.

4. Assimilation:- The process by which the absorbed food is assimilated in


the body of an organism is called assimilation.

5. Egestion:- The process by which the undigested food material is thrown


out of the body by an organism is called egestion.
• What is photosynthesis? Mention its essential factors.
Ans. Photosynthesis:- The process by which green plants synthesize
carbohydrates from the carbon dioxide and water with the help of light is called
photosynthesis.
Factor essential for photosynthesis are_
1. Light
2. Chlorophyll
3. Carbon dioxide
4. Water
• What is respiration? Give its types.
Ans. Respiration:- The oxidation process in which complex organic substances are
broken down into simpler substances with the release of energy is called respiration.
There are two types of respirations they are_
1. Respiration in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration
2. Respiration in the absence of oxygen is called anaerobic respiration.
Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration
1. Aerobic respiration occurs in 1. Anaerobic respiration occurs in
the presence of oxygen. the absence of oxygen.
2. During aerobic respiration a 2. During anaerobic respiration a
large amount of energy is small amount of energy is
released. released.
3. Respiratory substances are 3. Respiratory substances are
completely oxidized during incompletely oxidized during
aerobic respiration. anaerobic respiration.

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Ninth Std. Force Science
Q1. State the three kinds of forces occurring in nature. Out of these which kind of force
is relatively the strongest?
Ans. The Gravitational force, the electromagnetic force and the nuclear force are the
three kinds of forces occurring in nature. Out of these, the nuclear force is the strongest.

Mass Weight
1. Mass is the quantity of 1. Weight is the gravitational
matter contained in a body. force exerted on a body by the
earth.
2. It does not vary from place 2. It varies with the latitude and
to place. altitude of a place.
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3. It is a scalar quantity. 3. It is a vector quantity.

Nuclear force Gravitational force


1. Nuclear force occurs only in 1. Gravitational force acts
the nuclei of the atoms of an between any two bodies in the
element. universe.
2. It is the strongest of all the 2. It is much weaker than the
forces occurring in nature. nuclear force.
3. It is a short range force. 3. It is a long range force.

Q2. Define Arboreal animals? Describe their important characteristics.


Ans. Animals which live on the branches of trees are called arboreal animals.
Important characteristics of Arboreal animals are_
1. Arboreal animals like tree frogs have adhesive pads to have a proper
hold on the branches of trees.
2. Monkey have strong arms, prehensile tails and well developed pectoral
and pelvic girdles

Q3. Describe an experiment to show that Light is necessary for photosynthesis.


Ans. 1. Take a potted plant and keep it in the dark for two to three days.
2. Then the leaf became starch free leaf.
3. To such a starch – free plant, attach Ganong’s leaf screen.
4. Now keep the potted plant in sunlight for 5 to 6 hours.
5. Then immerse this detached leaf in boiling alcohol till it gets decolourized.
6. Now, star-shaped portion of the leaf turns blue and remainder portion of the
leaf turns yellow.
This shows that light is necessary for photosynthesis.

Q4. Give the functions of the chloroplast.


Ans. The chloroplast performs the following functions.
1. The chloroplast absorbs light energy and converts it into chemical energy.
2. It brings about the photolysis of water.
3. It fixes up the carbon dioxide and converts it into carbohydrate.

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Ninth Std. Force Science

Q1. When a force is applied to a body, state its effect.


Ans. Force:- Force is that physical quantity which changes uniform motion of a body in
a straight line.
Effects of a force acting on a body
1. A force can change the speed of the body.
2. A force can change the direction of motion of the body.
3. A force can change the speed as well as the direction of motion of the body.
4. A force can change the shape of the body on which it acts.

Q2. We get a backward push when the bus starts at once.


Ans. 1. When we sit or stand in a stationary bus, we are in a state of rest.
2. When the bus starts suddenly, the lower parts of our bodies in contact with
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the bus.
3. The upper parts of our bodies, however, try to maintain the state of rest due to
Inertia.
Hence, we get a backward push when the bus starts at once.

Q3. While stepping from the canoe on the bank of the river, the canoe gets a push in the
opposite direction.
Ans. 1. While stepping from a canoe, one exerts a force on the canoe.
2. The canoe gets a push in the opposite direction due to this force.

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Ninth Std. Force Science
• State the following laws.
1. Newton’s first law of motion:-Every body continues in its state of rest
or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is acted upon by an
external unbalanced force.
2. Newton’s second law of motion :- The rate of change of momentum
is directly proportional to the impressed force and takes place in the
direction of the force.
3. Newton’s third law of motion :- For every action there is always an
equal and opposite reaction.
4. Law of conservation of momentum:- The total momentum of a
system of bodies remains constant, if no external forces act on the system.

• Define the following


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1. Gravitational force :- The force of attraction which exists between any
two objects in the universe is known as the gravitational force.
2. Electromagnetic force :- The force which holds the atoms and the
molecules of a substance together is called the electromagnetic force.
3. Nuclear force:- The force which holds together the different particles in
the nucleus of an atom is called the nuclear force.
4. Acceleration :- the acceleration produced in a body due to the
gravitational force exerted on it by the earth is called the acceleration due
to gravity.
5. Weight of a body:- The weight of a body is defined as the gravitational
force exerted on it by the earth.

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Ninth Standards.
1. Kinetic energy:- Energy possessed by a body on account of its motion is
called Kinetic energy.
Kinetic energy of a body = ½ mv2

2. Potential energy:- Energy possessed by a body on account of its


position or shape is called its potential energy.
Potential energy = mgh.

3. Law of conservation of energy:- Energy can neither be created nor


destroyed. It can be converted from one form to another. The total
amount of energy in the universe always remains constant.

4. Units of energy :- The units of energy in the MKS systems is Joule & in
the CGS systems is erg.

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5. Work :- Work is the product of the magnitude of the force acting on a
body and magnitude of the displacement of the body along the line of
action of the force.

6. Energy:- Energy is defined as the capacity to do work.

Classify the following in potential energy and kinetic energy.


1. Water stored on top of a hill.
2. An arrow released from a stretched bow.
3. A stretched spring.
4. A revolving electric fan.

Ans. 1. Potential energy 2. Kinetic energy 3. Potential energy 4. Kinetic


energy
Explain the terms, positive work and negative work
Ans. 1. Work done can be negative or positive.
2. Work done by a force is positive if the displacement is in the direction
of the force.
3. Work done by a force is negative if the displacement is opposite to the
direction of the force.

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Ninth Std. Science
Define
1. Adaptation :- The structural and functional modifications that occur in an
organism to adjust itself to the environment in which it lives, are called adaptation.
2. Amphibious animals:- Animals that live both in water and on land are called
amphibious animals.
3. Xerophytes:- Plants growing in deserts are called Xerophytes.
4. Terrestrial animals:- Animals that living on land are called terrestrial animals.
1. Nutrition: - The process by which living organisms obtain their food is called
nutrition.

2. Growth :- 1. During growth the size and dry weight of an organism increases
permanently.
2. Growth is one of the most important characteristics of living organisms.

3. Respiration :-1. The process of taking in oxygen and giving out carbon di- oxide
with the liberation of energy is called respiration.
2. Respiration is an important characteristic of living organisms.

4. Excretion :- The process by which waste matters are eliminated from the body is
called excretion. Excretion is an important characteristic of living
organisms.
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5. Circulation:-1.The process in which food and oxygen are circulated to different
parts of the body of animals is called circulation.
2. In animals, Circulation takes place through blood vessels.
3. In plants, circulation takes place through xylem and phloem.
4. Circulation is an important characteristic of living organisms.

6. Movement:- 1. Animals and lower plants show locomotary movement.


2. They move bodily from one place to another place.
3. Plant does not show locomotary movement.

7. Reproduction:- The process by which living organisms give rise to new


Individual resembling themselves is called reproduction.
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STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES
1. Give Structural peculiarities of Aquatic Plants.
Ans. The structural peculiarities of Aquatic Plants are
1. The roots of Aquatic plants are thin, soft and lack of root hair.
2. The stems are long, slender, spongy and flexible.

2. Give Structural peculiarities of Amphibious plants.


Ans. The structural peculiarities of Amphibious plants are_
1. Amphibious plants inhabit shallow water.
2. Roots of amphibious plants are thin and soft.

OMTEX – CLASSES
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Ninth Std. Science

3. Give structural peculiarities of terrestrial plants.


Ans. The structural peculiarities of terrestrial plants are_
1. Terrestrial plants have well developed roots with densely covered root hairs.
2. The epidermis has a thick cuticle.

4. Give structural peculiarities of Aquatic animals


Ans. The structural peculiarities of Aquatic animals are_
1. In aquatic animals the body is pointed at both the ends.
2. They respire by gills.
3. Fishes that live in deep sea possess light-producing mechanism.

5. Give structural peculiarities of Amphibious animals.


Ans. The structural peculiarities of Amphibious animals are_
1. In Amphibious animals the body is covered with moist skin.
2. Food in them is often webbed.
3. Toes are soft and without claws.

6. Give structural peculiarities of Terrestrial animals.


Ans. The structural peculiarities of Terrestrial animals are_
1. Terrestrial animals have long limbs with reduced number of digits.
2. The nails are usually modified in to hooves.
3. The foot has a long and flat sole which is used for walking.

7. Give structural peculiarities of Aerial animals.


Ans. The structural peculiarities of Aerial animals are
1. The bodies of aerial animals are streamlined.
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2. Major bones of aerial animals are hollow and light.

8. Define Arboreal animals? Describe their important characteristics.


Ans. Animals which live on the branches of trees are called arboreal animals.
Important characteristics of Arboreal animals are_
3. Arboreal animals like tree frogs have adhesive pads to have a proper
hold on the branches of trees.
4. Monkey have strong arms, prehensile tails and well developed pectoral
and pelvic girdles

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S.Y.B.Com BUSINESS LAW
nd
II term portion
Marks
1. Companies Act 1956 (Sir) 15

2. The Indian Partnership Act 1932 (Teacher) 12

3. The Maharashtra Co-operative Society Act 1960 (Teacher) 13

4. Consumer Protection Act 1986 (Sir) 10

• The Indian Partnership Act 1932


Nature of Partnership registration.

1. Define Partnership & Explain its essential features/


Characteristics

2. Discuss the tests to determine the existence of partnership

3. Distinguish between_
• Partnership firm V/S Co – ownership

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• Partnership firm V/S Joint Hindu Family
• Partnership firm V/S Joint Stock Companies.

4. a. Explain procedure for registration of firm. What are effect/


consequences of Non – registration?
b. What are the exception to Non – registration.

5. i. Write short Notes on Property of the firm & Good will.


ii. Types of Partnership.

6. Test to determine Partnership.

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