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History 110 Midterm Study Guide 4/12 Week 1Mesopotamia (Between lower Tigris and Euphrates rivers) A.

Sumer 3500-2000 B.C. About 50 cities: Larsa, Erech, Lagash and biblical UR (birthplace of Abraham) in a loose confederation (little unity) Origins: Dark skinned, Dark haired Non-Semites from northern mountains or the sea Technology: Building called Ziggurats similar to the Tower of Babel. Developed great skill in canal building, resulting in excellent agricultural management Further contributions (of Sumerians) 1. Division of time into units of 6 and 60 2. 360 Degree circle 3. First concept of weight and measures 4. Principle 5. Astronomy: identified five planets used astrology 6. First myths and legends- especially the flood texts of the Gilgamesh Epiccorresponds to Noahs flood 2,500 B.C. (Black Sea) was black lake until flooding 7,000 years ago History: 1. Reached dominance under king (Lugal) Zagizzi the liberator about 2,500 B.C. The fifty confederated states extended trade to Egypt, central Turkey, Persia, and Ebla in Syria. 2. Revived again under third dynasty of UR. Disunity resulted in weakness (2,100 B.C) 3. Sumerians fall to the Amorites in 1,700 B.C., led by Hammurabi Religious and political system - King was also the High Priest of the people, but he was not considered a god - Religion was Polytheistic and the gods were considered hostile to man - Very pessimistic view of religion due to natural catastrophe (Floods, Cyclones, Etc..) B. Semitic Culture 1. Akkad: built city states of north Sumer about 3,000 B.C. The most important city was Kish. -The Acadians completely copied Sumerian civilization-especially the cuneiform writing and adapted it for Semitic language -Political power reached peak under Sargon I who achieved a short conquest of Sumer (2,300 B.C)
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2. Amorites- strongest Semitic group moved into Mesopotamia and eastern capital at Babylon (1,900 B.C) achieved dominance under first great empire- builder Hammurabi in 1,750 1. Created Law Code of Hammurabi 2. Built great library- biblical ideas of patriarchal period. (10-50,000 clay tablets) 3. Marduk- called Baal (lord) was god

1. Phoenicians: settled coast of Lebanon. Became first sea merchants of ancient worldpowerful cities: Tyre, Sidon, Biblos, and Ugarit 2. Hittites: moved into Turkey and built empire, first to use iron. 3. Hebrews: Migrak from UR to Assyria to Canaan (Fertile Crescent) 1,900-1,700 B.C Reemerged in 13th-10th centuries to dominate eastern Mediterranean Egypt- land of the pharaoh and gift of the Nile Name: -Hi-Ka-Ptah= Ae-Gep-Tos (House of spirit of Ptah) (E-Gyp-T) -The Hebrews called it Misram which means the two lands (Upper and Lower Egypt) Also mentioned in Genesis 10. Pre-dynastic period 4,500-3,100 B.C Origins: mixed Caucasoid and Negroid groups. Spoke Hemitic and Semitic languages- were hunters fisherman, built villages, raised crops and cattle along the Nile river. Unity: upper and lower Egypt Egypt- Homogenous culture not heterogeneous Single control under Pharaoh Menes: Upper Egypt 1. Ethiopia- Sudan 2. Capital- Thebes 3. White Crown Lower Egypt The Delta Capital- Memphis Red Crown

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4. God: Amun 5. Symbol: Lotus

God: Ra Symbol: Papyrus

The pharaoh became a god and symbol of unity of the land, but was always known as the ruler of two lands- all the double symbols remained throughout Egypts long history The five major period of Egyptian history

1. Old kingdom of pyramid age 3,100-2,200 B.C. a. First stone building pyramid of Saooara-for pharaoh Zozer, architect was Imhotep b. Largest stone building: great pyramid of Gizeh for pharaoh Knufu (Cheops): 485 Ft High, covers 13 acres, average block weighs 2 tons c. First alphabet with six variations- but never used exclusively

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1. Ideograms 2. Acrophony 3. Syllabic and Alphabetic signs This language was deciphered after the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1797 A.D. The alphabet was transmitted to Semites, Phoenicians, and Greeks. 4. Pharaoh became absolute Theocratic ruler over all the land- No independent city-states. This unity lasted over 3,000 years 5. First disruption (first intermediate period) 2,200-2,050 B.C. Feudal government develops- pharaohs Grew weak for a short period

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1. Middle Kingdom- 2,050-1,800 B.C New dynasty with capital at Thebess great temple at Karnack built Further advances 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. All men granted immortality- build small tombs in cliffs New adventurous literature-The Tale of Sinue Trade expands to Punt (red sea), Crete (capther) and Palestine. Turquoise and copper mined at sinal Further development of solar calendar 365 day year
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2. Second Disruption Hyksos invasion 1,800-1,500 B.C These Sheppard people were Semites related to the Hebrews. They established a kingdom in the delta. (Lower) and brought new weapons- horse and chariot. They completely copied Egyptian culture, dress, language, and had their own pharaoh 3. New Kingdom (18th-20th Dynasty) 1,550-1,100 B.C. Egypt becomes an empire after Amose Drives-out the Hyksos Famous Rulers 1. Thutmoses III (1,450 B.C) expands into Syria, Palestine, beats Syrians at Megiodo. Amarna period: Ikhnaton believes in one god. 2. Tutankhamen buried in valley of the kings (1,325 B.C) 3. Ramses II (1,290 B.C) beats Hittites and signs first international peace treaty (lasts 70 years)

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Decline- begins around 1,100 B.C Attacked by sea people (philistines) who finally settled on Palestine coast. Egypt never regained power. Dominated by Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome. Religion- in Egypt was polytheistic- most gods were seen as good and helpful to men. Chief duties were Ra, Amun, Toth, Isis, and Osiris. The Nile River was a god- gave consistent positive view of life and continuity of death. Mans soul was immortal- called Ka and Ra. Body was eternal resting place for soul to come home to.

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Middle East Vacuum 1,100-800 B.C. Period of decline of major powers (Egypt+ Hittites) 1. Israel- (1,000-920 B.C) north falls to Assyria in 722. South falls to Babylon in 586 2. Philistines- attack Egypt and fail, in 1,100 they settle on Palestine coast 3. Phoenicians- continue as transmitters of culture from Middle East to Greece. Commercial cities: Tyre, Sidion, Babylos, and Carthage.
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606 B.C Phoenician Egyptian expedition to sail into Atlantic. They sail all the way around Africa past Persian gulf into Indian coast. The Empires Assyria 900-600 B.C 1. Dominate Northern Mesopotamia 883 B.C. Cruelty denounced by Jonah in Nineveh 2. Emerged a century later (745 B.C) and conquered Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Sargon II captured Northern Kingdom of Israel 722 B.C. 3. Fell in 612 B.C to Neo-Babylonian empire allied with Medes and Persians 4. Noted Features: a. First nation to use mass deportation of captured people (like Nazi Germany) b. Assurbanipals library at Nineveh- 30,000 clay tablets, preserved great knowledge of the past Neo-Babylonian City- State Empire 612-539 B.C Nebuchadnezzar Builds Empire at Babylonia conquers Judah in 597. Jerusalem destroyed in 586. Last ruler Nabondius gives rule to Belshazzar. Falls to Persia in 539 B.C. The Persian Empire 550-323 B.C Founded by first Indo-Europeans in Mesopotamian valley- composed of two tribes: Medes and Persians First King: Cyrus the Great 550-529 B.C 1. Destroys Babylon 2. Allows Jews to return 3. Capture Lydia Contributor- great palace at Kinossos called Labrys (Double Axe) Labyrinth 1. 2. 3. 4. Columns were inverted style- discovered by Sir Arthur Evans (1950) Legend of the minotaur (The Bull) and king Minos of later Greek myth Language- Liniar A (Early Liniar B) First drainage and sewer system

Destroyed 1. By massive tidal wave- by volcanic explosion of Thera (Platos Atlantis) and earthquake 2. Conflict with Mycenaeans from Greek mainland
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3. Falls under Mycenaean control (1,200-1,000) become part of the migrating sea people who settled on Palestine coast Mycenaean civilization (1,600-1,000 B.C) Called the Achaeans- Built Major fortress city at Mycenal in the Peloponnesus History 1. Spread trading empire throughout Aegean coast 2. Prolonged war with Troy (1,200 B.C) as described in Homers Iliad Contributions 1. Architecture of lion gate and beehive tomb using primitive arch 2. Burial sites revealed weapons, gold shields, weaponry-Agamemnon 3. Used early Greek form of alphabet

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Dark ages disappear with appearance of: 1. Geometric pottery 2. New all-Greek unity at first Olympic games (776 B.C) 3. New literature of Homer (Iliad and Odyssey) and Hesiod

Sparta- chief city of the Dorians Class Structure 1. Spartans: Warrior class 2. Perioeci: Dwellers around (Non-Spartan villagers) 3. Helots: Slaves Organization 1. Two kings 2. Five ephers: kept watch on the kings 3. Gerousia: council of elders voted on policy

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Review

Egyptians Worshipped Amanra Old Writing System called Cuneiform Earliest civilization= Mesopotamia Step Pyramid- a bunch of Mustavas put together. Ziggurats- sun dried bricks (used as a temple) Pyramids- used for burial Acadians- borrowed and used Sumerian ideals and practices such as times, weights, and measures Ashur Banner Pauls library represented the crowning achievement of- Assyrians (30,000 Clay Tablets) Hammurabi library in Babylon, oldest library in history. 5,000 Clay Tablets

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