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1

IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2006

ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

(Civil Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain how to estimate the bearing capacity of shallow foundation when it

is subjected to

i. Eccentric loads and

ii. Inclined loads

(b) A square footing has to carry a gross allowable load of 155 kN. The depth

of foundation is 0.7m. The properties of the soil are: c= 0, ∅= 300 , γ= 18

kN/m3 . The load is inclined at an angle of 200 to the vertical. Determine the

width of footing by taking F.S= 3.0. For ∅= 300 , Nq = 18.4, Nγ = 22.4. [8+8]

soils of infinite thickness. [16]

3. A friction pile group (4 × 3) consists of square piles having sides of 450 mm. The

piles are 18 m long and are embedded in a normally consolidated clay deposit 26

m thick, followed by shale. The clay has an average cu value of 30 kN/m2 . The

cu value at the pile base is 40 kN/m2 . The piles are spaced at 1.22 m centre-t-

centre. Determine the load carrying capacity of the group using a factor of safety

of 4. Assume the water table to be at the ground surface. What would be the

settlement of the group, given that the saturated unit weight of clay as 19 kN/m3 ,

initial void ratio is 1.12 and the slope of the e- logp curve in the virgin compression

portion is 0.24? [16]

4. (a) What do you understand by negative skin friction in pile foundation? Ex-

plain the situation which causes negative skin friction and explain how do you

account for it in pile design.

(b) A single under-reamed pile is installed in a deep deposit of stiff fissured clay.

The diameter of the stem is 1.0 m and that of under-ream is 2.5 m. The length

of the pile is 16 m. the unconfined compressive strength of clay is 140 kN/m2 .

Estimate the allowable load carrying capacity of the pile for a factor of safety

of 3.0. [8+8]

5. (a) What is meant by grip length? What is its importance in well foundations?

(b) How will you determine the ultimate and safe load carrying capacity of a

foundation well in different soils?

(c) Briefly discuss the techniques of well sinking in relation to the well foundations.

[4+6+6]

1 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 1

6. (a) Describe the equivalent beam method for the analysis of an anchored sheet

pile wall.

(b) An anchored bulkhead of total height 10.0 m retains cohesionless soil on either

side of it. The upper ground surface is horizontal and is in level with the top

of the bulkhead. The dredge level is 8.0 m below the top. The free water

level is at 2.0 m below the top ground surface. Anchors are provided at 1.0

m below top. The saturated and submerged unit weights of the soil are 18.5

kN/m3 and 9 kN/m3 respectively. The angle of internal friction of the soil is

300 . Determine

i. depth of embedment,

ii. anchor pull and

iii. maximum moment in the sheet pile. [10+6]

7. (a) What are the factors influencing the heave and how to predict the heave of

soil?

(b) What are the basic approaches used to reduce or prevent the effects of swelling

on structures? [8+8]

8. (a) What are the foundation techniques available for different structures to be

constructed in expansive soils? Describe any one of them in detail.

(b) What are the chemical reactions that take place when lime is added to soil?

What are the resulting physical changes? [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2006

ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

(Civil Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Draw the bearing pressure diagram for an isolated footing under

i. Direct axial load

ii. Eccentric axial load

iii. Inclined and eccentric axial load

iv. Axial load and moment

v. Axial load with moments in two directions.

(b) An isolated footing of dimensions L and B metres is subjected to a load P at

ex and ey from its center of gravity. If the allowable bearing capacity of the

soil below is q kN/m2 find P for ex = 0 and ey = 0.2B. [10+6]

2. (a) Discuss the estimation of settlement of footing embedded in sand by Schmert-

mann’s method.

(b) Determine the settlement of a 10 m square area loaded at 100 kN/m2 , placed

at 1 m below the ground level in a bed of sand. Ground water level is just

below the footing. The SPT values are as follows.

1m to 5m 20

5m to 10m 25

10m to 20m 30

[8+8]

3. (a) Discuss the settlement of pile groups in sandy soils.

(b) Design a pile group consisting of RCC piles for a column of size 650mm × 650

mm carrying a load of 5000 kN. The exploration data reveal that the sub-soil

consists of deposit of soft clay extending to a greater depth. The other data

of the deposit are:

Compression index = 0.10, Initial void ratio = 0.9, Saturated unit weight =

19 kN/m3 , Unconfined compressive strength= 40kN/m2 . Also proportion the

pile group for the permissible settlement of 50 mm. [8+8]

4. (a) Discuss the situations under which under-reamed pile foundations are used.

When do you recommend the multi under-reamed piles? Discuss.

(b) What are the preventive measures do you recommend for the negative skin

friction? How to estimate the negative skin friction for a group of piles? [10+6]

5. (a) Under what situations a well foundation is preferred over a pile foundation?

1 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 2

(b) What are the different shapes of foundation wells, and what are their compar-

ative merits and demerits?

(c) Enumerate the various forces which act on a foundation well. [4+6+6]

6. (a) What are the differences between free-earth support method and fixed-earth

support method?

(b) Draw the pressure diagrams for braced cuts suggested by Peck in

i. dry or moist sand

ii. firm clay and

iii. soft or medium clay.

Explain how to find out the forces in struts? [8+8]

7. (a) What is the cause of swelling in expansive soils? What are the tests available

to identify expansive soils? Give the relative values.

(b) Distinguish between differential free swell and swell potential. Discuss briefly

the methods available to reduce swelling in soils. [8+8]

8. What is soil stabilization? What are the different methods of soil stabilization?

Explain them clearly. [16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2006

ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

(Civil Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) What are the differences between Terzaghi, Meyerhof and Hansen bearing

capacity theories? Discuss in detail.

(b) A wall footing has width and depth of 1.2m and 0.8m respectively, while the

surrounding soil has γ = 19kN/m3 , cu = 48kN/m2 and ∅ = 200 . Determine

the ultimate bearing capacity of the footing by Meyerhof’s method. Given

Nc = 14, Nq = 6.7 and Nγ = 2.8. [10+6]

2. (a) How does the settlement of a footing influence its design and how can a de-

signer take into consideration the settlement of a footing?

(b) A footing 1.5m square is located 1.5m below the surface of a uniform soil de-

posit of density 20 kN/m3 . The void ratio of the soil is 0.8 and its compression

index is 0.07. If the total thickness of the deposit, which is underlain by rock

strata, is 3.5m, compute the primary consolidation settlement of the footing

when it carries a load of 225 kN. Use 2:1 ratio stress distribution method and

consider four layers. [8+8]

(b) What inputs are required for the estimation of settlement of a group of friction

piles in clay? Mention the assumptions made. [8+8]

4. (a) What is downward drag force? How to determine the downward drag force of

piles?

(b) A bored pile with enlarged base is to be installed in a stiff clay, the undrained

shear strength at base level being 220 kN/m2 . The saturated unit weight of

the clay is 21 kN/m3 . The diameters of the pile shaft and base are 1.0m and

3.0m respectively. The pile extends from a depth of 4m to a depth of 22m,

the top of the under-ream being at a depth of 20m. Past experience indicates

that a skin friction coefficient of 0.70 is appropriate for the clay. Compute the

allowable load on the pile to ensure

i. an overall load factor of 2, and

ii. a load factor of 3 under the base, when shaft resistance is fully mobilized.

[6+10]

5. (a) Explain the design principles, with neat sketches showing typical reinforcement

in design of

i. Well cap

ii. Well steining

1 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 3

iii. Well curb

iv. Bottom plug

(b) Briefly explain the sinking operation of a well foundation. [10+6]

6. Discuss the method of designing a cantilever sheet pile wall in cohesive soils. [16]

7. (a) What are the factors influencing the swell pressure of soil?

(b) What are the tests available to determine the swell pressure of an expansive

soil and explain any one of them very clearly? [8+8]

8. (a) Explain the concept of CNS layer used in the foundations of black cotton soils.

(b) How to fix the number of bulbs in under-reamed piles? Discuss. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2006

ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

(Civil Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Discuss critically and in a comparative manner, the bearing capacity theories

of Terzaghi and Meyerhof with special reference to

i. the suitability of the theories to different foundation conditions

ii. the rupture surfaces and the failure planes

iii. the assumptions made

iv. the bearing capacity equations and the charts provided and

v. the procedure to find the bearing capacity of soils.

(b) What is the ultimate load carrying capacity of a square footing of size 2.0m×2.0m

with an eccentricity of 0.4 m? The depth of the footing is 0.6m. The soil prop-

erties are: γ= 20 kN/m3 , c= 12 kN/m2 and ∅= 300 . For ∅= 300 , Nc = 30, Nq =

18 and Nγ= 15. [10+6]

soils of infinite thickness. [16]

3. (a) Discuss the settlement of a pile group in sand with the help of settlement of

an individual test pile data.

(b) Discuss the settlement of pile groups in cohesive soils. [8+8]

4. (a) What is down drag force on a pile? How to determine the down drag force in

single piles and also in a group of piles?

(b) A square pile group of 16 piles pass through a filled up soil of 3 m depth. The

pile diameter is 250 mm and pile spacing is 750 mm. If unit cohesion of the

material is 18 kN/m2 and unit weight is 15 kN/m3 , compute the negative skin

friction on the group. [10+6]

5. Briefly discuss the simple stability analysis method of foundation wells, which are

heavy enough to rotate about the base, and are rectangular in shape. Write down

the equations which will help in determining the maximum and minimum base

pressure as well as the maximum horizontal thrust from the bridge deck from a

height ‘H’ above the maximum scour level. The grip length may be taken as ‘D’,

and allowable deflection of well at maximum scour level= δ. Suitable notations

may be adopted for indicating the soil and well parameters. [16]

6. (a) Describe the equivalent beam method for the analysis of an anchored sheet

pile wall.

1 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 4

(b) An anchored bulkhead of total height 10.0 m retains cohesionless soil on either

side of it. The upper ground surface is horizontal and is in level with the top

of the bulkhead. The dredge level is 8.0 m below the top. The free water

level is at 2.0 m below the top ground surface. Anchors are provided at 1.0

m below top. The saturated and submerged unit weights of the soil are 18.5

kN/m3 and 9 kN/m3 respectively. The angle of internal friction of the soil is

300 . Determine

i. depth of embedment,

ii. anchor pull and

iii. maximum moment in the sheet pile. [10+6]

7. (a) What are the factors affecting swelling characteristics of soil? Discuss them.

(b) Discuss the various direct methods of determining the swelling pressure of soil.

[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the engineering benefits of soil stabilization with lime and cement?

(b) Explain the role of additives in soil stabilization. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

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