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1

IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007

ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

(Civil Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Determine the ultimate bearing capacity of a square footing 2m × 2m in a

soil with unit weight of 18 kN/m3 , ∅= 250 , c= 20 kN/m2 . Take the depth of

foundation as 1.8m, Use Hansen’s equation. For ∅= 250 , Nc = 20.7, Nq = 10.7

and Nγ = 8.1. [10+6]

estimating the total settlement of a foundation. [16]

(b) cohesive soils? [16]

(b) A square pile group of 9 piles passes through a recently filled up soil. The

depth of fill =3m. The diameter of pile is 300 mm and they are spaced at

90cm apart. If the soil is cohesive with qu = 60kN/m2 , γ = 15kN/m3 ,

compute the negative skin frictional load on the pile group. [8+8]

5. (a) What are the advantages and disadvantages of Pneumatic Caisson over open

Caisson?

(b) A circular well has an external diameter of 7.5 m and is sunk into a sandy soil

to a depth of 20 m below the maximum scour level. The resultant horizontal

force is 1800 kN. The well is subjected to a moment of 36,000 kN-m about the

maximum scour level due to the lateral force. Determine whether the well is

safe against lateral forces, assuming the well to rotate

i. about a point above the base, and

ii. about the base.

Assume γ ′ = 10kN/m3 , and ∅ = 320 . Use Terzaghi’s analysis and a factor of

safety of 2 against passive resistance. [8+8]

6. What are anchored bulk heads? Describe the method of analyzing anchored bulk

head with free- earth support in different soils. [16]

7. (a) Explain how expansive soils are formed in nature and discuss the structure of

montmorillonite clay mineral

1 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 1

(b) Explain the clay mineral identification by various methods. [8+8]

8. When are under-reamed piles used? Analyse a typical under-reamed pile and give

the various design implications. [16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007

ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

(Civil Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) How would you determine the contact pressure for a footing subjected to loads

placed eccentrically placed?

(b) Compute the ultimate load that an eccentrically loaded square footing of width

2.1m with an eccentricity of 0.35m can take at a depth of 0.5m in a soil with

γ= 18 kN/m3 , c= 9 kN/m2 , ∅= 360 , Nc = 52, Nq = 35 and Nγ = 42. [8+8]

2. (a) Differentiate between ‘initial settlement’ and ‘consolidation settlement’ bring-

ing out clearly where do you expect each of them to occur.

(b) A plan of a proposed heap is shown in Figure 2. The heap will stand on a

thick deposit soft clay with E-value of 15kN/m2 . The uniform pressure on the

soil may be assumed as 150kN/m2 . Estimate the immediate settlement under

the point marked X at the surface of the soil. [8+8]

Figure 2

3. (a) Discuss the elastic settlement of pile groups in sandy soils.

(b) What inputs are required for the estimation of settlement of a group of friction

piles in clay? Mention the assumptions made. [8+8]

4. (a) What is downward drag force? How to determine the downward drag force of

piles?

(b) A bored pile with enlarged base is to be installed in a stiff clay, the undrained

shear strength at base level being 220 kN/m2 . The saturated unit weight of

the clay is 21 kN/m3 . The diameters of the pile shaft and base are 1.0m and

3.0m respectively. The pile extends from a depth of 4m to a depth of 22m,

the top of the under-ream being at a depth of 20m. Past experience indicates

that a skin friction coefficient of 0.70 is appropriate for the clay. Compute the

allowable load on the pile to ensure

1 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 2

i. an overall load factor of 2, and

ii. a load factor of 3 under the base, when shaft resistance is fully mobilized.

[6+10]

5. Briefly discuss the simple stability analysis method of foundation wells, which are

heavy enough to rotate about the base, and are rectangular in shape. Write down

the equations which will help in determining the maximum and minimum base

pressure as well as the maximum horizontal thrust from the bridge deck from a

height ‘H’ above the maximum scour level. The grip length may be taken as ‘D’,

and allowable deflection of well at maximum scour level= δ. Suitable notations

may be adopted for indicating the soil and well parameters. [16]

of dredge line. Both the soils below the dredge line as well as in the backfill are

granular, having G= 2.7, e= 0.8 and ∅ = 300 . The ground water table is at a height

of 3.5 m above the dredge line. Assume that

(a) the anchor rod is at a depth of 1.5 m from the top of the backfill,

(b) the desired factor of safety is 2.0. [16]

7. (a) What is heave? How to predict the heave of soil from oedometer test?

(b) Discuss the Engineering properties of expansive soils. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007

ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

(Civil Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Draw the bearing pressure diagram for an isolated footing under

i. Direct axial load

ii. Eccentric axial load

iii. Inclined and eccentric axial load

iv. Axial load and moment

v. Axial load with moments in two directions.

(b) An isolated footing of dimensions L and B metres is subjected to a load P at

ex and ey from its center of gravity. If the allowable bearing capacity of the

soil below is q kN/m2 find P for ex = 0 and ey = 0.2B. [10+6]

(b) A rectangular footing 3m × 2m carries a concentric load of 900 kN, and is

placed at a depth of 1.0m below ground level in a deep layer of clay. The

undrained elastic modulus of clay is 50 MN/m2 . The unit weight of clay is 20

kN/m3 . Calculate the immediate average elastic settlement under the load.

[10+6]

3. (a) How to find out the settlement of pile groups in cohesive soils? Discuss.

(b) How would you determine the ultimate loads and settlement of pile groups in

sandy soils? [8+8]

4. What are the uses of under-reamed piles? Mention the various specifications of

under-reamed piles? How to determine the load capacity of under-reamed pile?

[16]

(b) A circular well foundation of 5m external diameter and steining thickness of 1

m is used as a foundation for a bridge pier in a sandy stratum. The submerged

unit weight of sand is 10 kN/m3 and angle of shearing resistance is 360 . The

well is subjected to a horizontal force of 500 kN and a total moment of 4500

kNm at the scour level. The depth of well below scour level is 12 m, Assuming

the well be light, check the lateral stability of the well. [8+8]

6. Describe the ‘equivalent beam’ and the ‘fixed-earth support’ methods of designing

anchored bulkheads. [16]

7. (a) What are the factors influencing the swell pressure of soil?

1 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 3

(b) What are the tests available to determine the swell pressure of an expansive

soil and explain any one of them very clearly? [8+8]

(b) Briefly describe the various techniques of soil stabilization under suitable

heads. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, Apr/May 2007

ADVANCED FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

(Civil Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) A rectangular footing, with a plan area of 1.4m × 2m is to be placed at a depth

of 2m below the ground surface. The footing would be subjected to a load

inclined at 100 to the vertical. The subsoil is clayey, sandy silt with saturated

unit weight of 18 kN/m3 , and c’= 10 kN/m2 and ∅′ = 300 . Assuming the rate

of loading is such that drained condition prevails, compute the magnitude of

load the footing can carry if the water table is at the base of the footing. Take

F.S= 3.0. [8+8]

mann’s method.

(b) Determine the settlement of a 10 m square area loaded at 100 kN/m2 , placed

at 1 m below the ground level in a bed of sand. Ground water level is just

below the footing. The SPT values are as follows.

1m to 5m 20

5m to 10m 25

10m to 20m 30

[8+8]

3. A group of piles has to support a vertical axial load of 2000 kN. The piles are driven

into clay and have length of 10.5 m. The thickness of the clay stratum is 15 m.

The clay is followed by rock. The saturated unit weight of clay is 19 kN/m3 and

its cohesion is 25 kN/m2 . The clay is normally consolidated and has a liquid limit

of 60%. Its specific gravity is 2.7. The water table is at the ground surface itself.

Assuming the diameter of the piles as 300 mm, design a pile group. A factor of

safety of 3 is required against shear failure. Compute its ultimate settlement. [16]

4. (a) What is negative skin friction and its effect? How will you estimate the neg-

ative skin friction of group of piles?

(b) A square pile group of 9 piles pass through a recently filled up material of

4.5 m depth. The diameter of the pile is 300 mm and the pile spacing is 0.9

m centre-to-centre. If the unconfined compressive strength of the cohesive

material is 60 kN/m2 and unit weight is 15 kN/m3 , compute the negative skin

friction of the pile group. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: RR420101 Set No. 4

(b) A circular well foundation of 5m external diameter and steining thickness of 1

m is used as a foundation for a bridge pier in a sandy stratum. The submerged

unit weight of sand is 10 kN/m3 and angle of shearing resistance is 360 . The

well is subjected to a horizontal force of 500 kN and a total moment of 4500

kNm at the scour level. The depth of well below scour level is 12 m, Assuming

the well be light, check the lateral stability of the well. [8+8]

6. (a) Describe the equivalent beam method for the analysis of an anchored sheet

pile wall.

(b) An anchored bulkhead of total height 10.0 m retains cohesionless soil on either

side of it. The upper ground surface is horizontal and is in level with the top

of the bulkhead. The dredge level is 8.0 m below the top. The free water

level is at 2.0 m below the top ground surface. Anchors are provided at 1.0

m below top. The saturated and submerged unit weights of the soil are 18.5

kN/m3 and 9 kN/m3 respectively. The angle of internal friction of the soil is

300 . Determine

i. depth of embedment,

ii. anchor pull and

iii. maximum moment in the sheet pile. [10+6]

7. (a) What are the factors influencing the swell pressure of soil?

(b) What are the tests available to determine the swell pressure of an expansive

soil and explain any one of them very clearly? [8+8]

8. (a) What is cohesive non-swelling layer? When do you use it and what are its

limitations?

(b) Discuss the principle and functioning of under-reamed piles and how to find

out the bearing capacity of under-reamed piles. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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