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Table of Contents
Abstract Introduction Family Challenges And Their Impact On Career Decision CASE STUDY (Two job, two searches and one university Strategies For Meeting The Challenges Advice For Dual Career Couples Positive Impact Challenges Faced By Working Women In India Related Concepts Conclusion References 3 4 5-8 9-10 10 11 13-14 15-16 18-21 22 23


In this project I have tried to explain the scene of dual working concept in India. What are the challenges faced by such families. With the help of a CASE STUDY (.two job, two searches and one university) I have tried to explain the problems faced by dual earner families, I have also thrown light on strategies that could be followed by such families. I have also suggested some measures which could be taken care of. In the project some positive impact of this concept are also mentioned.



The language of dual-earner families developed in research on families in industrialized societies. The term was needed to describe what was then a new family form that arose when women who had once worked inside the home, doing everything from nurturing work to family farming to producing goods such as candles and clothes, moved into a cash economy and took paid jobs. Questions that emerged from women's paid employment ranged from the effect of women's income on their power within marriage to who would take care of the children at home. These questions only make sense, however, in societies in which most couples live in nuclear families, a cash economy predominates, and both spouses leave the family setting in order to earn money to provide for their household.



Mean score 4 46 and the senior mean score 3 57 and junior mean 3 60 level professionals. This is an interesting finding which suggests that at the middle level of their career the pressure for conforming to the societal norms could be more In terms of organizational support for achieving better work life balance there was a great difference among various managerial levels Junior and middle level women professionals agreed mean score 3 68 and 3 30 respectively that they would require flexibility in work location working from home telecommuting but the senior level professionals agreed only to some extent mean score 2 57 for such provisions The reason for this could be that at the senior management level professionals are engaged more in the decision making holding meetings with important stakeholders and solving various problems for which their physical presence is greatly required Similar results are found even in case of the employee assistance programmes for employees with family problems One can thus see that the requirement for work life provisions are felt more at the middle and junior levels rather than at the senior level Marital Status In the ANOVA results marital status did not show any significant influence on the perception of women professionals as far as the barriers to women professionals advancement to senior level are concerned However while assessing the impact of family responsibility on women professionals career decisions marital status seemed to play a significant role While both single mean score 5 00 and married respondents mean score 4 13 strongly felt that commitment to family responsibility hindered women professionals advancement the unmarried respondents agreed less mean score 3 76 on this issue A difference among married 3 42 unmarried 3 11 and single 3 00 respondents was also observed in terms of their preferences for flexibility in work location working from home telecommuting This finding indicates that married women professionals would need more flexibility in work location than the unmarried and single ones to balance their work and family demands in a better way. Family Structure In this study most of the respondents 88 were living in a nuclear family set up only 12 per cent of the respondents were in a joint family set up The ANOVA result revealed that respondents living in nuclear families agreed more strongly that commitment to family responsibility hindered their career advancement Children s responsibility and its impact on women professionals career was also perceived differently by respondents 5|Page

belonging to joint and nuclear families Women professionals living in nuclear families mean score 4 01 agreed more strongly than those living in joint families mean score 3 79 that taking up child rearing responsibility affected their career prospects adversely This is indicative of the fact that in nuclear families taking care of the children is a real challenge and staying in joint families helps the respondents in sharing this responsibility with others like parents in laws etc Contrary to this result however women professionals living in joint families agreed more strongly mean score 4 21 that career trade offs were made to take care of family responsibilities whereas those living in nuclear families agreed less mean score 3 79 on this issue The reason for this finding could be that in a joint family setup the expectations towards women professionals from different family members are more and thus they experience the pressure to make tradeoffs with career decisions to fulfil the societal expectations Similarly respondents living in joint family set up felt more strongly that they were not able to utilize their full potential because of family responsibility than those who lived in the nuclear families mean score 3 79 Interestingly respondents living in nuclear family setup preferred flexible working hours more strongly mean score 4 07 than respondents living in joint family system mean score 3 85 It could be because of the fact that in a nuclear family set up in order to take care of the family children s responsibility along with the profession women professionals require more flexibility in terms of timings and working hours to better adjust to work family demands The findings thus suggest that family structure of the women professionals greatly influence their work life challenges and subsequently their career decisions Though it is difficult to recommend any particular family set up to the women professionals . Employees organizations need to be careful about these issues and allow its employees to have a greater control in managing potential conflicts between their work and non work demands It may be a relatively inexpensive way of gaining longer term commitment from the valuable women professionals Some of the results of this research confirm the findings of the research undertaken earlier i.e. married women having children experience more work life challenges than others But this research would prompt one to investigate further in detail the work life issues of the middle level women professionals because it is at the middle managerial level that the impact of family responsibilities on the career decisions was found to be quite significant It would also be very important to know how the family 6|Page

structure impacts their work life concerns and subsequently influences their career decisions because women professionals living in joint families agree more strongly that career tradeoffs are made to take care of family responsibilities More intensive and extensive studies need to be taken up in terms of the support women professionals seek from their employers for attaining a better work life balance The results from this study thus throw up a number of issues that are important for organizations seeking to maximize their manpower potential The fact that work family challenges do retard career advancement of women professionals and ultimately affect the pace of organizational progress to a considerable degree has to be acknowledged fast One must also need to understand that the burden of managing career and family that women professionals face may result in negative mental and physiological health outcomes. In the competitive business environment when the number of women professionals is steadily increasing the employers can best utilize the potential of its women employees only if they are sensitive to these issues concerning work life balance It is a reality that though Indian organizations are a lot more open to the idea of having more women at their top and senior management levels the talent pool of women candidates at the top level is very shallow Indian organizations must understand that societal expectations and family responsibilities do come in the way of the women professionals and their career decisions In this context allowing them to manage their family responsibilities without seeking help from their organizations is a very short sighted approach The fact that supportive family friendly practices exist on paper in some cases is not enough for employees to Aromatically attain work life balance Organizations must ensure and declare that they are ready with various work life balance provisions which would help the women professionals to balance their professional and family responsibilities This will act as a competitive advantage for the organizations and also help them in establishing strong employer branding It is suggested that employers need to come up with various work life balance friendly provisions which can help them in attracting and retaining female talent It is the responsibility of the employers to be sensible while designing the human resource policies of their organizations to best utilize womens potential In order to have a better work life balance the organizations as a whole must be sensitized at all levels to the work life issues this will definitely contribute to the larger cause of organizational effectiveness. 7|Page

The perception of the women professionals towards all these factors were studied in detail These factors have been isolated as they tend to have direct impact on the work family challenges The results of the study revealed that out of the six factors commitment to family responsibility was perceived by most women professionals as a very important barrier to their advancement to senior positions Almost 84 per cent of the respondents agreed taking strongly agree and agree categories together that commitment to family responsibility hindered womens advancement to senior positions Table 1 Some of the women professionals who had grown up children or had strong support system to assist them in taking care of their family responsibilities stated that they did not experience commitment to family responsibility as a barrier to move to the senior level However they still perceived believed that due to family responsibilities many women professionals would not be able to reach to the top positions This finding reconfirmed the finding of some of the earlier studies in India that women in India experienced considerable pressure to do all that was necessary for the family before going out to work and after work Lack of gender sensitive policies women employee friendly policies by the employer was also perceived as an important factor for restricting the career growth of the female professionals Nearly half of the respondents agreed to this Many of them were of the view that their colleagues and bosses were sensitive to family problems but the organizations in which they were working did not have clear policies with regard to work life issues.



Two job searches, two jobs, one university

Priya and Karan are professors in the Geology department at the University of St. Thomas, in St. Paul, MN. Karan and Priya were hired simultaneously, to fill two tenure-track positions; when they were hired, they were a two-person department. The university was looking for two energetic people to revamp the curriculum and revitalize the department. They both received tenure in December, 2005. In the time since they took over the department, it has grown to three full-time faculty members, the number of majors has skyrocketed, they have created opportunities for student research, and they have started a family. Obviously, they've been busy! When Priya and Karan were looking for jobs, they wanted to find positions in the same place, but not necessarily both in academia. Priya, in particular, was open to the possibility of a non-academic job. (At the time, Karan was a post-doc at the St. Anthony Falls Hydraulics Laboratory at the University of Minnesota and Priya was a visiting assistant professor at the University of St. Thomas, filling in for a faculty member who had passed away unexpectedly.) So, they each conducted a job search, applying for any positions that appealed to them, in their respective disciplines. They simply planned to apply for what they wanted, and to see what came of that. As it turned out, each made the short list at several colleges and universities, including (in both cases) the University of St. Thomas. As they interviewed on various campuses, each of them brought up the question of their geologist spouse. In one case, Priya says, the university was very savvy about spousal hires. They had a university-wide policy of helping spouses (academic or otherwise) to find work in the area, and there were already two couples in their geology department. They would have provided, at the very least, office space and an adjunct position for Karan, with the possibility that it would grow into something more over time. Other places they interviewed, however, were unprepared for the question of what the institution could do for the hires spouse. In one case, Karan withdrew from the short list after his on-campus


interview, because of the institution's inability to offer any kind of assistance finding or creating a position for Priya. Both Karan and Priya interviewed at the University of St. Thomas. By this time, (they later heard) the search committee had noticed that two of their candidates lived at the same address. However, Priya says, the committee members were afraid to ask any illegal questions, so it was up to Priya or Karan to raise the topic of their relationship to the search committee. Karan brought up the topic in his discussion with one of the search committee members. As it turns out, raising the issue was a good strategy: he and Priya had both gotten their Ph.D.'s from Stanford, and had even worked in the same research group, though on different projects with different advisors. Bringing up their relationship provided an opportunity to discuss how the work each of them does is different, yet also how it dovetails. The university was seeking two energetic people who would work well together. Candidates with a history of working well together, on overlapping but distinct research interests, must have been appealing.

The challenges and rewards of dual academic careers in geology

Priya and Karan agree that the biggest challenge of being a dual career couple is time management. Because they live and work together, work spills over into their personal lives, eating up as much time as they allow it to. And, now that they have a family, coordinating their schedules has become an even greater challenge. The hardest thing about that, they say, is not getting to be in the field togetherwhile one does field work, the other takes care of their daughter, Ayuna. On the positive side, Karan and Priya describe several benefits of being a dual career couple. Because they are both geologists, they understand the details of each other's work. In fact, they work on complementary aspects of the same research problems; Karan studies sedimentation in basins, while Priya analyzes their structures. Before they had Ayuna, each could be a field assistant for the other, so that field work was actually a time to be togetherin contrast to the separation most geologists experience when they go to the field. Now, although they do field work separately, they do research together. In addition,

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because they are in a small department, their schedules are quite flexible, allowing them to coordinate their time commitments.

Strategies for meeting the challenges

Priya and Karan have come up with several strategies for managing their time, and in particular for making time for their personal lives:

The "no work after 10 PM" rule. They hasten to explain that they are each free to work after 10 PM, if they want tobut that if one of them doesn't want to, the other won't pressure him or her into it.

"Autonomy nights": scheduled evenings that is entirely their own time. Dates: two evening dates per month, and two breakfast or lunch dates per month. "Childcare lunches": when they need to discuss a parenting issue, they schedule a lunch date to discuss the issue away from Ayuna.

Trading time: one works while the other takes care of Ayuna.

The other strategy Priya and Karan have found helpful is distinguishing between their personal and professional relationships, and staying within their professional roles at work. They try to treat each other the same way they would treat any other colleague, to keep their personal lives from "spilling over" into work.

Advice for dual career couples

Karan and Priya both emphasize the need for dual career couples to make time for their relationship and to use that time to communicate with each other. This may seem paradoxical, since dual career couples may spend more time together than most couples. But the essential thing is to set aside some of that time for personal time. If you are part of a dual career couple on the job market, they point out that your chances are best if you are both strong candidates. In fact, Priya says, this can motivate you to work even harder than you would if you were by yourself. And, although departments may not know it yet, hiring a dual career couple can be advantageous to them. If you do both find jobs in the same place, and you're happy with those jobs, you'll be very likely to stay. You'll 11 | P a g e

be committed to your department and to the school, and you'll both want to get tenure. If you encounter departments that haven't thought through this possibility before, Karan points out; it may be worth your while to sell them on the idea. Describe to them how some other departments have made it work, and the advantages you and your spouse can offer. After all, who wouldn't want to hire two energetic people who work well together? Tired of hearing about all the bad things that can happen when both parents have demanding, full-time jobs? In this day and age, dual career families are actually the norm and that's unlikely to change any time soon. Research indicates that while 30% of children under the age of six had both parents working in 1970, the figure rose to 54% in 1988, and close to 80% in recent times. The reasons for such a rise in dual career families lies in the economic security, better socialization opportunities, better work life balance, and increased efficiency that comes with both spouses working.

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1. Modern Day Juggling Act
The most obvious positive impact of dual career family is the greater economic security with both parents earning income. Economic security translates to lesser financial worries for present and the future, a better quality of lifestyle with increased income, and the ability to withstand sudden economic shocks such as layoffs or unexpected salary delays due to a financial crisis in a company. The benefits of economic security extend beyond financial gains. Financial security reduces stress, depression, and anxiety leading to better marital relationships. It also prevents one from working too hard on the job and reduces job stress considerably. An added benefit of dual income economic security is the opportunity for one spouse to take risks, seeking out better opportunities for long term gains without bothering about the family finances in the short term.

2. Socialization
An often-ignored positive impact of dual career family is increased socialization. With both spouses working, the contacts and circle of friends multiply by two compared to a single income family. This helps in maintaining a better social life and better networking when it comes to making job or career changes. With both parents away at work, children learn to become self-reliant and independent, and cultivate their own circle of friends. This has potential dangers such as falling into bad company, but proper monitoring and support by either spouse can convert this independence into an advantage for the child in the long run.

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3. Equity
Another positive impact of dual career families is a better work life balance for both spouses. When the husband remains the sole breadwinner, he tends to involve himself heavily in work at the cost of family life, and the wife tends to concentrate heavily on domestic chores. The reverse is also true. Research indicates that when wives work more hours, husbands tend to involve themselves more in caring for the children, leading to a better work-life balance for both spouses, and a happy and integrated family. Research also shows that dual career families tend to divide household chores more equitably, leading to better marital satisfaction of wives, increased happiness, and fewer conflicts.

4. Efficiency
Dual career families looking to balance work and life always face paucity of time and learn to do things quickly and better, and cut down on unnecessary tasks. This includes positive spill offs such as trying to do household chores in the least time consuming manner, cooking only when necessary to avoid waste, and the like. All these lead to inculcating habits such as a proactive nature, trying to work out the best and effective solution to problems, thrift, helps to eradicate lethargy, and negativism, for not just the spouses, but also for the children. Dual career families can apply workplace principles to domestic life. Workplace, Total Quality Management, Kaizen, and Lean have revolutionized workplace management by improving efficiency. The many positive impacts of dual career families notwithstanding, studies show that many dual-career couples with children experience work-family conflicts that affect their performance and create stress. The key to successful dual career families is for at least one spouse to enjoy a supportive work environment with independence at work and control of ones work schedule. Such a work arrangement alleviates the pressures found in dual career families to a great extent, and allows families to enjoy the best of both worlds.

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Challenges Faced by Working Women in India

The financial demands on the Indian families are becoming fiercer by day. The sky rocketing cost of living, increasing expenses on education of children, increasing cost of housing properties in India force every family in India to look for ways and means of increasing the household income. As a result, women in India who were mostly known as homemakers are forced to go for jobs and take up even careers that were considered only suitable for men such as working in night shifts in call centres or BPOs. They are left with no option but to fend for their families in all possible ways.

Working women in India are faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world. In India men do not share on most of the household chores, it is women who have to cook, clean the house, do the dishes, wash clothes, get their children ready for school etc. Men just took care of few chores that are to be dealt outside the house. So the major burden of running the family is on the shoulders of women. It was alright for women to handle all the chores as long as they were homemakers. Now with their increasing need for getting some income for the family, they have to work all the more harder. They have to take up a 9 to 5 job plus handle all the household chores that they handled as a homemaker. Mens role has not changed much.

Women have started sleeping lesser than before because only when they wake up early they can cook for the family, get themselves ready for the job, get their children ready for the schools, so on an average, women lost 2 hours of sleep per day and up to 14 hours sleep per week. If they happened to work in a highly pressurized environment, then they will bring home their work and that cuts few more hours of sleep. It is not just about the reduced sleep, but such a lifestyle builds stress. This stress is passed on to the family and frustration level builds up in the family. This leads to relationship problems. They have to handle harassment's at their work place, sometimes just over look things to ensure that their job is not jeopardized in anyway. Many Indian families are still living as joint families along with the parents and in-laws. This adds to their stress further because 15 | P a g e

they have to please all the family members of her husband. Listen to their complaints that they make against her and turn deaf ears towards them and so on. Overall, majority of women in India look towards or live in the hope that things will change. Some of us have given up that hope and learnt to accept that nothing can be done about it. India has a long way to go before our women will be able to live their lives to the full.

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Working and Well-being: Combining the roles of work and family is generally conducive to the well-being of men and women. Women who work full-time experience less anxiety and depression and better physical health than full-time homemakers, and their husbands are more involved with caring for their children. Work also provides men and women a buffer for the stresses in the home, a network of social relations, and opportunities for meaningful engagement and success that are not available to those who are not employed finally, working for pay is crucial to the economic viability of many families. Not only are two wages often necessary to adequately provide for the needs of most families, dual-earner couples are less economically vulnerable than single-earner families, for whom a lay-off can mean financial collapse. Well-being among working couples is maximized when one's work-related behaviours are consistent with one's and one's spouse's gender role attitudes. For example, one study of dual-earner couples found that work-related travel enhanced marital satisfaction when it was congruent with the couples' gender role attitudes and detracted from marital satisfaction when incongruent. Other studies have found that working couples are happier when the wife's employment is consistent with the gender role attitudes of the husband and the wife. Work-family Conflict: Work-family conflict is particularly acute among dual-earner couples, for whom no one is readily available to care of the needs of the family. Among dual-earner couples, wives typically experience higher levels of work-family conflict than husbands, particularly when young children are in the home. Other factors associated with increased work-family conflict among dual-earner couples are high levels of job involvement, a heavy workload, conflict at work or at home, and low levels of supervisor support Duxbury. Workfamily conflict is, in turn, linked to increased levels of depression, alcohol use, marital tension, and poorer health. Work-Family Spill over and Cross Over: Despite the difficulties involved in managing work and family, dual-earner couples tend to report more positive than negative family-to-work spillover. That is, family life enhances one's work life more than it detracts from it. 17 | P a g e

Furthermore, family life enhances work life to a greater degree than work life enhances family life. Crossover, when the stresses of work affect the mood and health of one's spouse, is more likely to affect women than men. Husbands' work load, work-family conflict, and workrelated stress all predict wives' reports of role overload, work-family conflict, anxiety and depression. Furthermore, when men encounter arguments and conflict at work, they are more likely to later engage in arguments at home. By contrast, wives' work load and workrelated stresses have little or no relationship to the well-being of the husband or to interactions in the home Division of Labour: Despite the rising number of women in the workforce, men's hours on the job and women's hours at home continue to perpetuate a neo-traditional division of labour for most dual-earner couples. With the influx of women in the workplace, there has been a shift in the division of labour in the home. Women today perform less housework than previous generations, and men perform more household chores than their predecessors. However, women, whether employed or not, still tend to perform more housework than men, approximately a 1.8 fold difference. This is down from the six fold difference in 1965 Several factors influence the amount of time that dual-earner couples spend on housework. When the husband or wife works relatively long hours he/she tends to spend less time on housework, and his/her spouse tends to spend more time on housework. Housework is generally most equitably shared among egalitarian couples and also among couples in which the wife earns a greater proportion of the income. Finally, the presence of children, particularly young children, increases the amount of time that the wife spends on housework, but not the husband. Men in dual-earner couples are typically more engaged in caring for their children than men in traditional, single earner families, although women typically still perform the majority of child care. Men are most likely to care for children when the wife is unavailable to care for the child. For example, husbands are more likely to care for children when the wife works long hours or when the couple works alternate shifts. However, when both members of the 18 | P a g e

couple are home, the care giving usually falls to the wife. Paternal involvement appears to be benefit children. Children whose fathers have been actively involved in their care tend to have higher self-esteem and less gender-typed behaviours and attitudes than children with less involved fathers. Prioritizing Careers: Despite the fact that most adult women now work for pay, traditional gender role schemas still hold sway when dual-earner couples are forced to make choices between the career of the husband or the wife. Even among a sample of professional, dualearner couples, when faced with career turning points, the husband's career is more often given priority over the wife's career. Women are also less likely than men to make careerbased choices that will disrupt the lives of their family members. For example, men are more likely than women to relocate the family for their job. Relocation often comes at a cost to the wife, who is at risk of being underemployed following such a move,. Men in dualearner couples are also more likely than their wives to travel for work. The presence of children in the home further decreases the chances that the wife with will travel for work, but does not affect the husband's propensity to travel. Strategies for Managing Work and Family: Prior to having children, many dual-earner couples are able to maintain a high commitment to work, each working 40 hours or more per week. Following parenthood, however, this high level of dual-commitment to work is difficult to maintain, often prompting one member of the couple to scale back their commitment to work. Typically, the wife makes the greatest adjustment by reducing her work hours, or even leaving the workforce. As the children grow older, the wife tends to increase her hours, or renter the workforce. On average, however, her hours will never again match those of her husband. A second common strategy employed by dual-earner parents is the adoption of staggered shifts. More than one-quarter of all dual earner-couples and one-third of dual-earner couples with children, include at least one spouse who works a non-standard schedule, and more than half include at least one spouse who works weekends. While economical, this strategy has its costs. Young couples who work staggered shifts are three to five times more likely to divorce than dual-earner couples who work standard day-time shifts.

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Dual-earner couples are also likely to utilize many workplace strategies for managing work and family. One of the most popular strategies is the use of flextime, the ability to control the hours during which one works. A 1998 survey of businesses in the United States found that over two-thirds of large employers allow their workers to periodically change starting and quitting times and one-quarter allow employees to change starting and quitting times on a daily basis. Extending flextime to employees has tremendous benefits to the employer and employee. Flextime has been linked to reductions in tardiness, absenteeism, sick leave and to a reduction of turnover, as well as to increased psychological and physical health and greater employee loyalty. Further, companies that adopt flexible work schedules are less likely to be sued by their employees. Telecommuting, the use of technology to perform paid work while at home, is another strategy used by working couples. In 1998 a little more than half of the companies surveyed reported that they allow their employees to work at home occasionally, and one-third reported that their employees work off-site or at home regularly. Telecommuting allows workers to be more available for family-related needs, thereby relieving some of the strain endemic to dual-earner couples. However, telecommuting blurs the boundaries between work and home, which can lead to increased negative work-family spillover. The attitude of the employer toward work-family conflict is at least as important to worker well-being as are the workplace policies. Employees who perceive their supervisors as being understanding and supportive when they confront work-family conflict report lower levels of psychological and physiological distress, and work-family conflict, and are less likely to contemplate leaving their job. Supervisor support is also linked to higher levels of job satisfaction, feelings of success, and greater loyalty toward one's employer. Many of the strategies that make the management of work and life easier for dual-earner couples, like flextime and telecommuting, are not available to all employees. Women and employees involved in direct service to consumers, such as waitresses, health care workers, and clerks, and those who work in small businesses are less likely to have flextime available to them than other workers. These direct service workers often have the greatest need for workplace flexibility because they lack the financial resources to hire someone to take care of family needs in their stead. 20 | P a g e

Marriage and Fertility: Concomitant with the rise in the number of dual-earner couples has been a change in the timing and the rate of fertility. In the past fifty years the peak age for childbearing has shifted from the early twenties to the late twenties and early thirties. This is particularly true for women with higher levels of education, who want to establish themselves in their careers before they have children. Additionally, because of the difficulty of combining work and family responsibilities, many professional men marriages limit their family size or decide not to have children at all and women in dual-career. Between 1976 and 1998 the number of married, childless women between the ages of 40 and 44 almost doubled. Some professional women have chosen to remain childless because of the negative impact that parenthood could have on their career and marriage. Other women have inadvertently postponed childbearing until they have passed their window of fertility.

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Tax policies and the provision of governmental grants generally determine whether mothers work full-time outside of the home. Those countries where policies provide benefits to fulltime dual-earner families have a higher proportion of married mothers working full-time than do countries where policies penalize more than one full-time employed worker in a home (Crompton 1997; Moss 1988; Scott 1999). Further, it is clear is that wives' income production does not, by itself, transform maledominated marriages into egalitarian ones. Women's ability to earn their own incomes, and to survive economically outside marriages, seems to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for equality within marriage. Cultural beliefs continue to matter tremendously. In a patriarchal kinship network, if women enter paid labor because their men are underemployed or unemployed, they simply carry two jobs, the double burden, and do not necessarily challenge, at least in the short run, the submissiveness presumed to be a part of the wife role. Only societies in which women entering and remaining in the paid labor is part of a gender revolution, in which there is a cultural belief in individual rights, for women as well as men, is women's labor force participation part of a larger social change toward equality between the sexes. Only in the context of social change toward gender equality more generally is there a movement toward equality in marriage when women work for pay.

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