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Since for ideal gas

and derivation of

at constant T and p in orange


Change entropy:

Number of moles: 2 n A 1 n B
Volume mixture: 3 Volume A: 1 Volume B: 2
dS is given by from 10.3 in Zumdahl:

So change in entropy for A and B due to increase volume for them in the environment is:
For A:
1 2
2
1
ln
V V
V
S nR
V

A =
Since T is constant since there is no attraction between ideal molecules and speed of melocules are
unchanged and E is from 5.6 in zumdahl given both by :

And:

We have that kinetic energy are both function of v and T so if dT=0 then dv=0
So for ideal gas mixture T is constant and partial pressure for each component due to increase in V is
given like this:
Since
nRT
V
p
= and T is constant. We can say that in a mixture of ideal gases because of no
interaction each component get larger volume to travel in hence entropy increases. Also pressure
from each component decreases because of increase in V from ideal gas law we get entropy change
for each component to be:
1 2
2 1 1
2 2
1
ln ln ln
V V
nRT
p p nRT p
S nR nR nR
nRT
p nRT p
p

A = = = (a)
(a) Becomes from explanation above (a)

1 1
2 2,
ln ln
i
p p
nR nR
p p
= (b)

,2
2
i
i
n RT
p
V
= so that
,2
2
i
i
i
i
n RT
p
V
=


we know that this occurs at constant pressure therefore:
,2 1 i
i
p p =

so
1
2
nRT
p
V
=


And change in entropy given in (b) becomes:
1 2
1 2
,2
2
ln ln ln ln
V V i i i
i
i i i
nRT
p V nRT n
S nR n R n R n R
n RT
p n RT n
V

A = = = =
We use
log ( )
l
x
x A and l I = A = log ( )
m
x
x and m II = B B =

log ( )
n
x
x and n III
B B
A A
= =

m
n m l m
l
l
x
x
x x
x
x
B

= = =
A
= lo g g lo log
x x x
m n
B
l = = A
A
B
And also used

( )
ln ln ln ln ln ln
a b
a b b a
b a
= = =

And we get:
1 2
ln
i
V V i
n
S n R
n

A = for each component in mixture.



From derivation of

one see that since

is given by larger volume for each component at


constant p. Seperating again components would only decrease volume for each component and
therefore assuming ideal gases no attractive forces would require extra work and since T for ideal
gases are proportional with kinetic of molecules
One get that since p and T are constant then work can be defined the following way:


Therefore work for seprating components is dG=TdS=TdS(mix).
Do you agree with this derivation?
I would assume that if p(sys)=p(surr) and T(sys)=T(sur) then work of separation of elements in a
compound is dw=dG. Is that true?
And what if () () () () What happens to separation work then?
And from earlier assignment about this

Answer sheet:
S = -Rn
i
*lnx
i
= -8,314 * (5,68*ln(5,68/52,56) + 46,88*ln(46,88/52,56)) = 149,6 J/K
W = G = H-TS, H =0
W = -TS = -298K*133,4J/K = 44,6 KJ
It seems it is an typing error in green above?