# Energy

Concept Energy Work Power Definition The capacity of the body to perform work/put mass into motion. The ability to apply force over s distance. Work = Force (N) x Distance (m). Work performed per unit of time/ the rate at which we can work.

Energy Systems George Noorland

Measure/Units Joules (J) Joules (J) or Newtons (N) Watts (W)

Types of Energy: Chemical Energy- Potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds of molecules, it is the part of energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction. Kinetic Energy- Energy in the form of muscle contraction/ joint movement- extra energy that the body possesses because of its motion. KE = ½ M x V² (Kinetic Energy = Half of the mass of an object multiplied by the velocity squared). Potential Energy- The energy possessed by an object because of its position (height above groundfield of gravity) - The energy is stored in the object until it moves. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): ATP- A chemical energy stored as a high energy compound in the body. It is the only immediately usable source of energy in the human body. - Adenosine – P – P – P = ATP - It is stored as a simple compound in the muscles so that it can be quickly broken down to supply energy for approximately 2-3 seconds of muscular work. - When broken down by the enzyme ATPase, it releases the potential energy stored in the muscles to apply force as kinetic energy.

ATP Re-synthesis: - The breakdown of ATP into ADP is reversible in an endothermic reaction. - This re-synthesis requires energy from one of the 3 energy systems. - The ATP/PC, lactic and aerobic energy systems work together to supply energy to resynthesise ADP back into ATP via coupled reactions. Endothermic Reaction- A chemical reaction that requires energy. Exothermic Reaction- A chemical reaction that releases energy. Coupled Reaction- A reaction in which the product (energy) of one reaction is used by a second reaction. Threshold- The point at which there is a switch between from one predominant energy system to The ATP/PC (Alactic) Energy System: Type of Reaction Anaerobic Chemical/Food Fuel Phosphocreatine (PC) Site of Reaction Sarcoplasm (in muscle cells) Controlling Enzyme Creatine Kinase Energy Yield 1 ATP (NOT EFFICIENT) By-Products None (because it is too quick) Duration Up to 10 seconds (3-8 seconds) Intensity High (maximal)

Energy Systems George Noorland

This system will keep going until PC levels drop, at this point you will then move over the threshold into the next system- Lactic Acid System. Phosphocreatrine (PC)- An energy-rich compound found in muscle cells that is used to recycle ATP during activities of very high intensity and short duration. Advantages - There is no need for oxygen- anaerobic. - No fatiguing by-products. - PC stores in muscles are a readily available energy source. - This system provides energy for highintensity, explosive exercise and movement. - PC can be re-synthesised quickly after activity stops. - It is a relatively quick process- there are few reactions. - Automatically stimulated by a decrease in ATP and an increase in ADP. Disadvantages - Only enough PC stores for 10 secondsthere is a limited supply of PC in muscles. - Only 1 ATP is re-synthesised in this system (1 ATP for 1 PC). - PC stores are only replenished with oxygen- during recovery when the exercise stops.

The Lactic Acid Energy System: Type of Reaction Anaerobic Chemical/Food Fuel Glycogen/Glucose (carbohydrates) Site of Reaction Sarcoplasm (in muscle cells) Controlling Enzyme PFK Energy Yield 2 ATP (NOT EFFICIENT) By-Products Lactic Acid Duration 10 seconds – 3 minutes (peak at 1 minute) Intensity High/medium

Glycolysis- The breakdown of sugar.

Energy Systems George Noorland

Lactic Acid- The by-product of anaerobic exercise produced by anaerobic glycolysis. Advantages - There are large glycogen stores in the muscle/liver which is readily available as a potential energy source. - This system re-synthesises 2 ATP, which is more that the alactic system. - This system requires fewer reactions that the aerobic system, so provides a quicker supply of energy. - Lactic acid can be converted back to glycogen/ pyruvic acid. - This system can be used to increase the intensity during exercise. - This system is anaerobic- there is no need for oxygen. - It provides energy for high-intensity exercise lasting between 10-180 seconds. The Aerobic Energy System: Type of Reaction Chemical/Food Fuel Site of Reaction Controlling Enzyme Energy Yield By-Products Duration Intensity Disadvantages - This system is not as quick as the ATP/PC system. - Produces lactic acid, which is a fatiguing by-product. - Reduces the pH (increased acidity) which inhibits enzyme action. - Stimulates pain receptors. - Only 2 ATP are re-synthesised, this means that it is not efficient. - To continue exercise, the intensity must be lowered.

Aerobic Glycogen/Glucose/Carbohydrates/Fats Sarcoplasm (in muscle cells) and Mitochondria PFK 34 ATP – 38 ATP (EFFICIENT) Water, CO2 Hours - Continuous Low (sub-maximal)

Advantages - There are large potential glycogen and

Disadvantages - Slower rate of ATP re-synthesis compared

Energy Systems George Noorland

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free fatty acid (FFA) stores available as an efficient energy store. Efficient ATP re-synthesis when good O₂ supply guarantees breakdown of FFAs. Large ATP re-synthesis: 38 ATP from one molecule of glucose compared to 2 ATP from the LA system and 1 from the ATP/PC. Provides energy for low/moderateintensity and high-duration exercise (3 minutes – 1 hour). No fatiguing by-products; CO₂ and H₂O easily removed.

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with the LA system due to: Requires more O₂ supply (15% more for FFAs). More complex series of reactions. Cannot re-synthesise ATP at the start of exercise due to initial delay of O₂ from the cardiovascular system. Limited energy for ATP during highintensity, short-duration work.